WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle requirements comparison

  1. Burn cycle requirements comparison of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    Burn cycle parameters and energy transfer system requirements were analyzed for an 8-m commercial tokamak reactor using four types of cycles: conventional, hybrid, internal transformer, and steady state. Not surprisingly, steady state is the best burn mode if it can be achieved. The hybrid cycle is a promising alternative to the conventional. In contrast, the internal transformer cycle does not appear attractive for the size tokamak in question

  2. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  4. Economic comparison of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The economics of the DT, DD, and DHe fusion fuel cycles are evaluated by comparison on a consistent basis. The designs for the comparison employ HT-9 structure and helium coolant; liquid lithium is used as the tritium breeding material for the DT fuel cycle. The reactors are pulsed, superconducting tokamaks, producing 1200 MW of electric power. The DT and DD designs scan a range of values of plasma beta, assuming first stability scaling laws. The results indicate that on a purely economic basis, the DT fuel cycle is superior to both of the advanced fuel cycles. Geometric factors, materials limitations, and plasma beta were seen to have an impact on the Cost of Electricity (COE). The economics for the DD fuel cycle are more strongly affected by these parameters than is the DT fuel cycle. Fuel costs are a major factor in determining the COE for the DHe fuel cycle. Based on costs directly attributable to the fuel cycle, the DT fuel cycle appears most attractive. Technological advances, improved understanding of physics, or strides in advanced energy conversion schemes may result in altering the economic ranking of the fuel cycles indicated here. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Fuel Cycle Requirements Code (FLYER). Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, E.H.; Goode, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Planning for, and the analysis of, the fuel requirements of the nuclear industry requires the ability to evaluate contingencies in many areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. The areas of nuclear fuel utilization, both uranium and plutonium, and of separative work requirements are of particular interest. The Fuel Cycle Requirements (FLYER) model has been developed to provide a flexible, easily managed tool for obtaining a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. The model allows analysis of the interactions among the nuclear capacity growth rate, reactor technology and mix, and uranium and plutonium recycling capabilities. The model was initially developed as a means of analyzing nuclear growth contingencies with particular emphasis on the uranium feed and separative work requirements. It served to provide the planning group with analyses similar to the OPA's NUFUEL code which has only recently become available for general use. The model has recently been modified to account for some features of the fuel cycle in a more explicit manner than the NUFUEL code. For instance, the uranium requirements for all reactors installed in a given year are calculated for the total lifetime of those reactors. These values are cumulated in order to indicate the total uranium committed for reactors installed by any given year of the campaign. Similarly, the interactions in the back end of the fuel cycle are handled specifically, such as, the impacts resulting from limitations on the industrial capacity for reprocessing and mixed oxide fabrication of both light water reactor and breeder fuels. The principal features of the modified FLYER code are presented in summary form

  6. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC

  7. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  8. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle requirements in WOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, P.

    1982-02-01

    OECD/NEA will publsih an updated version of its study 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements and Supply Considerations, Through the Long-Term.' The Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe (KfK) was involved in the work necessary to provide this book. Although KfK had only responsiblility for part of the required computations it performed all the calculations for its own documentation interests. This documentation was felt to be a helpful background material for the reader of the second 'Yellow Book'. In this sense the original strategy computer outprints are published now without any discussion of assumptions and results. (orig.) [de

  10. EPA requirements for the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The draft Environmental Statement issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States in preparation for Proposed Rulemaking Action concerning 'Environmental radiation protection requirements for normal operations of activities in the uranium fuel cycle' is summarized and discussed. The standards proposed by the EPA limit the annual dose equivalents to any member of the public, and also the releases of radionuclides to the 'general environment' for each gigawatt year of electrical energy produced. These standards were based on cost effectiveness arguements and levels and correspond to the ICRP recommendation to keep all exposures as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. They should be clearly distinguished from dose limits, although the EPA does not make this at all clear. The EPA seems to have shown an unexpected lack of understanding of the recommendations of ICRP Publication 9 (1965) and an apparent unawareness of ICRP Publication 22 (1973), and has therefore wrongly presented the new standards as a significant change in policy. The EPA has reviewed the information on the likely level of dose equivalents to members of the public and the likely cost reductions, thereby quantifying existing principles as applied to the fuel cycle as a whole. The EPA has stated that its proposals could be achieved as a cost in the region of Pound100,000 per death (or major genetic defect). It is pointed out that the EPA's use of the term 'waste' to exclude liquid and gaseous effluents may cause confusion. (U.K.)

