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Sample records for cyclic coordinate descent

  1. Cyclic coordinate descent: A robotics algorithm for protein loop closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canutescu, Adrian A; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2003-05-01

    In protein structure prediction, it is often the case that a protein segment must be adjusted to connect two fixed segments. This occurs during loop structure prediction in homology modeling as well as in ab initio structure prediction. Several algorithms for this purpose are based on the inverse Jacobian of the distance constraints with respect to dihedral angle degrees of freedom. These algorithms are sometimes unstable and fail to converge. We present an algorithm developed originally for inverse kinematics applications in robotics. In robotics, an end effector in the form of a robot hand must reach for an object in space by altering adjustable joint angles and arm lengths. In loop prediction, dihedral angles must be adjusted to move the C-terminal residue of a segment to superimpose on a fixed anchor residue in the protein structure. The algorithm, referred to as cyclic coordinate descent or CCD, involves adjusting one dihedral angle at a time to minimize the sum of the squared distances between three backbone atoms of the moving C-terminal anchor and the corresponding atoms in the fixed C-terminal anchor. The result is an equation in one variable for the proposed change in each dihedral. The algorithm proceeds iteratively through all of the adjustable dihedral angles from the N-terminal to the C-terminal end of the loop. CCD is suitable as a component of loop prediction methods that generate large numbers of trial structures. It succeeds in closing loops in a large test set 99.79% of the time, and fails occasionally only for short, highly extended loops. It is very fast, closing loops of length 8 in 0.037 sec on average.

  2. Lasso logistic regression, GSoft and the cyclic coordinate descent algorithm: application to gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Magariños, Manuel; Antoniadis, Anestis; Cao, Ricardo; Gonzãlez-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2010-01-01

    Statistical methods generating sparse models are of great value in the gene expression field, where the number of covariates (genes) under study moves about the thousands while the sample sizes seldom reach a hundred of individuals. For phenotype classification, we propose different lasso logistic regression approaches with specific penalizations for each gene. These methods are based on a generalized soft-threshold (GSoft) estimator. We also show that a recent algorithm for convex optimization, namely, the cyclic coordinate descent (CCD) algorithm, provides with a way to solve the optimization problem significantly faster than with other competing methods. Viewing GSoft as an iterative thresholding procedure allows us to get the asymptotic properties of the resulting estimates in a straightforward manner. Results are obtained for simulated and real data. The leukemia and colon datasets are commonly used to evaluate new statistical approaches, so they come in useful to establish comparisons with similar methods. Furthermore, biological meaning is extracted from the leukemia results, and compared with previous studies. In summary, the approaches presented here give rise to sparse, interpretable models that are competitive with similar methods developed in the field.

  3. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiparametric additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

  4. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiprarametric additive hazard model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

  5. Regularization Paths for Generalized Linear Models via Coordinate Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Friedman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop fast algorithms for estimation of generalized linear models with convex penalties. The models include linear regression, two-class logistic regression, and multi- nomial regression problems while the penalties include ℓ1 (the lasso, ℓ2 (ridge regression and mixtures of the two (the elastic net. The algorithms use cyclical coordinate descent, computed along a regularization path. The methods can handle large problems and can also deal efficiently with sparse features. In comparative timings we find that the new algorithms are considerably faster than competing methods.

  6. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiprarametric additive hazard model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For survival data with a large number of explanatory variables, lasso penalized Cox regression is a popular regularization strategy. However, a penalized Cox model may not always provide the best fit to data and can be difficult to estimate in high dimension because of its intrinsic nonlinearity....... The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

  7. Scaling Up Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large ℓ1 Regularization Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherrer, Chad; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tewari, Ambuj; Haglin, David J.

    2012-07-03

    We present a generic framework for parallel coordinate descent (CD) algorithms that has as special cases the original sequential algorithms of Cyclic CD and Stochastic CD, as well as the recent parallel Shotgun algorithm of Bradley et al. We introduce two novel parallel algorithms that are also special cases---Thread-Greedy CD and Coloring-Based CD---and give performance measurements for an OpenMP implementation of these.

  8. Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, Joseph K; Bickson, Danny; Guestrin, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We propose Shotgun, a parallel coordinate descent algorithm for minimizing L1-regularized losses. Though coordinate descent seems inherently sequential, we prove convergence bounds for Shotgun which predict linear speedups, up to a problem-dependent limit. We present a comprehensive empirical study of Shotgun for Lasso and sparse logistic regression. Our theoretical predictions on the potential for parallelism closely match behavior on real data. Shotgun outperforms other published solvers on a range of large problems, proving to be one of the most scalable algorithms for L1.

  9. A Comparison of Inexact Newton and Coordinate Descent Meshoptimization Technqiues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachin, L F; Knupp, P; Munson, T; Shontz, S

    2004-07-08

    We compare inexact Newton and coordinate descent methods for optimizing the quality of a mesh by repositioning the vertices, where quality is measured by the harmonic mean of the mean-ratio metric. The effects of problem size, element size heterogeneity, and various vertex displacement schemes on the performance of these algorithms are assessed for a series of tetrahedral meshes.

  10. [download] (1035Coordinate Descent Methods for the Penalized Semiparametric Additive Hazards Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gorst-Rasmussen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For survival data with a large number of explanatory variables, lasso penalized Cox regression is a popular regularization strategy. However, a penalized Cox model may not always provide the best fit to data and can be difficult to estimate in high dimension because of its intrinsic nonlinearity. The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires no nonlinear optimization steps and offers excellent performance and stability. An implementation is available in the R package ahaz. We demonstrate this implementation in a small timing study and in an application to real data.

  11. Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method forMatrix and Tensor Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0046 Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method for Matrix and Tensor Factorization U Kang Korea...Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method for Matrix and Tensor Factorization 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386...Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Given a high-order large-scale tensor , how can we decompose it into latent factors? Can we process it on

  12. Coordinate Descent Based Hierarchical Interactive Lasso Penalized Logistic Regression and Its Application to Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the hierarchical interactive lasso penalized logistic regression using the coordinate descent algorithm based on the hierarchy theory and variables interactions. We define the interaction model based on the geometric algebra and hierarchical constraint conditions and then use the coordinate descent algorithm to solve for the coefficients of the hierarchical interactive lasso model. We provide the results of some experiments based on UCI datasets, Madelon datasets from NIPS2003, and daily activities of the elder. The experimental results show that the variable interactions and hierarchy contribute significantly to the classification. The hierarchical interactive lasso has the advantages of the lasso and interactive lasso.

  13. Dictionary Learning Based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Using Parallel Coordinate Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunyi Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse representation of signals via an overcomplete dictionary has recently received much attention as it has produced promising results in various applications. Since the nonnegativities of the signals and the dictionary are required in some applications, for example, multispectral data analysis, the conventional dictionary learning methods imposed simply with nonnegativity may become inapplicable. In this paper, we propose a novel method for learning a nonnegative, overcomplete dictionary for such a case. This is accomplished by posing the sparse representation of nonnegative signals as a problem of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF with a sparsity constraint. By employing the coordinate descent strategy for optimization and extending it to multivariable case for processing in parallel, we develop a so-called parallel coordinate descent dictionary learning (PCDDL algorithm, which is structured by iteratively solving the two optimal problems, the learning process of the dictionary and the estimating process of the coefficients for constructing the signals. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the conventional nonnegative K-SVD (NN-KSVD algorithm and several other algorithms for comparison. What is more, its computational consumption is remarkably lower than that of the compared algorithms.

  14. A coordinate descent MM algorithm for fast computation of sparse logistic PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho

    2013-06-01

    Sparse logistic principal component analysis was proposed in Lee et al. (2010) for exploratory analysis of binary data. Relying on the joint estimation of multiple principal components, the algorithm therein is computationally too demanding to be useful when the data dimension is high. We develop a computationally fast algorithm using a combination of coordinate descent and majorization-minimization (MM) auxiliary optimization. Our new algorithm decouples the joint estimation of multiple components into separate estimations and consists of closed-form elementwise updating formulas for each sparse principal component. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested using simulation and high-dimensional real-world datasets. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-way regularization for MEG source reconstruction via multilevel coordinate descent

    KAUST Repository

    Siva Tian, Tian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) source reconstruction refers to the inverse problem of recovering the neural activity from the MEG time course measurements. A spatiotemporal two-way regularization (TWR) method was recently proposed by Tian et al. to solve this inverse problem and was shown to outperform several one-way regularization methods and spatiotemporal methods. This TWR method is a two-stage procedure that first obtains a raw estimate of the source signals and then refines the raw estimate to ensure spatial focality and temporal smoothness using spatiotemporal regularized matrix decomposition. Although proven to be effective, the performance of two-stage TWR depends on the quality of the raw estimate. In this paper we directly solve the MEG source reconstruction problem using a multivariate penalized regression where the number of variables is much larger than the number of cases. A special feature of this regression is that the regression coefficient matrix has a spatiotemporal two-way structure that naturally invites a two-way penalty. Making use of this structure, we develop a computationally efficient multilevel coordinate descent algorithm to implement the method. This new one-stage TWR method has shown its superiority to the two-stage TWR method in three simulation studies with different levels of complexity and a real-world MEG data analysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  16. Inter-Segmental Coordination Pattern in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency during a Single-Step Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Razeghi, Mohsen; Mehdizadeh, Sina; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Piroozi, Soraya; Rojhani Shirazi, Zahra; Rafiee, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is a debilitating pathology which may alter lower limb coordination pattern in both intact and affected lower extremities during activities of daily living. Emerging evidence supports the notion that kinematic variables may not be a good indicator to differentiate patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during step descent task. The aim of the present study was to examine alterations in kinematics as well as coordination patterns and coordination variability of both limbs of these patients during a single step descent task. Continuous relative phase technique was used to measure coordination pattern and coordination variability between a group of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (n = 23) and a healthy control group (n = 23). A third order polynomial Curve fitting was utilized to provide a curve that best fitted to the data points of coordination pattern and coordination variability of the healthy control group. This was considered as a reference to compare to that of patient group using nonlinear regression analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated an altered coordination pattern of the supporting shank-thigh and the stepping foot-shank couplings in anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects. It was further noticed that there was an increased coordination variability in foot-shank and shank-thigh couplings of both supporting and stepping legs. There was no significant difference in the hip, knee and ankle joints kinematics in either side of these patients. Anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals showed altered strategies in both intact and affected legs, with increased coordination variability. Kinematic data did not indicate any significant difference between the two groups. It could be concluded that more sophisticated dynamic approach such as continuous relative phase would uncover discrepancies between the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals.

  17. Bisxantphos: stereoselective synthesis and coordination behaviour of a new class of cyclic double bridged diphosphines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heeten, R.; Zuidema, E.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.; Kamer, P.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new class of cyclic double bridged diphosphine ligands was developed and the coordination properties are described. The reaction of 4,5-dilithioxanthene with dichlorophenylphosphine gave a cyclic double bridged diphosphine ligand based on two xanthene backbones (4) as a single stereoisomer. X-ray

  18. Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Machine Using Randomized Dual Coordinate Descent Method for Big Class-Imbalanced Data Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-sensitive support vector machine is one of the most popular tools to deal with class-imbalanced problem such as fault diagnosis. However, such data appear with a huge number of examples as well as features. Aiming at class-imbalanced problem on big data, a cost-sensitive support vector machine using randomized dual coordinate descent method (CSVM-RDCD is proposed in this paper. The solution of concerned subproblem at each iteration is derived in closed form and the computational cost is decreased through the accelerating strategy and cheap computation. The four constrained conditions of CSVM-RDCD are derived. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method increases recognition rates of positive class and reduces average misclassification costs on real big class-imbalanced data.

  19. 大规模SVDD的坐标下降算法%Coordinate Descent Algorithms for Large-Scale SVDD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶卿; 罗强; 朱烨雷; 储德军

    2012-01-01

    Support vector data description ( SVDD) is an unsupervised learning method with significant application in image recognition and information security. Coordinate descent is an effective method for large-scale classification problems with simple operation and high convergence speed. In this paper, an efficient coordinate descent algorithm for solving large-scale SVDD is presented. The solution of concerned sub-problem at each iteration is derived in closed form and the computational cost is decreased through the accelerating strategy and cheap computation. Meanwhile, three methods for selecting sub-problem, analyzing and comparing their advantage and disadvantage are developed. The experiments on simulation and real large-scale database validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Compared with LibSVDD, the proposed algorithm has great superiority which takes less than 1.4 seconds to solve a text database from ijcnn with 105 training examples.%支持向量数据描述(SVDD)是一种无监督学习算法,在图像识别和信息安全等领域有重要应用.坐标下降方法是求解大规模分类问题的有效方法,具有简洁的操作流程和快速的收敛速率.文中针对大规模SVDD提出一种高效的对偶坐标下降算法,算法每步迭代的子问题都可获得解析解,并可使用加速策略和简便运算减少计算量.同时给出3种子问题的选择方法,并分析对比各自优劣.实验对仿真和真实大规模数据库进行算法验证.与LibSVDD相比,文中方法更具优势,1.4s求解105样本规模的ijcnn文本库.

  20. Cyclic porphyrin dimers as hosts for coordinating ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Vaijayanthimala; V Krishnan; S K Mandal

    2008-01-01

    Bicovalently linked tetraphenylporphyrins bearing dioxypentane groups at the opposite (transoid, H4A) and adjacent (cisoid, H4B) aryl groups have been synthesised. Protonation of the free-base porphyrins leads to fully protonated species H8A4+/H8A4+ accompanied by expansion of cavity size of the bisporphyrins. The electrochemical redox studies of these porphyrins and their Zinc(II) derivatives revealed that the first ring oxidation proceeds through a two-electron process while the second ring oxidation occurs at two distinct one-electron steps indicating unsymmetrical charge distribution in the oxidized intermediate. The axial ligation properties of the Zinc(Il) derivatives of H4A/H4B with DABCO and PMDA investigated by spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed predominant existence of 1 : I complex. The Zn2A.DABCO complex assumes an interesting eclipsed structure wherein DABCO is located inside the cavity between the two porphyrin planes with Zn-N distances at 2.08 and 2.22 Å. The Zn atoms are pulled into the cavity due to coordination towards nitrogen atoms of DABCO and deviate from the mean porphyrin plane by 0.35 Å. The electrochemical redox potentials of the axially ligated metal derivatives are found to be sensitive function of the relative coordinating ability of the ligands and the conformation of the hosts.

  1. A Lead (II 3D Coordination Polymer Based on a Marine Cyclic Peptide Motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Hsiang Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of a naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptide cyclo(Gly-L-Ser-L-Pro-L-Glu [cyclo(GSPE] was obtained. The conformation of synthesized cyclo(GSPE fixes the coordination to lead ion in a 1:1 ratio. This cyclo(GSPE-Pb complex was constructed as an asymmetric 3D network in the crystalline state. The polymerization of a heavy metal ion with a rigid asymmetric cyclic tetrapeptide represents the first example of a new class of macrocyclic complexes.

  2. Cu(II) coordination chemistry of patellamide derivatives: possible biological functions of cyclic pseudopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Gahan, Lawrence R; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Hanson, Graeme R; Noble, Christopher J; Seibold, Björn; Vadivelu, Prabha

    2012-02-27

    Two synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring cyclic pseudooctapeptides patellamide  A-F and ascidiacyclamide, that is, H(4)pat(2), H(4)pat(3), as well as their Cu(II) complexes are described. These cyclic peptide derivatives differ from the naturally occurring macrocycles by the variation of the incorporated heterocyclic donor groups and the configuration of the amino acids connecting the heterocycles. The exchange of the oxazoline and thiazole groups by dimethylimidazoles or methyloxazoles leads to more rigid macrocycles, and the changes in the configuration of the side chains leads to significant differences in the folding of the cyclic peptides. These variations allow a detailed study of the various possible structural changes on the chemistry of the Cu(II) complexes formed. The coordination of Cu(II) with these macrocyclic species was monitored by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) and circular dichroic (CD) titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular mechanics (MM) simulations have been used to model the structures of the Cu(II) complexes and provide a detailed understanding of their geometric preferences and conformational flexibility. This is related to the Cu(II) coordination chemistry and the reactivity of the dinuclear Cu(II) complexes towards CO(2) fixation. The variation observed between the natural and various synthetic peptide systems enables conclusions about structure-reactivity correlations, and our results also provide information on why nature might have chosen oxazolines and thiazoles as incorporated heterocycles.

  3. New coordinate descent algorithm for non-smooth losses%一种非光滑损失坐标下降算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫邦; 朱烨雷; 陶卿

    2012-01-01

    For non-smooth losses, this paper presented a new coordinate descent algorithm, to get the closed form solution of the single variable problem by using the sorting and searching method. It analyzed the time complexity of algorithm and gave three practical skills to improve the convergence rate. The experiments demonstrate the expected efficiency of the proposed algorithms in the regularized Hinge loss.%针对非光滑损失问题提出一种新的坐标下降算法,采用排序搜索的方式求解子问题解析解.分析了算法的时间复杂度,并给出了三种提高收敛速度的实用技巧.实验表明算法对正则化Hinge损失问题具有良好的性能,达到了预期的效果.

  4. Energy Level of Three-Mode Harmonic Oscillator for Coordinate Operators Satisfying Cyclic Commutative Relations Obtained by IEO Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FAN Hong-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Eigenvalue-solution to those Hamiltonians involving non-commutative coordinates is not easily obtained. In this paper we apply the invariant eigen-operator (IEO) method to solving the energy spectrum of the three-mode harmonic oscillator in non-commutative space with the coordinate operators satisfying cyclic commutative relations, [X1, X2]=[X2, X3]=[X3, X1]=iθ, and this method seems effective and concise.

  5. THE GREAT DESCENT CONTINUES

    CERN Multimedia

        With precise coordination YE+1 was lowered into the cavern (9-Jan), soon joined by the ?rst barrel wheel YB+2 (19-Jan), then YB+1(4-Feb) and HB+ (13-Feb). The 1920 ton central barrel wheel YB0 rests brie?y on the pit-head cover in anticipation of a monumental descent (28-Feb) that will also trigger an intense campaign of installation of services and detectors underground.  

  6. Inter-arm coordination and intra-cyclic variation of the hip velocity during front crawl resisted swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulis, V; Aggeloussis, N; Boli, A; Michalopoulou, M; Toubekis, A; Kasimatis, P; Vezos, N; Mavridis, G; Antoniou, P; Mavrommatis, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the acute effect of front crawl sprint resisted swimming on the inter-arm coordination and the fluctuation of the swimming velocity. Nine female swimmers swam four all-out trials of 25 m, without and with low, moderate and high added resistance. Four camcorders were used to record the underwater movement. The inter-arm coordination was quantified using the index of coordination and the hip intra-cyclic velocity variation was analysed by calculating the coefficient of variation and the difference between the maximum and minimum velocities normalized for the mean stroke cycle velocity. One-way repeated measures analyses of variance showed that swimmers change their inter-arm coordination from a "catch up" toward an "opposition" mode. Concerning the hip horizontal intra-cyclic velocity variation, it was increased significantly during resisted swimming. These findings indicate that although resisted swimming cause an increase in the index of coordination and consequently it could be speculated a better propulsive continuity, the velocity fluctuations of the hip within a stroke cycle are not decreased, probably due to the inability of the swimmers to overcome effectively the concrete added resistances used in this study. Thus, at least concerning its acute effect, the hypothesis that the sprint resisted swimming could led to a technical improvement can not be satisfied.

  7. A Relative Fast Soft-thresholding Coordinate Descent Algorithm%一种相关快速软阈值坐标下降算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉军

    2013-01-01

    Although iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm ( ISTA) becomes popular optimization algorithms of machine learning be-cause of its simple operational processes,but the convergence rate is slow,only o ( 1 )k . Convergence rate of fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm ( FISTA) by accelerating skills can improve by an order of magnitude,reaching o 1k( 2 ) . However each eigenvec-tors dimension is seen by FISTA as independent and identically distributed,which will loss the correlation between each dimension and lead to the decline in accuracy and time overhead. In order to circumvent these drawbacks,present a relative fast soft-thresholding coordi-nate descent algorithm. Extensive experiments on large-scale real database verify the proposed algorithm is correct and effective.%软阈值缩减迭代算法( ISTA)以其简单的操作流程成为了机器学习流行的优化算法,但是收敛速度比较慢,仅为o(1k )。快速软阈值缩减迭代算法( FISTA)通过加速技巧将收敛速度提高了一个数量级,达到了o(1k2)。然而,FISTA将特征向量每一维看成是独立同分布的,丢失了各维之间的相关性,会导致准确率下降和额外的时间开销。为了弥补上述的不足,文中提出了一种相关快速软阈值坐标下降算法( RFTCD)。通过大规模数据库实验证实了RFTCD的正确性和有效性。

  8. 求解AUC优化问题的对偶坐标下降方法%Dual Coordinate Descent Method for Solving AUC Optimization Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜纪远; 陶卿; 高乾坤; 储德军

    2014-01-01

    AUC is widely used as a measure for the imbalanced classification problems. The AUC loss problem is a pairwise function between two instances from different classes, which is obviously different from that in standard binary classifications. How to improve its real convergence speed is an interesting problem. Recent study shows that the online method (OAM) using the reservoir sampling technique has better performance. However, there exist some shortcomings such as slow convergence rate and difficult parameter selection. This paper conducts a systematic investigation for solving AUC optimization problem by using the dual coordinate descent methods (AUC-DCD). It presents three kinds of algorithms: AUC-SDCD, AUC-SDCDperm and AUC-MSGD, where the first two algorithms depend on the size of training set while the last does not. Theoretical analysis shows that OAM is a special case of the AUC-DCD. Experimental results show that AUC-DCD is better than OAM on the AUC performance as well as the convergence rate. Therefore AUC-DCD is among the first optimization schemes suggested for efficiently solving AUC problems.%AUC被广泛作为衡量不平衡数据分类性能的评价标准.与二分类问题不同,AUC问题的损失函数由来自两个不同类别的样本对组成.如何提高其实际收敛速度,是一个值得研究的问题.目前的研究结果表明:使用reservoir sampling技术的在线方法(OAM)表现出很好的AUC性能,但OAM仍存在诸如收敛速度慢、参数选择复杂等缺点.针对 AUC 优化问题的对偶坐标下降(AUC-DCD)方法进行了系统的研究,给出3种算法,即 AUC-SDCD,AUC- SDCDperm和AUC-MSGD,其中,AUC-SDCD和AUC-SDCDperm与样本数目有关,AUC-MSGD与样本数目无关.理论分析指出,OAM是AUC-DCD的一种特殊情形.实验结果表明,AUC-DCD在AUC性能和收敛速度两方面均优于OAM.研究结果表明,AUC-DCD是求解AUC优化问题的首选方法.

  9. Asynchronous Implementation of Distributed Coordination Algorithms : Conditions Using Partially Scrambling and Essentially Cyclic Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yao; Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming; Lu, Jinhu

    2016-01-01

    Given a distributed coordination algorithm (DCA) for agents coupled by a network, which can be characterized by a stochastic matrix, we say that the DCA can be asynchronously implemented if the consensus property is preserved when the agents are activated to update their states according to their ow

  10. Monomer, dimer or cyclic helicate? Coordination diversity with hard-soft P,N-donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Edwin C; Hostettler, Nik; Housecroft, Catherine E; Murray, Niamh S; Schönle, Jonas; Soydaner, Umut; Walliser, Roché M; Zampese, Jennifer A

    2013-04-14

    We report the synthesis of copper(I) complexes of three ligands which contain a potential P,N,N,P-metal binding site. Elemental analysis confirms that the bulk products possess a composition of [CuL][PF6] where L = 1, 2 or 3. Electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI MS) provides evidence for speciation in MeCN or MeOH solutions and the formation of both [CuL]+ and [Cu2L2]2+; addition of NaCl to the ESI MS samples aids the observation of dinuclear species as [Cu2L2Cl]+ ions. NMR spectroscopic data for a CD3CN solution of [Cu(1)][PF6] were consistent with a mononuclear species, but more complex multinuclear spectra were observed for the same compound dissolved in CD2Cl2. In the solid state, dimeric species dominate. Crystals grown from CH2Cl2 solutions of [Cu(1)][PF6] are found to be [Cu2(1)2][PF6]2·6CH2Cl2; each Cu+ ion in the centrosymmetric cation is bound in an N,O,P,P-coordination sphere, the N-donor originating from the pyridine ring. In [Cu2(3)2][PF6]2, each bridging ligand in the centrosymmetric [Cu2(3)2]2+ ion acts as a P,N-chelate to each Cu+ ion. Competing with this dimeric assembly is that of a circular helicate in which each ligand 3 bridges adjacent pairs of copper(I) ions in a chiral, hexameric complex; both the Δ,Δ,Δ,Δ,Δ,Δ- and Λ,Λ,Λ,Λ,Λ,Λ-enantiomers are present in the crystal lattice; in [Cu6(3)6]6+, each ligand coordinates as a bis(P,N-chelate). The solution absorption spectra of [Cu(1)][PF6], [Cu(2)][PF6] and [Cu(3)][PF6] are dominated by ligand-based transitions and none of the copper(I) complexes exhibits emissive behaviour in solution.

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus allergen expression is coordinately regulated in response to hydrogen peroxide and cyclic AMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowyer Paul

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A. fumigatus has been associated with a wide spectrum of allergic disorders such as ABPA or SAFS. It is poorly understood what allergens in particular are being expressed during fungal invasion and which are responsible for stimulation of immune responses. Study of the dynamics of allergen production by fungi may lead to insights into how allergens are presented to the immune system. Methods Expression of 17 A. fumigatus allergen genes was examined in response to various culture conditions and stimuli as well as in the presence of macrophages in order to mimic conditions encountered in the lung. Results Expression of 14/17 allergen genes was strongly induced by oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (Asp f 1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -10, -13, -17 and -18, all >10-fold and Asp f 11, -12, and -22, 5-10-fold and 16/17 allergen genes were repressed in the presence of cAMP. The 4 protease allergen genes (Asp f -5, -10, -13 and -18 were expressed at very low levels compared to the comparator (β-tubulin under all other conditions examined. Mild heat shock, anoxia, lipid and presence of macrophages did not result in coordinated changes in allergen gene expression. Growth on lipid as sole carbon source contributed to the moderate induction of most of the allergen genes. Heat shock (37°C > 42°C caused moderate repression in 11/17 genes (Asp f 1, -2, -4, -5, -6, -9, -10, -13, -17, -18 and -23 (2- to 9-fold, which was mostly evident for Asp f 1 and -9 (~9-fold. Anaerobic stress led to moderate induction of 13/17 genes (1.1 to 4-fold with one, Asp f 8 induced over 10-fold when grown under mineral oil. Complex changes were seen in gene expression during co-culture of A. fumigatus with macrophages. Conclusions Remarkable coordination of allergen gene expression in response to a specific condition (oxidative stress or the presence of cAMP has been observed, implying that a single biological stimulus may play a role in allergen gene

  12. Descent of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M.; Thorup, Jørgen M.; Beasley, Spencer W.

    This book provides a state of the art overview of all aspects of testicular descent and cryptorchidism, including the mechanisms of descent and the causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of undescended testis. The advances in understanding that have been achieved over the past two decades...

  13. Alleviation of photoinhibition by coordination of chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow mediated by NDH under heat stressed condition in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua eLi

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco activase decreased much more in the mutant. The results suggest that chlororespiration and cyclic electron flow mediated by NDH may coordinate to alleviate the over-reduction of stroma, thus to keep operation of CO2 assimilation at

  14. Theoretical insight into the coordination of cyclic β-D-glucose to [Al(OH)(aq)](2+) and [Al(OH)2(aq)](1+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng-Fu; Fu, Hong-Quan; Su, Ben-Fang; Yang, Hua-Qing; Tang, Jin-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The coordination of cyclic β-D-glucose (CDG) to both [Al(OH)(aq)](2+) and [Al(OH)2(aq)](1+) ions has been theoretically investigated, using quantum chemical calculations at the PBE0/6-311++G(d,p), aug-cc-pvtz level under polarizable continuum model IEF-PCM, and molecular dynamics simulations. [Al(OH)(aq)](2+) ion prefers to form both six- and five-coordination complexes, and [Al(OH)2(aq)](+) ion to form four-coordination complex. The two kinds of oxygen atoms (on hydroxyl and ring) of CDG can coordinate to both [Al(OH)(aq)](2+) and [Al(OH)2(aq)](+) ions through single-O-ligand and double-O-ligand coordination, wherein there exists some negative charge transfer from the lone pair electron on 2p orbital of the coordinated oxygen atom to the empty 3s orbital of aluminum atom. The charge transfer from both the polarization and H-bond effects stabilizes the coordinated complex. When the CDG coordinates to both [Al(OH)(H2O)4](2+) and [Al(OH)2(H2O)2](1+) ions, the exchange of water with CDG would take place. The six-coordination complex [(ηO4,O6(2)-CDG)Al(OH)(H2O)3](2+) and the five-coordination complex [(ηO4,O6(2)-CDG)Al(OH)2(H2O)](1+) are predicted to be the thermodynamically most preferable, in which the polarization effect plays a crucial role. The molecular dynamics simulations testify the exchange of water with CDG, and then support a five-coordination complex [(ηO4,O6(2)-CDG)Al(OH)2(H2O)](1+) as the predominant form of the CDG coordination to [Al(OH)2(aq)](1+) ion.

  15. LA GRANDE DESCENTE

    CERN Multimedia

    The first endcap disc of CMS being lowered slowly and carefully 100 m underground into the experimental cavern. The disc is one of 15 large pieces to make the grand descent.  The uniquely shaped slice, 16 m high, about 50 cm thick weighs 400 tonnes. The two HF that were lowered earlier in November can also be seen in the foreground and background.  

  16. Simplicial Descent Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2008-04-01

    Much of the homotopical and homological structure of the categories of chain complexes and topological spaces can be deduced from the existence and properties of the 'simple' functors Tot : {double chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and geometric realization : {sSets} -> {Top}, or similarly, Tot : {simplicial chain complexes} -> {chain complexes} and | | : {sTop} -> {Top}. The purpose of this thesis is to abstract this situation, and to this end we introduce the notion of '(co)simplicial descent category'. It is inspired by Guillen-Navarros's '(cubical) descent categories'. The key ingredients in a (co)simplicial descent category D are a class E of morphisms in D, called equivalences, and a 'simple' functor s : {(co)simplicial objects in D} -> D. They must satisfy axioms like 'Eilenberg-Zilber', 'exactness' and 'acyclicity'. This notion covers a wide class of examples, as chain complexes, sSets, topological spaces, filtered cochain complexes (where E = filtered quasi-isomorphisms or E = E_2-isomorphisms), commutative differential graded algebras (with s = Navarro's Thom-Whitney simple), DG-modules over a DG-category and mixed Hodge complexes, where s = Deligne's simple. From the simplicial descent structure we obtain homotopical structure on D, as cone and cylinder objects. We use them to i) explicitly describe the morphisms of HoD=D[E^{-1}] similarly to the case of calculus of fractions; ii) endow HoD with a non-additive pre-triangulated structure, that becomes triangulated in the stable additive case. These results use the properties of a 'total functor', which associates to any biaugmented bisimplicial object a simplicial object. It is the simplicial analogue of the total chain complex of a double complex, and it is left adjoint to Illusie's 'decalage' functor.

  17. Characterization studies and cyclic voltammetry on nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamates with triphenylphosphine in the coordination sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBBIAH THIRUMARAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamate complexes of the composition [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(NCS], [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(CN] and [Ni(AAdtc(PPh32]ClO4 [(AAdtc = dithiocarbamate derivatives of amino acids, i.e., glycine (glydtc, L-iso-leucine (i-leudtc and L-proline (prodtc] were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by IR and electronic spectroscopy, thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurements. In the case of the mixed ligand complexes, the thioureide n(C−N values were shifted to higher wave numbers compared to [Ni(AAdtc2]. This observation shows the increased strength of the thioureide bond due to the presence of the p-accepting phosphine. Electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for the complexes. Thermal analyses of the complexes are in keeping with the proposed formulae. Almost all the complexes showed signs of decay above 170 °C. At around 390 °C, the final mass corresponded to NiS. Cyclic voltammetry showed a decrease of the electron density on the nickel in the mixed ligand complexes compared to [Ni(AAdtc2].

  18. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: II. Postural activities and coupling coordination during cyclic flexion-extension arm movements, ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Fausto G; Esposti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    When coupling cyclic adduction-abduction movements of the arms in the transverse (horizontal) plane, isodirectional (ISO) coupling is less stable than antidirectional (ANTI) coupling. We proposed that such deficiency stems from the disturbing action that anticipatory postural adjustments exert on ISO coupling. To ascertain if postural adjustments differentiate ISO versus ANTI coupling coordination in other types of cyclic arm movements, we examined flexion-extension oscillations in the parasagittal plane. Oscillations of the right arm alone elicited cyclic Postural Adjustments (PAs) in the left Anterior Deltoid and Posterior Deltoid, which replicated the excitation-inhibition pattern of the prime movers right Anterior Deltoid, right Posterior Deltoid. Cyclic PAs also developed symmetrically in Erector Spinae (RES and LES) and in phase opposition in Ischiocruralis (RIC and LIC), so as to discharge to the ground both an anteroposterior force, Fy, and a moment about the vertical axis, Tz. Oscillations of both arms in ISO coupling induced symmetric PAs in both ES and IC muscles, thus generating a large Fy but no Tz. In ANTI coupling, PAs in RES and LES remained symmetric but smaller in size, while PAs in RIC and LIC were large and opposite in phase, resulting in a large Tz and small Fy. Altogether, PAs would thus favour ISO and hamper ANTI parasagittal movements because (1) in the motor pathways to the prime movers of either arm, a convergence would occur between the voluntary commands and the commands for PAs linked to the movement of the other arm, the two commands having the same sign (excitatory or inhibitory) during ISO and an opposite sign during ANTI; (2) the postural effort of trunk and leg muscles would be higher for generating Tz in ANTI than Fy in ISO. These predictions fit with the finding that coupling stability was lower in ANTI than in ISO, i.e., opposite to horizontal movements. In conclusion, in both parasagittal and horizontal arm movements, the less

  19. Cyclic M2(RL)2 coordination complexes of 5-(3-[N-tert-Butyl-N-aminoxyl]phenyl)pyrimidine with paramagnetic transition metal dications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Martha; Lahti, Paul M; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Oliveira, Nei F

    2005-09-19

    5-(3-(N-tert-Butyl-N-aminoxyl)phenyl)pyrimidine (RL = 3NITPhPyrim) forms isostructural cyclic M2(RL)2 cyclic dimers with M(hfac)2 (M = Mn, Co, Cu; hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate). Mn2(hfac)4(RL)2 exhibits strong antiferromagnetic Mn-RL exchange, with weak ferromagnetic exchange (0.7 cm(-1)) between Mn-RL units that is consistent with a spin polarization exchange mechanism. The magnetic moment of Co2(hfac)4(RL)2 at higher temperatures is consistent with strongly antiferromagnetic exchange within the Co-NIT units and tends toward zero below 50 K at lower magnetic fields. Cu2(hfac)4(RL)2 shows more complex behavior, with no high-temperature plateau in chiT(T) up to 300 K but a monotonic decrease down to about 100 K. The Cu(II)-nitroxide bonds decrease by 0.2-0.3 A over the same temperature range, corresponding to a change of nitroxide coordination from axial to equatorial. This thermally reversible Jahn-Teller distortion leads to a thermally induced spin state conversion from a high-spin, paramagnetic state at higher temperature to a low-spin state at lower temperature. This spin state conversion is accompanied by a reversible solid-state thermochromic change between dull yellow-brown at room temperature and green at 77 K.