  11. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under two nuclear supply scenarios. These two scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas (WOCA). A No New Orders scenarios is also presented for the Unites States. This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the WOCA projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel; discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2036, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case

  12. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moden, R.; O'Brien, B.; Sanders, L.; Steinberg, H.

    1985-01-01

    Projections of uranium requirements (both yellowcake and enrichment services) and spent fuel discharges are presented, corresponding to the nuclear power plant capacity projections presented in ''Commercial Nuclear Power 1984: Prospects for the United States and the World'' (DOE/EIA-0438(85)) and the ''Annual Energy Outlook 1984:'' (DOE/EIA-0383(84)). Domestic projections are provided through the year 2020, with foreign projections through 2000. The domestic projections through 1995 are consistent with the integrated energy forecasts in the ''Annual Energy Outlook 1984.'' Projections of capacity beyond 1995 are not part of an integrated energy foreccast; the methodology for their development is explained in ''Commercial Nuclear Power 1984.'' A range of estimates is provided in order to capture the uncertainty inherent in such forward projections. The methodology and assumptions are also stated. A glossary is provided. Two appendixes present additional material. This report is of particular interest to analysts involved in long-term planning for the disposition of radioactive waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycle. 14 figs., 18 tabs

  13. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  14. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed

  15. Electrofishing power requirements in relation to duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions we measured the electrical peak power required to immobilize (i.e., narcotize or tetanize) fish of various species and sizes with duty cycles (i.e., percentage of time a field is energized) ranging from 1.5% to 100%. Electrofishing effectiveness was closely associated with duty cycle. Duty cycles of 10-50% required the least peak power to immobilize fish; peak power requirements increased gradually above 50% duty cycle and sharply below 10%. Small duty cycles can increase field strength by making possible higher instantaneous peak voltages that allow the threshold power needed to immobilize fish to radiate farther away from the electrodes. Therefore, operating within the 10-50% range of duty cycles would allow a larger radius of immobilization action than operating with higher duty cycles. This 10-50% range of duty cycles also coincided with some of the highest margins of difference between the electrical power required to narcotize and that required to tetanize fish. This observation is worthy of note because proper use of duty cycle could help reduce the mortality associated with tetany documented by some authors. Although electrofishing with intermediate duty cycles can potentially increase effectiveness of electrofishing, our results suggest that immobilization response is not fully accounted for by duty cycle because of a potential interaction between pulse frequency and duration that requires further investigation.

  16. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the (WOCA) World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix E includes aggregated domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper References cases and through 2037, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. Annual projections of spent fuel discharges through the year 2037 for individual US reactors in the No New Orders cases are included for the first time in Appendix H. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  17. Comparison of PWR-IMF and FR fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, Petr; Zajac, Radoslav; Breza, Juraj; Necas, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a comparison of PWR (Russia origin VVER-440) cycle with improved micro-heterogeneous inert matrix fuel assemblies and FR cycle. Micro-heterogeneous combined assembly contains transmutation pins with Pu and MAs from burned uranium reprocessing and standard uranium pins. Cycle analyses were performed by HELIOS spectral code and SCALE code system. Comparison is based on fuel cycle indicators, used in the project RED-IMPACT - part of EU FP6. Advantages of both closed cycles are pointed out. (authors)

  18. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  19. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  20. Comparison of tokamak burn cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Cha, Y.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hassanein, A.M.; Kim, S.; Majumdar, S.; Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental confirmation of noninductive current drive has spawned a number of suggestions as to how this technique can be used to extend the fusion burn period and improve the reactor prospects of tokamaks. Several distinct burn cycles, which employ various combinations of Ohmic and noninductive current generation, are possible, and we will study their relative costs and benefits for both a commerical reactor as well as an INTOR-class device. We begin with a review of the burn cycle options