  20. Hybrid scorpionate/cyclopentadienyl magnesium and zinc complexes: synthesis, coordination chemistry, and ring-opening polymerization studies on cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Andrés; Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Fajardo, Mariano; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Otero, Antonio; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; López-Solera, Isabel; Rodríguez, Ana María

    2010-03-15

    The reaction of the hybrid scorpionate/cyclopentadienyl lithium salt [Li(bpzcp)(THF)] [bpzcp = 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,1-diphenylethylcyclopentadienyl] with 1 equiv of RMgCl proceeds cleanly to give very high yields of the corresponding monoalkyl kappa(2)-NN-eta(5)-C(5)H(4) magnesium complexes [Mg(R)(kappa(2)-eta(5)-bpzcp)] (R = Me 1, Et 2, (n)Bu 3, (t)Bu 4, CH(2)SiMe(3) 5, CH(2)Ph 6). Hydrolysis of the hybrid lithium salt [Li(bpzcp)(THF)] with NH(4)Cl/H(2)O in ether cleanly affords the two previously described regioisomers: (bpzcpH) 1-[2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,1-diphenylethyl]-1,3-cyclopentadiene (a) and 2-[2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,1-diphenylethyl]-1,3-cyclopentadiene (b). Subsequent reaction of the bpzcpH hybrid ligand with ZnR(2) quantitatively yields the monoalkyl kappa(2)-NN-eta(1)(pi)-C(5)H(4) zinc complexes [Zn(R){kappa(2)-eta(1)(pi)-bpzcp}] (R = Me 7, Et 8, (t)Bu 9, CH(2)SiMe(3) 10). Additionally, magnesium alkyls 1, 2, 4, and 5 can act as excellent cyclopentadienyl and alkyl transfers to the zinc metal center and yield zinc alkyls 7-10 in good yields. The single-crystal X-ray structures of the derivatives 4, 5, 7, and 10 confirm a 4-coordinative structure with the metal center in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Interestingly, whereas alkyl magnesium derivatives 4 and 5 present a eta(5) coordination mode for the cyclopentadienyl fragment, zinc derivatives 7 and 10 feature a peripheral eta(1)(pi) arrangement in the solid state. Furthermore, the reaction of the hybrid lithium salt [Li(bpzcp)(THF)] with 1 equiv of ZnCl(2) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) affords very high yields of the chloride complex [ZnCl{kappa(2)-eta(1)(pi)-bpzcp}] (11). Compound 11 was used as a convenient starting material for the synthesis of the aromatic amide zinc compound [Zn(NH-4-MeC(6)H(4)){kappa(2)-eta(1)(pi)-bpzcp}] (12), by reaction with the corresponding aromatic primary amide lithium salt. Alternatively, aliphatic amide and alkoxide derivatives were

  1. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    . Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone......A proper hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis with normal androgen synthesis and action is a prerequisite for normal testicular descent. Various defects in this axis may result in cryptorchidism but endocrine abnormalities are rarely detected. Androgens regulate testicular descent but androgen action...... alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  4. Intra-Cyclic Phases of Arm-Leg Movement and Index of Coordination in Relation to Sprint Breaststroke Swimming in Young Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Strzala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the limitations set by FINA regulations, execution technique in breaststroke swimming is being improved thanks to more and more advanced analyses of the efficiency of the swimmer’s movements. The aim of this study was to detect the parameters of the time structure of the cycle correlated with the maximal swimming speed at the of 50 meters distance, in order to focus to specific technical aspects in the breaststroke training. In the group of 23 participants, between the age of 15.0 ± 1.17, the breaststroke cycle movement of the arms and legs was divided into two phases: propulsive or non-propulsive. In addition, indices characterizing the temporal coordination of movements of the upper limbs in relation to the lower limbs were distinguished: 1 Arm-Leg Lag - determines the interval between the phases of propulsion generated by upper and lower limbs; 2 Glide or Overlap - the inter-cyclic glide or overlap of the propulsive movement of the upper on lower limbs. Significant dependence was noted between the swim speed (V50surface breast and the percentage of time of the arm propulsive in-sweep phase 0.64, p < 0.01. A significant correlation was observed between the V50surface breast with the percentage of partially surfaced hand phase of arm recovery 0.54, p < 0.01. Correlation between total leg propulsion and non-propulsion phases with V50surface breast was 0.49 and -0.49 respectively, both p < 0.01. The Glide or Overlap index was significantly related to the swimming speed V50surface breast 0.48, p < 0.05. This type of analysis suggests how to refine the swimming technique, with the goal to improve the current speed capabilities; furthermore the results also indicate the direction of its development in the future swimmers of the group studied.

  5. Reinforcement Learning Through Gradient Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-14

    Reinforcement learning is often done using parameterized function approximators to store value functions. Algorithms are typically developed for...practice of existing types of algorithms, the gradient descent approach makes it possible to create entirely new classes of reinforcement learning algorithms

  6. Demazure descent and representations of reductive groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Demazure descent data on a triangulated category C and define the descent category for such data. We illustrate the definition by our basic example. Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. Demazure functors form Demazure descent data on the derived...

  7. Theseus' arid Peirithoos' descent into the underworld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    In my contribution I will first briefly discuss the earliest known literary descent, that by Enkidu, which almost certainly influenced the poet of the Odyssey in his depiction of Odysseus' descent. Then I will take a brief look at some descents in the Archaic Age, in particular the earliest

  8. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: III. difference in the energy cost of postural actions during cyclic flexion-extension arm movements, ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposti, Roberto; Limonta, Eloisa; Esposito, Fabio; Baldissera, Fausto G

    2013-11-01

    When oscillating the upper limbs together in the parasagittal plane, movements coordination is lower (i.e., variability of the interlimb relative phase is higher) in antidirectional (ANTI) than in isodirectional (ISO) coupling. In contrast, we previously observed that for arm movements in the horizontal plane, the coordination was worse in ISO than ANTI and the energetic cost of postural activities was higher in ISO. Having hypothesised that the higher postural cost was one factor responsible for the coordination deficit in horizontal ISO, we measured the oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) in parasagittal movements, expecting that in this case too, the postural cost is higher in the less-coordinated mode (ANTI). Breath-by-breath metabolic ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and cardiorespiratory (HR, [Formula: see text]) parameters were measured in seven participants, who performed cyclic flexions-extensions in the parasagittal plane with either one arm or both arms, in ISO or ANTI coupling and at 1.4, 2.2 and 2.6 Hz. In each condition, the intermittent exercise (12 s movement, 12 s rest) lasted 264 s. A force platform recorded the mechanical actions to the ground. The exercise metabolic cost ([Formula: see text]) was found to be significantly higher in parasagittal ANTI than ISO. The movement amplitude being equal in the two modes, the ANTI-ISO difference should be ascribed to postural activities. This would confirm that the less-coordinated coupling mode requires the higher postural effort in parasagittal movements too. When rising the movement frequency, [Formula: see text] increased and linearly correlated with the coordination loss. Comparison of parasagittal with horizontal movements showed that [Formula: see text] was lower in parasagittal ANTI than in horizontal ISO (the less-coordinated modes), while it was not different between parasagittal ISO and horizontal ANTI (the more-coordinated modes).

  9. Descent in buildings (AM-190)

    CERN Document Server

    Mühlherr, Bernhard; Weiss, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Descent in Buildings begins with the resolution of a major open question about the local structure of Bruhat-Tits buildings. The authors then put their algebraic solution into a geometric context by developing a general fixed point theory for groups acting on buildings of arbitrary type, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the residues fixed by a group to form a kind of subbuilding or "form" of the original building. At the center of this theory is the notion of a Tits index, a combinatorial version of the notion of an index in the relative theory of algebraic groups. These results

  10. 供应链协同运作的多周期动态激励模型%Study on Supply Chain Multi-cyclic Dynamic Incentive Model Based on Coordinative Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义生

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, in order to spike the activeness of the supply chain members to coordinate and according to the Markov characteristic in the decision-making of supply chains, we studied the establishment and application of the multi-cyclic dynamic incentive model for the coordinative operation of supply chains, realized the maximization of the overall benefit of a supply chain for afinite time bracket, and obtained the optimal incentive strategy for supply chain coordinative operation. Then in connection with an empirical example, we carried out an applied analysis of the validity of the model.%为了提高供应链成员之间协同运作的积极性,根据供应链决策的马尔科夫特性,研究了供应链协同动作的多周期动态激励模型构建及其应用问题.综合运用委托-代理和马尔科夫决策过程理论,建立了供应链协同运作的动态激励模型,实现了有限时段供应链的总体收益最大,得到了供应链协同运作的最优激励策略.并结合实例,对模型的有效性进行了应用分析.

  11. A comprehensive view on optimization: reasonable descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkhuis (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractReasonable descent is a novel, transparent approach to a well-established field: the deep methods and applications of the complete analysis of continuous optimization problems. Standard reasonable descents give a unified approach to all standard necessary conditions, including the Lagran

  12. Continuous Descent Operations using Energy Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    During today’s aircraft descents, Air Traffic Control (ATC) commands aircraft to descend to specific altitudes and directions to maintain separation and spacing from other aircraft. When the aircraft is instructed to maintain an intermediate descent altitude, it requires engine thrust to maintain spe

  13. Cyclic derangements

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami H

    2010-01-01

    A classic problem in enumerative combinatorics is to count the number of derangements, that is, permutations with no fixed point. Inspired by a recent generalization to facet derangements of the hypercube by Gordon and McMahon, we generalize this problem to enumerating derangements in the wreath product of any finite cyclic group with the symmetric group. We also give q- and (q, t)-analogs for cyclic derangements, generalizing results of Brenti and Gessel.

  14. Propulsive Descent Technologies (PDT): Original Content Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future missions to Mars require landed mass that exceeds the capability of current entry, descent, and landing technology.  New technology and techniques are...

  15. Conjugate descent formulation of backpropagation error in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feedforward neural network architecture uses backpropagation learning to ... the training of a multilayer neural network using a gradient descent approach ...... IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 18, pp.

  16. Homological descent for motivic homology theories

    OpenAIRE

    Geisser, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give homological descent theorems for motivic homology theories (for example, Suslin homology) and motivic Borel-Moore homology theories (for example, higher Chow groups) for certain hypercoverings.

  17. Human factors by descent energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  18. Reversible adsorption of a planar cyclic (H2O)6 cluster held in a 2D CuII-coordination framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Lu, Hui; Yang, Le; Luo, Geng-Geng

    2015-05-01

    Coordination polymeric solid, {[Cu(btec)0.5(bpe)(H2O)2]ṡ(H2O)4}n (1) (H4btec = 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, and bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane), has been obtained by the solution phase ultrasonic synthesis techniques. The structure established through X-ray structural analysis shows that a centrosymmetric water hexamer with planar conformation structurally similar to aromatic benzene is unambiguously crystallized within the hydrophilic channel of 1. Water escapes at 150 °C but is re-absorbed using water vapor. The reversible formation of this water cluster was supported from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), FTIR spectra and TGA/DTA. The reversible dehydration/rehydration behaviors enable analysis of the nature of the intermolecular interactions that occur between the planar hexameric water and the resulting host framework. When the auxiliary ligand bpe was removed from the synthetic conditions, another complex {[Cu(btec)0.5(H2O)3]ṡH2O}n (2) only encapsulating a water dimer was afforded, which suggests bpe plays an important role in the formation of the framework and water clusters.

  19. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  20. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  1. Reference energy-altitude descent guidance: Simulator evaluation. [aircraft descent and fuel conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, K. H.; Knox, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Descent guidance was developed to provide a pilot with information to ake a fuel-conservative descent and cross a designated geographical waypoint at a preselected altitude and airspeed. The guidance was designed to reduce fuel usage during the descent and reduce the mental work load associated with planning a fuel-conservative descent. A piloted simulation was conducted to evaluate the operational use of this guidance concept. The results of the simulation tests show that the use of the guidance reduced fuel consumption and mental work load during the descent. Use of the guidance also decreased the airspeed error, but had no effect on the altitude error when the designated waypoint was crossed. Physical work load increased with the use of the guidance, but remained well within acceptable levels. The pilots found the guidance easy to use as presented and reported that it would be useful in an operational environment.

  2. Cyclic multiverses

    CERN Document Server

    Marosek, Konrad; Balcerzak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we first study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating mass density and pressure regularized by varying gravitational constant $G$. Then, we extend this idea onto the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two "parallel" universes with their physical evolution (physical coupling constants $c(t)$ and $G(t)$) being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion -- the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory.

  3. Stochastic gradient descent on Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnabel, Silvere

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic gradient descent is a simple appproach to find the local minima of a function whose evaluations are corrupted by noise. In this paper, mostly motivated by machine learning applications, we develop a procedure extending stochastic gradient descent algorithms to the case where the function is defined on a Riemannian manifold. We prove that, as in the Euclidian case, the descent algorithm converges to a critical point of the cost function. The algorithm has numerous potential applications, and we show several well-known algorithms can be cast in our versatile geometric framework. We also address the gain tuning issue in connection with the tools of the recent theory of symmetry-preserving observers.

  4. Conflict Avoidance by Descent Behind the Intruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Magister

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The paramount priorities for safe implementation of a singlepilot manned cockpit concept and the futuristic concept of asingle pilot acting as a supervisor for a fully automated aircraftflying on incessantly self-optimised trajectories are eliminationsof the risk of mid-air collisions and of conflicts resulting fromthe lack of safe airborne separations. Avoidance procedureswith initiation of descent behind the intruder for conflict resolutionbetween a pair of aircraft where one of them is in the vicinityof the top of its descent represents merely one little piece ofthis giant puzzle.

  5. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    an enthusiastic worshipping of life, one that holds youth, health, strength and beauty as its primary attributes, and which was prevalent in all aspects of cultural life around 1900. But even the post war founders of the Vitalist re-conceptualisation of this era, Wolfdietrich Rasch and Gunter Martens, warned...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...

  6. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  7. America's Descent into Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  8. Minimizing convex functions by continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for minimizing convex functions, defined on general Banach spaces, which are associated with an appropriate complete metric space of vector fields. We show that there exists an everywhere dense open set in this space of vector fields such that each of its elements generates strongly convergent trajectories.

  9. Two convergence results for continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Reich

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider continuous descent methods for the minimization of convex functionals defined on general Banach space. We establish two convergence results for methods which are generated by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  10. Cyclic multiverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  11. Optimum Strategies for Selecting Descent Flight-Path Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong G. (Inventor); Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An information processing system and method for adaptively selecting an aircraft descent flight path for an aircraft, are provided. The system receives flight adaptation parameters, including aircraft flight descent time period, aircraft flight descent airspace region, and aircraft flight descent flyability constraints. The system queries a plurality of flight data sources and retrieves flight information including any of winds and temperatures aloft data, airspace/navigation constraints, airspace traffic demand, and airspace arrival delay model. The system calculates a set of candidate descent profiles, each defined by at least one of a flight path angle and a descent rate, and each including an aggregated total fuel consumption value for the aircraft following a calculated trajectory, and a flyability constraints metric for the calculated trajectory. The system selects a best candidate descent profile having the least fuel consumption value while the fly ability constraints metric remains within aircraft flight descent flyability constraints.

  12. A Cyclic Representation of Discrete Coordination Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Agaev, Rafig

    2011-01-01

    We show that any discrete opinion pooling procedure with positive weights can be asymptotically approximated by DeGroot's procedure whose communication digraph is a Hamiltonian cycle with loops. In this cycle, the weight of each arc (which is not a loop) is inversely proportional to the influence of the agent the arc leads to.

  13. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of taking such a unilateral view of what constituted a Vitalist concept of life. It could lead to a misunderstanding of Vitalist way of thinking, Rasch said, if the focus were only set upon the enthusiastic surplus, the worshipping of youth and health. To Vitalists, life is more than that. It is a totality...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...... of the era. The analyses include a further sub-categorisation to capture the different types of Life Force dealt with in the texts. By way of an introduction, Vitalism is discussed within the context of the scientific and social developments of the 19th Century....

  14. 43 CFR 10.14 - Lineal descent and cultural affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lineal descent and cultural affiliation... GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS General § 10.14 Lineal descent and cultural affiliation. (a) General. This section identifies procedures for determining lineal descent and...

  15. Gradient Descent Bit Flipping Algorithms for Decoding LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Wadayama, Tadashi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yagita, Masayuki; Funahashi, Yuuki; Usami, Shogo; Takumi, Ichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel class of bit-flipping (BF) algorithms for decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is presented. The proposed algorithms, which are called gradient descent bit flipping (GDBF) algorithms, can be regarded as simplified gradient descent algorithms. Based on gradient descent formulation, the proposed algorithms are naturally derived from a simple non-linear objective function.

  16. Analysis of Online Composite Mirror Descent Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunwen; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-03-01

    We study the convergence of the online composite mirror descent algorithm, which involves a mirror map to reflect the geometry of the data and a convex objective function consisting of a loss and a regularizer possibly inducing sparsity. Our error analysis provides convergence rates in terms of properties of the strongly convex differentiable mirror map and the objective function. For a class of objective functions with Hölder continuous gradients, the convergence rates of the excess (regularized) risk under polynomially decaying step sizes have the order [Formula: see text] after [Formula: see text] iterates. Our results improve the existing error analysis for the online composite mirror descent algorithm by avoiding averaging and removing boundedness assumptions, and they sharpen the existing convergence rates of the last iterate for online gradient descent without any boundedness assumptions. Our methodology mainly depends on a novel error decomposition in terms of an excess Bregman distance, refined analysis of self-bounding properties of the objective function, and the resulting one-step progress bounds.

  17. Cyclic Oxonitriles: Stereodivergent Grignard Addition-Alkylations

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Wei, Guoqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Steward, Omar W.

    2007-01-01

    Sequential carbonyl addition-conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic 5–7–membered oxoalkenenitriles efficiently generates cyclic magnesiated nitriles. Alkylations of these magnesiated nitriles exhibit diastereoselectivities that depend intimately on the size of the carbocyclic ring: 5-membered oxonitriles generate magnesiated nitriles whose alkylations are controlled by steric constraints whereas 6- and 7-membered oxonitriles generate internally coordinated, C-magnesiated nitriles w...

  18. Cyclic Matching Pursuits with Multiscale Time-frequency Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize cyclic matching pursuit (CMP), propose an orthogonal variant, and examine their performance using multiscale time-frequency dictionaries in the sparse approximation of signals. Overall, we find that the cyclic approach of CMP produces signal models that have a much lower approximation...... error than existing greedy iterative descent methods such as matching pursuit (MP), and are competitive with models found using orthogonal MP (OMP), and orthogonal least squares (OLS). This implies that CMP is a strong alternative to the more computationally complex approaches of OMP and OLS...... for modeling high-dimensional signals....

  19. Online Learning, Stability, and Stochastic Gradient Descent

    CERN Document Server

    Poggio, Tomaso; Rosasco, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In batch learning, stability together with existence and uniqueness of the solution corresponds to well-posedness of Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) methods; recently, it was proved that CV_loo stability is necessary and sufficient for generalization and consistency of ERM. In this note, we introduce CV_on stability, which plays a similar note in online learning. We show that stochastic gradient descent (SDG) with the usual hypotheses is CVon stable and we then discuss the implications of CV_on stability for convergence of SGD.

  20. The grand descent has begun for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, the CMS experimental cavern looked relatively empty; its detector was assembled entirely at ground level, to be lowered underground in 15 sections. On 2 November, the first hadronic forward calorimeter led the way with a grand descent. The first section of the CMS detector (centre of photo) arriving from the vertical shaft, viewed from the cavern floor. There is something unusual about the construction of the CMS detector. Instead of being built in the experimental cavern, like all the other detectors in the LHC experiments, it was constructed at ground level. This was to allow for easy access during the assembly of the detector and to minimise the size of the excavated cavern. The slightly nerve-wracking task of lowering it safely into the cavern in separate sections came after the complete detector was successfully tested with a magnetic field at ground level. In the early morning of 2 November, the first section of the CMS detector began its eagerly awaited descent into the underground ca...

  1. Regression Analysis of Top of Descent Location for Idle-thrust Descents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Laurel; Bronsvoort, Jesper; McDonald, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multiple regression analysis is used to model the top of descent (TOD) location of user-preferred descent trajectories computed by the flight management system (FMS) on over 1000 commercial flights into Melbourne, Australia. The independent variables cruise altitude, final altitude, cruise Mach, descent speed, wind, and engine type were also recorded or computed post-operations. Both first-order and second-order models are considered, where cross-validation, hypothesis testing, and additional analysis are used to compare models. This identifies the models that should give the smallest errors if used to predict TOD location for new data in the future. A model that is linear in TOD altitude, final altitude, descent speed, and wind gives an estimated standard deviation of 3.9 nmi for TOD location given the trajec- tory parameters, which means about 80% of predictions would have error less than 5 nmi in absolute value. This accuracy is better than demonstrated by other ground automation predictions using kinetic models. Furthermore, this approach would enable online learning of the model. Additional data or further knowl- edge of algorithms is necessary to conclude definitively that no second-order terms are appropriate. Possible applications of the linear model are described, including enabling arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the FMS even in congested airspace. In particular, a model for TOD location that is linear in the independent variables would enable decision support tool human-machine interfaces for which a kinetic approach would be computationally too slow.

  2. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the flu eating certain foods, such as chocolate or cheese, or additives such as caffeine, nitrites— ... people with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition During the prodrome and vomiting phases of cyclic ...

  3. Superextensions of cyclic semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gavrylkiv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a cyclic semigroup $S$ we study right and left zeros,singleton left ideals, the minimal ideal, left cancelable andright cancelable elements of superextensions $lambda(S$ andcharacterize cyclic semigroups whose superextensions arecommutative.

  4. Descent Principle in Modular Galois Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreeram S Abhyankar; Pradipkumar H Keskar

    2001-05-01

    We propound a descent principle by which previously constructed equations over GF()() may be deformed to have incarnations over GF()() without changing their Galois groups. Currently this is achieved by starting with a vectorial (= additive) -polynomial of -degree with Galois group GL(, ) and then, under suitable conditions, enlarging its Galois group to GL(, ) by forming its generalized iterate relative to an auxiliary irreducible polynomial of degree . Elsewhere this was proved under certain conditions by using the classification of finite simple groups, and under some other conditions by using Kantor's classification of linear groups containing a Singer cycle. Now under different conditions we prove it by using Cameron-Kantor's classification of two-transitive linear groups.

  5. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  6. 14 CFR 23.69 - Enroute climb/descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enroute climb/descent. 23.69 Section 23.69... climb/descent. (a) All engines operating. The steady gradient and rate of climb must be determined at...; (3) The wing flaps retracted; and (4) A climb speed not less than 1.3 VS1. (b) One engine...

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of gem-diaryl substituted cyclic sulfamidates and sulfamides by rhodium-catalyzed arylation of cyclic ketimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ebe, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Hiroto; Hayashi, Tamio

    2013-06-18

    Asymmetric addition of arylboronates to aryl-substituted cyclic ketimines proceeded in the presence of a rhodium catalyst coordinated with a chiral diene ligand to give high yields of sulfamidates and sulfamides with high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).

  8. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  9. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown and th...... and the aetiology is possibly multifactorial. Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis.......The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

  11. Toric varieties, monoid schemes and $cdh$ descent

    CERN Document Server

    Cortiñas, Guillermo; Walker, Mark E; Weibel, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    We give conditions for the Mayer-Vietoris property to hold for the algebraic K-theory of blow-up squares of toric varieties in any characteristic, using the theory of monoid schemes. These conditions are used to relate algebraic K-theory to topological cyclic homology in characteristic p. To achieve our goals, we develop for monoid schemes many notions from classical algebraic geometry, such as separated and proper maps.

  12. Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M.C.; Caplinger, M.A.; Carr, M.H.; Squyres, S.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (???6 ?? 6 ?? 12 cm, including baffle; geography (e.g., context for other lander instruments: precise location, detailed local relief); and (3) relationships to features seen in orbiter data. To accomplish these goals, MARDI will collect three types of images. Four small images (256 x 256 pixels) will be acquired on 0.5 s centers beginning 0.3 s before MPL's heatshield is jettisoned. Sixteen full-frame images (1024 X 1024, circularly edited) will be acquired on 5.3 s centers thereafter. Just after backshell jettison but prior to the start of powered descent, a "best final nonpowered descent image" will be acquired. Five seconds after the start of powered descent, the camera will begin acquiring images on 4 s centers. Storage for as many as ten 800 x 800 pixel images is available during terminal descent. A number of spacecraft factors are likely to impact the quality of MARDI images, including substantial motion blur resulting from large rates of attitude variation during parachute descent and substantial rocket-engine-induced vibration during powered descent. In addition, the mounting location of the camera places the exhaust plume of the hydrazine engines prominently in the field of view. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  14. Optimum blade loading for a powered rotor in descent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Modarres; David A. Peters

    2016-01-01

    The optimum loading for rotors has previously been found for hover, climb and wind turbine conditions;but, up to now, no one has determined the optimum rotor loading in descent. This could be an important design consideration for rotary-wing parachutes and low-speed des-cents. In this paper, the optimal loading for a powered rotor in descent is found from momentum theory based on a variational principle. This loading is compared with the optimal loading for a rotor in hover or climb and with the Betz rotor loading (which is optimum for a lightly-loaded rotor). Wake contraction for each of the various loadings is also presented.

  15. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma

    2011-01-01

    . Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially to our understanding of the hormonal control of testicular descent. Cryptorchidism is a common congenital malformation, which is seen in 2-9% of newborn boys, and confers an increased......Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone...

  16. in a Family of South Indian Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly. Although data on specific gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is relatively scarce, mutations of voltage gated sodium channel subunit genes (CACNB4 and nonsense mutations in voltage gated calcium channels (CACNA1A have been linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in two families. We speculate that gene mutations altering the ability of the beta subunit to interact with the alpha subunit of the CaV1.1 channel and mutations in the pore-forming potassium channel subunit may be possible explanations for the combined manifestation of both diseases. Functional analysis of voltage gated calcium channel and other ion channels mutations may provide additional support and insight for the causal role of these mutations. The understanding of mutations in ion-channel genes will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of such inherited channelopathies.

  17. Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon I. Lall-Ramnarine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylamide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners.

  18. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  19. Descent from the form ring and Buchsbaum rings

    CERN Document Server

    Schenzel, P

    1996-01-01

    There is a spectral sequence technique in order to estimate the local cohomology of a ring by the local cohomology of a certain form ring. As applications there are information on the descent of homological properties (Cohen-Macaulay, Buchsbaum etc.) from the form ring to the ring itself. In the case of Buchsbaum ring there is a discussion of the descent of the surjectivity of a natural map into the local cohomology.

  20. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  1. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  2. Cyclic anamorphic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the only known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  3. Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.; Caplinger, M. A.; Carr, M. H.; Squyres, S.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    2001-08-01

    The Mars Descent Imager, or MARDI, experiment on the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) consists of a camera characterized by small physical size and mass (~6 × 6 × 12 cm, including baffle; rocket-powered deceleration. Observational goals will include studies of (1) surface morphology (e.g., nature and distribution of landforms indicating past and present environmental processes) (2) local and regional geography (e.g., context for other lander instruments: precise location, detailed local relief) and (3) relationships to features seen in orbiter data. To accomplish these goals, MARDI will collect three types of images. Four small images (256 × 256 pixels) will be acquired on 0.5 s centers beginning 0.3 s before MPL's heatshield is jettisoned. Sixteen full-frame images (1024 × 1024, circularly edited) will be acquired on 5.3 s centers thereafter. Just after backshell jettison but prior to the start of powered descent, a ``best final nonpowered descent image'' will be acquired. Five seconds after the start of powered descent, the camera will begin acquiring images on 4 s centers. Storage for as many as ten 800 × 800 pixel images is available during terminal descent. A number of spacecraft factors are likely to impact the quality of MARDI images, including substantial motion blur resulting from large rates of attitude variation during parachute descent and substantial rocket-engine-induced vibration during powered descent. In addition, the mounting location of the camera places the exhaust plume of the hydrazine engines prominently in the field of view.

  4. Real Topological Cyclic Homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Amalie

    The main topics of this thesis are real topological Hochschild homology and real topological cyclic homology. If a ring or a ring spectrum is equipped with an anti-involution, then it induces additional structure on the topological Hochschild homology spectrum. The group O(2) acts on the spectrum......, where O(2) is the semi-direct product of T, the multiplicative group of complex number of modulus 1, by the group G=Gal(C/R). We refer to this O(2)-spectrum as the real topological Hochschild homology. This generalization leads to a G-equivariant version of topological cyclic homology, which we call...... real topological cyclic homology. The first part of the thesis computes the G-equivariant homotopy type of the real topological cyclic homology of spherical group rings at a prime p with anti-involution induced by taking inverses in the group. The second part of the thesis investigates the derived G...

  5. Cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology via cyclic modules I

    CERN Document Server

    Rangipour, Bahram

    2007-01-01

    This is the first one in a series of two papers on the continuation of our study in cup products in Hopf cyclic cohomology. In this note we construct cyclic cocycles of algebras out of Hopf cyclic cocycles of algebras and coalgebras. In the next paper we consider producing Hopf cyclic cocycle from "equivariant" Hopf cyclic cocycles. Our approach in both situations is based on (co)cyclic modules and bi(co)cyclic modules together with Eilenberg-Zilber theorem which is different from the old definition of cup products defined via traces and cotraces on DG algebras and coalgebras.

  6. Cyclic polymers from alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christopher D.; Li, Hong; Abboud, Khalil A.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Veige, Adam S.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic polymers have dramatically different physical properties compared with those of their equivalent linear counterparts. However, the exploration of cyclic polymers is limited because of the inherent challenges associated with their synthesis. Conjugated linear polyacetylenes are important materials for electrical conductivity, paramagnetic susceptibility, optical nonlinearity, photoconductivity, gas permeability, liquid crystallinity and chain helicity. However, their cyclic analogues are unknown, and therefore the ability to examine how a cyclic topology influences their properties is currently not possible. We have solved this challenge and now report a tungsten catalyst supported by a tetraanionic pincer ligand that can rapidly polymerize alkynes to form conjugated macrocycles in high yield. The catalyst works by tethering the ends of the polymer to the metal centre to overcome the inherent entropic penalty of cyclization. Gel-permeation chromatography, dynamic and static light scattering, viscometry and chemical tests are all consistent with theoretical predictions and provide unambiguous confirmation of a cyclic topology. Access to a wide variety of new cyclic polymers is now possible by simply choosing the appropriate alkyne monomer.

  7. Observations and Interpretation of Descent and Mixing in the Northern Hemisphere Brewer Dobson Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. C.; Karol, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 1929 Brewer proposed that the motions now known as the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation were responsible for the observed high values of ozone at high latitudes, far from their low-latitude region of formation. Here data from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument, with 1 km vertical resolution and 100 km along track spacing, are used examine how this circulation creates that distribution and its seasonal variation through the interactions between the overturning motions of the BD circulation and isentropic mixing in the lower and lowermost stratosphere (350-450K). Isopleths of ozone in equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinates illustrate the high-latitude descent, controlled by diabatic cooling, from September to the lowest altitudes in January and February. This descent creates large gradients along isentropic surfaces, where mixing above ~ 360K is weak at this time. The strength of mixing is taken to be the effective diffusivity Deff as formulated by Nakamura [1996]. By late winter into spring the BD circulation weakens, as does the transport barrier near 35° associated with the sub-tropical jet. These processes allow strong equator-ward mixing, leading to progressively smaller latitudinal ozone gradients on the isentropes, and the rising and flattening of the ozone isopleths. By the end of the summer the isopleths show only small slopes, preparatory for the next cycle. These results for the ozone dynamics are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) Version 4.

  8. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using...... the action we define the Demazure Descent Data on the latter category and prove that the Descent category is equivalent to the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on X....

  9. Normal approximations for descents and inversions of permutations of multisets

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, Mark; Viswanath, D.

    2005-01-01

    Normal approximations for descents and inversions of permutations of the set $\\{1,2,...,n\\}$ are well known. A number of sequences that occur in practice, such as the human genome and other genomes, contain many repeated elements. Motivated by such examples, we consider the number of inversions of a permutation $\\pi(1), \\pi(2),...,\\pi(n)$ of a multiset with $n$ elements, which is the number of pairs $(i,j)$ with $1\\leq i \\pi(j)$. The number of descents is the number of...

  10. A Descent Gradient Method and Its Global Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-kui

    2014-01-01

    Y Liu and C Storey(1992) proposed the famous LS conjugate gradient method which has good numerical results. However, the LS method has very weak convergence under the Wolfe-type line search. In this paper, we give a new descent gradient method based on the LS method. It can guarantee the sufficient descent property at each iteration and the global convergence under the strong Wolfe line search. Finally, we also present extensive preliminary numerical experiments to show the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing with the famous PRP+ method.

  11. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  12. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  13. Autonomous optimal trajectory design employing convex optimization for powered descent on an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Robin Marie

    Mission proposals that land spacecraft on asteroids are becoming increasingly popular. However, in order to have a successful mission the spacecraft must reliably and softly land at the intended landing site with pinpoint precision. The problem under investigation is how to design a propellant (fuel) optimal powered descent trajectory that can be quickly computed onboard the spacecraft, without interaction from ground control. The goal is to autonomously design the optimal powered descent trajectory onboard the spacecraft immediately prior to the descent burn for use during the burn. Compared to a planetary powered landing problem, the challenges that arise from designing an asteroid powered descent trajectory include complicated nonlinear gravity fields, small rotating bodies, and low thrust vehicles. The nonlinear gravity fields cannot be represented by a constant gravity model nor a Newtonian model. The trajectory design algorithm needs to be robust and efficient to guarantee a designed trajectory and complete the calculations in a reasonable time frame. This research investigates the following questions: Can convex optimization be used to design the minimum propellant powered descent trajectory for a soft landing on an asteroid? Is this method robust and reliable to allow autonomy onboard the spacecraft without interaction from ground control? This research designed a convex optimization based method that rapidly generates the propellant optimal asteroid powered descent trajectory. The solution to the convex optimization problem is the thrust magnitude and direction, which designs and determines the trajectory. The propellant optimal problem was formulated as a second order cone program, a subset of convex optimization, through relaxation techniques by including a slack variable, change of variables, and incorporation of the successive solution method. Convex optimization solvers, especially second order cone programs, are robust, reliable, and are guaranteed

  14. Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

  15. Numerical stability of descent methods for solving linear equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Jo A.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we perform a round-off error analysis of descent methods for solving a liner systemAx=b, whereA is supposed to be symmetric and positive definite. This leads to a general result on the attainable accuracy of the computed sequence {xi} when the method is performed in floating point arit

  16. Stress within a Bicultural Context for Adolescents of Mexican Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Folkman and Lazarus's theory of stress and coping was used to develop a measure assessing the perceived stress within a bicultural context. Middle school students of Mexican descent (N=881) reported their perceived stress from intergenerational acculturation gaps, within-group discrimination, out-group discrimination, and monolingual stress.…

  17. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent.