  1. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment

  2. A comparison of production system life cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

  3. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  4. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies--once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors achieves several recycling objectives; fast nuclear reactors achieve all of them

  5. Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication covers the broad scope of requirements for fuel cycle facilities that, in light of the experience and present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure safety for the lifetime of the facility. Topics of specific relevance include aspects of nuclear fuel generation, storage, reprocessing and disposal

  6. Fuel-cycle financing, capital requirements and sources of funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderbach, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An issue of global importance today is the economic case fro nuclear power and the conservation of precious fossil resources. An important question is whether sufficient financial resources can be attracted to the nuclear industry in order to develop a complete fuel-cycle industry capable of meeting the requirements of a global nuclear power industry. Future growth of the nuclear power industry will depend largely on the timely development of a private competitive industry covering the total fuel cycle. The report of the Edison Electric Institute on Nuclear Fuels Supply estimates that by 1985 initial capital investmentor in the nuclear fuel cycle will total US$15x10 9 and by the year 2000, US$60x10 9 will be required. Although the amount of funding projected is manageable from a global availability standpoint, there is a hesitancy to commit financial resources to certain segments of the fuel cycle, because of the many unresolved problems in connection with the nuclear industry - uncertainty regarding local and international governmental regulations and legislation, environmental and alternative technological considerations coupled with the substantial long-term capital commitments needed in each of the several segments of the processes. Activities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle have unique investment requirements, which are needed in many diverse unrelated fields such as resource development and high technology process. This paper examines sources of capital on a national scale, such as net earnings, depreciation, capital market and public subsidies; and, in the broader context, capital investments in highly industrialized and developing countries. Possible areas of government guarantees and financing; and the situation on financing fuel-cycle projects in the USA and in other countries is also discussed. Comments are included on the money market and investment climate in developing countries, particularly regarding the development of uranium resources

  7. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus in the literature. In the present work we compare these cycles in a combined cycle application with a large marine two-stroke diesel engine. We present an evaluation of the efficiency and the environmental impact, safety concerns and practical aspects of each of the cycles. A previously validated numerical engine model is combined with a turbocharger model and bottoming cycle models written in Matlab. Genetic algorithm optimisation results suggest that the Kalina cycle possess no significant advantages compared to the ORC or the steam cycle. While contributing to very high efficiencies, the organic working fluids possess high global warming potentials and hazard levels. It is concluded that the ORC has the greatest potential for increasing the fuel efficiency, and the combined cycle offers very high thermal efficiency. While being less efficient, the steam cycle has the advantages of being well proven, harmless to the environment as well as being less hazardous in comparison. - Highlights: • We compare steam, ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery in marine engines. • We evaluate the efficiency and important qualitative differences. • The Kalina cycle presents no apparent advantages. • The steam cycle is well known, harmless and has a high efficiency. • The ORC has the highest efficiency but also important drawbacks

  8. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  9. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  10. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment for the Lower and Upper Reference case scenarios were obtained from the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. Most of these projections were developed using the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) model

  11. Micronutrients in the life cycle: Requirements and sufficient supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Biesalski Hans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients (fat, protein, carbohydrates deliver energy and important material to ensure the entire body composition. Micronutrients are needed to keep this process of continuous construction and re-construction running. Consequently, the requirement for micronutrients will differ depending on the individual need which is related to the different metabolic conditions within the life cycle. Within the first 1000 days of life, from conception to the end of the second year of life the requirement for micronutrients is high and if the supply is inadequate that might have consequences for physical and at least cognitive development. In particular, iron, iodine, vitamin D and folate are micronutrients which might become critical during that period. Due to the fact that clinical symptoms of deficiencies develop late, but inadequate supply of one or more micronutrients may have consequences for health the term hidden hunger has been introduced to describe that situation. In particular the time period of pregnancy and early childhood is critical and hidden hunger is a worldwide problem, affecting >2 billion people, primarily females and children. The importance of different requirements during the life cycle is usually not considered. In addition, we do not really know what the individual requirement is. The estimation of the requirement is based on studies calculating the supply of a micronutrient to avoid a deficiency disease within a healthy population and is not based on sound scientific methodology or data. We need to consider that at different moments in the life cycle the supply might become critical in particular in case of a disease or sudden increase of metabolic turnover. In this narrative review we summarize data from studies dealing with different micronutrient requirements in pregnancy, exercise, vegan diet, adolescents and elderly. Knowledge of critical periods and related critical micronutrients might help to avoid hidden hunger and