  18. Origin of INSL3-mediated testicular descent in therian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Il; Semyonov, Jenia; Chang, Chia Lin; Yi, Wei; Warren, Wesley; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

    2008-06-01

    Testicular descent is a unique physiological adaptation found in therian mammals allowing optimal spermatogenesis below core body temperature. Recent studies show that INSL3, produced by Leydig cells, and its receptor LGR8 (RXFP2) are essential for mediating the transabdominal phase of testicular descent during early development. However, the origin and genetic basis for this physiological adaptation is not clear. Using syntenic mapping and the functional characterization of contemporary and resurrected relaxin family hormones, we show that derivation of INSL3-mediated testicular descent involved the duplication of an ancestral RLN3-like gene that encodes an indiscriminate ligand for LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8. This event was followed by acquisition of the LGR7-selective characteristics by a daughter gene (RLN3) prior to the evolution of the common ancestor of monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. A subsequent mutation of the other daughter gene (INSL3) occurred before the emergence of therian mammals, which then led to the derivation of the reciprocal LGR8-specific characteristics of INSL3. The stepwise evolution of these independent signaling pathways through gene duplication and subsequent divergence is consistent with Darwinian theory of selection and adaptation, and the temporal proximity suggests an association between these genetic events and the concurrent evolution of testicular descent in ancestral therian mammals.

  19. Neuromuscular function during stair descent in meniscectomized patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in knee range of motion (ROM), movement speed, ground reaction forces (GRF) profile, neuromuscular activity, and muscle coactivation during the transition between stair descent and level walking in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee...

  20. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  1. 14 CFR 31.19 - Performance: Uncontrolled descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance: Uncontrolled descent. 31.19 Section 31.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... single failure of the heater assembly, fuel cell system, gas value system, or maneuvering vent system, or...

  2. Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

  3. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  4. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  5. The cyclic reduction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Dario; Meini, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    Cyclic reduction is an algorithm invented by G.H. Golub and R. W. Hockney in the mid 1960s for solving linear systems related to the finite differences discretization of the Poisson equation over a rectangle. Among the algorithms of Gene Golub, it is one of the most versatile and powerful ever created. Recently, it has been applied to solve different problems from different applicative areas. In this paper we survey the main features of cyclic reduction, relate it to properties of analytic functions, recall its extension to solving more general finite and infinite linear systems, and different kinds of nonlinear matrix equations, including algebraic Riccati equations, with applications to Markov chains, queueing models and transport theory. Some new results concerning the convergence properties of cyclic reduction and its applicability are proved under very weak assumptions. New formulae for overcoming breakdown are provided.

  6. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digestive diseases specialist (gastroenterologist). If you or your child is in the middle of a severe vomiting episode, the doctor may ... system disorders There's no cure for cyclic vomiting syndrome, so treatment ... may be prescribed: Anti-nausea drugs Sedatives Medications ...

  7. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  8. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  9. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  10. Edge-preserving image denoising via group coordinate descent on the GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaffin, Madison Gray; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-01

    Image denoising is a fundamental operation in image processing, and its applications range from the direct (photographic enhancement) to the technical (as a subproblem in image reconstruction algorithms). In many applications, the number of pixels has continued to grow, while the serial execution speed of computational hardware has begun to stall. New image processing algorithms must exploit the power offered by massively parallel architectures like graphics processing units (GPUs). This paper describes a family of image denoising algorithms well-suited to the GPU. The algorithms iteratively perform a set of independent, parallel 1D pixel-update subproblems. To match GPU memory limitations, they perform these pixel updates in-place and only store the noisy data, denoised image, and problem parameters. The algorithms can handle a wide range of edge-preserving roughness penalties, including differentiable convex penalties and anisotropic total variation. Both algorithms use the majorize-minimize framework to solve the 1D pixel update subproblem. Results from a large 2D image denoising problem and a 3D medical imaging denoising problem demonstrate that the proposed algorithms converge rapidly in terms of both iteration and run-time.

  11. Off-Grid DOA Estimation Using Alternating Block Coordinate Descent in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Si

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel off-grid direction of arrival (DOA estimation method to achieve the superior performance in compressed sensing (CS, in which DOA estimation problem is cast as a sparse reconstruction. By minimizing the mixed k-l norm, the proposed method can reconstruct the sparse source and estimate grid error caused by mismatch. An iterative process that minimizes the mixed k-l norm alternately over two sparse vectors is employed so that the nonconvex problem is solved by alternating convex optimization. In order to yield the better reconstruction properties, the block sparse source is exploited for off-grid DOA estimation. A block selection criterion is engaged to reduce the computational complexity. In addition, the proposed method is proved to have the global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the superior performance in comparisons to existing methods.

  12. Off-Grid DOA Estimation Using Alternating Block Coordinate Descent in Compressed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weijian; Qu, Xinggen; Qu, Zhiyu

    2015-08-27

    This paper presents a novel off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method to achieve the superior performance in compressed sensing (CS), in which DOA estimation problem is cast as a sparse reconstruction. By minimizing the mixed k-l norm, the proposed method can reconstruct the sparse source and estimate grid error caused by mismatch. An iterative process that minimizes the mixed k-l norm alternately over two sparse vectors is employed so that the nonconvex problem is solved by alternating convex optimization. In order to yield the better reconstruction properties, the block sparse source is exploited for off-grid DOA estimation. A block selection criterion is engaged to reduce the computational complexity. In addition, the proposed method is proved to have the global convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed method has the superior performance in comparisons to existing methods.

  13. Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahab Akbarzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared.

  14. A conjugate gradient method with descent direction for unconstrained optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Lu, Xiwen; Wei, Zengxin

    2009-11-01

    A modified conjugate gradient method is presented for solving unconstrained optimization problems, which possesses the following properties: (i) The sufficient descent property is satisfied without any line search; (ii) The search direction will be in a trust region automatically; (iii) The Zoutendijk condition holds for the Wolfe-Powell line search technique; (iv) This method inherits an important property of the well-known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) method: the tendency to turn towards the steepest descent direction if a small step is generated away from the solution, preventing a sequence of tiny steps from happening. The global convergence and the linearly convergent rate of the given method are established. Numerical results show that this method is interesting.

  15. Optimum climb and descent trajectories for airline missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of optimum fixed-range trajectories whose structure is constrained to climb, steady cruise, and descent segments are derived by application of optimal control theory. The performance function consists of the sum of fuel and time costs, referred to as direct operating cost (DOC). The state variable is range to go and the independent variable is energy. In this formulation a cruise segment always occurs at the optimum cruise energy for sufficiently large range. At short ranges (400 n. mi. and less), a cruise segment may also occur below the optimum cruise energy. The existence of such a cruise segment depends primarily on the fuel flow vs thrust characteristics and on thrust constraints. If thrust is a free control variable along with airspeed, it is shown that such cruise segments will not generally occur. If thrust is constrained to some maximum value in climb and to some minimum in descent, such cruise segments generally will occur.

  16. Global Units modulo Circular Units : descent without Iwasawa's Main Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Belliard, Jean-Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iwasawa's classical asymptotical formula relates the orders of the $p$-parts $X_n$ of the ideal class groups along a $\\ZM_p$-extension $F_\\infty/F$ of a number field $F$, to Iwasawa structural invariants $\\la$ and $\\mu$ attached to the inverse limit $X_\\infty=\\limpro X_n$. It relies on "good" descent properties satisfied by $X_n$. If $F$ is abelian and $F_\\infty$ is cyclotomic it is known that the $p$-parts of the orders of the global units modulo circular units $U_n/C_n$ are asymptotically equivalent to the $p$-parts of the ideal class numbers. This suggests that these quotients $U_n/C_n$, so to speak unit class groups, satisfy also good descent properties. We show this directly, i.e. without using Iwasawa's Main Conjecture.

  17. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  18. Conjugate descent formulation of backpropagation error in feedforward neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NK Sharma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The feedforward neural network architecture uses backpropagation learning to determine optimal weights between different interconnected layers. This learning procedure uses a gradient descent technique applied to a sum-of-squares error function for the given input-output pattern. It employs an iterative procedure to minimise the error function for a given set of patterns, by adjusting the weights of the network. The first derivates of the error with respect to the weights identify the local error surface in the descent direction. Hence the network exhibits a different local error surface for every different pattern presented to it, and weights are iteratively modified in order to minimise the current local error. The determination of an optimal weight vector is possible only when the total minimum error (mean of the minimum local errors for all patterns from the training set may be minimised. In this paper, we present a general mathematical formulation for the second derivative of the error function with respect to the weights (which represents a conjugate descent for arbitrary feedforward neural network topologies, and we use this derivative information to obtain the optimal weight vector. The local error is backpropagated among the units of hidden layers via the second order derivative of the error with respect to the weights of the hidden and output layers independently and also in combination. The new total minimum error point may be evaluated with the help of the current total minimum error and the current minimised local error. The weight modification processes is performed twice: once with respect to the present local error and once more with respect to the current total or mean error. We present some numerical evidence that our proposed method yields better network weights than those determined via a conventional gradient descent approach.

  19. Convergence results for a class of abstract continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for the minimization of Lipschitzian functions defined on a general Banach space. We establish convergence theorems for those methods which are generated by approximate solutions to evolution equations governed by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  20. What is abnormal uterine descent on translabial ultrasound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly used in evaluating women with pelvic floor dysfunction, including quantification of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The aim of this study was to define the optimal cutoff for uterine descent on translabial ultrasound (TLUS) to predict symptoms of prolapse. This was a retrospective study of patients seen for lower urinary tract symptoms and/or POP at a tertiary urogynecological center. All patients underwent a standardized interview, 4D TLUS and the International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (ICS POP-Q) assessment. Pelvic organ descent on US was measured relative to the posteroinferior margin of the symphysis pubis (SP) on maximum Valsalva. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) statistics was used to determine the optimal cutoff. We assessed 538 data sets. Mean patient age was 53 years (range 18-88). Prolapse symptoms were reported by 263 (49 %). Clinically significant POP, i.e., ICS POP-Q  stage ≥2 was found in 74.5 %. This comprised a cystocele in 322, uterine prolapse in 63, enterocele in ten, and rectocele in 280 women. On TLUS, mean uterine position on Valsalva was 14.3 mm above the SP. Prolapse symptoms were strongly associated with uterine descent (20.7 mm vs 7.6 mm, P prolapse in other compartments, +15 mm was found to be the optimal cutoff for predicting symptoms of prolapse, with areas under the curve of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively. An optimal cutoff to predict prolapse symptoms due to uterine descent is a cervix descending to 15 mm above the symphysis pubis on maximum Valsalva.

  1. Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Piltan; Shahnaz Tayebi Haghighi

    2012-01-01

    In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers) and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method) and optimization the sliding surface...

  2. Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental tool for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Whereas cyclic voltammetry is widely used within the field of electrochemistry, a way to quantitatively and directly relate the cyclic voltammogram to ab initio calculations has been lacking, even f...

  3. Random versus Deterministic Descent in RNA Energy Landscape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Day

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying sets of metastable conformations is a major research topic in RNA energy landscape analysis, and recently several methods have been proposed for finding local minima in landscapes spawned by RNA secondary structures. An important and time-critical component of such methods is steepest, or gradient, descent in attraction basins of local minima. We analyse the speed-up achievable by randomised descent in attraction basins in the context of large sample sets where the size has an order of magnitude in the region of ~106. While the gain for each individual sample might be marginal, the overall run-time improvement can be significant. Moreover, for the two nongradient methods we analysed for partial energy landscapes induced by ten different RNA sequences, we obtained that the number of observed local minima is on average larger by 7.3% and 3.5%, respectively. The run-time improvement is approximately 16.6% and 6.8% on average over the ten partial energy landscapes. For the large sample size we selected for descent procedures, the coverage of local minima is very high up to energy values of the region where the samples were randomly selected from the partial energy landscapes; that is, the difference to the total set of local minima is mainly due to the upper area of the energy landscapes.

  4. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Children of Middle Eastern Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mai Ying Naidoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are now seen in populations where it was once uncommon. The pattern of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent in Australia has never been reported. This study aimed to investigate the burden of IBD in children of Middle Eastern descent at the Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick (SCHR. The SCHR IBD database was used to identify patients of self-reported Middle Eastern ethnicity diagnosed between 1987 and 2011. Demographic, diagnosis, and management data was collected for all Middle Eastern children and an age and gender matched non-Middle Eastern IBD control group. Twenty-four patients of Middle Eastern descent were identified. Middle Eastern Crohn’s disease patients had higher disease activity at diagnosis, higher use of thiopurines, and less restricted colonic disease than controls. Although there were limitations with this dataset, we estimated a higher prevalence of IBD in Middle Eastern children and they had a different disease phenotype and behavior compared to the control group, with less disease restricted to the colon and likely a more active disease course.

  5. Hazard avoidance via descent images for safe landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruicheng; Cao, Zhiguo; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Zhiwen

    2013-10-01

    In planetary or lunar landing missions, hazard avoidance is critical for landing safety. Therefore, it is very important to correctly detect hazards and effectively find a safe landing area during the last stage of descent. In this paper, we propose a passive sensing based HDA (hazard detection and avoidance) approach via descent images to lower the landing risk. In hazard detection stage, a statistical probability model on the basis of the hazard similarity is adopted to evaluate the image and detect hazardous areas, so that a binary hazard image can be generated. Afterwards, a safety coefficient, which jointly utilized the proportion of hazards in the local region and the inside hazard distribution, is proposed to find potential regions with less hazards in the binary hazard image. By using the safety coefficient in a coarse-to-fine procedure and combining it with the local ISD (intensity standard deviation) measure, the safe landing area is determined. The algorithm is evaluated and verified with many simulated descent downward looking images rendered from lunar orbital satellite images.

  6. Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Piltan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method and optimization the sliding surface slope by gradient descent method. It is shown that this type of control methodology, although used to a certain model, can be used to conveniently control the dynamics of the arm with suitable tradeoff in accuracy of modeling. This relatively controller is more plausible to implement in an actual real-time when compared to other techniques of nonlinear controller methodology of continuum arms. Principles of sliding mode methodology is based on derive the sliding surface slope and nonlinear dynamic model and applied in the system. Based on the gradient descent optimization method, the sliding surface slope and gain updating factor has been developed in certain and partly uncertain continuum robots. This methodology is represented in certain and uncertain area whose only optimization for certain area and test this optimization for uncertainty. The new techniques proposed and methodologies adopted in this paper supported by MATLAB/SIMULINK results represent a significant contribution to the field of design an optimized nonlinear sliding mode controller for continuum robots.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of stair descent in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Tatsuya; Katsuhira, Junji

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics of patients with the knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) during stair descent and clarify the biomechanical factors related to their difficulty in stair descent. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy elderly persons and four knee OA patients participated in this study. A 3-D motion analysis system and force plates were employed to measure lower extremity joint angles, ranges of motion, joint moments, joint powers, and ratios of contribution for the joint powers while descending stairs. [Results] Knee joint flexion angle, extension moment, and negative power during the early stance phase in the knee OA group were smaller than those in the healthy subjects group. However, no significant changes in these parameters in the ankle joint were observed between the two subject groups. [Conclusion] Knee OA patients could not use the knee joint to absorb impact during the early stance phase of stair descent. Hence, they might compensate for the roles played by the intact knee joint by mainly using ipsilateral ankle kinematics and kinetics.

  8. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2011-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  9. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  10. The Cyclic Model Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, P J; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The Cyclic Model attempts to resolve the homogeneity, isotropy, and flatness problems and generate a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations during a period of slow contraction that precedes a bounce to an expanding phase. Here we describe at a conceptual level the recent developments that have greatly simplified our understanding of the contraction phase and the Cyclic Model overall. The answers to many past questions and criticisms are now understood. In particular, we show that the contraction phase has equation of state w>1 and that contraction with w>1 has a surprisingly similar properties to inflation with w < -1/3. At one stroke, this shows how the model is different from inflation and why it may work just as well as inflation in resolving cosmological problems.

  11. Diagnosis of Cyclic Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study at Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, and Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, designed primarily to compare cost-effectiveness of three methods of management of cyclic vomiting cases, one group of patients received an extensive diagnostic evaluation, a second was treated with empiric antimigraine drugs for 2 months, and a third an upper GI series with small-bowel follow-through (UGI-SBFT plus empiric therapy.

  12. Geometry of Cyclic Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-18

    analysis of the equilibria based on linearization of the shape dynamics. In [10], the authors extend their analysis to incorporate feedback control...differentiable curves in R2, deriving our dynamics from the natural Frenet frame equations (see, e.g., [5] for details). (A three- dimensional analysis of...cyclic pursuit formulated in terms of the natural Frenet frame equations is a topic of ongoing work.) As is depicted in figure 1, we let ri denote the

  13. Mechanism of extracting palladium(Ⅱ) with cyclic sulfoxide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松平; 孟淑媛; 古国榜; 庄志强; 刘会冲

    2004-01-01

    The extraction ability of palladium( Ⅱ ) from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivatives-α-Dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-Oxide (DTMSO), α-octyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-Oxide (OTMSO) and α-butyl-tetrahydro-thiophene-1-Oxide (BTMSO) was investigated. The extracting efficiency of cyclic sulfoxide derivatives decreased with the increasing of acidity in the lower acidity, and the efficiency became stable with the change of acidity in the higher acidity. The extraction reaction of palladium( Ⅱ )with DTMSO is exothermic, and extraction reaction of pal-ladium( Ⅱ ) is endothermic when OTMSO or BTMSO were used as extracting reagents. The coordination number was studied by slope method. The results indicate that coordination number is 2, and the composition of complex is Pd is coordinated with both oxygen and sulfur atom in S=O group in sulfoxide derivatives.

  14. Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

  15. Designing fuzzy inference system based on improved gradient descent method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liquan; Shao Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of sampling data influences completeness of rule base so that extrapolating missing rules is very difficult. Based on data mining, a self-learning method is developed for identifying fuzzy model and extrapolating missing rules, by means of confidence measure and the improved gradient descent method. The proposed approach can not only identify fuzzy model, update its parameters and determine optimal output fuzzy sets simultaneously, but also resolve the uncontrollable problem led by the regions that data do not cover. The simulation results show the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach with the classical truck backer-upper control problem verifying.

  16. Unconstrained steepest descent method for multicriteria optimization on Riemmanian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, G C; Oliveira, P R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a steepest descent method with Armijo's rule for multicriteria optimization in the Riemannian context. The well definedness of the sequence generated by the method is guaranteed. Under mild assumptions on the multicriteria function, we prove that each accumulation point (if they exist) satisfies first-order necessary conditions for Pareto optimality. Moreover, assuming quasi-convexity of the multicriteria function and non-negative curvature of the Riemannian manifold, we prove full convergence of the sequence to a Pareto critical.

  17. [Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in patients of African descent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Morgana Lima e; Trevisam, Paula Grasiele Carvalho; Minicucci, Marcos; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Azevedo, Paula S

    2014-10-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is an endocrine emergency marked by recurrent attacks of muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia and thyrotoxicosis. Asiatic male patients are most often affected. On the other hand, African descents rarely present this disease. The case described shows an afrodescendant patient with hypokalemia and tetraparesis, whose diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was considered during this crisis. The THPP, although rare, is potentially lethal. Therefore, in cases of flaccid paresis crisis this diagnosis should always be considered, especially if associated with hypokalemia. In this situation, if no previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, this should also be regarded.

  18. Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/rho >> 1 (where P is the average pressure and rho the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, thei...

  19. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: jlehners@princeton.edu

    2008-09-15

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/({rho}) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and {rho} the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures.

  20. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  1. Memory effects on descent from nuclear fission barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomietz, V M; Shlomo, S

    2001-01-01

    Non-Markovian transport equations for nuclear large amplitude motion are derived from the collisional kinetic equation. The memory effects are caused by the Fermi surface distortions and depend on the relaxation time. It is shown that the nuclear collective motion and the nuclear fission are influenced strongly by the memory effects at the relaxation time $\\tau \\geq 5\\cdot 10^{-23}{\\rm s}$. In particular, the descent of the nucleus from the fission barrier is accompanied by characteristic shape oscillations. The eigenfrequency and the damping of the shape oscillations depend on the contribution of the memory integral in the equations of motion. The shape oscillations disappear at the short relaxation time regime at $\\tau \\to 0$, which corresponds to the usual Markovian motion in the presence of friction forces. We show that the elastic forces produced by the memory integral lead to a significant delay for the descent of the nucleus from the barrier. Numerical calculations for the nucleus $^{236}$U shows that ...

  2. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-09-06

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Efficient Love wave modelling via Sobolev gradient steepest descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matt; Ferguson, John; McMechan, George

    2016-05-01

    A new method for finding solutions to ordinary differential equation boundary value problems is introduced, in which Sobolev gradient steepest descent is used to determine eigenfunctions and eigenvalues simultaneously in an iterative scheme. The technique is then applied to the 1-D Love wave problem. The algorithm has several advantages when computing dispersion curves. It avoids the problem of mode skipping, and can handle arbitrary Earth structure profiles in depth. For a given frequency range, computation times scale approximately as the square root of the number of frequencies, and the computation of dispersion curves can be implemented in a fully parallel manner over the modes involved. The steepest descent solutions are within a fraction of a per cent of the analytic solutions for the first 25 modes for a two-layer model. Since all corresponding eigenfunctions are computed along with the dispersion curves, the impact on group and phase velocity of the displacement behaviour with depth is thoroughly examined. The dispersion curves are used to compute synthetic Love wave seismograms that include many higher order modes. An example includes addition of attenuation to a model with a low-velocity zone, with values as low as Q = 20. Finally, a confirming comparison is made with a layer matrix method on the upper 700 km of a whole Earth model.

  4. An Impacting Descent Probe for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Lasi, D.; Thomas, N.; Piazza, D.; Galli, A.; Jutzi, M.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Magnes, W.; Lammer, H.; Auster, U.; Gurvits, L. I.; Hajdas, W.

    2017-08-01

    We present a study of an impacting descent probe that increases the science return of spacecraft orbiting or passing an atmosphere-less planetary bodies of the solar system, such as the Galilean moons of Jupiter. The descent probe is a carry-on small spacecraft (return to a mission at a low extra level of complexity, engineering effort, and risk. This study builds upon earlier studies for a Callisto Descent Probe for the former Europa-Jupiter System Mission of ESA and NASA, and extends them with a detailed assessment of a descent probe designed to be an additional science payload for the NASA Europa Mission.

  5. Fragmentations of protonated cyclic-glycylglycine and cyclic-alanylalanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shek, P. Y. I.; Lau, J. K. C.; Zhao, J. F.; Grzetic, J.; Verkerk, U. H.; Oomens, J.; Hopkinson, A. C.; Siu, K. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation has been used to study the fragmentations of two protonated diketopiperazines, protonated cyclic-glycylglycine and cyclic-alanylalanine. Protonated cyclo-AA lost CO and (CO + NH3) at low collision energies, channels attributed to dissociation of the O-protonated

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  7. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  8. Cyclic cohomology of Hopf algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2001-01-01

    We give a construction of ConnesMoscovicis cyclic cohomology for any Hopf algebra equipped with a character Furthermore we introduce a noncommutative Weil complex which connects the work of Gelfand and Smirnov with cyclic cohomology We show how the Weil complex arises naturally when looking at Hopf

  9. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  10. A guidance law for hypersonic descent to a point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, G.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, D.G. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1992-05-01

    A neighboring external control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, a neighboring optimal path computation about the nominal provides a lift and side-force perturbations necessary to achieve the target downrange and crossrange. On-line feedback simulations of the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation are compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring optimal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation. 8 refs.

  11. A guidance law for hypersonic descent to a point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, G.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Hull, D.G. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A neighboring external control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, a neighboring optimal path computation about the nominal provides a lift and side-force perturbations necessary to achieve the target downrange and crossrange. On-line feedback simulations of the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation are compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring optimal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation. 8 refs.

  12. A guidance law for hypersonic descent to a point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, G. R.; Hull, David G.

    1992-08-01

    A neighboring extremal control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, a neighboring optimal path computation about the nominal provides the lift and side-force perturbations necessary to achieve the target downrange and crossrange. On-line feedback simulations of the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation are compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring optimal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation.

  13. An approximate, maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, G. Richard; Hull, David G.

    A neighboring extremal control problem is formulated for a hypersonic glider to execute a maximum-terminal-velocity descent to a stationary target in a vertical plane. The resulting two-part, feedback control scheme initially solves a nonlinear algebraic problem to generate a nominal trajectory to the target altitude. Secondly, quadrature about the nominal provides the lift perturbation necessary to achieve the target downrange. On-line feedback simulations are run for the proposed scheme and a form of proportional navigation and compared with an off-line parameter optimization method. The neighboring extremal terminal velocity compares very well with the parameter optimization solution and is far superior to proportional navigation. However, the update rate is degraded, though the proposed method can be executed in real time.

  14. Sparse Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging Accelerated With Projected Steepest Descent Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2017-04-03

    An efficient electromagnetic inversion scheme for imaging sparse 3-D domains is proposed. The scheme achieves its efficiency and accuracy by integrating two concepts. First, the nonlinear optimization problem is constrained using L₀ or L₁-norm of the solution as the penalty term to alleviate the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. The resulting Tikhonov minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations (NLW). Second, the efficiency of the NLW is significantly increased using a steepest descent algorithm. The algorithm uses a projection operator to enforce the sparsity constraint by thresholding the solution at every iteration. Thresholding level and iteration step are selected carefully to increase the efficiency without sacrificing the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed imaging scheme in reconstructing sparse 3-D dielectric profiles.

  15. Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Architecture Study Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Polsgrove, Tara T.

    2016-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Architecture Study is a multi-NASA center activity to analyze candidate EDL systems as they apply to human Mars landing in the context of the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The study, led by the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), is performed in conjunction with the NASA's Science Mission Directorate and the Human Architecture Team, sponsored by NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The primary objective is to prioritize future STMD EDL technology investments by (1) generating Phase A-level designs for selected concepts to deliver 20 t human class payloads, (2) developing a parameterized mass model for each concept capable of examining payloads between 5 and 40 t, and (3) evaluating integrated system performance using trajectory simulations. This paper summarizes the initial study results.

  16. Hybrid Steepest-Descent Methods for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Ceng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a relaxed iterative algorithm by combining Korpelevich’s extragradient method, hybrid steepest-descent method, and Mann’s iteration method. We prove that, under appropriate assumptions, the proposed algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point set of infinitely many nonexpansive mappings, the solution set of finitely many generalized mixed equilibrium problems (GMEPs, the solution set of finitely many variational inclusions, and the solution set of general system of variational inequalities (GSVI, which is just a unique solution of a triple hierarchical variational inequality (THVI in a real Hilbert space. In addition, we also consider the application of the proposed algorithm for solving a hierarchical variational inequality problem with constraints of finitely many GMEPs, finitely many variational inclusions, and the GSVI. The results obtained in this paper improve and extend the corresponding results announced by many others.

  17. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  18. Steepest descent ballistic deposition of complex shaped particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-03-01

    We present an efficient event-driven algorithm for sequential ballistic deposition of complex-shaped rigid particles. Each of the particles is constructed from hard spheres (typically 5 … 1000) of variable radii. The sizes and relative positions of the spheres may mutually overlap and can be chosen such that the surface of the resulting particle appears relatively smooth. In the sequential deposition process, by performing steps of rolling and linear motion, the particles move along the steepest descent in a landscape formed by the boundaries and previously deposited particles. The computer time for the simulation of a deposition process depends on the total number of spheres but only weakly on the sizes and shapes of the particles. The proposed algorithm generalizes the Visscher-Bolsterli algorithm [1] which is frequently used for packing of spheres, to non-spherical particles. The proposed event-driven algorithm allows simulations of multi-million particle systems using desktop computers.

  19. On Belonging: The American Adolescent of Arab Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Lama Z

    2016-08-01

    Although American families of Arab origin come from 22 countries and from varied backgrounds and cultures, reports suggest that they suffer equally from acculturation stress, stereotyping, discrimination, and the reverberations of the aftermath of September 11 as well as global affairs. However, because children and adolescents from these families, particularly those who are newly arrived immigrants, tend to do well in school, they are rarely targeted by research or policy. This article uses the narratives of 5 middle school age male students from Arab descent who were in a support group that met for 3 years (2004-2007), beginning shortly after President George W. Bush's declaration of the war on the "axis of evil." I used vignettes from this group to illustrate the stressors this population faces. The final section suggests an option for supporting this population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bounding Regions to Plane Steepest Descent Curves of Quasiconvex Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Longinetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional steepest descent curves (SDC for a quasiconvex family are considered; the problem of their extensions (with constraints outside of a convex body K is studied. It is shown that possible extensions are constrained to lie inside of suitable bounding regions depending on K. These regions are bounded by arcs of involutes of ∂K and satisfy many inclusions properties. The involutes of the boundary of an arbitrary plane convex body are defined and written by their support function. Extensions SDC of minimal length are constructed. Self-contracting sets (with opposite orientation are considered: necessary and/or sufficient conditions for them to be subsets of SDC are proved.

  1. A Time-Space Diagram as Controller Support Tool for Closed Path Continuous Descent Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leege, A.M.P.; In 't Veld, A.C.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Tactical control during a closed-path Continuous Descent Operation stops the aircraft from following its optimized descent. To mitigate tactical control, air traffic controllers apply arbitrary large spacing buffers to account for the unpredictability of the aircraft trajectory from the controller’s

  2. The Role of la Familia for Women of Mexican Descent Who Are Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Sandra Gray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the role of "la familia" for women of Mexican descent as it relates to their development as leaders and their leadership in academia. Purposeful sampling was utilized to reach the goal of 18 participants who were female academic leaders of Mexican descent teaching full time in…

  3. Male sexual development in utero: testicular descent on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, S F; Nemec, U; Weber, M; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Krestan, C R; Rotmensch, S; Rimoin, D L; Graham, J M; Prayer, D

    2011-12-01

    To visualize in utero male fetal testicular descent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate it with gestational age. This retrospective study included 202 MRI examination results of 199 male fetuses (17-39 gestational weeks) with normal anatomy or minor congenital abnormalities, following suspicion of anomalies on prenatal ultrasound examination. Using a 1.5-Tesla unit, multiplanar T2-weighted sequences were applied using a standard protocol to image and identify the scrotal content. The relative frequencies of unilateral and bilateral testicular descent were calculated and correlated with gestational age. Between 17 and 25 gestational weeks, neither unilateral nor bilateral testicular descent was visualized on MRI. Testicular descent was first observed at 25 + 4 weeks, in 7.7% of cases. 12.5% of 27-week fetuses showed unilateral descent and 50% showed bilateral descent. Bilateral descent was observed in 95.7% of cases, on average, from 30 to 39 weeks. Our results chart the time course of testicular descent on prenatal MRI, which may be helpful in the identification of normal male sexual development and in the diagnosis of congenital abnormalities, including the early detection of cryptorchidism. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Ethnic Identity and Acculturative Stress as Mediators of Depression in Students of Asian Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantrip, Crystal; Mazzetti, Francesco; Grasso, Joseph; Gill, Sara; Miller, Janna; Haner, Morgynn; Rude, Stephanie; Awad, Germine

    2015-01-01

    This study underscored the importance of addressing the well-being of college students of Asian descent, because these students had higher rates of depression and lower positive feelings about their ethnic group compared with students of European descent, as measured by the Affirmation subscale of the Ethnic Identity Scale. Affirmation mediated…

  5. The Role of la Familia for Women of Mexican Descent Who Are Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Sandra Gray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the role of "la familia" for women of Mexican descent as it relates to their development as leaders and their leadership in academia. Purposeful sampling was utilized to reach the goal of 18 participants who were female academic leaders of Mexican descent teaching full time in…

  6. Development of the gubernaculum during testicular descent in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, T R; Buraundi, S; Farmer, P J; Balic, A; Newgreen, D; Southwell, B R; Hutson, J M

    2011-07-01

    Gubernacular elongation during inguinoscrotal testicular descent and cremaster muscle development remains poorly described in mammals. The role of the genitofemoral nerve (GFN) remains elusive. We performed detailed histological analysis of testicular descent in normal rats to provide a comprehensive anatomical description for molecular studies. Fetuses and neonatal male offspring (5-10 per group) from time-mated Sprague-Dawley dams (embryonic days 15, 16, and 19; postnatal days 0, 2, and 8) were prepared for histology. Immunohistochemistry was performed for nerves (Class III tubulin, Tuj1) and muscle (desmin). At embryonic days 15 and 16, the gubernaculum and breast bud are adjacent and both supplied by the GFN. By embryonic day 19, the breast bud has regressed and the gubernacular swelling reaction is completed. Postnatally, the gubernacular core regresses, except for a cranial proliferative zone. The cremaster is continuous with internal oblique and transversus abdominis. By postnatal day 2 (P2), the gubernaculum has everted, locating the proliferative zone caudally and the residual mesenchymal core externally. Eversion creates the processus vaginalis, with the everted gubernaculum loose in subcutaneous tissue but still remote from the scrotum. By P8, the gubernaculum has nearly reached the scrotum with fibrous connections attaching the gubernaculum to the scrotal skin. A direct link between GFN, gubernaculum, and breast bud suggests that the latter may be involved in gubernacular development. Second, the cremaster muscle is continuous with abdominal wall muscles, but most of its growth occurs in the distal gubernacular tip. Finally, gubernacular eversion at birth brings the cranial proliferative zone to the external distal tip, enabling gubernacular elongation similar to a limb bud.

  7. Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, A.; Kohz, P.; Reiser, M. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Anthuber, C.; Baron, A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic resonance colpocystorectography (MR-CCRG) is presented in the evaluation of patients with pelvic-floor disorders. Five healthy volunteers and 44 female patients with isolated or combined visceral descent underwent dynamic MRI and dynamic fluoroscopy (DF). MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image/1.2 s; in-plane resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers. Relevant organs, such as urethra, bladder, vagina, and rectum, were opacified by using a saline solution, Magnevist (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), and sonography gel, respectively. The clinical evaluation and the intraoperative results (30 cases) were used as reference. MR-CCRG and DF were non-diagnostic in 3 cases each. Most patients had a combined type of visceral prolapse, the most frequent combination being a vaginal vault prolapse and a cystocele. The points of reference were sufficiently outlined by DF and MR-CCRG. In comparison with the clinical and intraoperative results, MR-CCRG proved to be especially beneficial in the diagnosis of different types of enteroceles including a uterovaginal prolapse. MR-CCRG showed an equal or higher sensitivity and specificity for all individual sites when compared with DF. Also, predominant herniation obscuring other concomitant prolapse could be verified in 8 cases. MR-CCRG is superior to DF and accurately depicts pelvic-floor descent and prolapse in women. The possibility of dynamic presentation (see enclosed CD-ROM) allows for a better understanding of the organ movements within a given topographic reference setting. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  9. Cyclic $n$-gonal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, S Allen

    2010-01-01

    A cyclic $n$-gonal surface is a compact Riemann surface $X$ of genus $g\\geq 2$ admitting a cyclic group of conformal automorphisms $C$ of order $n$ such that the quotient space $X/C$ has genus 0. In this paper, we provide an overview of ongoing research into automorphism groups of cyclic $n$-gonal surfaces. Much of the paper is expository or will appear in forthcoming papers, so proofs are usually omitted. Numerous explicit examples are presented illustrating the computational methods currently being used to study these surfaces.

  10. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for a Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In-Situ Fabrication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASA’s Grand Challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase,...

  11. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  12. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  13. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piao, Yun-Song

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle...

  14. Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.

  15. Experimental constraints on the Skaergaard liquid line of descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thy, P.; Lesher, C. E.; Nielsen, T. F. D.; Brooks, C. K.

    2006-11-01

    New experimental information permits a forward approach to modeling the liquid line of descent of the Skaergaard intrusion. A series of melting experiments on chilled margins of evolved tholeiitic and ferrobasaltic dikes associated with the intrusion is, in combination with existing data, used to develop quantitative crystallization models that allow liquid and solid compositions to be predicted for initial magma compositions and crystallization conditions open or closed with respect to oxygen. The new experimental results comprise 6 experiments with melts coexisting with plagioclase and olivine, 29 experiments in addition containing augite, 14 experiments in addition containing ilmenite and/or magnetite, and 6 experiments in addition containing pigeonite and sometimes lacking olivine. All melting experiments were done at atmospheric pressure and with a furnace gas mostly controlled to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffer (FMQ). Using these experimental results, the melt evolution can be constrained for the layered series of the Skaergaard intrusion. Fractionation of a LZa troctolitic assemblage drives the residual liquid toward increasing iron with slight increase in silica. The appearance of augite as an abundant mineral phase in the LZb and the fractionation of a gabbroic assemblage adjust the liquid trend to one of slightly decreasing silica with continued strong increase in iron. Silica decline is principally dependent on the crystallization of augite and restricted to LZb. The appearance of Fe-Ti oxide minerals and the fractionation of Fe-Ti oxide gabbroic assemblages in LZc deflect the evolution trends of iron and silica. The modeling based on the experimental results suggests marked LZc-MZ silica enrichment concurrently with increasing iron content until upper MZ and thereafter relatively constant or slightly decreasing iron. The iron concentration level at which the deflection in iron and silica contents occurs is dependent on several factors of

  16. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiger, Nora Maria Elvira; Scaroni, Carla M; Mantero, Franco

    2007-11-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a disorder in which glucocorticoid levels are alternately normal and high, the latter occurring in episodes that can last from a few days to several months. It is more common in children than in adults. Cyclic CS may be either of the two different forms of CS (ACTH-dependent or -independent CS). Clinically, it may present with one or many symptoms, depending on the duration of disease activity and the timing of the fluctuations. A serotoninergic influence, cyclic changes in central dopaminergic tone, spontaneous episodic hemorrhage in the tumor, and the action of inflammatory cytokines with antitumor properties are some of the mechanisms suggested to explain the physiopathology of this phenomenon but the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The cyclic pattern of hypercortisolism can delay the final diagnosis of CS and make it difficult to interpret the results of dynamic tests. Patients may have paradoxical responses to dexamethasone that can reflect increasing or decreasing levels of endogenous activity. Hormone assessments have to be repeated periodically when a diagnosis of CS is suspected. The cyclic pattern can also interfere with medical treatment because patients may show unexpected clinical and biochemical signs of hypocortisolism when cortisol secretion cyclically returns to normal, so an accurate follow-up is mandatory in these patients.

  17. The structure of 3-(diethylborylethynyl)pyridine: a nonplanarly arranged cyclic trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Shigeharu; Kuse, Mitsumi; Kida, Aimi; Komeda, Seiji; Tatsumi, Kazuyuki; Sugihara, Yoshikazu

    2014-08-07

    3-(Diethylborylethynyl)pyridines 2 assemble into a cyclic trimer stabilized via intermolecular boron–nitrogen coordination bonds both in solution and in the crystalline state. The outstanding structural features of the methoxy derivative 2b in the crystalline state are that (1) two pyridine rings (P1 and P2) of the cyclic trimer of 2b are almost coplanar, and the third pyridine ring (P3) is largely bent away from P1 and P2, and (2) P3 of the cyclic trimer stacks in a face-to-face fashion with one of the pyridine rings (P3’) of an adjacent cyclic trimer. The crystallographic study revealed that the conformation of the cyclic trimer is flexible enough to be affected by the crystal packing.

  18. Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse and uterine descent in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, R J; den Boon, J; Kluivers, K B; Vierhout, M E; van Eijndhoven, H W F

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate current practice in the surgical treatment of uterine descent among members of the Dutch Urogynecological Society and to analyze possible trends in the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse in the Netherlands during the last decade. A questionnaire, including case scenarios, was sent to the members of the Dutch Urogynecological Society. Using a nationwide registry from the Netherlands, we assessed the number and type of surgical procedures performed for pelvic organ prolapse between 1997 and 2009. The response rate was 73%, with 161 questionnaires completed. Vaginal hysterectomy, sacrospinous hysteropexy, and the Manchester Fothergill procedure were the most frequently performed surgical interventions for uterine descent. In the case of lower stage uterine descent, uterus preservation was preferred, but in the case of higher stage there was wide variation. Two thirds of the respondents stated that in recent years they tended to save the uterus more often. The registered number of hospital admissions for uterine descent increased by 30% between 1997 and 2009 and the number of surgical procedures almost doubled. The number of vaginal hysterectomies performed because of uterine descent increased by only 15% in this period. In the Netherlands, surgical policy in the case of uterine descent is very variable, with no clear preference for either hysterectomy or uterus preservation. There was a high increase in hospital admissions and pelvic organ prolapse procedures in the last decade. The number of vaginal hysterectomies performed because of uterine descent did not follow this change, which reflects a trend toward preserving the uterus.

  19. When visuo-motor incongruence aids motor performance : the effect of perceiving motion structures during transformed visual feedback on bimanual coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, H; Buekers, MJ; Zaal, FT; Swinnen, SP

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which bimanual coordination tasks were performed under correct and transformed visual feedback conditions. Participants were to generate cyclical line-drawing patterns, with varying degrees of coordinative stability, while perceiving correct or transformed visual info

  20. Transitive oriented 3-Hypergraphs of cyclic orders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the definition of transitivity for oriented 3-hypergraphs in order to study partial and complete cyclic orders. This definition allow us to give sufficient conditions on a partial cyclic order to be totally extendable. Furthermore, we introduce the 3-hypergraph associated to a cyclic permutation and characterize it in terms of cyclic comparability 3-hypergraphs.

  1. Muscle coordination changes during intermittent cycling sprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Basset, Fabien A; Falgairette, Guy

    2005-06-03

    Maximal muscle power is reported to decrease during explosive cyclical exercises owing to metabolic disturbances, muscle damage, and adjustments in the efferent neural command. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of inter-muscle coordination in fatigue occurrence during 10 intermittent 6-s cycling sprints, with 30-s recovery through electromyographic activity (EMG). Results showed a decrease in peak power output with sprint repetitions (sprint 1 versus sprint 10: -11%, Pcycling sprints of short duration, decreased possibly due to the inability of muscles to maintain maximal force. This reduction in maximal power output occurred in parallel to changes in the muscle coordination pattern after fatigue.

  2. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  4. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  5. Enumerating Set Partitions According to the Number of Descents of Size or more

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toufik Mansour; Mark Shattuck; Chunwei Song

    2012-11-01

    Let (,) denote the set of partitions of $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ having exactly blocks. In this paper, we find the generating function which counts the members of (,) according to the number of descents of size or more, where ≥ 1 is fixed. An explicit expression in terms of Stirling numbers of the second kind may be given for the total number of such descents in all the members of (,). We also compute the generating function for the statistics recording the number of ascents of size or more and show that it has the same distribution on (,) as the prior statistics for descents when ≥ 2, by both algebraic and combinatorial arguments.

  6. An Optimized Method for Terrain Reconstruction Based on Descent Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xinchao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method is proposed to perform high-accuracy terrain reconstruction of the landing area of Chang’e III. First, feature matching is conducted using geometric model constraints. Then, the initial terrain is obtained and the initial normal vector of each point is solved on the basis of the initial terrain. By changing the vector around the initial normal vector in small steps a set of new vectors is obtained. By combining these vectors with the direction of light and camera, the functions are set up on the basis of a surface reflection model. Then, a series of gray values is derived by solving the equations. The new optimized vector is recorded when the obtained gray value is closest to the corresponding pixel. Finally, the optimized terrain is obtained after iteration of the vector field. Experiments were conducted using the laboratory images and descent images of Chang’e III. The results showed that the performance of the proposed method was better than that of the classical feature matching method. It can provide a reference for terrain reconstruction of the landing area in subsequent moon exploration missions.

  7. STS-40 descent BET products: Development and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Kevin F.; Wood, James S.; Findlay, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with observations from eleven C-band stations, to include data from the Kwajalein Atoll and the usual California coastal radars, as well as data from five cinetheodolite cameras in the vicinity of the runways at EAFB. The anchor epoch utilized for the trajectory reconstruction was 53,904 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) seconds which corresponds to an altitude at epoch of approximately 708 kft. Atmospheric data to enable development of an Extended BET for this mission were upsurped from the JSC operational post-flight BET. These data were evaluated based on Space Shuttle-derived considerations as well as model comparisons. The Aerodynamic BET includes configuration information, final mass properties, and both flight-determined and predicted aerodynamic performance estimates. The predicted data were based on the final pre-operational databook, updated to include flight determined incrementals based on an earlier ensemble of flights. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are presented and correlated versus statistical results based on twenty-two previous missions.

  8. Race, language, and mental evolution in Darwin's descent of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    Charles Darwin was notoriously ambiguous in his remarks about the relationship between human evolution and biological race. He stressed the original unity of the races, yet he also helped to popularize the notion of a racial hierarchy filling the gaps between the highest anthropoids and civilized Europeans. A focus on Darwin's explanation of how humans initially evolved, however, shows that he mainly stressed not hierarchy but a version of humanity's original mental unity. In his book The Descent of Man, Darwin emphasized a substantial degree of mental development (including the incipient use of language) in the early, monogenetic phase of human evolution. This development, he argued, necessarily came before primeval man's numerical increase, geographic dispersion, and racial diversification, because only thus could one explain how that group was able to spread at the expense of rival ape-like populations. This scenario stood opposed to a new evolutionary polygenism formulated in the wake of Darwin's Origin of Species by his ostensible supporters Alfred Russel Wallace and Ernst Haeckel. Darwin judged this outlook inadequate to the task of explaining humanity's emergence. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Architectures Study Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara T.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Landing humans on Mars will require entry, descent and landing (EDL) capability beyond the current state of the art. Nearly twenty times more delivered payload and an order of magnitude improvement in precision landing capability will be necessary. Several EDL technologies capable of meeting the human class payload delivery requirements are being considered. The EDL technologies considered include low lift-to-drag vehicles like Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD), Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), and mid range lift-to-drag vehicles like rigid aeroshell configurations. To better assess EDL technology options and sensitivities to future human mission design variations, a series of design studies has been conducted. The design studies incorporate EDL technologies with conceptual payload arrangements defined by the Evolvable Mars Campaign to evaluate the integrated system with higher fidelity than have been performed to date. This paper describes the results of the design studies for a lander design using the HIAD, ADEPT and rigid shell entry technologies and includes system and subsystem design details including mass and power estimates. This paper will review the point design for three entry configurations capable of delivering a 20 t human class payload to the surface of Mars.

  10. ExoMars Entry, Descent, and Landing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Özgür; Forget, Francois; Withers, Paul; Colombatti, Giacomo; Aboudan, Alessio; Lewis, Stephen; Ferri, Francesca; Van Hove, Bart; Gerbal, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Schiaparelli, the Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ESA ExoMars Program will to land on Mars on 19th October 2016. The ExoMars Atmospheric Mars Entry and Landing Investigations and Analysis (AMELIA) team seeks to exploit the Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) engineering measurements of Schiaparelli for scientific investigations of Mars' atmosphere and surface. ExoMars offers a rare opportunity to perform an in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. There has been only 7 successfully landing on the surface of Mars, from the Viking probes in the 1970's to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. ExoMars EDM is equipped with an instrumented heat shield like MSL. These novel flight sensors complement conventional accelerometer and gyroscope instrumentation, and provide additional information to reconstruct atmospheric conditions with. This abstract outlines general atmospheric reconstruction methodology using complementary set of sensors and in particular the use of surface pressure and radio data. In addition, we discuss the lessons learned from previous EDL and the plans for ExoMars AMELIA data analysis.

  11. Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  13. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  14. User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

  15. A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-arrival route environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    A conflict analysis was performed on multiple arrival traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate arrival operations using Denver Stapleton's arrival route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point times. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.

  16. MACV/Radio integrated navigation for Mars powered descent via robust desensitized central difference Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Taishan; Liu, Jie; Jin, Pan; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    An innovative integrated navigation scheme based on MCAV/Radio measurement information during Mars powered descent phase, and a robust desensitized central difference Kalman filter (DCDKF) for systems with uncertain parameters or biases are proposed to improve the navigation descent accuracy. Based on the altitude and velocity information of the Miniature Coherent Altimeter and Velocimeter (MCAV), the radio-range information is added into the integrated navigation system to correct the horizontal position error of the vehicle during the Mars powered descent phase. Based the central difference transform, the sensitivity propagation of the state estimate errors in the DCDKF is described, and a designed desensitized cost function is minimized to obtain the gain matrix of the DCDKF. The performances of the innovative navigation scheme and the proposed DCDKF are all demonstrated by two Monte Carlo simulations with the Inertial Measurement Unit biases during the Mars power descent phase.

  17. An Optimally Generalized Steepest-Descent Algorithm for Solving Ill-Posed Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the steepest-descent method converges normally at the first few iterations, and then it slows down. We modify the original steplength and descent direction by an optimization argument with the new steplength as being a merit function to be maximized. An optimal iterative algorithm with m-vector descent direction in a Krylov subspace is constructed, of which the m optimal weighting parameters are solved in closed-form to accelerate the convergence speed in solving ill-posed linear problems. The optimally generalized steepest-descent algorithm (OGSDA is proven to be convergent with very fast convergence speed, accurate and robust against noisy disturbance, which is confirmed by numerical tests of some well-known ill-posed linear problems and linear inverse problems.

  18. Genomic deletion of CNGB3 is identical by descent in multiple canine breeds and causes achromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Connie Y; Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V; Holley, Debbie; Knollinger, Amy M; Huson, Heather J; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E; Acland, Gregory M; Komáromy, András M

    2013-04-20

    Achromatopsia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the loss of cone photoreceptor function that results in day-blindness, total colorblindness, and decreased central visual acuity. The most common causes for the disease are mutations in the CNGB3 gene, coding for the beta subunit of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in cones. CNGB3-achromatopsia, or cone degeneration (cd), is also known to occur in two canine breeds, the Alaskan malamute (AM) and the German shorthaired pointer. Here we report an in-depth characterization of the achromatopsia phenotype in a new canine breed, the miniature Australian shepherd (MAS). Genotyping revealed that the dog was homozygous for a complete genomic deletion of the CNGB3 gene, as has been previously observed in the AM. Identical breakpoints on chromosome 29 were identified in both the affected AM and MAS with a resulting deletion of 404,820 bp. Pooled DNA samples of unrelated purebred Australian shepherd, MAS, Siberian husky, Samoyed and Alaskan sled dogs were screened for the presence of the affected allele; one Siberian husky and three Alaskan sled dogs were identified as carriers. The affected chromosomes from the AM, MAS, and Siberian husky were genotyped for 147 SNPs in a 3.93 Mb interval within the cd locus. An identical shared affected haplotype, 0.5 Mb long, was observed in all three breeds and defined the minimal linkage disequilibrium (LD) across breeds. This supports the idea that the mutated allele was identical by descent (IBD). We report the occurrence of CNGB3-achromatopsia in a new canine breed, the MAS. The CNGB3-deletion allele previously described in the AM was also observed in a homozygous state in the affected MAS, as well as in a heterozygous carrier state in a Siberian husky and Alaskan sled dogs. All affected alleles were shown to be IBD, strongly suggesting an affected founder effect. Since the MAS is not known to be genetically related to the AM, other breeds may potentially carry the

  19. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    /dynamic triaxial cell is overall constructed in the same way as the static triaxial cell at Aalborg University, but with the ability to apply any kind of load sequence to the test sample. When conducting cyclic triaxial tests, it is recommended that the manual is followed very tediously since there are many steps...... and if they are done improperly or in the wrong order there is a risk of destroying the test sample or obtaining invalid results.......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic...

  20. Optimal sliding guidance algorithm for Mars powered descent phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibben, Daniel R.; Furfaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Landing on large planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) with pinpoint accuracy presents a set of new challenges that must be addressed. One such challenge is the development of new guidance algorithms that exhibit a higher degree of robustness and flexibility. In this paper, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) optimal sliding guidance (OSG) scheme is applied to the Mars powered descent phase. This guidance algorithm has been specifically designed to combine techniques from both optimal and sliding control theories to generate an acceleration command based purely on the current estimated spacecraft state and desired final target state. Consequently, OSG yields closed-loop trajectories that do not need a reference trajectory. The guidance algorithm has its roots in the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance and its mathematical equations are naturally derived by defining a non-linear sliding surface as a function of the terms Zero-Effort-Miss and Zero-Effort-Velocity. With the addition of the sliding mode and using Lyapunov theory for non-autonomous systems, one can formally prove that the developed OSG law is globally finite-time stable to unknown but bounded perturbations. Here, the focus is on comparing the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance with the OSG law to explicitly demonstrate the benefits of the sliding mode augmentation. Results show that the sliding guidance provides a more robust solution in off-nominal scenarios while providing similar fuel consumption when compared to the non-sliding guidance command. Further, a Monte Carlo analysis is performed to examine the performance of the OSG law under perturbed conditions.

  1. Hopf cyclic cohomology and transverse characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Moscovici, Henri

    2010-01-01

    By refining the cyclic cohomological apparatus for computing the Hopf cyclic cohomology of the Hopf algebras associated to infinite primitive Cartan-Lie pseudogroup, we explicitly identify, as a Hopf cyclic complex, the image of the canonical homomorphism from the Gelfand-Fuks complex to the Bott complex for equivariant cohomology. Distinct from the original realization due to A. Connes and the first named author of the cyclic cohomology of such Hopf algebras as differentiable cyclic cohomology, this construction provides a convenient front-end model for their Hopf cyclic cohomology. Relying on it, we produce characteristic homomorphisms from newly developed models for Hopf cyclic characteristic classes to the cyclic cohomology of the convolution algebras of \\'etale holonomy groupoids, which in particular work in the relative case with no compactness restriction. As an illustration, we apply the latter feature to transfer the universal Hopf cyclic Chern classes found by us in a previous paper, and produce in ...

  2. Motor coordination: a local hub for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-03-31

    A local interneuron of a crayfish central pattern generator serves as a hub that integrates ascending and descending coordinating information and passes it on to a local oscillatory microcircuit to coordinate a series of segmental appendages known as swimmerets.

  3. An Impacting Descent Probe for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Lasi, D.; Thomas, N.; Piazza, D.; Galli, A.; Jutzi, M.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Magnes, W.; Lammer, H.; Auster, U.; Gurvits, L. I.; Hajdas, W.

    2017-08-01

    We present a study of an impacting descent probe that increases the science return of spacecraft orbiting or passing an atmosphere-less planetary bodies of the solar system, such as the Galilean moons of Jupiter. The descent probe is a carry-on small spacecraft (fast ( km/s) descent to the surface until impact. The science goals and the concept of operation are discussed with particular reference to Europa, including options for flying through water plumes and after-impact retrieval of very-low altitude science data. All in all, it is demonstrated how the descent probe has the potential to provide a high science return to a mission at a low extra level of complexity, engineering effort, and risk. This study builds upon earlier studies for a Callisto Descent Probe for the former Europa-Jupiter System Mission of ESA and NASA, and extends them with a detailed assessment of a descent probe designed to be an additional science payload for the NASA Europa Mission.

  4. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong, E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-08-09

    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.

  5. Recursive processing of cyclic graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Monica; Gori, Marco; Sarti, Lorenzo; Scarselli, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Recursive neural networks are a powerful tool for processing structured data. According to the recursive learning paradigm, the input information consists of directed positional acyclic graphs (DPAGs). In fact, recursive networks are fed following the partial order defined by the links of the graph. Unfortunately, the hypothesis of processing DPAGs is sometimes too restrictive, being the nature of some real-world problems intrinsically cyclic. In this paper, a methodology is proposed, which allows us to process any cyclic directed graph. Therefore, the computational power of recursive networks is definitely established, also clarifying the underlying limitations of the model.

  6. Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupiñán, Viviana

    2014-02-01

    We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

  7. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  8. Powers of Convex-Cyclic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando León-Saavedra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bounded operator T on a Banach space X is convex cyclic if there exists a vector x such that the convex hull generated by the orbit Tnxn≥0 is dense in X. In this note we study some questions concerned with convex-cyclic operators. We provide an example of a convex-cyclic operator T such that the power Tn fails to be convex cyclic. Using this result we solve three questions posed by Rezaei (2013.

  9. CYCLIC CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  10. CENTER CONDITIONS AND CYCLICITY FOR A FAMILY OF CUBIC SYSTEMS: COMPUTER ALGEBRA APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferčec, Brigita; Mahdi, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Using methods of computational algebra we obtain an upper bound for the cyclicity of a family of cubic systems. We overcame the problem of nonradicality of the associated Bautin ideal by moving from the ring of polynomials to a coordinate ring. Finally, we determine the number of limit cycles bifurcating from each component of the center variety.

  11. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  12. 40 CFR 721.2120 - Cyclic amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyclic amide. 721.2120 Section 721... Cyclic amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a cyclic amide (PMN P-92-131) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. The cyclic theory of Hopf algebroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.; Posthuma, H.

    2011-01-01

    We give a systematic description of the cyclic cohomology theory of Hopf alge\\-broids in terms of its associated category of modules. Then we introduce a dual cyclic homology theory by applying cyclic duality to the underlying cocyclic object. We derive general structure theorems for these theories

  14. The Cyclic Graph of a Finite Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Long Ma

    2013-01-01

    and characterize certain finite groups whose cyclic graphs have some properties. Then, we present some properties of the cyclic graphs of the dihedral groups D2n and the generalized quaternion groups Q4n for some n. Finally, we present some parameters about the cyclic graphs of finite noncyclic groups of order up to 14.

  15. A study on the composition and structure of cyclic sulfoxide derivative palladium(Ⅱ) complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Songping; GU Guobang; MENG Shuyuan

    2004-01-01

    The composition and structure of cyclic sulfoxide derivative Pd(Ⅱ) complex were investigated. The coordinated number was studied with slope method. The coordination number is 2 in lower acidity, but it is 3 in higher acidity. Four methods, UV (ultraviolet) spectra, FrIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra, 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)spectra, and 13C-NMR spectra, were used to determine the coordinated atom in complex. Pd is coordinated with O and S atom in S=O group in lower acidity media. The conversion of coordination bond appears with an increasing time. Pd is coordinated with S atom in S=O group in higher acidity media, and inter-ligand-transfer reaction occurs.

  16. Limitations of Radar Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  17. Bis(triphenylphosphine)silver(i) perrhenate, a cyclic dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiser, F; Kraus, F; Schmidbaur, H

    2015-04-21

    The 1 : 4 and 1 : 2 complexes of silver perrhenate and triphenylphosphine, [(Ph3P)4Ag](+) ReO4(-) and [(Ph3P)2AgReO4]2, have been prepared and their structures determined in the solid state by X-ray diffraction. The former is composed of independent ions, while in the latter the ions are aggregated into cyclic dimers. The silver centers are tetracoordinated including contact with two bridging perrhenate anions, setting this structure apart from that of its gold analogue [(Ph3P)2Au](+) ReO4(-) where the gold centers are strictly two-coordinate.

  18. Product Distribution Theory and Semi-Coordinate Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airiau, Stephane; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for doing distributed adaptive control of a multiagent system (MAS). We introduce the technique of "coordinate transformations" in PD theory gradient descent. These transformations selectively couple a few agents with each other into "meta-agents". Intuitively, this can be viewed as a generalization of forming binding contracts between those agents. Doing this sacrifices a bit of the distributed nature of the MAS, in that there must now be communication from multiple agents in determining what joint-move is finally implemented However, as we demonstrate in computer experiments, these transformations improve the performance of the MAS.

  19. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

  20. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Devesa, Susan S.; Chang, Bao-Li; Bunker, Clareann H.; Cheng, Iona; Cooney, Kathleen; Eeles, Rosalind; Fernandez, Pedro; Giri, Veda N.; Gueye, Serigne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Heyns, Chris F.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, William; Jalloh, Mohamed; John, Esther M.; Kibel, Adam S.; Kidd, LaCreis R.; Layne, Penelope; Leach, Robin J.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Okobia, Michael N.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Park, Jong Y.; Patrick, Alan L.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Ragin, Camille; Roberts, Robin A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara; Thompson, Ian M.; Witte, John; Xu, Jianfeng; Yeboah, Edward; Hsing, Ann W.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. PMID:23476788

  1. Does increasing step width alter knee biomechanics in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis patients during stair descent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare E; Klipple, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Research shows that one of the first complaints from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is difficulty in stair ambulation due to knee pain. Increased step width (SW) has been shown to reduce first and second peak internal knee abduction moments, a surrogate variable for medial compartment knee joint loading, during stair descent in healthy older adults. This study investigates the effects of increased step width (SW) on knee biomechanics and knee pain in medial compartment knee OA patients during stair descent. Thirteen medial compartment knee OA patients were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to obtain three-dimensional joint kinematics. An instrumented staircase was used to collect ground reaction forces (GRF). Participants performed stair descent trials at their self-selected speed using preferred, wide, and wider SW. Participants rated their knee pain levels after each SW condition. Increased SW had no effect on peak knee abduction moments and knee pain. Patients reported low levels of knee pain during all stair descent trials. The 2nd peak knee adduction angle and frontal plane GRF at time of 2nd peak abduction moment were reduced with increasing SW. The findings suggest that increases in SW may not influence knee loads in medial compartment knee OA patients afflicted with low levels of knee pain during stair descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Burden Descent Model for Burden Distribution in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHOU; Peng-yu SHI; Yan-po SONG; Kai-le TANG; Dong FU; Chenn QZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models for burden descending process have been applied to obtain whole burden structures in blast furnace,whereas the accuracy of those burden descent models has not been sufficiently investigated.Special evaluation method based on timeline burden profiles was established to quantitatively evaluate the error between ex-perimental and modeled burden structures.Four existing burden descent models were utilized to describe the burden structure of a 1/20 scaled warm blast furnace.Input modeling conditions including initial burden profile,descending volumes in each time interval,and normalized descending velocity distribution were determined via special image pro-cessing technology.Modeled burden structures were evaluated combined with the published experimental data.It is found that all the models caught the main profile of the burden structure.Furthermore,the improved nonuniform de-scent model (Model IV)shows the highest level of precision especially when burden descends with unstable velocity distribution tendency.Meanwhile,the traditional nonuniform descent model (Model III)may also be desirable to model the burden descending process when the burden descending velocity presents a linear tendency.Finally,the uni-form descent model (Model I)might be the first option for roughly predicting burden structure.

  3. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  4. Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Perdigão, Luís M A; Esmail, Ayad M S; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Anderson, Harry L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in template-directed synthesis make it possible to create artificial molecules with protein-like dimensions, directly from simple components. These synthetic macromolecules have a proclivity for self-organization that is reminiscent of biopolymers. Here, we report the synthesis of monodisperse cyclic porphyrin polymers, with diameters of up to 21 nm (750 C–C bonds). The ratio of the intrinsic viscosities for cyclic and linear topologies is 0.72, indicating that these polymers behave as almost ideal flexible chains in solution. When deposited on gold surfaces, the cyclic polymers display a new mode of two-dimensional supramolecular organization, combining encapsulation and nesting; one nanoring adopts a near-circular conformation, thus allowing a second nanoring to be captured within its perimeter, in a tightly folded conformation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that nesting occurs in combination with stacking when nanorings are deposited under vacuum, whereas when they are deposited directly from solution under ambient conditions there is stacking or nesting, but not a combination of both.

  5. A Block Coordinate Descent Method for Multi-Convex Optimization with Applications to Nonnegative Tensor Factorization and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    number of practical problems can be formulated in the form of (1.1) such as convex problems: (group) Lasso [64,74] or the basis pursuit ( denoising ) [15...K) ) ) 1 ν ≤ CN− 1−θ 2θ−1 , for sufficiently large C and N . This completes the proof. 21 REFERENCES [1] M. Aharon, M. Elad, and A. Bruckstein, K- SVD

  6. Cyclic modular beta-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S

    2007-03-07

    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  7. A Self-Contained and Easily Accessible Discussion of the Method of Descente Infinie and Fermat's Only Explicitly Known Proof by Descente Infinie

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Claus-Peter

    2009-01-01

    We present the only proof of Pierre Fermat by descente infinie that is known to exist today. We discuss descente infinie from the mathematical, logical, historical, linguistic, and refined logic-historical points of view. We provide the required preliminaries from number theory and present a self-contained proof in a modern form, which nevertheless is intended to follow Fermat's ideas as interpreted into the cited Latin original. We then annotate an English translation of Fermat's original proof with terms from the modern proof. Although the paper consists of reviews, compilations, and simple number theory with mainly pedagogical intentions, its gestalt is original and it fills a gap regarding the easy accessibility of the subject.

  8. Evolutionary analyses of non-genealogical bonds produced by introgressive descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Bouchard, Frédéric; Baquero, Fernando; McInerney, James O; Burian, Richard M

    2012-11-06

    All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we call introgressive descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit propagates into different host structures and is replicated within these host structures. Thus, introgressive descent generates a variety of evolutionary units and leaves recognizable patterns in resemblance networks. We characterize six kinds of evolutionary units, of which five involve mosaic lineages generated by introgressive descent. To facilitate detection of these units in resemblance networks, we introduce terminology based on two notions, P3s (subgraphs of three nodes: A, B, and C) and mosaic P3s, and suggest an apparatus for systematic detection of introgressive descent. Mosaic P3s correspond to a distinct type of evolutionary bond that is orthogonal to the bonds of kinship and genealogy usually examined by evolutionary biologists. We argue that recognition of these evolutionary bonds stimulates radical rethinking of key questions in evolutionary biology (e.g., the relations among evolutionary players in very early phases of evolutionary history, the origin and emergence of novelties, and the production of new lineages). This line of research will expand the study of biological complexity beyond the usual genealogical bonds, revealing additional sources of biodiversity. It provides an important step to a more realistic pluralist treatment of evolutionary complexity.

  9. Nonlinear System Identification Using Neural Networks Trained with Natural Gradient Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnkahla Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We use natural gradient (NG learning neural networks (NNs for modeling and identifying nonlinear systems with memory. The nonlinear system is comprised of a discrete-time linear filter followed by a zero-memory nonlinearity . The NN model is composed of a linear adaptive filter followed by a two-layer memoryless nonlinear NN. A Kalman filter-based technique and a search-and-converge method have been employed for the NG algorithm. It is shown that the NG descent learning significantly outperforms the ordinary gradient descent and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM procedure in terms of convergence speed and mean squared error (MSE performance.

  10. Ultime ballet aérien pour CMS : descente du bouchon YE-1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    La chorégraphie des bouchons de CMS s'est achevée le mardi 22 janvier avec la descente du plus lourd d'entre eux, le YE-1. Au terme de 10 heures d'une descente spectaculaire de 100 mètres, l'énorme pièce s'est doucement posée sur le sol de la caverne expérimentale de CMS, sous les applaudissements des nombreux spectateurs. Interview de Hubert Gerwig, l'ingénieur de CMS en charge du projet.

  11. Apollo 12 mission report: Descent, propulsion system final flight evaluation (supplement 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Barrows, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the Descent propulsion system (DPS) performance during the Apollo 12 Mission. The primary objective of the analysis was to determine the steady-state performance of the DPS during the descent phase of the manned lunar landing. This is a supplement ot the Apollo 12 Mission Report. In addition to further analysis of the DPS, this report brings together information from other reports and memorandums analyzing specific anomalies and performance in order to present a comprehensive description of the DPS operation during the Apollo 12 Mission.

  12. Optimal turning climb-out and descent of commercial jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal turning climb-out and descent flight-paths from and to runway headings are derived to provide the missing elements of a complete flight-path optimization for minimum fuel consumption. The paths are derived by generating a field of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control. Results show that the speed profiles for straight and turning flight are essentially identical, except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turn. The optimal turns, which require no abrupt maneuvers, could easily be integrated with present climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms.

  13. Interactions of disulfide-constrained cyclic tetrapeptides with Cu(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Luo, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Lidong; Jia, Liangyuan; Wu, Lifang

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the interactions of two disulfide-constrained cyclic tetrapeptides [c(Ac-Cys-Pro-Phe-Cys-NH(2)), SS1; c(Ac-Cys-Pro-Gly-Cys-NH(2)), SS2] with Cu(2+) ions in order to facilitate the design of cyclic peptides as sensors for metal ions. The Cu(2+)-peptide complex cations at m/z 569.1315 for Cu(2+)-SS1 and m/z 479.0815 for Cu(2+)-SS2 were detected by mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentation of the Cu(2+)-peptide complexes was studied by collision-induced dissociation and suggests the atoms involved in the coordination. Cu(2+) ion binds to a single SS1 or SS2 with K (d(app)) of 0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.55 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate both enthalpic and entropic contributions for the binding of Cu(2+) ion to SS1 and SS2. The characteristic wavenumber of 947 cm(-1) and the changes at 1,664 and 1,530 cm(-1) in the infrared spectrum suggest that the sulfydryl of cysteine, the carbonyl group, and amide II are involved in the coordination of Cu(2+). The X-ray absorption near-edge structure signal from the Cu(2+)-peptide complex corresponds to the four-coordination structure. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure and electron paramagnetic resonance results demonstrate the Cu(2+) ion is in an S/N/2O coordination environment, and is a distinct type II copper center. Theoretical calculations further demonstrate that Cu(2+) ion binds to SS1 or SS2 in a slightly distorted tetragonal geometry with an S/N/2O environment and the minimum potential energy.

  14. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  15. The cyclical component factor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Hansen, Henrik; Smidt, John

    Forecasting using factor models based on large data sets have received ample attention due to the models' ability to increase forecast accuracy with respect to a range of key macroeconomic variables in the US and the UK. However, forecasts based on such factor models do not uniformly outperform...... the simple autoregressive model when using data from other countries. In this paper we propose to estimate the factors based on the pure cyclical components of the series entering the large data set. Monte Carlo evidence and an empirical illustration using Danish data shows that this procedure can indeed...

  16. Cyclic voltammetry of supported BLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgasova, Renata; Sabo, Jan; Ottova, Angelica L.; Tien, H. T.

    1996-06-01

    The transfer of an electron across a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) is one of the BLMs most exciting processes. A number of well known electron mediators have been investigated using the method of cyclic voltammetry on a Teflon coated platinum wire, the tip of which has been modified by a self-assembled bilayer lipid membrane (s-BLM). The electrical capacitance of the s-BLM system was measured as a function of frequency. The results are discussed in terms of electron transfer and redox reactions.

  17. Movement and Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Movement and Coordination Page Content Article Body At this age, your ... level will strengthen his body and develop his coordination. In the months ahead, your child’s running will ...

  18. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001533.htm Developmental coordination disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental coordination disorder is a childhood disorder. It leads to ...

  19. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  20. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  1. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based…

  2. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  3. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  4. Smart-Divert Powered Descent Guidance to Avoid the Backshell Landing Dispersion Ellipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Acikmese, Behcet

    2013-01-01

    A smart-divert capability has been added into the Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) software originally developed for Mars pinpoint and precision landing. The smart-divert algorithm accounts for the landing dispersions of the entry backshell, which separates from the lander vehicle at the end of the parachute descent phase and prior to powered descent. The smart-divert PDG algorithm utilizes the onboard fuel and vehicle thrust vectoring to mitigate landing error in an intelligent way: ensuring that the lander touches down with minimum- fuel usage at the minimum distance from the desired landing location that also avoids impact by the descending backshell. The smart-divert PDG software implements a computationally efficient, convex formulation of the powered-descent guidance problem to provide pinpoint or precision-landing guidance solutions that are fuel-optimal and satisfy physical thrust bound and pointing constraints, as well as position and speed constraints. The initial smart-divert implementation enforced a lateral-divert corridor parallel to the ground velocity vector; this was based on guidance requirements for MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) landings. This initial method was overly conservative since the divert corridor was infinite in the down-range direction despite the backshell landing inside a calculable dispersion ellipse. Basing the divert constraint instead on a local tangent to the backshell dispersion ellipse in the direction of the desired landing site provides a far less conservative constraint. The resulting enhanced smart-divert PDG algorithm avoids impact with the descending backshell and has reduced conservatism.