  12. Fuel cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J E; Freese, K E [RERTR Program, Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. The status of the development and demonstration of the oxide and silicide fuels are presented in several papers in these proceedings. Routine utilization of these fuels with the uranium densities considered here requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed. Thermal-hydraulic safety margins, shutdown margins, mixed cores, and transient analyses are not addressed here, but analyses of these safety issues are in progress for a limited number of the most promising design options. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data is presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed. All safety criteria for the reactor with these fuel element designs need to be satisfied as well. With LEU oxide fuel, 31 g U/cm{sup 3} 1 and 0.76 mm--thick fuel meat, elements with 18-22 plates 320-391 g {sup 235}U) result in the same or lower total costs than with the HEU element 23 plates, 280 g {sup 235}U). Higher LEU loadings (more plates per element) are needed for larger excess reactivity requirements. However, there is little cost advantage to using more than 20 of these plates per element. Increasing the fuel meat thickness from 0.76 mm to 1.0 mm with 3.1 g U/cm{sup 3} in the design with 20 plates per element could result in significant cost reductions if the

  13. Modeling of the global carbon cycle - isotopic data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopes are powerful tools to constrain carbon cycle models. For example, the combinations of the CO 2 and the 13 C budget allows to calculate the net-carbon fluxes between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Observations of natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon allow to estimate gross carbon exchange fluxes between different reservoirs and to deduce time scales of carbon overturning in important reservoirs. 18 O in CO 2 is potentially a tool to make the deconvolution of C fluxes within the land biosphere (assimilation vs respirations). The scope of this article is to identify gaps in our present knowledge about isotopes in the light of their use as constraint for the global carbon cycle. In the following we will present a list of some future data requirements for carbon cycle models. (authors)

  14. Recovery from disturbance requires resynchronization of ecosystem nutrient cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastetter, E B; Yanai, R D; Thomas, R Q; Vadeboncoeur, M A; Fahey, T J; Fisk, M C; Kwiatkowski, B L; Hamburg, S P

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are tightly cycled in most terrestrial ecosystems, with plant uptake more than 10 times higher than the rate of supply from deposition and weathering. This near-total dependence on recycled nutrients and the stoichiometric constraints on resource use by plants and microbes mean that the two cycles have to be synchronized such that the ratio of N:P in plant uptake, litterfall, and net mineralization are nearly the same. Disturbance can disrupt this synchronization if there is a disproportionate loss of one nutrient relative to the other. We model the resynchronization of N and P cycles following harvest of a northern hardwood forest. In our simulations, nutrient loss in the harvest is small relative to postharvest losses. The low N:P ratio of harvest residue results in a preferential release of P and retention of N. The P release is in excess of plant requirements and P is lost from the active ecosystem cycle through secondary mineral formation and leaching early in succession. Because external P inputs are small, the resynchronization of the N and P cycles later in succession is achieved by a commensurate loss of N. Through succession, the ecosystem undergoes alternating periods of N limitation, then P limitation, and eventually co-limitation as the two cycles resynchronize. However, our simulations indicate that the overall rate and extent of recovery is limited by P unless a mechanism exists either to prevent the P loss early in succession (e.g., P sequestration not stoichiometrically constrained by N) or to increase the P supply to the ecosystem later in succession (e.g., biologically enhanced weathering). Our model provides a heuristic perspective from which to assess the resynchronization among tightly cycled nutrients and the effect of that resynchronization on recovery of ecosystems from disturbance.