  5. Showing up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience among Students of Mexican Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests…

  6. Precision of methods for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, A.C.; Pong Wong, R.; Windig, J.J.; Woolliams, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, deterministic method (DET) based on a recursive algorithm and a stochastic method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for calculating identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices conditional on multiple markers were compared using stochastic simulation. Precision was measured by the mean squared

  7. Three-step relaxed hybrid steepest-descent methods for variational inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The classical variational inequality problem with a Lipschitzian and strongly monotone operator on a nonempty closed convex subset in a real Hilbert space is studied.A new three-step relaxed hybrid steepest-descent method for this class of variational inequalities is introduced. Strong convergence of this method is establishe d under suitable assumptions imposed on the algorithm parameters.

  8. Block-Based Gradient Descent for Local Backlight Dimming and Flicker Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Mantel, Claire; Nadernejad, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Local backlight dimming technology is a two-fold improvement for LED backlit LCD screens that allows to reduce power consumption and increase visual quality. This paper presents a fast version of an iterative backlight dimming algorithm based on gradient descent search. The speed is increased...

  9. Forward stair descent with hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis: Single case study demonstrating feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Kobetic, Rudi; Audu, Musa L; Schnellenberger, John R; Pinault, Gilles; Triolo, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to negotiate stairs is important for community access and independent mobility but requires more effort and strength than level walking. For this reason, previous attempts to utilize functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to restore stair navigation after spinal cord injury (SCI) have had limited success and are not readily generalizable. Stair descent is particularly challenging because it requires energy absorption via eccentric muscle contractions, a task not easily accomplished with FNS. This article presents the design and initial testing of a hybrid neuroprosthesis with a variable impedance knee mechanism (VIKM-HNP) for stair descent. Using a 16-channel percutaneous FNS system, a muscle activation pattern was synthesized to descend stairs with the VIKM-HNP in a step-by-step fashion. A finite state control system was implemented to deactivate knee extensor stimulation and utilize the VIKM-HNP to absorb energy and regulate descent speed. Feasibility testing was performed on one individual with complete thoracic-level SCI. Stair descent was achieved with maximum upper-limb forces of less than 45% body weight compared with previously reported value of 70% with FNS only. The experiments also provided insight into design requirements for future hybrid systems for stair navigation, the implications of which are discussed.

  10. Predictors of energy cost during stair ascent and descent in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Janaine Cunha; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine which clinical measures of walking performance and lower limb muscle strength would predict energy cost during stair ascent and descent in community-dwelling individuals with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Regression analysis of cross-sectional data from 55 individuals between one and five years post-stroke was used to investigate the measures of walking (speed and distance covered during the 6-minute walk test [6MWT]), and strength of the paretic knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor muscles would predict energy cost during stair ascent and descent. [Results] Three predictors (habitual walking speed, distance covered during the 6MWT, and strength of the paretic knee extensor muscles) were kept in the model. Habitual walking speed alone explained 47% of the variance in energy cost during stair ascent and descent. When the strength of the paretic knee extensor muscles was included in the model, the explained variance increased to 53%. By adding the distance covered during the 6MWT, the variance increased to 58%. [Conclusion] Habitual walking speed, distance covered during the 6MWT, and strength of the paretic knee extensor muscles were significant predictors of energy cost during stair ascent and descent in individuals with mild walking limitations.

  11. A Wind Tunnel Study on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Lander Descent Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, J. Francisco; Coquilla, Rachael V.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Seiff, Alvin; Rivell, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Mars Pathfinder lander local pressure readings in accordance with the actual ambient atmospheric pressures of Mars during parachute descent. In order to obtain good measurements, the plane of the lander pressure sensor opening should ideally be situated so that it is parallel to the freestream. However, due to two unfavorable conditions, the sensor was positioned in locations where correction factors are required. One of these disadvantages is due to the fact that the parachute attachment point rotated the lander's center of gravity forcing the location of the pressure sensor opening to be off tangent to the freestream. The second and most troublesome factor was that the lander descends with slight oscillations that could vary the amplitude of the sensor readings. In order to accurately map the correction factors required at each sensor position, an experiment simulating the lander descent was conducted in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Using a 115 scale model at Earth ambient pressures, the test settings provided the necessary Reynolds number conditions in which the actual lander was possibly subjected to during the descent. In the analysis and results of this experiment, the readings from the lander sensor were converted to the form of pressure coefficients. With a contour map of pressure coefficients at each lander oscillatory position, this report will provide a guideline to determine the correction factors required for the Mars Pathfinder lander descent pressure sensor readings.

  12. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  13. Holonomic Gradient Descent for the Fisher-Bingham Distribution on the $n$-dimensional Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, T; Nishiyama, K; Takayama, N

    2012-01-01

    We apply the holonomic gradient descent recently introduced in [7] to the maximal likelihood estimate (MLE) with respect to the Fisher-Bingham distribution on the $n$-dimensional sphere. We derive an integrable connection (a Pfaffian system) and a series expansion associated to the normalization constant. These enable us to solve some MLE problems up to $n=7$.

  14. Surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse and uterine descent in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detollenaere, R.J.; Boon, J. den; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate current practice in the surgical treatment of uterine descent among members of the Dutch Urogynecological Society and to analyze possible trends in the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse in the Netherlands during the last decade. METHODS: A

  15. Education by Any Means Necessary: Peoples of African Descent and Community-Based Pedagogical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…

  16. Genome-wide association study of kidney function decline in individuals of European descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorski, Mathias; Tin, Adrienne; Garnaas, Maija; McMahon, Gearoid M.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; Woodward, Marc; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert V.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Li, Man; Freudenberger, Paul; Hofer, Edith; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; de Boer, Ian H.; Li, Guo; Siscovick, David S.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Corre, Tanguy; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Olden, Matthias; Yang, Qiong; de Andrade, Mariza; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Turner, Stephen T.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Barlassina, Cristina; Cusi, Daniele; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Grallert, Harald; Meisinger, Christa; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Del Greco, M. Fabiola; Franke, Andre; Noethlings, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Coassin, Stefan; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Kronenberg, Florian; Paulweber, Bernhard; Aumann, Nicole; Endlich, Karlhans; Pietzner, Mike; Voelker, Uwe; Rettig, Rainer; Chouraki, Vincent; Helmer, Catherine; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Metzger, Marie; Stengel, Benedicte; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Raitakari, Olli; Johnson, Andrew; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Goessling, Wolfram; Kottgen, Anna; Kao, W. H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.; Boeger, Carsten A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16 cohor

  17. Genome-wide association study of kidney function decline in individuals of European descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gorski (Mathias); A. Tin (Adrienne); M. Garnaas (Maija); G.M. McMahon (Gearoid M.); A.Y. Chu (Audrey Y.); B. Tayo (Bamidele); C. Pattaro (Cristian); A. Teumer (Alexander); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); J. Chalmers (John); P. Hamet (Pavel); J. Tremblay (Johanne); M. Woodward (Mark); T. Aspelund (Thor); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.V. Smith (Albert V.); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); J.R. O´Connell; A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J. Coresh (Josef); M. Li (Man); P. Freudenberger (Paul); E. Hofer (Edith); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Mitchell (Paul); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); I.H. de Boer (Ian); G. Li (Guo); D.S. Siscovick (David); Z. Kutalik; T. Corre (Tanguy); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); J. Gupta (Jayanta); P.P. Kanetsky (Peter P.); S.J. Hwang; M. Olden (Matthias); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); M. de Andrade (Mariza); E.J. Atkinson (Elizabeth J.); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); S.T. Turner (Stephen); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); J. Ding (Jinhui); Y. Liu; C. Barlassina (Christina); D. Cusi (Daniele); E. Salvi (Erika); J.A. Staessen (Jan); P.M. Ridker (Paul); H. Grallert (Harald); C. Meisinger (Christa); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); B.K. Krämer (Bernhard K.); H. Kramer (Holly); S.E. Rosas (Sylvia E.); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); M. Fabiola Del Greco; A. Franke (Andre); U. Nöthlings (Ute); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan J L); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); P. Van Der Harst (Pim); A. Dehghan (Abbas); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); S. Sedaghat (Sanaz); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Coassin (Stefan); M. Haun (Margot); B. Kollerits (Barbara); F. Kronenberg (Florian); B. Paulweber (Bernhard); N. Aumann (Nicole); K. Endlich (Karlhans); M. Pietzner (Mike); U. Völker (Uwe); R. Rettig (Rainer); V. Chouraki (Vincent); C. Helmer (Catherine); J.-C. Lambert (Jean-Charles); M. Metzger (Marie); B. Stengel (Benedicte); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); O. Raitakari (Olli); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A. Parsa (Afshin); M. Bochud (Murielle); I.M. Heid (Iris); W. Goessling (Wolfram); A. K̈ttgen (Anna); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); C.A. Böger (Carsten)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially f

  18. The biosynthesis of cyclic carotenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R J; Britton, G; Goodwin, T W

    1967-10-01

    1. The incorporation of (3RS)-[2-(14)C,(4R)-4-(3)H(1)]mevalonic acid into various cyclic carotenes in the fruit of the tomato mutant delta has been studied. The results confirm our previous view that the alpha-ionone ring of alpha-carotene does not arise by isomerization of a beta-ionone residue, and show that the same is also true for the alpha-ionone ring of delta- and in-carotene and alpha-zeacarotene. 2. The incorporation of (3RS)-[2-(14)C,2-(3)H(2)]mevalonic acid into alpha- and beta-carotene in carrot roots has been studied. The results show that the beta-ionone ring of beta-carotene does not arise by isomerization of the alpha-ionone residue of alpha-carotene. 3. These experiments show that alpha- and beta-ionone rings in cyclic carotenes are formed independently, probably by elimination of different protons from the same carbonium ion intermediates.

  19. [Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.

  20. Cyclic Cohomology of the Weyl Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Willwacher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We give an explicit formula for symplectically basic representatives of the cyclic cohomology of the Weyl algebra. This paper can be seen as cyclic addendum to the paper by Feigin, Felder and Shoikhet, where the analogous Hochschild case was treated. As an application, we prove a generalization of a Theorem of Nest and Tsygan concerning the relation of the Todd class and the cyclic cohomology of the differential operators on a complex manifold.

  1. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  2. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan VOICU; Li, Mengran

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive...

  3. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  4. Mapping of Surface and Shallow Subsurface Signatures in the CONSERT Data during the Descent of Philae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettemeier, Dirk; Statz, Christoph; Hahnel, Ronny; Hegler, Sebastian; Kofman, Wlodek; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Pasquero, Pierre; Zine, Sonia; Ciarletti, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    The primary scientific objective of the Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) aboard Rosetta is the characterization of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko's deep interior dielectric properties. This was done during the first science sequence (FSS) by means of bi-static radio propagation measurements between the the CONSERT instrument aboard lander Philae launched onto the comet's surface and its counterpart aboard the Rosetta orbiter. In addition to the FSS measurements, CONSERT was operated during the separation and descent of Philae onto the 67P/C-G's surface. The received CONSERT signal during the SDL consists of the direct propagation between Rosetta and Philae and indirect reflections of 67P/C-G's surface. Using the peak power measurements in the dominant direct path between Rosetta and Philae during the descent we were able to reconstruct the lander's attitude and estimate the spin rate of the lander along its descent trajectory. The deployment of the lander legs and CONSERT antennas as well as the orbiter change of attitude in order to orient the science towards the assumed lander position are visible in the measured CONSERT data as well. The information gained on Philae's attitude is used in the estimation of 67P/C-G's surface and near subsurface dielectric properties. Information on the surface of 67P/C-G are contained in the data during roughly the last third of the descent of Philae onto the comet's surface. The surface signatures in the measured data are mapped to the location of origin on 67P/C-G's surface. The results from the mapping process show good spatial diversity along the descent track of Philae necessary for the estimation of the dielectric properties of prominent features in the CONSERT SDL data.

  5. Coordination pattern adaptability: energy cost of degenerate behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    Full Text Available This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: 'freely-chosen', 'maximal glide' and 'minimal glide'. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under 'maximal glide' compared to 'freely-chosen' instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05. In the 'minimal glide' condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05. These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal.

  6. Cell reorientation under cyclic stretching

    CERN Document Server

    Livne, Ariel; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical cues from the extracellular microenvironment play a central role in regulating the structure, function and fate of living cells. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the mechanisms and processes underlying this crucial cellular mechanosensitivity remains a fundamental open problem. Here we provide a novel framework for addressing cellular sensitivity and response to external forces by experimentally and theoretically studying one of its most striking manifestations -- cell reorientation to a uniform angle in response to cyclic stretching of the underlying substrate. We first show that existing approaches are incompatible with our extensive measurements of cell reorientation. We then propose a fundamentally new theory that shows that dissipative relaxation of the cell's passively-stored, two-dimensional, elastic energy to its minimum actively drives the reorientation process. Our theory is in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete temporal reorientation dynamics of individual cells, measu...

  7. Effects of increased step width on frontal plane knee biomechanics in healthy older adults during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare E; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Peak internal knee abduction moment is a common surrogate variable associated with medial compartment knee loading. Stair descent has been shown to yield a greater peak knee abduction moment compared to level-walking. Changes in step width (SW) may lead to changes in frontal plane lower extremity limb alignment in the frontal plane and alter peak knee abduction moment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increased SW on frontal plane knee biomechanics during stair descent in healthy older adults. Twenty healthy adults were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to obtain three-dimensional lower limb kinematics during testing. An instrumented 3-step staircase with two additional customized wooden steps was used to collect ground reaction forces (GRF) data during stair descent trials. Participants performed five stair descent trials at their self-selected speed using preferred, wide (26% leg length), and wider (39% leg length) SW. The preferred normalized SW in older adults during stair descent was 20% of leg length. Wide and wider SW during stair descent reduced both first and second peak knee adduction angles and abduction moments compared to preferred SW in healthy adults. Increased SW reduced peak knee adduction angles and abduction moments. The reductions in knee abduction moments may have implications in reducing medial compartment knee loads during stair descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclic electrophoretic and chromatographic separation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Berg, van den Albert; Manz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A review is given of the application of cyclic analytical methods in capillary electroseparation (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) systems. Cyclic methods have been used since the early sixties in chromatographic systems to overcome pressure limitations to resolution. From the early nineties on th

  9. Cyclicality in Losses on Bank Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Keijsers (Bart); B.F. Diris (Bart); H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cyclicality in the losses of bank loans is important for bank risk management. Because loans have a different risk profile than bonds, evidence of cyclicality in bond losses need not apply to loans. Based on unique data we show that the default rate and loss given defau

  10. Cyclic malyl anthocyanins in Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, M; Koshioka, M; Yoshida, H; Kan, Y; Fukui, Y; Koike, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-12-01

    3,5-Di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) pelargonidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate and a previously reported cyanidin equivalent, 3,5-di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) cyanidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate were identified from petals of deep pink and red-purple flower cultivars of Dianthus caryophyllus, respectively.

  11. Nonparametric Interference Suppression Using Cyclic Wiener Filtering: Pulse Shape Design and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass Benjebbour

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the future, there will be a growing need for more flexible but efficient utilization of radio resources. Increased flexibility in radio transmission, however, yields a higher likelihood of interference owing to limited coordination among users. In this paper, we address the problem of flexible spectrum sharing where a wideband single carrier modulated signal is spectrally overlapped by unknown narrowband interference (NBI and where a cyclic Wiener filter is utilized for nonparametric NBI suppression at the receiver. The pulse shape design for the wideband signal is investigated to improve the NBI suppression capability of cyclic Wiener filtering. Specifically, two pulse shaping schemes, which outperform existing raised cosine pulse shaping schemes even for the same amount of excess bandwidth, are proposed. Based on computer simulation, the interference suppression capability of cyclic Wiener filtering is evaluated for both the proposed and existing pulse shaping schemes under several interference conditions and over both AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels.

  12. Nonparametric Interference Suppression Using Cyclic Wiener Filtering: Pulse Shape Design and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjebbour Anass

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the future, there will be a growing need for more flexible but efficient utilization of radio resources. Increased flexibility in radio transmission, however, yields a higher likelihood of interference owing to limited coordination among users. In this paper, we address the problem of flexible spectrum sharing where a wideband single carrier modulated signal is spectrally overlapped by unknown narrowband interference (NBI and where a cyclic Wiener filter is utilized for nonparametric NBI suppression at the receiver. The pulse shape design for the wideband signal is investigated to improve the NBI suppression capability of cyclic Wiener filtering. Specifically, two pulse shaping schemes, which outperform existing raised cosine pulse shaping schemes even for the same amount of excess bandwidth, are proposed. Based on computer simulation, the interference suppression capability of cyclic Wiener filtering is evaluated for both the proposed and existing pulse shaping schemes under several interference conditions and over both AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels.

  13. Products in Hopf-Cyclic Cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaygun, Atabey

    2007-01-01

    We construct several pairings in Hopf-cyclic cohomology of (co)module (co)algebras with arbitrary coefficients. The key ideas instrumental in constructing these pairings are the derived functor interpretation of Hopf-cyclic and equivariant cyclic (co)homology, and the Yoneda interpretation of Ext-groups. As a special case of one of these pairings, we recover the Connes-Moscovici characteristic map in Hopf-cyclic cohomology. We also prove that this particular pairing, along with few others, would stay the same if we replace the derived category of (co)cyclic modules with the homotopy category of (special) towers of $X$-complexes, or the derived category of mixed complexes.

  14. Enhanced time overcurrent coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, Arturo Conde; Martinez, Ernesto Vazquez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Apdo. Postal 114-F, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, we recommend a new coordination system for time overcurrent relays. The purpose of the coordination process is to find a time element function that allows it to operate using a constant back-up time delay, for any fault current. In this article, we describe the implementation and coordination results of time overcurrent relays, fuses and reclosers. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory test situation using signals of a power electrical system physics simulator. (author)

  15. Haptic feedback helps bipedal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen, Eefje G J; Bosga, Jurjen; Rosenbaum, David A; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Hullegie, Wim; van Cingel, Robert; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether special haptic or visual feedback would facilitate the coordination of in-phase, cyclical feet movements of different amplitudes. Seventeen healthy participants sat with their feet on sliding panels that were moved externally over the same or different amplitudes. The participants were asked to generate simultaneous knee flexion-extension movements, or to let their feet be dragged, resulting in reference foot displacements of 150 mm and experimental foot displacements of 150, 120, or 90 mm. Four types of feedback were given: (1) special haptic feedback, involving actively following the motions of the sliders manipulated by two confederates, (2) haptic feedback resulting from passive motion, (3) veridical visual feedback, and (4) enhanced visual feedback. Both with respect to amplitude assimilation effects, correlations and standard deviation of relative phase, the results showed that enhanced visual feedback did not facilitate bipedal independence, but haptic feedback with active movement did. Implications of the findings for movement rehabilitation contexts are discussed.

  16. Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

  17. The cage effect on assembly of cyclic-bis-(zinc porphyrin) with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An inclusion complex of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin) 1 with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin derivative 3 has been designed and constructed. The complex formation is induced by Zn-N coordination, and is robust (Kassoc ~ 106 L/mol) due to the presence of the cage effect of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin). The cage-like complex as an entity is stable enough, and also convenient to achieve relative movement between the bis(zinc porphyrin) host and the dipyridylporphyrin guest connected by Zn-N coordination. The characteristics of these assemblies have been demonstrated by 1 H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectra. The results show its potential applications as a molecular gyroscope in molecular machines.

  18. The cage effect on assembly of cyclic-bis(zinc porphyrin) with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ZaiChun; ZHU YiZhou; ZHENG JianYu

    2009-01-01

    An inclusion complex of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin) 1 with 5,15-dipyridylporphyrin derivative 3 has been designed and constructed.The complex formation is induced by Zn-N coordination,and is robust (Kassoc ~ 106 L/mol) due to the presence of the cage effect of cyclic bis(zinc porphyrin).The cage-like complex as an entity is stable enough,and also convenient to achieve relative movement between the bis(zinc porphyrin) host and the dipyridylporphyrin guest connected by Zn-N coordination.The characteristics of these assemblies have been demonstrated by 1 H NMR,UV-vis,and fluorescence spectra.The results show its potential applications as a molecular gyroscope in molecular machines.

  19. Three-dimensional sparse electromagnetic imaging accelerated by projected steepest descent

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2016-11-02

    An efficient and accurate scheme for solving the nonlinear electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on three-dimensional sparse investigation domains is proposed. The minimization problem is constructed in such a way that the data misfit between measurements and scattered fields (which are expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast) is constrained by the contrast\\'s first norm. The resulting minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations accelerated using a steepest descent algorithm. A projection operator is applied at every iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint by thresholding the result of that iteration. Steepest descent algorithm ensures accelerated and convergent solution by utilizing larger iteration steps selected based on a necessary B-condition.

  20. Caste-, work-, and descent-based discrimination as a determinant of health in social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Social epidemiology explores health in the context of broad social determinants of health, where the boundary lines between health and politics appear increasingly blurred. Social determinants of health such as caste, discrimination, and social exclusion are inherently political in nature, hence it becomes imperative to look at health through a broader perspective of political philosophy, ideology, and caste that imposes enormous obstacles to a person's full attainment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. Caste is descent based and hereditary in nature. It is a characteristic determined by one's birth into a particular caste, irrespective of the faith practiced by the individual. Caste denotes a system of rigid social stratification into ranked groups defined by descent and occupation. Under various caste systems throughout the world, caste divisions also dominate in housing, marriage, and general social interaction divisions that are reinforced through the practice and threat of social ostracism, economic boycotts, and even physical violence-all of which undermine health equality.

  1. Reactions to secondhand smoke by nonsmokers of Korean descent: clash of cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Suzanne C; Usita, Paula M; Hovell, Melbourne F; Richard Hofstetter, C

    2011-08-01

    Koreans hail from a culture where men's smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure were the norm. Little is known about how nonsmokers of Korean descent respond to smokers in the United States. In 2007-2008, trained moderators conducted eight focus groups with nonsmokers (n = 47) of Korean descent in San Diego. Participants discussed their personal experiences and views concerning SHS. Most participants detected SHS quickly and disliked the smell. Their reactions differed by gender, age, and how well they knew the smoker. Reactions ranged from passive (e.g., tolerating SHS or staring) to assertive (moving or asking the smoker to stop smoking). Younger participants were more tolerant than older participants. Participants appeared caught between two cultures. Despite high awareness, they struggled with how to avoid SHS in a manner befitting of their social status and Korean values. Culturally sensitive programs are needed for immigrants such as Koreans in the United States.

  2. Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

  3. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, David W.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multibody computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

  5. Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, David W.; Davis, J. L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multi-body computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

  6. New Scaled Sufficient Descent Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Solving Unconstraint Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas v Y.A. Bayati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The scaled hybrid Conjugate Gradient (CG algorithm which usually used for solving non-linear functions was presented and was compared with two standard well-Known NAG routines, yielding a new fast comparable algorithm. Approach: We proposed, a new hybrid technique based on the combination of two well-known scaled (CG formulas for the quadratic model in unconstrained optimization using exact line searches. A global convergence result for the new technique was proved, when the Wolfe line search conditions were used. Results: Computational results, for a set consisting of 1915 combinations of (unconstrained optimization test problems/dimensions were implemented in this research making a comparison between the new proposed algorithm and the other two similar algorithms in this field. Conclusion: Our numerical results showed that this new scaled hybrid CG-algorithm substantially outperforms Andrei-sufficient descent condition (CGSD algorithm and the well-known Andrei standard sufficient descent condition from (ACGA algorithm.

  7. [The individual and integral effects of brief simulated descents and anesthetic pharmacological preparations on human metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatova, N V; Buravkova, L B

    1999-01-01

    In short-term chamber (GVK-250) "descents" by three healthy male volunteers mechanisms of hyperbaric narcosis against high partial pressures of indifferent nitrogen and argon were compared with anesthetic ketamine and sibason. Clinical biochemistry was engaged to determine any possible changes in metabolism due to the "descents" up to 0.4-0.6 MPa. Cubital vein blood was sampled prior to and following decompression. Plasma spectrophotometry was performed using biochemical analyzer EPAC-6140 (Eppendorf, Germany) and standard sets of reagents by Raichem (USA) and Biocon (Germany). On the whole, shifts in albumin, total protein, uric acid, lactate, and the creatine kinase activity were found to be within the physiological norm. However, several cases of excursion outside the boundaries of the clinical norm (A/T, AT, lactate dehydrogenase, triglycerides, lipase) could be associated with changes in the functional state of the liver caused by administration of the anesthetics during the hyperbaric exposure.

  8. Identity-by-descent mapping in a Scandinavian multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlind, Helga; Imrell, Kerstin; Ramanujam, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to map chromosomal regions carrying rare gene variants contributing to the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), we identified segments shared identical-by-descent (IBD) using the software BEAGLE 4.0's refined IBD analysis. IBD mapping aims at identifying segments inherited from a common...... ancestor and shared more frequently in case-case pairs. A total of 2106 MS patients of Nordic origin and 624 matched controls were genotyped on Illumina Human Quad 660 chip and an additional 1352 ethnically matched controls typed on Illumina HumanHap 550 and Illumina 1M were added. The quality control left...... a total of 441 731 markers for the analysis. After identification of segments shared by descent and significance testing, a filter function for markers with low IBD sharing was applied. Four regions on chromosomes 5, 9, 14 and 19 were found to be significantly associated with the risk for MS. However, all...

  9. The descent of ant: field-measured performance of gliding ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Yonatan; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Koehl, M A R; Dudley, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Gliding ants avoid predatory attacks and potentially mortal consequences of dislodgement from rainforest canopy substrates by directing their aerial descent towards nearby tree trunks. The ecologically relevant measure of performance for gliding ants is the ratio of net horizontal to vertical distance traveled over the course of a gliding trajectory, or glide index. To study variation in glide index, we measured three-dimensional trajectories of Cephalotes atratus ants gliding in natural rainforest habitats. We determined that righting phase duration, glide angle, and path directness all significantly influence variation in glide index. Unsuccessful landing attempts result in the ant bouncing off its target and being forced to make a second landing attempt. Our results indicate that ants are not passive gliders and that they exert active control over the aerodynamic forces they experience during their descent, despite their apparent lack of specialized control surfaces. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The 4-D descent trajectory generation techniques under realistic operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley has been conducting and sponsoring research in airborne energy management for a number of years. During the course of this research, two fundamental techniques for the generation of 4D (fixed time) descent trajectories have emerged as viable candidates for advanced flight management systems. The first technique utilizes speed schedules of constant Mach number transitioning to constant calibrated airspeed chosen empirically to produce minimum fuel usage. The second technique computes cost optimized speed schedules of variable airspeed developed through application of optimal control theory. Both techniques have been found to produce reasonable and flyable descent trajectories. The formulation of the algorithms for each technique is evaluated and their suitability for operations in realistic conditions is discussed. Operational factors considered include: airplace speed, thrust, and altitude rate constaints; wind, temperature, and pressure variations; Air Traffic Control altitude, speed, and time constaints; and pilot interface and guidance considerations. Time flexibility, fuel usage, and airborne computational requirements were the primary performance measures.

  11. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  12. Convergence of inexact descent methods for nonconvex optimization on Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, G C; Oliveira, P R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an abstract convergence analysis of inexact descent methods in Riemannian context for functions satisfying Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz inequality. In particular, without any restrictive assumption about the sign of the sectional curvature of the manifold, we obtain full convergence of a bounded sequence generated by the proximal point method, in the case that the objective function is nonsmooth and nonconvex, and the subproblems are determined by a quasi distance which does not necessarily coincide with the Riemannian distance. Moreover, if the objective function is $C^1$ with $L$-Lipschitz gradient, not necessarily convex, but satisfying Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz inequality, full convergence of a bounded sequence generated by the steepest descent method is obtained.

  13. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at N

  14. Coordination Networks Based on Boronate and Benzoxaborolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive range of investigations on boronic acids (R-B(OH2, some aspects of their reactivity still need to be explored. This is the case for the coordination chemistry of boronate anions (R-B(OH3−, which has only recently been started to be studied. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the key features of boronate ligands (and of their cyclic derivatives, benzoxaborolates in materials: (i coordination properties; (ii spectroscopic signatures; and (iii emerging applications.

  15. Descent polynomials for k bubble-sortable permutations of type B

    CERN Document Server

    Hyatt, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the work of Chung, Claesson, Dukes, and Graham, we define a natural type B analog of the classic bubble sort, and use it to define a type B analog of the maximum drop statistic. We enumerate (by explicit, recursive, and generating function formulas) signed permutations with r type B descents and type B maximum drop at most k. We also find a connection between these signed permutations and certain 2-colored juggling sequences.

  16. STS-35 Pilot Gardner with descent checklist on OV-102's forward flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner, wearing his launch and entry suit (LES), reviews descent checklist while at the pilots station on the forward flight deck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Crewmembers are conducting procedures related to the final stages of the mission and the landing sequence. Silhouetted in forward windows W4 and W5 are the head up display (HUD), flight mirror assembly, and a drinking water bag with straw.

  17. Performance-Based Adaptive Gradient Descent Optimal Coefficient Fuzzy Sliding Mode Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Rezaie; Arman Jahed; Bamdad Boroomand; Farzin Piltan

    2012-01-01

    Design a nonlinear controller for second order nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems is the main challenge in this paper. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of a chattering free Mamdani’s fuzzy-based tuning gradient descent optimal error-based fuzzy sliding mode controller for highly nonlinear dynamic six degrees of freedom robot manipulator, in presence of uncertainties. Conversely, pure sliding mode controller is used in many applications; it has two important drawbacks namely; c...

  18. Fast alternating projected gradient descent algorithms for recovering spectrally sparse signals

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Myung

    2016-06-24

    We propose fast algorithms that speed up or improve the performance of recovering spectrally sparse signals from un-derdetermined measurements. Our algorithms are based on a non-convex approach of using alternating projected gradient descent for structured matrix recovery. We apply this approach to two formulations of structured matrix recovery: Hankel and Toeplitz mosaic structured matrix, and Hankel structured matrix. Our methods provide better recovery performance, and faster signal recovery than existing algorithms, including atomic norm minimization.

  19. Gradient descent approach for minimizing dissimilarity measure in log-polarimagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-jun; JIANG You-yi

    2006-01-01

    Log-polar mapping has been proposed as a very appropriate space-variant imaging model in active vision applications.There is no doubt about the importance of translation estimation in active visual tracking.In this paper an approach is presented,and its performances are evaluated.The approach uses a gradient descent for minimizing a dissimilarity measure.The experimental results reveal that this method is efficient for approaching active image translations.

  20. MR Imaging in Diagnosis of Pelvic Floor Descent: Supine versus Sitting Position

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Iacobellis; Antonio Brillantino; Adolfo Renzi; Luigi Monaco; Nicola Serra; Beatrice Feragalli; Aniello Iacomino; Luca Brunese; Salvatore Cappabianca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Functional disorders of the pelvic floor represent have a significant impact on the quality of life. The advent of open-configuration systems allowed for the evaluation of defecation with MR imaging in sitting position. The purpose of the present study is to compare the results of static and dynamic pelvic MR performed in supine position versus sitting position, using a new MR prototype machine, in the diagnosis of pelvic floor descent. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one patients...

  1. Natural Gradient Descent for Training Stochastic Complex-Valued Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Nitta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the natural gradient descent method for the multilayer stochastic complex-valued neural networks is considered, and the natural gradient is given for a single stochastic complex-valued neuron as an example. Since the space of the learnable parameters of stochastic complex-valued neural networks is not the Euclidean space but a curved manifold, the complex-valued natural gradient method is expected to exhibit excellent learning performance.

  2. A Neural Network MLSE Receiver Based on Natural Gradient Descent: Application to Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnkahla Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE receiver for satellite communications. The satellite channel model is composed of a nonlinear traveling wave tube (TWT amplifier followed by a multipath propagation channel. The receiver is composed of a neural network channel estimator (NNCE and a Viterbi detector. The natural gradient (NG descent is used for training. Computer simulations show that the performance of our receiver is close to the ideal MLSE receiver in which the channel is perfectly known.

  3. [Radiation sterilization of units of a Mars descent module--a miniature meteorological station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, D V; Trofimov, V I; Aleksashkin, S N; Khamidullina, N M; Novikova, N D; Deshevaia, E A; Polikarpov, N A

    2010-01-01

    Subject of the test was a procedure of electron sterilization of Mars descent module units. As a result, data on distribution of absorbed dose field across the surface and by the entire volume of the mockup of a miniature meteorological station (MMS) were obtained In addition, electron sterilization technology was developed and the range of absorbed dose from electron radiation that will sterilize reliably packaged MMS hardware were defined in the interval from 30 to 40 kGy.

  4. A High-Heritage Blunt-Body Entry, Descent, and Landing Concept for Human Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Humphrey; Manning, Robert; Sklyanskiy, Evgeniy; Braun, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Human-scale landers require the delivery of much heavier payloads to the surface of Mars than is possible with entry, descent, and landing (EDL) approaches used to date. A conceptual design was developed for a 10 m diameter crewed Mars lander with an entry mass of approx.75 t that could deliver approx.28 t of useful landed mass (ULM) to a zero Mars areoid, or lower, elevation. The EDL design centers upon use of a high ballistic coefficient blunt-body entry vehicle and throttled supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP). The design concept includes a 26 t Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) that could support a crew of 2 for approx.24 days, a crew of 3 for approx.16 days, or a crew of 4 for approx.12 days. The MAV concept is for a fully-fueled single-stage vehicle that utilizes a single pump-fed 250 kN engine using Mono-Methyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen (MON-25) propellants that would deliver the crew to a low Mars orbit (LMO) at the end of the surface mission. The MAV concept could potentially provide abort-to-orbit capability during much of the EDL profile in response to fault conditions and could accommodate return to orbit for cases where the MAV had no access to other Mars surface infrastructure. The design concept for the descent stage utilizes six 250 kN MMH/MON-25 engines that would have very high commonality with the MAV engine. Analysis indicates that the MAV would require approx.20 t of propellant (including residuals) and the descent stage would require approx.21 t of propellant. The addition of a 12 m diameter supersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (SIAD), based on a proven flight design, was studied as an optional method to improve the ULM fraction, reducing the required descent propellant by approx.4 t.

  5. Performance-Based Adaptive Gradient Descent Optimal Coefficient Fuzzy Sliding Mode Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Design a nonlinear controller for second order nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems is the main challenge in this paper. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of a chattering free Mamdani’s fuzzy-based tuning gradient descent optimal error-based fuzzy sliding mode controller for highly nonlinear dynamic six degrees of freedom robot manipulator, in presence of uncertainties. Conversely, pure sliding mode controller is used in many applications; it has two important drawbacks namely; chattering phenomenon and nonlinear equivalent dynamic formulation in uncertain dynamic parameter. In order to solve the uncertain nonlinear dynamic parameters, implement easily and avoid mathematical model base controller, Mamdani’s performance/error-based fuzzy logic methodology with two inputs and one output and 49 rules is applied to pure sliding mode controller. Pure sliding mode controller and error-based fuzzy sliding mode controller have difficulty in handling unstructured model uncertainties. To solve this problem applied fuzzy-based tuning method to error-based fuzzy sliding mode controller for adjusting the sliding surface gain. Since the sliding surface gain is adjusted by gradient descent optimization method. Fuzzy-based tuning gradient descent optimal error-based fuzzy sliding mode controller is stable model-free controller which eliminates the chattering phenomenon without to use the boundary layer saturation function. Lyapunov stability is proved in fuzzy-based tuning gradient descent optimal fuzzy sliding mode controller based on switching (sign function. This controller has acceptable performance in presence of uncertainty (e.g., overshoot=0%, rise time=0.8 second, steady state error = 1e-9 and RMS error=1.8e-12.

  6. Estimation of heritability from limited family data using genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ødegård Jørgen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In classical pedigree-based analysis, additive genetic variance is estimated from between-family variation, which requires the existence of larger phenotyped and pedigreed populations involving numerous families (parents. However, estimation is often complicated by confounding of genetic and environmental family effects, with the latter typically occurring among full-sibs. For this reason, genetic variance is often inferred based on covariance among more distant relatives, which reduces the power of the analysis. This simulation study shows that genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing among close relatives can be used to quantify additive genetic variance solely from within-family variation using data on extremely small family samples. Methods Identity-by-descent relationships among full-sibs were simulated assuming a genome size similar to that of humans (effective number of loci ~80. Genetic variance was estimated from phenotypic data assuming that genomic identity-by-descent relationships could be accurately re-created using information from genome-wide markers. The results were compared with standard pedigree-based genetic analysis. Results For a polygenic trait and a given number of phenotypes, the most accurate estimates of genetic variance were based on data from a single large full-sib family only. Compared with classical pedigree-based analysis, the proposed method is more robust to selection among parents and for confounding of environmental and genetic effects. Furthermore, in some cases, satisfactory results can be achieved even with less ideal data structures, i.e., for selectively genotyped data and for traits for which the genetic variance is largely under the control of a few major genes. Conclusions Estimation of genetic variance using genomic identity-by-descent relationships is especially useful for studies aiming at estimating additive genetic variance of highly fecund species, using data from small

  7. Extraction of gold, palladium, and platinum from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songping Wu; Guobang Gu

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) from the acidic media with the cyclic sulfoxide derivative of a-dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (dtmso) was investigated. Gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) could be separated from the acidic media with suitable sulfoxide concentration and acidity. The extraction reaction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is exothermic when dtmso is used as an extracting reagent. The coordination number was studied by the slope method. The results indicate that, in high acidity, the dtmso coordination number for extracting gold (Ⅲ) or palladium (Ⅱ) is 3, and that for platinum (Ⅳ) is 2. UV and FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of the complex. Gold (Ⅲ) is coordinated with the oxygen atom in S=O group in dtmso, and palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is coordinated with the sulfur atom in S=O group in dtmso.

  8. Self-calibration rank filter for unknown dynamic inputs mitigation during the Mars powered descent phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Fu, Huimin; Deng, Zhibao; Bai, Huanxu; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Mingyi

    2017-07-01

    Advanced navigation systems for pinpoint landing are required in the entry, descent and landing phase of future missions to Mars. To overcome the horizontal position estimation problem in the Mars powered descent phase, the inertial measurement unit, Doppler radar and surface beacon integrated navigation scheme is proposed, and a conventional filter such as an extended or unscented Kalman filter is adopted. However, in engineering practice, these conventional filters for nonlinear systems with unknown dynamic inputs may degrade or even diverge. The lack of navigation accuracy may result in a large growth of spurious navigations. To solve this problem, based on the rank filter, a self-calibration rank filter is proposed for state estimation of a nonlinear system to mitigate the effects of unknown dynamic inputs. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the self-calibration rank filter for the Mars powered descent navigation. The self-calibration rank filter not only prevents the divergence of the filtering but also significantly improves the state estimation accuracy.

  9. Abduction-adduction moments at the knee during stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalk, D L; Duncan, J A; Vaughan, C L

    1996-03-01

    To examine the relative magnitude of the knee abduction-adduction moments during stair climbing, ten normal subjects (average weight 660 N, leg length 0.962 m, height 1.74 m) were studied during repeated trials of stair ascent and descent. Data were collected using a four-camera video system and two forces plates incorporated within a flight of three stairs. The inverse dynamics approach was used to calculate internal moments at the knee, and these moments were normalized in magnitude (to percent body weight and leg length) and time (percent stance). The primary findings were: (1) knee joint moments were similar in shape and magnitude for the first and second steps during both stair ascent and descent; (2) the abduction knee moments, although comparable in magnitude (25-45 Nm), were statistically smaller than the extension moments (60-85 Nm) for stair ascent and descent; and (3) the moment patterns were exclusively abductor throughout stance, indicating that the ground reaction vector always passed medial to the knee joint center. Although the knee abduction-adduction moment is not in the primary plane of motion, its magnitude should not be ignored when trying to understand the stability and function of the knee during stair climbing.

  10. MR Imaging in Diagnosis of Pelvic Floor Descent: Supine versus Sitting Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Adolfo; Monaco, Luigi; Serra, Nicola; Feragalli, Beatrice; Iacomino, Aniello; Brunese, Luca; Cappabianca, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Functional disorders of the pelvic floor represent have a significant impact on the quality of life. The advent of open-configuration systems allowed for the evaluation of defecation with MR imaging in sitting position. The purpose of the present study is to compare the results of static and dynamic pelvic MR performed in supine position versus sitting position, using a new MR prototype machine, in the diagnosis of pelvic floor descent. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one patients with pelvic floor disorders were enrolled, and underwent MR Defecography in supine position with 1.5 T closed magnet (MAGNETOM Symphony, Siemens, Germany) and in sitting position with a 0.25-Tesla open magnet system (G-Scan ESAOTE, Italy). Results. In rest and squeezing phases, positions of bladder, vagina, and ARJ were significantly different when the patient was imaged in supine versus sitting position. In the defecation phase, a significant difference for the bladder and vagina position was detected between the two exams whereas a significant difference for the ARJ was not found. A statistically significant difference exists when the pelvic floor descent is evaluated in sitting versus supine position. Conclusion. Our results show that MR Defecography in sitting position may represent a useful tool to correctly diagnose and grade the pelvic organ descent. PMID:26880893

  11. MR Imaging in Diagnosis of Pelvic Floor Descent: Supine versus Sitting Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Iacobellis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Functional disorders of the pelvic floor represent have a significant impact on the quality of life. The advent of open-configuration systems allowed for the evaluation of defecation with MR imaging in sitting position. The purpose of the present study is to compare the results of static and dynamic pelvic MR performed in supine position versus sitting position, using a new MR prototype machine, in the diagnosis of pelvic floor descent. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one patients with pelvic floor disorders were enrolled, and underwent MR Defecography in supine position with 1.5 T closed magnet (MAGNETOM Symphony, Siemens, Germany and in sitting position with a 0.25-Tesla open magnet system (G-Scan ESAOTE, Italy. Results. In rest and squeezing phases, positions of bladder, vagina, and ARJ were significantly different when the patient was imaged in supine versus sitting position. In the defecation phase, a significant difference for the bladder and vagina position was detected between the two exams whereas a significant difference for the ARJ was not found. A statistically significant difference exists when the pelvic floor descent is evaluated in sitting versus supine position. Conclusion. Our results show that MR Defecography in sitting position may represent a useful tool to correctly diagnose and grade the pelvic organ descent.

  12. Modelling the descent of nitric oxide during the elevated stratopause event of January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Yvan J.; Limpasuvan, Varavut; Pérot, Kristell; Espy, Patrick; Hibbins, Robert; Lossow, Stefan; Raaholt Larsson, Katarina; Murtagh, Donal

    2017-03-01

    Using simulations with a whole-atmosphere chemistry-climate model nudged by meteorological analyses, global satellite observations of nitrogen oxide (NO) and water vapour by the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer instrument (SMR), of temperature by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), as well as local radar observations, this study examines the recent major stratospheric sudden warming accompanied by an elevated stratopause event (ESE) that occurred in January 2013. We examine dynamical processes during the ESE, including the role of planetary wave, gravity wave and tidal forcing on the initiation of the descent in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) and its continuation throughout the mesosphere and stratosphere, as well as the impact of model eddy diffusion. We analyse the transport of NO and find the model underestimates the large descent of NO compared to SMR observations. We demonstrate that the discrepancy arises abruptly in the MLT region at a time when the resolved wave forcing and the planetary wave activity increase, just before the elevated stratopause reforms. The discrepancy persists despite doubling the model eddy diffusion. While the simulations reproduce an enhancement of the semi-diurnal tide following the onset of the 2013 SSW, corroborating new meteor radar observations at high northern latitudes over Trondheim (63.4°N), the modelled tidal contribution to the forcing of the mean meridional circulation and to the descent is a small portion of the resolved wave forcing, and lags it by about ten days.

  13. Machado-Joseph disease in pedigrees of Azorean descent is linked to chromosome 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George-Hyslop, P. St.; McLachlan, D.R.C.; Lang, A.E.; Wherrett, J.R.; Rogaeva, E.; Tsuda, T.; Rogaev, E.I.; Liang, Y.; Huterer, J.; Kennedy, J. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada)) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    A locus for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) has recently been mapped to a 30-cM region of chromosome 14q in five pedigrees of Japanese descent. MJD is a clinically pleomorphic neurodegenerative disease that was originally described in subjects of Azorean descent. In light of the nonallelic heterogeneity in other inherited spinocerebellar ataxias, the authors were interested to determine if the MJD phenotype in Japanese and Azorean pedigrees arose from mutations at the same locus. They provide evidence that MJD in five pedigrees of Azorean descent is also linked to chromosome 14q in an 18-cM region between the markers D14S67 and AACT (multipoint lod score +7.00 near D14S81). They also report molecular evidence for homozygosity at the MJD locus in an MJD-affected subject with severe, early-onset symptoms. These observations confirm the initial report of linkage of MJD to chromosome 14; suggest that MJD in Japanese and Azorean subjects may represent allelic or identical mutations at the same locus; and provide one possible explanation (MJD gene dosage) for the observed phenotypic heterogeneity in this disease. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ni(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Mao; Tang, Liang; Shen, Jiaqi; Yang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2017-01-03

    A Ni(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic aldimines and ketimines is reported. Our tropos phosphine-oxazoline biphenyl ligand is crucial for the high catalytic activity, which coordinates to Ni(ii) to form a complex with a single axial configuration. The desired chiral amine products could be prepared with excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99.8%) under mild reaction conditions.

  15. Performance of the HTS bulk magnet in cryocooler system with cyclic temperature variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, K. [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: kouta@sum.sd.keio.ac.jp; Sawa, K. [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    We have proposed a new cryocooler system for the high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet. In this system, the cyclic temperature variations are generated. A change of magnetic trapped flux under the cyclic temperature variation is examined in detail. As a result, it has been found that the trapped flux mainly deteriorates at the first temperature rise, but it has been kept almost constant after the first temperature descent and following thermal cycles when the bulk is excited at 100 mT. Moreover it has been found that the change of the trapped flux at the excitation of 130 mT becomes same as the case of 100 mT. The deterioration at the first temperature rise can be explained by the Bean model, but we can find a difference between calculated results by the Bean model and experimental trapped flux distributions near the center of the bulk. Therefore, we take into consideration a two dimensional invasion of the magnetic field to explain the difference. Consequently calculated distributions of the trapped flux become in goal accordance with experimental ones.

  16. Cyclic Shearing Deformation Behavior of Saturated Clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The apparatus for static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear soil testing is employed to perform stress-controlled cyclic single-direction torsional shear tests and two-direction coupled shear tests under unconsolidated-undrained conditions. Through a series of tests on saturated clay, the effects of initial shear stress and stress reversal on the clay's strain-stress behavior are examined, and the behavior of pore water pressure is studied. The experimental results indicate that the patterns of stress-strain relations are distinctly influenced by the initial shear stress in the cyclic single-direction shear tests. When the initial shear stress is large and no stress reversal occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by an accumulative effect. When the initial shear stress is zero and symmetrical cyclic stress occurs, the predominant deformation behavior is characterized by a cyclic effect. The pore water pressure fluctuates around the confining pressure with the increase of cycle number. It seems that the fluctuating amplitude increases with the increase of the cyclic stress. But a buildup of pore water pressure does not occur. The deformations of clay samples under the complex initial and the cyclic coupled stress conditions include the normal deviatoric deformation and horizontal shear deformation, the average deformation and cyclic deformation. A general strain failure criterion taking into account these deformations is recommended and is proved more stable and suitable compared to the strain failure criteria currently used.

  17. Characterizing traits of coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2013-01-01

    How can one recognize coordination languages and technologies? As this report shows, the common approach that contrasts coordination with computation is intellectually unsound: depending on the selected understanding of the word "computation", it either captures too many or too few programming

  18. Coordination models and languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, G.A.; Arbab, F.

    1998-01-01

    A new class of models, formalisms and mechanisms has recently evolved for describing concurrent and distributed computations based on the concept of ``coordination''. The purpose of a coordination model and associated language is to provide a means of integrating a number of possibly heterogeneous c

  19. Team coordination dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J

    2010-07-01

    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.

  20. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  1. Social Postural Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  2. Social Postural Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  3. Hormonal control of gubernaculum development during testis descent: gubernaculum outgrowth in vitro requires both insulin-like factor and androgen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Emmen (Judith); A. McLuskey; I.M. Adham; W. Engel; J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe gubernaculum connects the gonad to the inguinoscrotal region and is involved in testis descent. It rapidly develops in the male fetus, whereas development in the female fetus is lacking. Possible factors involved in gubernaculum development are androgens

  4. Determinants of Adherence to Treatment in Hypertensive Patients of African Descent and the Role of Culturally Appropriate Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. Objective To identify patient-related determina

  5. Identification of a Major Locus for Paget's Disease on Chromosome 10p13 in Families of British Descent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas, Gavin JA; Riches, Phillip L; Hocking, Lynne J; Cundy, Tim; Nicholson, Geoff C; Walsh, John P; Ralston, Stuart H

    2008-01-01

    .... A major susceptibility locus for PDB was identified on chromosome 10p13 by a genome‐wide linkage scan in families of British descent, which accounted for the vast majority of cases not caused by SQSTM1 mutations. Introduction...

  6. General solution of cyclic Leibniz rule

    CERN Document Server

    Kadoh, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    We study the general solution of the cyclic Leibniz rule (CLR) which was recently proposed as a new approach to the lattice supersymmetry. Introducing some mathematical preliminaries associated with the cyclic symmetry, we find the general solution of the 2-body CLR for the naive symmetric difference operator. The main theorems of this paper state that the general solution can be uniquely expressed as (A) a linear combination of the two fundamental solutions with cyclic invariant coefficients, and (B) a linear combination of the minimal solutions with complex coefficients. Moreover, an extension to the general difference operators is also discussed.

  7. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning m...

  8. Cyclic Control Optimization for a Smart Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a method to determine cyclic control trajectories for a smart rotor undergoing periodic-deterministic load variations. The control trajectories result from a constrained optimization problem, where the cost function to minimize is given by the variation of the blade root flapwise...... bending moment within a rotor revolution. The method is applied to a rotor equipped with trailing edge flaps, and capable of individual blade pitching. Results show that the optimized cyclic control significantly alleviates the load variations from periodic disturbances; the combination of both cyclic...

  9. Correlation Between Echodefecography and 3-Dimensional Vaginal Ultrasonography in the Detection of Perineal Descent in Women With Constipation Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela M; Pinheiro Regadas, Francisco Sergio; Rodrigues, Lusmar V; da Silva Vilarinho, Adjra; Buchen, Guilherme; Borges, Livia Olinda; Veras, Lara B; da Cruz, Mariana Murad

    2016-12-01

    Defecography is an established method of evaluating dynamic anorectal dysfunction, but conventional defecography does not allow for visualization of anatomic structures. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of dynamic 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography for evaluating perineal descent in comparison with echodefecography (3-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography) and to study the relationship between perineal descent and symptoms and anatomic/functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted at a large university tertiary care hospital. Consecutive female patients were eligible if they had pelvic floor dysfunction, obstructed defecation symptoms, and a score >6 on the Cleveland Clinic Florida Constipation Scale. Each patient underwent both echodefecography and dynamic 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography to evaluate posterior pelvic floor dysfunction. Normal perineal descent was defined on echodefecography as puborectalis muscle displacement ≤2.5 cm; excessive perineal descent was defined as displacement >2.5 cm. Of 61 women, 29 (48%) had normal perineal descent; 32 (52%) had excessive perineal descent. Endovaginal ultrasonography identified 27 of the 29 patients in the normal group as having anorectal junction displacement ≤1 cm (mean = 0.6 cm; range, 0.1-1.0 cm) and a mean anorectal junction position of 0.6 cm (range, 0-2.3 cm) above the symphysis pubis during the Valsalva maneuver and correctly identified 30 of the 32 patients in the excessive perineal descent group. The κ statistic showed almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.86) between the 2 methods for categorization into the normal and excessive perineal descent groups. Perineal descent was not related to fecal or urinary incontinence or anatomic and functional factors (sphincter defects, pubovisceral muscle defects, levator hiatus area, grade II or III rectocele, intussusception, or anismus). The study did not include a

  10. Chemistry of stannylene-based Lewis pairs: dynamic tin coordination switching between donor and acceptor character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Kilian M; Freitag, Sarah; Schubert, Hartmut; Gerke, Birgit; Pöttgen, Rainer; Wesemann, Lars

    2015-03-16

    The coordination chemistry of cyclic stannylene-based intramolecular Lewis pairs is presented. The P→Sn adducts were treated with [Ni(COD)2] and [Pd(PCy3)2] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, PCy3 = tricyclohexylphosphine). In the isolated coordination compounds the stannylene moiety acts either as an acceptor or a donor ligand. Examples of a dynamic switch between these two coordination modes of the P-Sn ligand are illustrated and the structures in the solid state together with heteronuclear NMR spectroscopic findings are discussed. In the case of a Ni(0) complex, (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy of the uncoordinated and coordinated phosphastannirane ligand is presented.

  11. Cancer patterns among children of Turkish descent in Germany: A study at the German Childhood Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaatsch Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer risks of migrants might differ from risks of the indigenous population due to differences in socioeconomic status, life style, or genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate cancer patterns among children of Turkish descent in Germany. Methods We identified cases with Turkish names (as a proxy of Turkish descent among the 37,259 cases of childhood cancer registered in the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR during 1980–2005. As it is not possible to obtain reference population data for children of Turkish descent, the distribution of cancer diagnoses was compared between cases of Turkish descent and all remaining (mainly German cases in the registry, using proportional cancer incidence ratios (PCIRs. Results The overall distribution of cancer diagnoses was similar in the two groups. The PCIRs in three diagnosis groups were increased for cases of Turkish descent: acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (PCIR 1.23; CI (95% 1.02–1.47, Hodgkin's disease (1.34; 1.13–1.59 and Non-Hodgkin/Burkitt lymphoma (1.19; 1.02–1.39. Age, sex, and period of diagnosis showed no influence on the distribution of diagnoses. Conclusion No major differences were found in cancer patterns among cases of Turkish descent compared to all other cases in the GCCR. Slightly higher proportions of systemic malignant diseases indicate that analytical studies involving migrants may help investigating the causes of such cancers.

  12. The Descent of the Serpent: Using a Successful Ancient Solar Observatories Webcast from Chichen Itza to Highlight Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Higdon, R.; Cline, T.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past seven years, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education and public outreach events to highlight NASA's heliophysics research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial events, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus, as well as Sun-Earth Day during the March Equinox, to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium and other museums, Ideum, NASA TV, NASA heliophysics missions, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide and internationally. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. As part of an Ancient Observatories theme in 2005, we have successfully featured solar alignments with ancient structures made by indigenous cultures that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices in cultural and historical parks in the Americas. In partnership with the Exploratorium, we produced broadcast-quality and webcast programming during the March equinox that shared heliophysics within a broad cultural context with formal and informal education audiences internationally. The program: "Descent of the Serpent" featured the light and shadow effect at sunset that takes place during the spring equinox at the Pyramid of El Castillo, in Chichén Itzá (México). This program made unique and authentic cultural connections to the knowledge of solar astronomy of the Maya, the living Mayan culture of today, and the importance of the Sun across the ages. We involved Sun-Earth Connection scientists, their missions, and research

  13. Mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, A.; Darwin, D.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of the mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression was studied and a simple analytic model was developed to represent its cyclic behavior. Experimental work consisted of monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of mortar. Two mixes were used, with proportions corresponding to concretes having water cement ratios of 0.5 and 0.6. Forty-four groups of specimens were tested at ages ranging from 5 to 70 days. complete monotonic and cyclic stress strain envelopes were obtained. A number of loading regimes were investigated, including cycles to a constant maximum strain. Major emphasis was placed on tests using relatively high stress cycles. Degradation was shown to be a continuous process and a function of both total strain and load history. No stability or fatigue limit was apparent.

  14. The Permutation Groups and the Equivalence of Cyclic and Quasi-Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Guenda, Kenza

    2010-01-01

    We give the class of finite groups which arise as the permutation groups of cyclic codes over finite fields. Furthermore, we extend the results of Brand and Huffman et al. and we find the properties of the set of permutations by which two cyclic codes of length p^r can be equivalent. We also find the set of permutations by which two quasi-cyclic codes can be equivalent.

  15. Cyclic Voltammetry And Linear Sweep Voltammetry Study Of Cyclic Tertiary Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; TIAN JinPing; YIN YingWu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cyclic six membered a-aminonitrile have proved to be very versatile synthetic intermediates and have been widely used in the construction of a large number of indole alkaloids. In order to obtain some information about the mechanisn of electrochemical synthesis of aaminonitrile. Electrochemistry behaviors that include cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry of cyclic tertiary amines which including N-benzylpiperidine (NBP), 1-(l-Methoxycarbonyl ethyl) piperidine (MCEP), N-methylcarbonylppiperidine (NMCP), Nethylpiperidine(NEP) was studied.

  16. Cyclic Voltammetry And Linear Sweep Voltammetry Study Of Cyclic Tertiary Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Ping

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic six membered a-aminonitrile have proved to be very versatile synthetic intermediates and have been widely used in the construction of a large number of indole alkaloids. In order to obtain some information about the mechanisn of electrochemical synthesis of aaminonitrile. Electrochemistry behaviors that include cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry of cyclic tertiary amines which including N-benzylpiperidine (NBP), 1-(l-Methoxycarbonyl ethyl) piperidine (MCEP), N-methylcarbonylppiperidine (NMCP), Nethylpiperidine(NEP) was studied.……

  17. Uranyl ion coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.

    1963-01-01

    A review of the known crystal structures containing the uranyl ion shows that plane-pentagon coordination is equally as prevalent as plane-square or plane-hexagon. It is suggested that puckered-hexagon configurations of OH - or H2O about the uranyl group will tend to revert to plane-pentagon coordination. The concept of pentagonal coordination is invoked for possible explanations of the complex crystallography of the natural uranyl hydroxides and the unusual behavior of polynuclear ions in hydrolyzed uranyl solutions.

  18. Total synthesis of cyclic heptapeptide euryjanicin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Mei Zhang; Jun Xiang Guo; Liang Wang; Xiao Yun Chai; Hong Gang Hu; Qiu Ye Wu

    2011-01-01

    The first synthesis of the naturally occurring cyclic peptide euryjanicin B has been achieved. A general method was described to synthesize the cyclic peptide by a two-step solid-phase/solution synthesis strategy. All the amino acids in this study are L-configuration, The linear heptapeptide was assembled by standard Fmoc chemistry on solid-phase and subsequently cyclization was carried out by solution method.

  19. Cyclic Period in the CBE Model

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    In a cyclic entropy model in which the extroverse is jettisoned at turnaround with a Come Back Empty (CBE) assumption, we address matching of the contaction scale factor $\\hat{a}(t)=f(t_T){a}(t)$ to the expansion scale factor $a(t)$, where $f(t_T)$ is the ratio at turnaround of the introverse to extroverse radii. Such matching is necessary for infinite cyclicity and fixes the CBE period at $\\sim 2.6Ty$.

  20. Synthesis of Chiral Amino Cyclic Phosphoric Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chirai amino cyclic phosphoric acids, 5-amino-2-hydroxy-4- (4-nitrophenyl)-l, 3,2-dioxaphospho- rinane 2-oxide and 2-hydroxy-4- (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-5-phthalimido-1,3,2-dioxaphos phorinane 2-oxide are synthesized in good over yields (64. 2% and 72. 8% respectively) from 2-amino-l-aryl-l,3-propanediols. The different reaction conditions are necessary in hydrolysis reactions of amino cyclic phosphonyl chlorides.

  1. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides for plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-03-01

    Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources.

  2. Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wan Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources.

  3. Cyclic behaviors of amorphous shape memory polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Li, Hao; McClung, Amber J W; Tandon, Gyaneshwar P; Baur, Jeffery W; Qi, H Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Cyclic loading conditions are commonly encountered in the applications of shape memory polymers (SMPs), where the cyclic characteristics of the materials determine their performance during the service life, such as deformation resistance, shape recovery speed and shape recovery ratio. Recent studies indicate that in addition to the physical damage or some other irreversible softening effects, the viscoelastic nature could also be another possible reason for the degraded cyclic behavior of SMPs. In this paper, we explore in detail the influence of the viscoelastic properties on the cyclic tension and shape memory (SM) behavior of an epoxy based amorphous thermosetting polymer. Cyclic experiments were conducted first, which show that although the epoxy material does not have any visible damage or irreversible softening effect during deformation, it still exhibits obvious degradation in the cyclic tension and SM behaviors. A linear multi-branched model is utilized to assist in the prediction and understanding of the mechanical responses of amorphous SMPs. Parametric studies based on the applied model suggest that the shape memory performance can be improved by adjusting programming and recovery conditions, such as lowering the loading rate, increasing the programming temperature, and reducing the holding time.

  4. The evolution of Momordica cyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Mylne, Joshua S; Poth, Aaron G; Swedberg, Joakim E; Kaas, Quentin; Schaefer, Hanno; Craik, David J

    2015-02-01

    Cyclic proteins have evolved for millions of years across all kingdoms of life to confer structural stability over their acyclic counterparts while maintaining intrinsic functional properties. Here, we show that cyclic miniproteins (or peptides) from Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) seeds evolved in species that diverged from an African ancestor around 19 Ma. The ability to achieve head-to-tail cyclization of Momordica cyclic peptides appears to have been acquired through a series of mutations in their acyclic precursor coding sequences following recent and independent gene expansion event(s). Evolutionary analysis of Momordica cyclic peptides reveals sites that are under selection, highlighting residues that are presumably constrained for maintaining their function as potent trypsin inhibitors. Molecular dynamics of Momordica cyclic peptides in complex with trypsin reveals site-specific residues involved in target binding. In a broader context, this study provides a basis for selecting Momordica species to further investigate the biosynthesis of the cyclic peptides and for constructing libraries that may be screened against evolutionarily related serine proteases implicated in human diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M

    2016-01-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the...

  6. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  7. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  8. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  9. Some Structure Properties of the Cyclic Fuzzy Group Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hacl Akta(s); Naim (C)a(g)man

    2005-01-01

    In crisp environment, the notion of cyclic group on a set is well known. We study an extension of this classical notion to the fuzzy sets to define the concept of cyclic fuzzy subgroups. By using these cyclic fuzzy subgroups, we then define a cyclic fuzzy group family and investigate its structure properties.

  10. [Coordination and donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, J; Lorente, M

    2006-01-01

    The progressive incorporation of organ transplants as a therapeutic resource resulted in organisational adaptation and overall transplant management, leading to the emergence of the figure of the transplant coordinator in the mid-1980s. In Spain, the National Organisation of Transplants (Organización Nacional de Transplantes - ONT) was created, establishing a system - called the "Spanish model" - based on a network of coordinators at three levels: national, the autonomous community and the hospital. This organisational structure is a point of reference at the world level. The prevalence of the Intensive Medicine specialisation amongst hospital transplant coordinators is remarkable. The majority of organs proceed from brain-dead patients with beating hearts and this requires the infrastructure offered by intensive care units. The functions of the coordinator can be summarised in guaranteeing a synchrony of all the elements and teams that come together in an organisational chain that has come to be called the "process of donation". Schematically, the crucial points that the hospital coordinator develops are the following: - Detection of the potential donor. - Maintenance of the donor. - Diagnosis of brain death. - Family consent. - Preparation of the hospital logistics. - Helping the relatives. - Direct involvement in the Program of Guarantee of Quality. - Person of reference in any activity related to the transplant. It would be desirable to achieve the creation of transplant coordination teams, with univocal messages, professionalism and a permanent input of the so-called "human factor", which is so necessary and also so close to the transplant world.

  11. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  12. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  13. Aluminum Alkyl Complexes Bearing Salicylaldiminato Ligands: Versatile Initiators in the Ring-Opening Polymerization of Cyclic Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Fuoco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear aliphatic polyesters are degradable thermoplastic polymers, which can be obtained by ring-opening polymerization (ROP of cyclic esters through a coordination-insertion mechanism. Aluminum based organometallic complexes have a leading position as efficient catalysts for this polymerization process. Aluminumalkyl complexes bearing salicylaldiminato ligands, although less explored, have been shown to be efficient and versatile catalysts for the ROP of various cyclic esters. These species have the potential to function as active catalysts in the ROP because of their less coordinatively saturated nature with respect to analogous SALEN-type complexes. They have been used as efficient catalysts in the ROP of commercially available cyclic esters, such as ε-caprolactone, l-lactide, rac-lactide, and glycolide. Moreover, they resulted in efficient catalysts for the ROP of cyclic esters with large ring-size and for the ROP of functionalized lactide. Furthermore, they have been used in the co- and ter-polymerization of various cyclic esters affording well controlled polymerization and a plethora of microstructural architectures, ranging from random to block to multiblock.

  14. Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude sporadic E layers at Arecibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Christakis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic E layers (Es follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of sporadic E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50° over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of sporadic E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1 tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic Es layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1 a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2 a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.

  15. Altair Descent and Ascent Reference Trajectory Design and Initial Dispersion Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Larry D.; Polsgrove, Tara T.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Braden, Ellen M.; Sullivan, Jacob J.; Lee, Thanh T.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is the linchpin in the Constellation Program (CxP) for human return to the Moon. Altair is delivered to low Earth orbit (LEO) by the Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle, and after subsequent docking with Orion in LEO, the Altair/Orion stack is delivered through translunar injection (TLI). The Altair/Orion stack separating from the Earth departure stage (EDS) shortly after TLI and continues the flight to the Moon as a single stack. Altair performs the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver, targeting a 100-km circular orbit. This orbit will be a polar orbit for missions landing near the lunar South Pole. After spending nearly 24 hours in low lunar orbit (LLO), the lander undocks from Orion and performs a series of small maneuvers to set up for descending to the lunar surface. This descent begins with a small deorbit insertion (DOI) maneuver, putting the lander on an orbit that has a perilune of 15.24 km (50,000 ft), the altitude where the actual powered descent initiation (PDI) commences. At liftoff from Earth, Altair has a mass of 45 metric tons (mt). However after LOI (without Orion attached), the lander mass is slightly less than 33 mt at PDI. The lander currently has a single descent module main engine, with TBD lb(sub f) thrust (TBD N), providing a thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately TBD Earth g's at PDI. LDAC-3 (Lander design and analysis cycle #3) is the most recently closed design sizing and mass properties iteration. Upgrades for loss of crew (LDAC-2) and loss of mission (LDAC-3) have been incorporated into the lander baseline design (and its Master Equipment List). Also, recently, Altair has been working requirements analyses (LRAC-1). All nominal data here are from the LDAC-3 analysis cycle. All dispersions results here are from LRAC-1 analyses.

  16. The prevalence of asthma in Canadian children of South Asian descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Joost Nico; Ratjen, Felix; Subbarao, Padmaja; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S; Stanojevic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is the most common disease in childhood. The prevalence of asthma is known to vary greatly between and within countries and among different ethnic groups. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of asthma and wheezing symptoms in South Asian children living in Canada. In a cross sectional study, data from the Phase III International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) were analyzed. A surname algorithm to determine South Asian ethnic descent was used. Prevalence was calculated and compared to non-South Asian children from the same survey and to the reported prevalence from the Indian subcontinent ISAAC III survey for children ages 6-9 and 13-16. The prevalence of asthma and wheezing did not differ between children of South Asian descent and non-South Asians living Canada. When compared to the children living in India, the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and exercise induced wheeze was significantly higher in the South Asian children living in Canada. Higher body mass index of the child, parental smoking, and pet ownership were strongly associated with asthma and wheeze. In contrast to other studies these data suggest that South Asian children living in Canada have a similar asthma prevalence to non-South Asian children; both of whom had higher asthma prevalence compared with children residing in South Asia. This suggests that environmental and social factors play a role in asthma prevalence. Risk factors for asthma in children of South Asian descent living in Canada are similar to those of the overall population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Three-dimensional object recognition using gradient descent and the universal 3-D array grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Leemon C., III; Wang, Patrick S. P.

    1992-02-01

    A new algorithm is presented for applying Marill's minimum standard deviation of angles (MSDA) principle for interpreting line drawings without models. Even though no explicit models or additional heuristics are included, the algorithm tends to reach the same 3-D interpretations of 2-D line drawings that humans do. Marill's original algorithm repeatedly generated a set of interpretations and chose the one with the lowest standard deviation of angles (SDA). The algorithm presented here explicitly calculates the partial derivatives of SDA with respect to all adjustable parameters, and follows this gradient to minimize SDA. For a picture with lines meeting at m points forming n angles, the gradient descent algorithm requires O(n) time to adjust all the points, while the original algorithm required O(mn) time to do so. For the pictures described by Marill, this gradient descent algorithm running on a Macintosh II was found to be one to two orders of magnitude faster than the original algorithm running on a Symbolics, while still giving comparable results. Once the 3-D interpretation of the line drawing has been found, the 3-D object can be reduced to a description string using the Universal 3-D Array Grammar. This is a general grammar which allows any connected object represented as a 3-D array of pixels to be reduced to a description string. The algorithm based on this grammar is well suited to parallel computation, and could run efficiently on parallel hardware. This paper describes both the MSDA gradient descent algorithm and the Universal 3-D Array Grammar algorithm. Together, they transform a 2-D line drawing represented as a list of line segments into a string describing the 3-D object pictured. The strings could then be used for object recognition, learning, or storage for later manipulation.

  18. NON–DESCENT VAGINAL HYSTERECTOMY FOR BENIGN GYNAECOLOGICAL DISEASE – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess safety and feasibility of non-descent vaginal hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease. METHODS A prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of P K Das Institute of Medical Sciences from January 2013 to December 2013. An effort was made to perform hysterectomies vaginally in women with benign or premalignant conditions in the absence of prolapse. A suspected adnexal pathology, endometriosis, immobility of uterus, uterus size more than 16 weeks was excluded from the study. Vaginal hysterectomy was done in usual manner. In bigger size uterus, morcellation techniques like bisection, debulking, coring, myomectomy, or combination of these were used to remove the uterus. Data regarding age, parity, uterine size, estimated blood loss, length of operation, intraoperative and postoperative complications and hospital stay were recorded. RESULTS A total of 100 cases were selected for non-descent vaginal hysterectomy. Among them, 97 cases successfully underwent nondescent vaginal hysterectomy. Majority of the patients (55% were in age group 40-45 yrs. Four patients were nulligravida and eight patients had previous LSCS. Uterine size was ≤ 12 weeks in 84 cases and > 12-16 weeks in 16 cases. Commonest indication was leiomyoma of uterus (43%. Mean duration of surgery was 70±20.5 minutes. Mean blood loss was 150±65 mL. Reasons for failure to perform NDVH was difficulty in opening pouch of Douglas in two cases because of adhesions and in one case there was difficulty in reaching the fundal myoma which prevented the uterine descent. Intra–operatively, one case had bladder injury (1% that had previous 2 LSCS. Postoperatively, complications were minimal which included postoperative fever (11%, UTI (8% and vaginal cuff infection was (4%. Mean hospital stay was 3.5 days. CONCLUSION Vaginal hysterectomy is safe, feasible in most of the women requiring hysterectomy for benign conditions with less

  19. Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices in a Homogeneous Atmospheric Turbulence: Vortex Decay and Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.

  20. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  1. Powered ankle-foot prosthesis to assist level-ground and stair-descent gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Samuel; Berniker, Max; Herr, Hugh

    2008-05-01

    The human ankle varies impedance and delivers net positive work during the stance period of walking. In contrast, commercially available ankle-foot prostheses are passive during stance, causing many clinical problems for transtibial amputees, including non-symmetric gait patterns, higher gait metabolism, and poorer shock absorption. In this investigation, we develop and evaluate a myoelectric-driven, finite state controller for a powered ankle-foot prosthesis that modulates both impedance and power output during stance. The system employs both sensory inputs measured local to the external prosthesis, and myoelectric inputs measured from residual limb muscles. Using local prosthetic sensing, we first develop two finite state controllers to produce biomimetic movement patterns for level-ground and stair-descent gaits. We then employ myoelectric signals as control commands to manage the transition between these finite state controllers. To transition from level-ground to stairs, the amputee flexes the gastrocnemius muscle, triggering the prosthetic ankle to plantar flex at terminal swing, and initiating the stair-descent state machine algorithm. To transition back to level-ground walking, the amputee flexes the tibialis anterior muscle, triggering the ankle to remain dorsiflexed at terminal swing, and initiating the level-ground state machine algorithm. As a preliminary evaluation of clinical efficacy, we test the device on a transtibial amputee with both the proposed controller and a conventional passive-elastic control. We find that the amputee can robustly transition between the finite state controllers through direct muscle activation, allowing rapid transitioning from level-ground to stair walking patterns. Additionally, we find that the proposed finite state controllers result in a more biomimetic ankle response, producing net propulsive work during level-ground walking and greater shock absorption during stair descent. The results of this study highlight the

  2. Influence of seasonal cycles in Martian atmosphere on entry, descent and landing sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčeta, Dušan; Šegan, Stevo; Rašuo, Boško

    2014-05-01

    The phenomena like high eccentricity of Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion, separately or together can significantly alter not only the level of some Martian atmospheric parameters but also the characteristics of its diurnal and seasonal cycle. Considering that entry, descent and landing (EDL) sequence is mainly driven by the density profile of the atmosphere and aerodynamic characteristic of the entry vehicle. We have performed the analysis of the influence of the seasonal cycles of the atmospheric parameters on EDL profiles by using Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM). Since the height of the deployment of the parachute and the time passed from the deployment to propulsion firing (descent time) are of crucial importance for safe landing and the achievable landing site elevation we paid special attention to the influence of the areocentric longitude of the Sun (Ls) on these variables. We have found that these variables have periodic variability with respect to Ls and can be very well approximated with a sine wave function whose mean value depends only on the landing site elevation while the amplitudes and phases depend only on the landing site latitude. The amplitudes exhibit behavior which is symmetric with respect to the latitude but the symmetry is shifted from the equator to the northern mid-tropics. We have also noticed that the strong temperature inversions which are usual for middle and higher northern latitudes while Mars is around its orbital perihelion significantly alter the descent time without influencing the height of the parachute deployment. At last, we applied our model to determine the dependence of the accessible landing region on Ls and found that this region reaches maximum when Mars is around the orbital perihelion and can vary 50° in latitude throughout the Martian year.

  3. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic Carbonates and Esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, D. M.; Afroz, Taliman; Allen, Joshua L.; Boyle, Paul D.; Trulove, Paul C.; De Long, Hugh C.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-11-13

    Only limited information is available regarding the manner in which cyclic carbonate and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine crystalline solvate structures. To this end, eight new solvate structures are reported with ethylene carbonate, γ-butyrolactone and γ-valerolactone: (EC)3:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiBF4, (GBL)4:LiPF6, (GBL)1:LiClO4, (GVL)1:LiClO4, (GBL)1:LiBF4 and (GBL)1:LiCF3SO3. The crystal structure of (EC)1:LiCF3SO3 is also re-reported for comparison. These structures enable the factors which govern the manner in which the ions are coordinated and the ion/solvent packing—in the solid-state—to be scrutinized in detail.

  4. Functional Equivalence Acceptance Testing of FUN3D for Entry Descent and Landing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Glass, Christopher E.; Padilla, Jose F.; Hammond, Dana P.; White, Jeffery A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional equivalence of the unstructured grid code FUN3D to the the structured grid code LAURA (Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) is documented for applications of interest to the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) community. Examples from an existing suite of regression tests are used to demonstrate the functional equivalence, encompassing various thermochemical models and vehicle configurations. Algorithm modifications required for the node-based unstructured grid code (FUN3D) to reproduce functionality of the cell-centered structured code (LAURA) are also documented. Challenges associated with computation on tetrahedral grids versus computation on structured-grid derived hexahedral systems are discussed.

  5. A GLOBALLY DERIVATIVE-FREE DESCENT METHOD FOR NONLINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-duo Qi; Yu-zhong Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Based on a class of functions. which generalize the squared Fischer-Burmeister NCP function and have many desirable properties as the latter function has, we reformulate nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP for short) as an equivalent unconstrained optimization problem, for which we propose a derivative-free descent method in monotone case. We show its global convergence under some mild conditions. If F, the function involved in NCP, is Ro-function, the optimization problem has bounded level sets. A local property of the merit function is discussed. Finally, we report some numerical results.

  6. PIGS: improved estimates of identity-by-descent probabilities by probabilistic IBD graph sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Danny S; Baran, Yael; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Identifying segments in the genome of different individuals that are identical-by-descent (IBD) is a fundamental element of genetics. IBD data is used for numerous applications including demographic inference, heritability estimation, and mapping disease loci. Simultaneous detection of IBD over multiple haplotypes has proven to be computationally difficult. To overcome this, many state of the art methods estimate the probability of IBD between each pair of haplotypes separately. While computationally efficient, these methods fail to leverage the clique structure of IBD resulting in less powerful IBD identification, especially for small IBD segments.

  7. Calculation of identity-by-descent probabilities of short chromosome segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchscherer, A; Teuscher, F; Reinsch, N

    2012-12-01

    For some purposes, identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities for entire chromosome segments are required. Making use of pedigree information, length of the segment and the assumption of no crossing-over, a generalization of a previously published graph theory oriented algorithm accounting for nonzero IBD of common ancestors is given, which can be viewed as method of path coefficients for entire chromosome segments. Furthermore, rules for setting up a gametic version of a segmental IBD matrix are presented. Results from the generalized graph theory oriented method, the gametic segmental IBD matrix and the segmental IBD matrix for individuals are identical.

  8. Screening for homozygosity by descent in families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kota Lalitha; Subhadra Jalali; Tejas Kadakia; Chitra Kannabiran

    2002-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease and an important cause of blindness in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. In an attempt to identify the disease locus in families with the recessive form of the disease, we used the approach of screening for homozygosity by descent in offspring of consanguineous and nonconsanguineous families with RP. Microsatellite markers closely flanking 21 known candidate genes for RP were genotyped in parents and affected offspring to determine whether there was homozygosity at these loci that was shared by affected individuals of a family. This screening approach may be a rapid preliminary method to test known loci for possible cosegregation with disease.

  9. An approximate gradient-descent method for joint parameter estimation and synchronization of coupled chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Ines P. [Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Group, Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica Aplicadas y Ciencias de la Naturaleza, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: ines.perez@urjc.es; Miguez, Joaquin [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jmiguez@ieee.org

    2006-03-06

    We address the problem of estimating the unknown parameters of a primary chaotic system that produces an observed time series. These observations are used to drive a secondary system in a way that ensures synchronization when the two systems have identical parameters. We propose a new method to adaptively adjust the parameters in the secondary system until synchronization is achieved. It is based on the gradient-descent optimization of a suitably defined cost function and can be systematically applied to arbitrary systems. We illustrate its application by estimating the complete parameter vector of a Lorenz system.

  10. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all...

  11. A conjugate gradient method with descent properties under strong Wolfe line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zull, N.; ‘Aini, N.; Shoid, S.; Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of the optimization methods that are often used in practical applications. The continuous and numerous studies conducted on the CG method have led to vast improvements in its convergence properties and efficiency. In this paper, a new CG method possessing the sufficient descent and global convergence properties is proposed. The efficiency of the new CG algorithm relative to the existing CG methods is evaluated by testing them all on a set of test functions using MATLAB. The tests are measured in terms of iteration numbers and CPU time under strong Wolfe line search. Overall, this new method performs efficiently and comparable to the other famous methods.

  12. Descente du dernier dipôle supraconducteur 16 avril 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le 14 novembre 2008, il y a eu 54 aimants remontés et redescendus dans le secteur 3-4, 1 aimant dans le secteur 1-2 et 1 aimant dans le secteur 6-7. Pour la descente du dernier dipôle supraconducteur du 16 avril 2009, Pascal Brunero, surveillant des travaux dans le groupe EN/HE en charge du transport et de la manutention, a répondu à un interview pour le bulletin.

  13. Regulation of cyclic GMP, cyclic amp and lactate dehydrogenase by putative neutrotransmitters in the C6 rat glioma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottenstein, J.E.; de Vellis, J.

    1977-01-01

    In C6 cells norepinephrine and dopamine caused transient increases in cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP, as well as an induction of lactate dehydrogenase. All of these responses were blocked by 1-propranolol, suggesting mediation by a ..beta..-receptor. Phentolamine potentiated the NE-increased cAMP levels by 5-fold when NE was used at suboptimal doses, suggesting the presence of ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors in C6 cells. Carbamylcholine decreased the levels of both cyclic nucleotides, with hexamethonium partially reversing the effect on cyclic GMP. Dibutyryl-cyclic GMP or carbamylcholine reduced catecholamine-induced cyclic AMP levels. Serotonin increased cyclic GMP levels 60% and decreased cyclic AMP levels 36%. Calcium- and magnesium-free media inhibited the norepinephrine-induced levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP respectively.

  14. Regulation of cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP and lactate dehydrogenase by putative neurotransmitters in the C6 rat glioma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottenstein, J.E.; de Vellis, J.

    1978-01-01

    In C6 cells norepinephrine and dopamine caused transient increases in cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP, as well as an induction of lactate dehydrogenase. All of these responses were blocked by l-propranolol, suggesting mediation by a ..beta..-receptor. Phentolamine potentiated the NE-increased cAMP levels by 5-fold when NE was used at suboptimal doses, suggesting the presence of ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors in C6 cells. Carbamylcholine decreased the levels of both cyclic nucleotides, with hexamethonium partially reversing the effect on cyclic GMP. Dibutyryl-cyclic GMP or carbamylcholine reduced catecholamine-induced cyclic AMP levels. Serotonin increased cyclic GMP levels 60% and decreased cyclic AMP levels 36%. Calcium- and magnesium-free media inhibited the norepinephrine-induced levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP respectively.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of an iron complex bearing a cyclic tetra-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: An artifical heme analogue?

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.

    2015-04-20

    An iron(II) complex with a cyclic tetradentate ligand containing four N-heterocyclic carbenes was synthesized and characterized by means of NMR and IR spectroscopies, as well as by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The iron center exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry with two acetonitrile ligands in axial positions, showing structural analogies with porphyrine-ligated iron complexes. The acetonitrile ligands can readily be substituted by other ligands, for instance, dimethyl sulfoxide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the electronic properties of the synthesized compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  16. Cyclic Strain Enhances Cellular Uptake of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have gained increasing interest in recent years due to their potential use as drug carrier, imaging, and diagnostic agents in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. While many cells in vivo experience mechanical forces, little is known about the correlation of the mechanical stimulation and the internalization of NPs into cells. This paper investigates the effects of applied cyclic strain on NP uptake by cells. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs were cultured on collagen-coated culture plates and placed under cyclic equal-axial strains. NPs of sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm were loaded at a concentration of 0.02 mg/mL and cyclic strains from 5 to 15% were applied to the cells for one hour. The cyclic strain results in a significant enhancement in NP uptake, which increases almost linearly with strain level. The enhanced uptake also depends on size of the NPs with the highest uptake observed on 100 nm NP. The effect of enhanced NP uptake lasts around 13 hours after cyclic stretch. Such in vitro cell stretch systems mimic physiological conditions of the endothelial cells in vivo and could potentially serve as a biomimetic platform for drug therapeutic evaluation.

  17. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    CERN Document Server

    Schlederer, Florian; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally enta...

  18. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-04-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states.

  19. Coordination in oro-pharyngeal biomechanics during human swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Kondoh, Jugo; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yongjin; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    In swallowing, the tongue contacts against the hard palate to generate pressure for propelling a bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx. Meanwhile, the hyoid and larynx move upward and forward to facilitate the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It has been well known that sequential coordination between those actions is critical for safety accomplishment of swallowing. However, the absence of noninvasive assessment for it limits the detection to the physiological symptom of dysphagia. We applied a sensor sheet on the hard palate to measure tongue contact pressure and a bend sensor on the frontal neck to monitor the laryngeal movement, which was synchronized with hyoid motion for assessing the coordination between both actions in 14 healthy male subjects when swallowing 5ml of water. The sequential order of tongue pressure and hyoid movement was successfully displayed. Tongue pressure was produced after slight movement of the hyoid and closely to the hyoid elevation, then reached a maximum when the hyoid stabilized in the most anterior-superior position, and ceased concurrently with the onset of hyoid descent. Additionally, the synchronized data from both sensors showed positive correlations between identified time points on the laryngeal signal waveform and onset, peak and offset of tongue pressure. Our sensing system successfully showed the coordination between tongue pressure production and hyoid motion, and could be a simple and noninvasive method for clinicians to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing.

  20. Dilaton minimally coupled to 2 + 1 Einstein Maxwell fields; stationary cyclic symmetric black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, A A

    2014-01-01

    Using the Schwarzschild coordinate frame for a static cyclic symmetric metric in 2 + 1 Einstein gravity coupled to a electric Maxwell field and a dilaton logarithmically depending on the radial coordinate in the presence of an exponential potential the general solution of the Einstein Maxwell dilaton equations is derived and it is identified with the Chan Mann charged dilaton solution. Via a general SL(2;R) transformation, applied on the obtained charged dilaton metric, a family of stationary dilaton solutions has been generated; these solutions possess five parameters: dilaton and cosmological constants , charge, momentum, and mass for some values of them. All the exhibited solutions have been characterized by their quasi-local energy, mass, and momentum through their series expansions at spatial infinity. The structural functions determining these solutions increase as the radial coordinate does, hence they do not exhibit an dS AdS behavior at infinity Moreover, the algebraic structure of the Maxwell field,...

  1. Using survival analysis to determine association between maternal pelvis height and antenatal fetal head descent in Ugandan mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Ian Guyton; Luboga, Samuel Abilemech; Mirembe, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fetal head descent is used to demonstrate the maternal pelvis capacity to accommodate the fetal head. This is especially important in low resource settings that have high rates of childbirth related maternal deaths and morbidity. This study looked at maternal height and an additional measure, maternal pelvis height, from automotive engineering. The objective of the study was to determine the associations between maternal: height and pelvis height with the rate of fetal head descent in expectant Ugandan mothers. Methods This was a cross sectional study on 1265 singleton mothers attending antenatal clinics at five hospitals in various parts of Uganda. In addition to the routine antenatal examination, each mother had their pelvis height recorded following informed consent. Survival analysis was done using STATA 12. Results It was found that 27% of mothers had fetal head descent with an incident rate of 0.028 per week after the 25th week of pregnancy. Significant associations were observed between the rate of fetal head descent with: maternal height (Adj Haz ratio 0.93 P < 0.01) and maternal pelvis height (Adj Haz ratio 1.15 P < 0.01). Conclusion The significant associations observed between maternal: height and pelvis height with rate of fetal head descent, demonstrate a need for further study of maternal pelvis height as an additional decision support tool for screening mothers in low resource settings. PMID:26918071

  2. Coordinating Interactions: The Event Coordination Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    on a much more technical level. The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of an application on a high level of abstraction that is closer to the application’s domain than to the software realizing it. Still, these models contain all necessary details for actually executing...... implementation of ECNO, which consists of a modelling environment based on Eclipse and the Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) and an execution engine, which fully supports all the concepts and features of ECNO discussed in this technical report. All the examples are based on EMF, but the ECNO Engine can be used......The purpose of a domain model is to concisely capture the concepts of an application’s domain, and their relation among each other. Even though the main purpose of domain models is not on implementing the application, major parts of an application can be generated from the application’s domain...

  3. Evaluation of homogeneous electrocatalysts by cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Eric S; McCarthy, Brian D; Eisenhart, Thomas T; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2014-10-06

    The pursuit of solar fuels has motivated extensive research on molecular electrocatalysts capable of evolving hydrogen from protic solutions, reducing CO2, and oxidizing water. Determining accurate figures of merit for these catalysts requires the careful and appropriate application of electroanalytical techniques. This Viewpoint first briefly presents the fundamentals of cyclic voltammetry and highlights practical experimental considerations before focusing on the application of cyclic voltammetry for the characterization of electrocatalysts. Key metrics for comparing catalysts, including the overpotential (η), potential for catalysis (E(cat)), observed rate constant (k(obs)), and potential-dependent turnover frequency, are discussed. The cyclic voltammetric responses for a general electrocatalytic one-electron reduction of a substrate are presented along with methods to extract figures of merit from these data. The extension of this analysis to more complex electrocatalytic schemes, such as those responsible for H2 evolution and CO2 reduction, is then discussed.

  4. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns...... and reactive distillation were studied and reported in literature. All these techniques employ the conventional continuous counter-current contact of vapor and liquid phases. Cyclic distillation technology is based on an alternative operating mode using separate phase movement which leads to key practical...... advantages in both chemical and biochemical processes. This article provides a mini-review of cyclic distillation technology. The topics covered include the working principle, design and control methods, main benefits and limitations as well as current industrial applications. Cyclic distillation can...

  5. Differences in ocular blood flow in glaucoma between patients of African and European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon; Racette, Lyne; Abassi, Rania; Chandrasekhar, Kaarthik; Tobe, Leslie A; Behzadi, Jennifer; Eckert, George; Amireskandari, Annahita; Muchnik, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To investigate differences in ocular blood flow in individuals of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) with open angle glaucoma (OAG). A retrospective data analysis was performed on OAG patients of AD and ED who were previously examined for ocular blood flow within the Department of Ophthalmology at Indiana University School of Medicine. Data analysis included blood pressure, heart rate, visual fields, intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, and color Doppler imaging of retrobulbar vessels. Color Doppler imaging measurements were performed on ophthalmic, central retinal, and nasal and temporal short posterior ciliary arteries, with peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic velocities (EDV) as well as the Pourcelot vascular resistive index calculated for each vessel. Two-sample t tests of unequal variance were performed with P values <0.05 considered statistically significant. OAG patients of AD had statistically significant lower retrobulbar blood flow values than patients of ED including lower ophthalmic artery PSV (P=0.0001), ophthalmic artery EDV (P=0.0008), central retinal artery PSV (P=0.01), temporal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P=0.0037), and nasal short posterior ciliary artery PSV (P<0.0001). No significant differences were found in terms of intraocular pressure or visual field parameters. Significantly lower blood flow values were identified in all retrobulbar blood vessels in AD compared with ED OAG patients. These findings suggest that the contribution of ocular blood flow to the disease process may be different in AD compared with ED OAG patients.

  6. Noise-shaping gradient descent-based online adaptation algorithms for digital calibration of analog circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabartty, Shantanu; Shaga, Ravi K; Aono, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    Analog circuits that are calibrated using digital-to-analog converters (DACs) use a digital signal processor-based algorithm for real-time adaptation and programming of system parameters. In this paper, we first show that this conventional framework for adaptation yields suboptimal calibration properties because of artifacts introduced by quantization noise. We then propose a novel online stochastic optimization algorithm called noise-shaping or ΣΔ gradient descent, which can shape the quantization noise out of the frequency regions spanning the parameter adaptation trajectories. As a result, the proposed algorithms demonstrate superior parameter search properties compared to floating-point gradient methods and better convergence properties than conventional quantized gradient-methods. In the second part of this paper, we apply the ΣΔ gradient descent algorithm to two examples of real-time digital calibration: 1) balancing and tracking of bias currents, and 2) frequency calibration of a band-pass Gm-C biquad filter biased in weak inversion. For each of these examples, the circuits have been prototyped in a 0.5-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process, and we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal solution even in the presence of spurious local minima, which are introduced by the nonlinear and non-monotonic response of calibration DACs.

  7. Flight Mechanics of the Entry, Descent and Landing of the ExoMars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    HayaRamos, Rodrigo; Boneti, Davide

    2007-01-01

    ExoMars is ESA's current mission to planet Mars. A high mobility rover and a fixed station will be deployed on the surface of Mars. This paper regards the flight mechanics of the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phases used for the mission analysis and design of the Baseline and back-up scenarios of the mission. The EDL concept is based on a ballistic entry, followed by a descent under parachutes and inflatable devices (airbags) for landing. The mission analysis and design is driven by the flexibility in terms of landing site, arrival dates and the very stringent requirement in terms of landing accuracy. The challenging requirements currently imposed to the mission need innovative analysis and design techniques to support system design trade-offs to cope with the variability in entry conditions. The concept of the Global Entry Corridor has been conceived, designed, implemented and successfully validated as a key tool to provide a global picture of the mission capabilities in terms of landing site reachability.

  8. Automated collection of fatigue ratings at the top of descent: a practical commercial airline tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M C; Spencer, Mick B; Petrie, Keith J

    2011-11-01

    There is a need to develop an efficient and accurate way of assessing pilot fatigue in commercial airline operations. We investigated the validity of an automated system to collect pilot ratings of alertness at the top of descent, comparing the data obtained with existing results from previous studies and those predicted by the validated SAFE fatigue model. Boeing 777 pilots were prompted to enter a Samn-Perelli fatigue scale rating directly into the flight management system of the aircraft shortly prior to descent on a variety of short- and long-haul commercial flights. These data were examined to evaluate whether the patterns were in line with predicted effects of duty length, crew number, and circadian factors. We also compared the results with data from previous studies as well as SAFE model predictions for equivalent routes. The effects of duty length, time of day, and crew complement were in line with expected trends and with data from previous studies; the correlation with predictions from the SAFE model was high (r = 0.88). Fatigue ratings were greater on longer trips (except where mitigated by adding an extra pilot) and on overnight sectors (4.68 vs 3.77). The results suggest that the automated collection of subjective ratings is a valid way to collect data on fatigue in an airline setting. This method has potential benefits for the crew in assessing fatigue risk prior to approach, as part of a fatigue risk management system, with the possibility of wider safety benefits.

  9. Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation Design and Modelling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander was launched in August of 2007 on a ten month cruise to reach the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. Its mission continues NASA s pursuit to find evidence of water on Mars. Phoenix carries upon it a slew of science instruments to study soil and ice samples from the northern region of the planet, an area previously undiscovered by robotic landers. In order for these science instruments to be useful, it was necessary for Phoenix to perform a safe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) onto the surface of Mars. The EDL design was defined through simulation and analysis of the various phases of the descent. An overview of the simulation and various models developed to characterize the EDL performance is provided. Monte Carlo statistical analysis was performed to assess the performance and robustness of the Phoenix EDL system and are presented in this paper. Using these simulation and modelling tools throughout the design and into the operations phase, the Mars Phoenix EDL was a success on May 25, 2008.

  10. “A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTRÖM”: AESTHETICS OF SUBLIME AND EDGAR ALLEN POE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUĞBA AYAS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to interpret Edgar Allen Poe’s short story “A Descent into the Maelström” in terms of the virtues of the 18th century sublime aesthetic theoretically informed by the works of two prominent philosophers, namely Edmund Burke and Immanuel Kant. “A Descent into the Maelström” is a landscape story about a fisherman’s escape from a deadly whirlpool called Moskoe-ström off the Norwegian coast in the North Sea. The aesthetics of sublime refers to a soul elevating experience of a piece of nature that is massive or mighty enough to cause human imagination to fail. Hence, it is possible to interpret this story in terms of the notion of sublime. The paper shall claim that Poe’s short story exemplifies both a Kantian and Burkean understandings of the concept in a fashion that is peculiar to Poe’s literary style. In the tale, the fisherman’s and the narrator’s experiences correspond to two kinds of sublime. Thus, in Poe’s peculiar writing, Burkean sublime shall be traced back in the fisherman’s experience of the whirlpool, whereas Kantian sublime in that of narrator’s. Following these two philosophers and their descriptions of the sublime, the paper shall trace this notion in Poe’s tale.

  11. New Diamond Block Based Gradient Descent Search Algorithm for Motion Estimation in the MPEG-4 Encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振洲; 李桂苓

    2003-01-01

    Motion estimation is an important part of the MPEG-4 encoder, due to its significant impact on the bit rate and the output quality of the encoder sequence. Unfortunately this feature takes a significant part of the encoding time especially when the straightforward full search(FS) algorithm is used. In this paper, a new algorithm named diamond block based gradient descent search (DBBGDS) algorithm, which is significantly faster than FS and gives similar quality of the output sequence, is proposed. At the same time, some other algorithms, such as three step search (TSS), improved three step search (ITSS), new three step search (NTSS), four step search (4SS), cellular search (CS) , diamond search (DS) and block based gradient descent search (BBGDS), are adopted and compared with DBBGDS. As the experimental results show, DBBGDS has its own advantages. Although DS has been adopted by the MPEG-4 VM, its output sequence quality is worse than that of the proposed algorithm while its complexity is similar to the proposed one. Compared with BBGDS, the proposed algorithm can achieve a better output quality.

  12. Effects of environmental changes in a stair climbing intervention: generalization to stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Oliver J; Eves, Frank F

    2007-01-01

    Visual improvements have been shown to encourage stair use in worksites independently of written prompts. This study examined whether visual modifications alone can influence behavior in a shopping mall. Climbing one flight of stairs, however, will not confer health benefits. Therefore, this study also assessed whether exposure to the intervention encouraged subsequent stair use. Interrupted time-series design. Escalators flanked by a staircase on either side. Ascending and descending pedestrians (N = 81,948). Following baseline monitoring, a colorful design was introduced on the stair risers of one staircase (the target staircase). A health promotion message was superimposed later on top. The intervention was visible only to ascending pedestrians. Thus, any rise in descending stair use would indicate increased intention to use stairs, which endured after initial exposure to the intervention. Observers inconspicuously coded pedestrians' means of ascent/descent and demographic characteristics. The design alone had no meaningful impact. Addition of the message, however, increased stair climbing at the target and nontarget staircases by 190% and 52%, respectively. The message also produced a modest increase in stair descent at the target (25%) and nontarget (9%) staircases. In public venues, a message component is critical to the success of interventions. In addition, it appears that exposure to an intervention can encourage pedestrians to use stairs on a subsequent occasion.

  13. A topological study of gravity waves generated by moving bodies using the method of steepest descents

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Philippe H

    2015-01-01

    The standard analytical approach for studying gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between a given physical flow geometry, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship...

  14. Fragment angular momenta and descent dynamics in sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission

    CERN Document Server

    Popeko, J S; Ter-Akopian, G M

    2002-01-01

    Average angular momentum values of primary fission fragments as a function of neutron multiplicity and neutron-to-proton ratio were extracted for the first time for the Mo-Ba and Zr-Ce charge splittings of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. The results are discussed in terms of the energy balance occurring at the scission point. For the first time we show that for large fragment elongation associated with larger numbers of evaporated neutrons (v sub t sub o sub t >=6), essentially only zero point bending oscillation takes places, i.e. T = 0 for this degree of freedom. For the major part of the fission events, with v sub t sub o sub t = 2-5, the banding oscillation is excited to a temperature of 2-3 MeV. Such a high bending temperature implies that the coupling between the collective and internal degrees of freedom is weak at the descent of the even-even nucleus of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf to the scission point. The dipole oscillations occurring at the descent take away some 2.5 - 3.0 MeV from the release energy. A correlation...

  15. A New Cross Based Gradient Descent Search Algorithm for Block Matching in MPEG-4 Encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhenzhou; LIGuiling

    2003-01-01

    Motion estimation is an important part of the Moving pictures expert group-4 (MPEG-4) encoder, due to its significant impact on the bit rate and the output quality of the encoder sequence. Unfortunately this feature occupies a significant part of the encoding time especially when using the straightforward Full Search algorithm. For frame based video encoding, a lot of fast algorithms have been proposed, which have proved to be efficient in encoding In this paper We proposed a new algorithm named Cross based gradient descent search (CBGDS) algorithm, which is significantly faster than FS and gives similar quality of the output sequence. At the same time, We compare our algorithm with some other algorithms, such as Three step search (TSS), Improved three step search (ITSS), New three step search (NTSS), Four step search (4SS), Diamond search (DS), Block based gradient descent search (BBGDS) and Cellular search (CS). As the experimental results show, our algorithm has its advantage over the others. For objects based video encoding, most of the existing fast algorithms are not suitable because the arbitrarily shaped objects have more local minima. So we incorporate the alpha information and propose a new algorithm, which is compatible with the previously proposed efficient motion estimation method for arbitrarily shaped video objects.

  16. Trajectory Guidance for Mars Robotic Precursors: Aerocapture, Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie; Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Powell, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Future crewed missions to Mars require improvements in landed mass capability beyond that which is possible using state-of-the-art Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems. Current systems are capable of an estimated maximum landed mass of 1-1.5 metric tons (MT), while human Mars studies require 20-40 MT. A set of technologies were investigated by the EDL Systems Analysis (SA) project to assess the performance of candidate EDL architectures. A single architecture was selected for the design of a robotic precursor mission, entitled Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), whose objective is to demonstrate these technologies. In particular, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs) and supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP) have been shown to have the greatest mass benefit and extensibility to future exploration missions. In order to evaluate these technologies and develop the mission, candidate guidance algorithms have been coded into the simulation for the purposes of studying system performance. These guidance algorithms include aerocapture, entry, and powered descent. The performance of the algorithms for each of these phases in the presence of dispersions has been assessed using a Monte Carlo technique.

  17. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    ). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities......Language has been defined as a social coordination device (Clark 1996) enabling innovative modalities of joint action. However, the exact coordinative dynamics over time and their effects are still insufficiently investigated and quantified. Relying on the data produced in a collective decision...

  18. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  19. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  20. “CLINICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN WITH IMPERFECT DESCENT OF TESTIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: a To study the different location of the testis in children with imperfect descent of testis , b To study associated anomalies a nd complications of imperfect descent of testis , cTo study the various modalities of management of imperfect descent of testis. BACKGROUND DATA : Since the testis originally develops in the abdominal region , its descent may be inhibited anywhere along its n ormal pathway or it may be diverted from this route in to an ectopic location. This apparently simple developmental anomaly represents one of the more common disorder s of the childhood.It affects all races , and there does no t seem to be a geographic propen sity. undescended testis may be associated with a number of chromosomal and hereditary disorders in which a specific defect can be identified , and complications which are infertility , hernia , trauma are more if left untreated and also interestingis that ti ll today relatively little is known about what cause the testis to migrate from the abdomen in to the scrotum , inspite of research which is going on till now. METHOD : P resent study was conducted on 50 patients who presented with complaints of undescend ed te stis and its complications w ithin the age of day 1 of birth to 18 years . I t was prospective study and study was done at department of pediatric surgery , Kempegowda institute of medical sciences , Bangalore during study period of December 2011 to May 2013. RE SULTS: 1. Imperfect descent of testis is more common in2 - 5 years of age , 2. R ight side is more common followed by left side followed by bilateral , 3. Absence of testis in scrotum with underdeveloped scrotum is the most common complaint , 4. In palpable test is superficial pouch is the most common site where the testis is found. 5. In ectopic femoral is the most common. 6. In impalpable testis most common is canalicular. 6. Gubernacular abnormalities were most common followed by presence of processusvaginalis and

  1. Cyclic Polymer with Alternating Monomer Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Zi; Zhao, Youliang; Zhang, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Cyclic polymers with alternating monomer sequence are synthesized for the first time based on the ring-closure strategy. Well-defined telechelic alternating polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization by copolymerizing the electron acceptor monomer of N-benzylmaleimide and donor monomer of styrene with a feed ratio of 1 between them. The corresponding cyclic alternating polymers are then produced by the UV-induced Diels-Alder click reaction to ring-close the linear alternating polymer precursors under highly diluted reaction solution.

  2. On cyclic associative Abel-Grassman groupoids

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Shah, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad Irfan

    2015-01-01

    A new subclass of AG-groupoids, so called, cyclic associative Abel-Grassman groupoids or CA-AG-groupoid is studied. These have been enumerated up to order $6$. A test for the verification of cyclic associativity for an arbitrary AG-groupoid has been introduced. Various properties of CA-AG-groupoids have been studied. Relationship among CA-AG-groupoids and other subclasses of AG-groupoids is investigated. It is shown that the subclass of CA-AG-groupoid is different from that of the AG{*}-group...

  3. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  4. Cyclic Entropy: An Alternative to Inflationary Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul Howard

    2015-01-01

    We address how to construct an infinitely cyclic universe model. A major consideration is to make the entropy cyclic which requires the entropy to be reset to zero in each cycle expansion to turnaround, to contraction, to bounce, etc. Here we reset entropy at the turnaround by selecting the visible universe from the multiverse which is generated by the accelerated expansion. In the model, the observed homogeneity is explained by the low entropy at the bounce, The observed flatness arises from the contraction together with the reduction in size between the expanding and contracting universe. The present flatness is predicted to be very precise.

  5. Ultrafast cyclic voltammetry with asymmetrical potential scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yong Guo; Xiang Qin Lin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the perfect ohmic drop compensation by online electronic positive feedback, ultrafast cyclic voltammetry withasymmetrical potential scan is achieved for the first time, with the reduction of anthracene acting as the test system. Compared withthe traditional cyclic voltammetry utilizing symmetrical triangular waveform as the excitation one, the new method allows a simplerapproach to mechanistic analysis of ultrafast chemical reactions coupled with a charge transfer. And perhaps more important, it alsoprovides a way to eliminate the interference of the adsorbed product in dynamic monitoring.

  6. Severe congenital cyclic neutropenia: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidyavathi H; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Balikai, Girish; Patil, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cyclic neutropenia syndrome is a constitutional genetic disorder which is characterized by very low number of neutrophils (neutropenia). Patients suffering from this disorder clinically present with neutropenia at early age, history of recurrent fever, ulcerations in the oral cavity, gingivitis, and other recurrent infections. This paper describes a case report of a child with recurrent mouth ulcers, fever, and later diagnosed with severe congenital cyclic neutropenia. This also emphasizes the importance of identification of rare causes of immunosuppressive conditions in children presenting with recurrent oral ulcers and poor dental hygiene, to prevent long-term complications of oral cavity and also morbidity and mortality secondary to neutropenic sepsis. PMID:27857902

  7. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination...... on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  8. Development of a design methodology for high temperature cyclic applications of materials which experience cyclic softening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L.; Stubbins, J.F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

    1988-12-01

    The project has as its original focus the high temperature behavior of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, heat treated to produce a predominantly bainitic microstructure and the load carrying response of components made of this material. Experiments were carried out on uniform and notched specimens under both steady and cyclic loading using specially acquired electromechanical test machines. It emerged that a very important feature of mechanical behavior under the conditions of interest was the strong tendency of this material to cyclically soften, particularly at high temperature in the creep range, giving the illusion of a severe creep-fatigue interaction under certain conditions. This finding led to a significant component of the project being devoted to investigation of the effects of local, as opposed to generalized, cyclic softening, and the implications this phenomenon might have on the setting of allowable design stress limits. The format of this report is as follows: The second chapter is a review of the work carried out in approximately chronological order under the headings of work was carried out under the following: (1) 2.25 Cr 1 Mo Steel -- Elevated Temperature Fatigue and Environmental Effects; (2) Preliminary Studies of Advanced Austenitics; (3) A Uniaxial Constitutive Model for Cyclic Softening; (4) The Iso-Cyclic Stress-Strain Approach to Evaluation of Components in Cyclic Softening Materials; (5) Testing of High Temperature Austenitic Alloys; and (6) Design Methodology for Aging Materials -- Application to Cyclic Softening. 65 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Mutations of PKA cyclic nucleotide-binding domains reveal novel aspects of cyclic nucleotide selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robin; Moon, Eui-Whan; Kim, Jeong Joo; Schmidt, Sven H; Sankaran, Banumathi; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Kim, Choel; Herberg, Friedrich W

    2017-07-06

    Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are ubiquitous second messengers that regulate the activity of effector proteins in all forms of life. The main effector proteins, the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), are preferentially activated by cAMP and cGMP, respectively. However, the molecular basis of this cyclic nucleotide selectivity is still not fully understood. Analysis of isolated cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) domains of PKA regulatory subunit type Iα (RIα) reveals that the C-terminal CNB-B has a higher cAMP affinity and selectivity than the N-terminal CNB-A. Here, we show that introducing cGMP-specific residues using site-directed mutagenesis reduces the selectivity of CNB-B, while the combination of two mutations (G316R/A336T) results in a cGMP-selective binding domain. Furthermore, introducing the corresponding mutations (T192R/A212T) into the PKA RIα CNB-A turns this domain into a highly cGMP-selective domain, underlining the importance of these contacts for achieving cGMP specificity. Binding data with the generic purine nucleotide 3',5'-cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP) reveal that introduced arginine residues interact with the position 6 oxygen of the nucleobase. Co-crystal structures of an isolated CNB-B G316R/A336T double mutant with either cAMP or cGMP reveal that the introduced threonine and arginine residues maintain their conserved contacts as seen in PKG I CNB-B. These results improve our understanding of cyclic nucleotide binding and the molecular basis of cyclic nucleotide specificity. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte­grating...

  11. Rockin' Readers Coordinator Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    This coordinator's handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children (usually of kindergarten age or slightly older) in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook…

  12. Explicit Spin Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, G; Hunter, Geoffrey; Schlifer, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The recently established existence of spherical harmonic functions, $Y_\\ell^{m}(\\theta,\\phi)$ for half-odd-integer values of $\\ell$ and $m$, allows for the introduction into quantum chemistry of explicit electron spin-coordinates; i.e. spherical polar angles $\\theta_s, \\phi_s$, that specify the orientation of the spin angular momentum vector in space. In this coordinate representation the spin angular momentum operators, $S^2, S_z$, are represented by the usual differential operators in spherical polar coordinates (commonly used for $L^2, L_z$), and their electron-spin eigenfunctions are $\\sqrt{\\sin\\theta_s} \\exp(\\pm\\phi_s/2)$. This eigenfunction representation has the pedagogical advantage over the abstract spin eigenfunctions, $\\alpha, \\beta,$ that ``integration over spin coordinates'' is a true integration (over the angles $\\theta_s, \\phi_s$). In addition they facilitate construction of many electron wavefunctions in which the electron spins are neither parallel nor antiparallel, but inclined at an interme...

  13. Equilibria with Coordination Failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the recent literature on equilibria with coordination failures to arbitrary convex sets of admissible prices.We introduce a new equilibrium concept, called quantity constrained equilibrium (QCE), giving a uni.ed treatment to all cases considered in the literature so far.At a QCE

  14. Block coordination copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  15. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  16. The coefficient of cyclic variation: a novel statistic to measure the magnitude of cyclic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Anthony Jc

    2014-01-01

    PERIODIC OR CYCLIC DATA OF KNOWN PERIODICITY ARE FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: for instance, seasonality provides a useful experiment of nature while diurnal rhythms play an important role in endocrine secretion. There is, however, little consensus on how to analysis these data and less still on how to measure association or effect size for the often complex patterns seen. A simple statistic, readily derived from Fourier regression models, provides a readily-understood measure cyclic variation in a wide variety of situations. The coefficient of cyclic variation or similar statistics derived from the variance of a Fourier series could provide a universal means of summarising the magnitude of periodic variation.

  17. Mesosphere-to-stratosphere descent of odd nitrogen in February–March 2009 after sudden stratospheric warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-M. Salmi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the 3-D FinROSE chemistry transport model (CTM and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS observations to study connections between atmospheric dynamics and middle atmospheric NOx (NOx = NO + NO2 distribution. Two cases are considered in the northern polar regions: (1 descent of mesospheric NOx in February–March 2009 after a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW and, for comparison, (2 early 2007 when no NOx descent occurred. The model uses the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF operational data for winds and temperature, and we force NOx at the model upper altitude boundary (80 km with ACE-FTS observations. We then compare the model results with ACE-FTS observations at lower altitudes. For the periods studied, geomagnetic indices are low, which indicates absence of local NOx production by particle precipitation. This gives us a good opportunity to study effects of atmospheric transport on polar NOx. The model results show no NOx descent in 2007, in agreement with ACE-FTS. In contrast, a large amount of NOx descends in February–March 2009 from the upper to lower mesosphere at latitudes larger than 60° N, i.e. inside the polar vortex. Both observations and model results suggest NOx increases of 150–200 ppb (i.e. by factor of 50 at 65 km due to the descent. However, the model underestimates the amount of NOx around 55 km by 40–60 ppb. According to the model results, chemical loss of NOx is insignificant during the descent period, i.e. polar NOx is mainly controlled by dynamics. The descent is terminated and the polar NOx amounts return to pre-descent levels in mid-March, when the polar vortex breaks. The break-up prevents the descending NOx from reaching the upper stratosphere, where it could

  18. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose anal

  19. Cyclic viscoelastoplasticity of polypropylene/nanoclay composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, A.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported on isotactic polypropylene/organically modified nanoclay hybrids with concentrations of filler ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% in cyclic tensile tests with a stress–controlled program (oscillations between various maximum stresses and the zero minimum stress). A pronounced effect...

  20. Strongly Cyclic and Strongly Irreducible Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪友清; 韩黎明

    2001-01-01

    Let W be an injective unilateral weighted shift, and let W(n) be the orthogonal direct sum of n copies of W. In this paper, we prove that, if the commutant of W is strictly cyclic, then W(n) has a unique (SI) decomposition with respect to similarity for every natural number n.

  1. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...

  2. Cyclic electron flow: facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finazzi, Giovanni; Johnson, Giles N

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 15 years, research into the process of cyclic electron flow in photosynthesis has seen a huge resurgence. Having been considered by some in the early 1990s as a physiologically unimportant artefact, it is now recognised as essential to normal plant growth. Here, we provide an overview of the major developments covered in this special issue of photosynthesis research.

  3. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowled...

  4. Monopod Bucket Foundations Under Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a cost-reducing substructure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the energy converter operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper, a 1-g testing rig i...

  5. A New Cyclic Peptide from Schnabelia tetradonta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui DOU; Yan ZHOU; Shu lin PENG; Li Sheng DING

    2003-01-01

    A new cyclic octapeptide (schnabepeptide B) was isolated from the aerial part ofSchnabelia tetradonta (Sun) C. Y. Wu et C. Chen (Lamiaceae). Its structure was elucidated ascyclo-(NH-Trp-Gly1-Leu1-Gly2-Pro1-Pro2-Leu2-Pro3-CO) on the basis of extensive 2D NMR andMS spectra.

  6. Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published...

  7. Hopf Algebroids and Their Cyclic Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to clarify concepts of generalised symmetries in noncommutative geometry (i.e., the noncommutative analogue of groupoids and Lie algebroids) and their associated (co)homologies. These ideas are incorporated by the notion of Hopf algebroids and Hopf-cyclic (co)hom

  8. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  9. STUDY OF CYCLIC AMP IN HUMAN SEMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGNing

    1989-01-01

    It had been observed that there was a close relationship between cyclic AMP and the motility, energy metabolism, capaeitation and acrosome reaction of spermatozoa. In this study a radio-immunoassay procedure for measuring cAMP concentration in sperm and

  10. Scale invariant density perturbations from cyclic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul Howard

    2016-04-01

    It is shown how quantum fluctuations of the radiation during the contraction era of a comes back empty (CBE) cyclic cosmology can provide density fluctuations which re-enter the horizon during the subsequent expansion era and at lowest order are scale invariant, in a Harrison-Zel’dovich-Peebles sense. It is necessary to be consistent with observations of large scale structure.

  11. Hopf Algebroids and Their Cyclic Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalzig, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349755

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to clarify concepts of generalised symmetries in noncommutative geometry (i.e., the noncommutative analogue of groupoids and Lie algebroids) and their associated (co)homologies. These ideas are incorporated by the notion of Hopf algebroids and Hopf-cyclic

  12. Cyclic-di-GMP and cyclic-di-AMP activate the NLRP3 inflammasome

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Sater, Ali A.; Tattoli, Ivan; Jin, Lei; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Levi, Assaf; Koller, Beverly H.; Irving C Allen; Beaucage, Serge L.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.; Cambier, John C.; Stephen E Girardin; Schindler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides have been recently shown to induce type I interferon secretion. This study shows they also activate the NLRP3 inflammasome to stimulate robust IL-1b secretion through a novel pathway that does not generate mitochondrial ROS.

  13. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  14. A Fast and Adaptive Search Algorithm Based on Rood Pattern and Gradient Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mu-Long; Yi, Qing-Ming; Shi, Min

    In order to achieve the real-time property for video coding, a fast and adaptive algorithm based on starting search point prediction and early-termination strategy is proposed. It analyzes center-bias property and spatial correlation property of motion vector field, and utilizes the respective characteristics of block based gradient descent search (BBGDS) and adaptive rood pattern search (ARPS) algorithm. The proposed algorithm adaptively chooses different searching strategies according to the type of the image, makes full use of the cross image motion vector distribution characteristics and optimizes the traditional ARPS algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is about 2.3∼9.2 times faster than Diamond Search (DS), 1.2∼4.0 times than ARPS. The algorithm can meet the real-time demand without reducing the image quality.

  15. Tuning of a TS Fuzzy Output Regulator Using the Steepest Descent Approach and ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tapia-Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact output regulation problem for Takagi-Sugeno (TS fuzzy models, designed from linear local subsystems, may have a solution if input matrices are the same for every local linear subsystem. Unfortunately, such a condition is difficult to accomplish in general. Therefore, in this work, an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is integrated into the fuzzy controller in order to obtain the optimal fuzzy membership functions yielding adequate combination of the local regulators such that the output regulation error in steady-state is reduced, avoiding in this way the aforementioned condition. In comparison with the steepest descent method employed for tuning fuzzy controllers, ANFIS approximates the mappings between local regulators with membership functions which are not necessary known functions as Gaussian bell (gbell, sigmoidal, and triangular membership functions. Due to the structure of the fuzzy controller, Levenberg-Marquardt method is employed during the training of ANFIS.

  16. Comparative study of Financial Time Series Prediction by Artificial Neural Network with Gradient Descent Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arka

    2011-01-01

    Financial forecasting is an example of a signal processing problem which is challenging due to Small sample sizes, high noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity,but fast forecasting of stock market price is very important for strategic business planning.Present study is aimed to develop a comparative predictive model with Feedforward Multilayer Artificial Neural Network & Recurrent Time Delay Neural Network for the Financial Timeseries Prediction.This study is developed with the help of historical stockprice dataset made available by GoogleFinance.To develop this prediction model Backpropagation method with Gradient Descent learning has been implemented.Finally the Neural Net, learned with said algorithm is found to be skillful predictor for non-stationary noisy Financial Timeseries.

  17. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for high contrast imaging coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bing; Zhang, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by experimental system featured with a 140-actuators deformable mirror (DM) and a Hartmann- Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask in any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10^-3 to 10^-4.5 at angular distance of 2{\\lambda}/D after corrected by SPGD based AO.

  18. Ground impact probability distribution for small unmanned aircraft in ballistic descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Safety is a key factor in all aviation, and while years of development has made manned aviation relatively safe, the same has yet to happen for unmanned aircraft. However, the rapid development of unmanned aircraft technology means that the range of commercial and scientific applications is growing...... equally rapid. At the same time the trend in national and international regulations for unmanned aircraft is to take a risk-based approach, effectively requiring risk assessment for every flight operation. This work addresses the growing need for methods for quantitatively evaluating individual flights...... by modelling the consequences of a ballistic descent of an unmanned aircraft as a result of a major inflight incident. The presented model is a probability density function for the ground impact area based on a second order drag model with probabilistic assumptions on the least well-known parameters...

  19. Modified nonlinear conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent condition for unconstrained optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an efficient modified nonlinear conjugate gradient method for solving unconstrained optimization problems is proposed. An attractive property of the modified method is that the generated direction in each step is always descending without any line search. The global convergence result of the modified method is established under the general Wolfe line search condition. Numerical results show that the modified method is efficient and stationary by comparing with the well-known Polak-Ribiére-Polyak method, CG-DESCENT method and DSP-CG method using the unconstrained optimization problems from More and Garbow (ACM Trans Math Softw 7, 17-41, 1981, so it can be widely used in scientific computation. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010 90C26 · 65H10

  20. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio......, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. METHODS: DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using...

  1. Quantification of Plume-Soil Interaction and Excavation Due to the Sky Crane Descent Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaino, Jeffrey; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of the particulate erosion that occurs as a result of a rocket exhaust plume impinging on soil during extraterrestrial landings is critical for future robotic and human lander mission design. The aerodynamic environment that results from the reflected plumes results in dust lifting, site alteration and saltation, all of which create a potentially erosive and contaminant heavy environment for the lander vehicle and any surrounding structures. The Mars Science Lab (MSL), weighing nearly one metric ton, required higher levels of thrust from its retro propulsive systems and an entirely new descent system to minimize these effects. In this work we seek to quantify plume soil interaction and its resultant soil erosion caused by the MSL's Sky Crane descent stage engines by performing three dimensional digital terrain and elevation mapping of the Curiosity rover's landing site. Analysis of plume soil interaction altitude and time was performed by detailed examination of the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) still frames and reconstructed inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor data. Results show initial plume soil interaction from the Sky Crane's eight engines began at ground elevations greater than 60 meters and more than 25 seconds before the rovers' touchdown event. During this time, viscous shear erosion (VSE) was dominant typically resulting in dusting of the surface with flow propagating nearly parallel to the surface. As the vehicle descended and decreased to four powered engines plume-plume and plume soil interaction increased the overall erosion rate at the surface. Visibility was greatly reduced at a height of roughly 20 meters above the surface and fell to zero ground visibility shortly after. The deployment phase of the Sky Crane descent stage hovering at nearly six meters above the surface showed the greatest amount of erosion with several large particles of soil being kicked up, recirculated, and impacting the bottom of the rover chassis. Image

  2. The center of the category of bimodules and descent data for non-commutative rings

    CERN Document Server

    Agore, A L; Militaru, G

    2011-01-01

    Let $A$ be an algebra over a commutative ring $k$. We compute the center of the category of A-bimodules. There exist five isomorphic descriptions: the center equals the weak center, and can be described as categories of noncommutative descent data, comodules over the Sweedler's canonical $A$-coring or Yetter-Drinfeld type modules. We provide several applications: for instance, if $A$ is finitely generated projective over $k$ then the category of left $End_{k}(A)$-modules is braided monoidal and we give an explicit description of the braiding in terms of the finite dual basis of $A$. As another application, a new family of solutions for the quantum Yang-Baxter equation is constructed.

  3. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  4. Natural selection and the distribution of identity-by-descent in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in detecting natural selection in the human genome. Selection will usually tend to increase identity-by-descent (IBD) among individuals in a population, and many methods for detecting recent and ongoing positive selection indirectly take advantage......, we use a recently developed method for identifying IBD sharing among individuals from genome-wide data to scan populations from the new HapMap phase 3 project for regions with excess IBD sharing in order to identify regions in the human genome that have been under strong, very recent selection....... The HLA region is by far the region showing the most extreme signal, suggesting that much of the strong recent selection acting on the human genome has been immune related and acting on HLA loci. As equilibrium overdominance does not tend to increase IBD, we argue that this type of selection cannot...

  5. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  6. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of a case in a girl of Brazilian Indian descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, W D; de Lima, A A S; Vieira, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary. Background. This report describes the case of a patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), a rare but distinctive entity of viral aetiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. Case report. The condition is usually seen in children and adolescents of American Indian and Eskimo background. Surgical removal of papillomatous lesions is the treatment of choice, either for aesthetic reasons, or when the lesions interfere with function or are readily traumatized. Recurrence and the site of new lesions are unpredictable, and continued review of the patient is often necessary. The patient described here has been followed for 24 months without recurrences or changes in the aspect of the remaining lesions. Conclusion. This case highlights a possible genetic predilection for FEH, since the patient is a descent of a Brazilian Xavante Indian.

  7. A variable neighborhood descent based heuristic to solve the capacitated location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Jabal-Ameli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-routing problem (LRP is established as a new research area in the context of location analysis. The primary concern of LRP is on locating facilities and routing of vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this work, we address the capacitated LRP which arises in many practical applications within logistics and supply chain management. The objective is to minimize the overall system costs which include the fixed costs of opening depots and using vehicles at each depot site, and the variable costs associated with delivery activities. A novel heuristic is proposed which is based on variable neighborhood descent (VND algorithm to solve the resulted problem. The computational study indicates that the proposed VND based heuristic is highly competitive with the existing solution algorithms in terms of solution quality.

  8. Global Coordinate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Time in hours at Oh UT is GAST (hours) = GMST + E (41) GAST in radians is GASTo (radians) = GAST (hours) L (42) The angle e required for transforming...inertial coordinates to ECEF is- 6(radians) GASTo + 6.3003880.99 (ti - th) (43) o ~ooUT Mod ( E 27) where St.i - tohLjT = (JD -2.4 106). (JDOE -2.4 x

  9. International Monetary Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Carlberg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the international coordination of monetary policies in the world economy. It carefully discusses the process of policy competition and the structure of policy cooperation. As to policy competition, the focus is on monetary competition between Europe and America. Similarly, as to policy cooperation, the focus is on monetary cooperation between Europe and America. The spillover effects of monetary policy are negative. The policy targets are price stability and full employment.

  10. The effects of the diurnal atmospheric variability on entry, descent and landing on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landing on Mars is extremely challenging task due to the fact that the Martian atmosphere is the most hostile environment in the Solar system to perform the entry, descent and landing (EDL process, because it is thick enough to create substantial heating of the entry vehicle but not thick enough to reduce its velocity to the one necessary for safe landing. Beside this, the atmosphere is very dynamic mainly due to high eccentricity of the Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital to the equatorial plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion. Although seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters are significantly larger than the diurnal, it is very important to analyze diurnal cycles as they can significantly change vertical and horizontal atmospheric profiles in very short time intervals. This can present a serious threat to missions which have very precise timings and specific requirements such as the requirement for the daytime landing to enable ground images acquisition during the descent and landing phase. A 3-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integration routine was combined with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM to identify the dependence of the EDL profiles on the diurnal cycles of atmospheric parameters throughout the Martian year. The obtained results show that the influence of the diurnal cycles is the largest at the equator and decreases relatively symmetrically towards the poles with a slightly stronger influence in the northern hemisphere. Also, there is a significant influence of the orbital position of Mars on the effect of diurnal atmospheric variations which causes that, around the orbital perihelion and winter solstice, there is some kind of inversion of the dependance of optimal entry timing on latitude of the landing site comparing to the rest of the Martian year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002

  11. Modeling of identity-by-descent processes along a chromosome between haplotypes and their genotyped ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frederic Paul

    2011-06-01

    Identity-by-descent probabilities are important for many applications in genetics. Here we propose a method for modeling the transmission of the haplotypes from the closest genotyped relatives along an entire chromosome. The method relies on a hidden Markov model where hidden states correspond to the set of all possible origins of a haplotype within a given pedigree. Initial state probabilities are estimated from average genetic contribution of each origin to the modeled haplotype while transition probabilities are computed from recombination probabilities and pedigree relationships between the modeled haplotype and the various possible origins. The method was tested on three simulated scenarios based on real data sets from dairy cattle, Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize. The mean identity-by-descent probabilities estimated for the truly inherited parental chromosome ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 according to the design and the marker density. The lowest values were observed in regions close to crossing over or where the method was not able to discriminate between several origins due to their similarity. It is shown that the estimated probabilities were correctly calibrated. For marker imputation (or QTL allele prediction for fine mapping or genomic selection), the method was efficient, with 3.75% allelic imputation error rates on a dairy cattle data set with a low marker density map (1 SNP/Mb). The method should prove useful for situations we are facing now in experimental designs and in plant and animal breeding, where founders are genotyped with relatively high markers densities and last generation(s) genotyped with a lower-density panel.

  12. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  13. Atmospheric properties reconstruction from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Withers, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed on August 5, 2012 in Gale Crater on Mars (4.5 S, 137.4 E) [1]. The MSL entry vehicle measured accelerations and angular velocity during its descent through the Martian atmosphere using accelerometers and gyroscopes in an inertial measurement unit. We have applied smoothing techniques previously developed for the NASA Phoenix Mars mission [2] to these acceleration data. Smoothed accelerations were used in conjunction with the vehicle’s aerodynamic database to reconstruct atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles to above 120 km altitude. The density profile was estimated using axial accelerations in the drag force equation. Corresponding pressure and temperature profiles were calculated using the hydrostatic equilibrium and ideal gas law, respectively. In contrast to previous missions, MSL used a guided entry that resulted in periods of near-horizontal flight at approximately 20 km altitude [3], during which pressure could not be determined from hydrostatic equilibrium. Instead, atmospheric pressures at low altitudes were determined independently by the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) [4]. These were used in conjunction with accelerometer-derived densities to extend the atmospheric temperature profile through the period of near-horizontal flight. Although the results present only a snapshot of the regional atmospheric conditions at the time of entry, descent and landing of MSL, they have excellent vertical resolution and vertical extent, thereby complementing orbital observations. We will present an overview of our atmospheric reconstruction process, the derived atmospheric profiles, and preliminary scientific interpretation of the atmospheric results. References: [1] Vasavada, A.R. et al (2014), JGR-Planets, 119, 6, 1134-1161 [2] Withers, P. (2013) Planet. & Space Sci., 79-80, 52-55, [3] Dutta, S. et al. (2013) 23rd AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, AAS 13-309, [4] Schoenenberger, M. et al

  14. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  15. Universal mechatronics coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Patrick F.

    1999-11-01

    Mechatronic systems incorporate multiple actuators and sensor which must be properly coordinated to achieve the desired system functionality. Many mechatronic systems are designed as one-of-a-kind custom projects without consideration for facilitating future system or alterations and extensions to the current syste. Thus, subsequent changes to the system are slow, different, and costly. It has become apparent that manufacturing processes, and thus the mechatronics which embody them, need to be agile in order to more quickly and easily respond to changing customer demands or market pressures. To achieve agility, both the hardware and software of the system need to be designed such that the creation of new system and the alteration and extension of current system is fast and easy. This paper describes the design of a Universal Mechatronics Coordinator (UMC) which facilitates agile setup and changeover of coordination software for mechatronic systems. The UMC is capable of sequencing continuous and discrete actions that are programmed as stimulus-response pairs, as state machines, or a combination of the two. It facilitates the modular, reusable programing of continuous actions such as servo control algorithms, data collection code, and safety checking routines; and discrete actions such as reporting achieved states, and turning on/off binary devices. The UMC has been applied to the control of a z- theta assembly robot for the Minifactory project and is applicable to a spectrum of widely differing mechatronic systems.

  16. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  17. SCATTERING BY CYCLIC POLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS AT LARGE SCATTERING VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSMAS, M; BENOIT, H; HADZIIOANNOU, G

    1994-01-01

    General formulae allowing the evaluation of the form factors of cyclic block copolymers are established and graphs for cyclic copolymers of the form (A-B)(N) are shown. When N is large, the linear and the cyclic copolymer have the same behaviour. It is possible to extend at large angle an analytical

  18. Cyclic cocycles on deformation quantizations and higher index theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pflaum, M.J.; Posthuma, H.; Tang, X.

    2010-01-01

    We construct a nontrivial cyclic cocycle on the Weyl algebra of a symplectic vector space. Using this cyclic cocycle we construct an explicit, local, quasi-isomorphism from the complex of differential forms on a symplectic manifold to the complex of cyclic cochains of any formal deformation quantiza

  19. SCATTERING BY CYCLIC POLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS AT LARGE SCATTERING VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSMAS, M; BENOIT, H; HADZIIOANNOU, G

    1994-01-01

    General formulae allowing the evaluation of the form factors of cyclic block copolymers are established and graphs for cyclic copolymers of the form (A-B)(N) are shown. When N is large, the linear and the cyclic copolymer have the same behaviour. It is possible to extend at large angle an analytical

  20. Transient Spectroscopic Properties of [60]Fullerene-Containing Cyclic Sulphoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The properties of the triplet excited state of [60]fullerene-containing cyclic sulphoxide have been investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. Transient absorption bands of [60]fullerene-containing cyclic sulphoxide showed two decay-components, which were attributed to triplet excited states of different spin multiplicity. The properties of photoexcited states of [60]fullerene-containing cyclic sulphoxide are also reported.

  1. Cyclic cocycles on deformation quantizations and higher index theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pflaum, M.J.; Posthuma, H.; Tang, X.

    2010-01-01

    We construct a nontrivial cyclic cocycle on the Weyl algebra of a symplectic vector space. Using this cyclic cocycle we construct an explicit, local, quasi-isomorphism from the complex of differential forms on a symplectic manifold to the complex of cyclic cochains of any formal deformation

  2. Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

  3. Severe G6PD Deficiency Due to a New Missense Mutation in an Infant of Northern European Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warny, Marie; Lausen, Birgitte; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We report a term male infant born to parents of Danish descent, who on the second day of life developed jaundice peaking at 67 hours and decreasing on applied double-sided phototherapy. In the weeks following, the infant showed signs of ongoing hemolysis. Laboratory tests showed very low glucose-...

  4. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until the third…

  5. VLBI experiment with the Huygens Probe during its descent in the atmosphere of Titan : An evidence for meridional wind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei; Gurvits, Leonid; Avruch, Ian; Cimo, Giuseppe; Team, Huygens VLBI Tracking

    Phase-referencing VLBI observations of the Huygens Probe were performed during its descent in the atmosphere of Titan on 14 January 2005 using a global network of 17 radio telescopes. The Probe's position in the Titanographic frame was determined with the accuracy of about 1 km relative to a priori

  6. Sufficient Descent Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large-Scale Box-Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyu Wang

    2014-01-01

    descent method at first finite number of steps and then by conjugate gradient method subsequently. Under some appropriate conditions, we show that the algorithm converges globally. Numerical experiments and comparisons by using some box-constrained problems from CUTEr library are reported. Numerical comparisons illustrate that the proposed method is promising and competitive with the well-known method—L-BFGS-B.

  7. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: A comparative cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Güzelcan (Yener); P. van Loon (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The

  8. Interface pressure in transtibial socket during ascent and descent on stairs and its effect on patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sadeeq; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abd Razak, Nasrul Anwar Bin; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Bin

    2013-01-01

    Transtibial amputees encounter stairs and steps during their daily activities. The excessive pressure between residual limb/socket may reduce the walking capability of transtibial prosthetic users during ascent and descent on stairs. The purposes of the research were to evaluate the interface pressure between Dermo (shuttle lock) and Seal-In X5 (prosthetic valve) interface systems during stair ascent and descent, and to determine their satisfaction effects on users. Ten amputees with unilateral transtibial amputation participated in the study. Interface pressure was recorded with F-socket transducer (9811E) during stair ascent and descent at self-selected speed. Each participant filled in a questionnaire about satisfaction and problems encountered with the use of the two interface systems. The resultant mean peak pressure (kPa) was significantly lower for the Dermo interface system compared to that of the Seal-In X5 interface system at the anterior, posterior and medial regions during stair ascent (63.14 vs. 80.14, 63.14 vs. 90.44, 49.21 vs. 66.04, respectively) and descent (67.11 vs. 80.41, 64.12 vs. 88.24, 47.33 vs. 65.11, respectively). Significant statistical difference existed between the two interface systems in terms of satisfaction and problems encountered (Pstair negotiation. The qualitative survey also showed that the prosthesis users experienced fewer problems and increased satisfaction with the Dermo interface system. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anticipatory kinematics and muscle activity preceding transitions from level-ground walking to stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Joshua; Fey, Nicholas P; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-02-29

    The majority of fall-related accidents are during stair ambulation-occurring commonly at the top and bottom stairs of each flight, locations in which individuals are transitioning to stairs. Little is known about how individuals adjust their biomechanics in anticipation of walking-stair transitions. We identified the anticipatory stride mechanics of nine able-bodied individuals as they approached transitions from level ground walking to stair ascent and descent. Unlike prior investigations of stair ambulation, we analyzed two consecutive "anticipation" strides preceding the transitions strides to stairs, and tested a comprehensive set of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from both the leading and trailing legs. Subjects completed ten trials of baseline overground walking and ten trials of walking to stair ascent and descent. Deviations relative to baseline were assessed. Significant changes in mechanics and EMG occurred in the earliest anticipation strides analyzed for both ascent and descent transitions. For stair descent, these changes were consistent with observed reductions in walking speed, which occurred in all anticipation strides tested. For stair ascent, subjects maintained their speed until the swing phase of the latest anticipation stride, and changes were found that would normally be observed for decreasing speed. Given the timing and nature of the observed changes, this study has implications for enhancing intent recognition systems and evaluating fall-prone or disabled individuals, by testing their abilities to sense upcoming transitions and decelerate during locomotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid Steepest-Descent Methods for Solving Variational Inequalities Governed by Boundedly Lipschitzian and Strongly Monotone Operators

    OpenAIRE

    He Songnian; Liang Xiao-Lan

    2010-01-01

    Let be a real Hilbert space and let be a boundedly Lipschitzian and strongly monotone operator. We design three hybrid steepest descent algorithms for solving variational inequality of finding a point such that , for all , where is the set of fixed points of a strict pseudocontraction, or the set of common fixed points of finite strict pseudocontractions. Strong convergence of the algorithms is proved.

  11. Multiple Marginality and Urban Education: Community and School Socialization among Low-Income Mexican-Descent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

    2010-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the crucial social and developmental features impacting Mexican-descent youth and adolescents in low-income communities in southern California. All youth in these neighborhoods must confront and come to grips with the many environmental, socioeconomic, racial, and cultural forces they confront. However, it is the…

  12. U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) DESCENT Model Roadmap: Current Scope and Near-Term Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    format. An annotated example is provided in appendix A. Although NameList provides considerable flexibility in arranging information, DESCENT input...head, chest, spine , pelvis, and legs (figure 14). The data was compared to ARL injury tables to create injury, or incapacitation, predictions based

  13. Phonological Patterns in Normally Developing Spanish-Speaking 3-and 4-Year Olds of Puerto Rican Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study used quantitative and qualitative methodology to examine the phonological patterns of 24 3-year-old and 30 4-year-old Spanish-speaking preschoolers of Puerto Rican descent. The children acquired the sounds of their language at an early age and did not exhibit high percentages of occurrence on targeted phonological processes. (DB)

  14. Comparative Study Among Lease Square Method, Steepest Descent Method, and Conjugate Gradient Method for Atmopsheric Sounder Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study among Least Square Method: LSM, Steepest Descent Method: SDM, and Conjugate Gradient Method: CGM for atmospheric sounder data analysis (estimation of vertical profiles for water vapor is conducted. Through simulation studies, it is found that CGM shows the best estimation accuracy followed by SDM and LSM. Method dependency on atmospheric models is also clarified.

  15. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until…

  16. Load on osseointegrated fixation of a transfemoral amputee during a fall: Determination of the time and duration of descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Laurent Alain

    2010-12-01

    Mitigation of fall-related injuries for populations of transfemoral amputees fitted with a socket or an osseointegrated fixation is challenging. Wearing a protective device fitted within the prosthesis might be a possible solution, provided that issues with automated fall detection and time of deployment of the protective mechanism are solved. The first objective of this study was to give some examples of the times and durations of descent during a real forward fall of a transfemoral amputee that occurred inadvertently while attending a gait measurement session to assess the load applied on the residuum. The second objective was to present five semi-automated methods of detection of the time of descent using the load data. The load was measured directly at 200 Hz using a six-channel transducer. The average time and duration of descent were 242 ± 42 ms (145-310 ms) and 619 ± 42 ms (550-715 ms), respectively. This study demonstrated that the transition between walking and falling was characterized by times of descent that occurred sequentially. The sensitivity and specificity of an automated algorithm might be improved by combining several methods of detection based on the deviation of the loads measured from their own trends and from a template previously established.

  17. Vitamin B12 status in patients of Turkish and Dutch descent with depression: A comparative cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Güzelcan (Yener); P. van Loon (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies have shown a clear relationship between depressive disorders and vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastroenteritis and Helicobacter pylori infections can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Helicobacter pylori infections are not uncommon among people of Turkish descent in The Netherl

  18. Having a road’ : Social and spatial mobility of persons of slave and mixed descent in post-independence Central Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelckmans, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the migration trajectories of individuals of slave descent and ‘mixed descent’ (children of slave concubines) in a royal family network from the Haayre region of central Mali. Focusing on the twentieth century, it considers the extent to which social status has defined options

  19. Coherent motion of excited state cyclic ketones: The have and the have-nots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. A. B.; Stephansen, A. B.; Sølling, T. I.

    2017-09-01

    The internal conversion processes of four cyclic ketones; cyclopentanone, 2-methylcyclopentanone, 3-methylcyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are investigated by Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) photoelectron spectroscopy. A 201 nm pump accesses the second excited state (n,3s) and the ultrafast dynamics is mapped by subsequent ionization with a 350 nm probe. Three of the four investigated molecular systems show an oscillatory time-dependence in the peak position of the 3s photoelectron band, while the last one simply decays exponentially. We find that the most plausible reason for the absence of the oscillation is due to high structural similarity between the excited state and the ionic state along the active coordinate.

  20. Symmetric two-coordinate photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolskiy Yu. G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-coordinate photodiode is developed and explored on the longitudinal photoeffect, which allows to get the coordinate descriptions symmetric on the steepness and longitudinal resistance great exactness. It was shown, that the best type of the coordinate description is observed in the case of scanning by the optical probe on the central part of the photosensitive element. The ways of improvement of steepness and linear of its coordinate description were analyzed.