  15. Fuel cycle financing, capital requirements and sources of funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderbach, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An issue of global importance today is the economic case for nuclear power and the conservation of precious fossil resources. A question important to all of us is can sufficient financial resources be attracted to the nuclear industry in order to develop a complete fuel cycle industry capable of meeting the requirements of a global nuclear power industry. Future growth of the nuclear power industry will depend to a large extent on the timely development of a private competitive industry covering the total fuel cycle. The report of the Edison Electric Institute on Nuclear Fuels Supply estimates that by 1985 initial capital investment in the nuclear fuel cycle will total $15 billion and by the year 2000, $60 billion will be required. Although undoubtedly the amount of funding projected is manageable from a global availability standpoint, there is a hesitancy to commit financial resources to certain segments of the fuel cycle. This is because of the many unresolved problems in connection with the nuclear industry such as uncertainty regarding local and international governmental regulations and legislation, environmental and alternative technological considerations coupled, of course, with the substantial capital long term commitments needed in each of the several segments of the processes. Activities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle have unique investment requirements. Investments are needed in many diverse unrelated fields such as resource development and high technology process some of which are not yet fully commercialized. Sources of capital will be examined on a national scale, such as net earnings, depreciation, capital market and public subsidies. The paper also examines, in the broader context, capital investments in highly industrialized and developing countries as well as discussing the possible areas of Government guarantees and financing. The intensive capital required in certain segments of the cycle, which are to be developed by private

  16. Comparison of the dielectric electroactive polymer generator energy harvesting cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generator energy harvesting cycles have been in the spotlight of the scientific interest for the past few years. Indeed, several articles have demonstrated thorough and comprehensive comparisons of the generator fundamental energy harvesting cycles......, namely Constant Charge (CC), Constant Voltage (CV) and Constant E-field (CE), based on averaged theoretical models. Yet, it has not been possible until present to validate the outcome of those comparisons via respective experimental results. In this paper, all three primary energy harvesting cycles...... are experimentally compared, based upon the coupling of a DEAP generator with a bidirectional non-isolated power electronic converter, by means of energy gain, energy harvesting efficiency and energy conversion efficiency....

  17. Safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication covers the broad scope of requirements for fuel cycle facilities that, in light of the experience and present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure safety for the lifetime of the facility. Topics of specific reference include aspects of nuclear fuel generation, storage, reprocessing and disposal. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The safety objective, concepts and safety principles; 3. Legal framework and regulatory supervision; 4. The management system and verification of safety; 5. Siting of the facility; 6. Design of the facility; 7. Construction of the facility; 8. Commissioning of the facility; 9. Operation of the facility; 10. Decommissioning of the facility; Appendix I: Requirements specific to uranium fuel fabrication facilities; Appendix II: Requirements specific to mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities; Appendix III: Requirements specific to conversion facilities and enrichment facilities

  18. Establishment of human papillomavirus infection requires cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohun Pyeon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are DNA viruses associated with major human cancers. As such there is a strong interest in developing new means, such as vaccines and microbicides, to prevent HPV infections. Developing the latter requires a better understanding of the infectious life cycle of HPVs. The HPV infectious life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the stratified epithelium it infects, with progeny virus only made in the terminally differentiating suprabasal compartment. It has long been recognized that HPV must first establish its infection within the basal layer of stratified epithelium, but why this is the case has not been understood. In part this restriction might reflect specificity of expression of entry receptors. However, this hypothesis could not fully explain the differentiation restriction of HPV infection, since many cell types can be infected with HPVs in monolayer cell culture. Here, we used chemical biology approaches to reveal that cell cycle progression through mitosis is critical for HPV infection. Using infectious HPV16 particles containing the intact viral genome, G1-synchronized human keratinocytes as hosts, and early viral gene expression as a readout for infection, we learned that the recipient cell must enter M phase (mitosis for HPV infection to take place. Late M phase inhibitors had no effect on infection, whereas G1, S, G2, and early M phase cell cycle inhibitors efficiently prevented infection. We conclude that host cells need to pass through early prophase for successful onset of transcription of the HPV encapsidated genes. These findings provide one reason why HPVs initially establish infections in the basal compartment of stratified epithelia. Only this compartment of the epithelium contains cells progressing through the cell cycle, and therefore it is only in these cells that HPVs can establish their infection. By defining a major condition for cell susceptibility to HPV infection, these

  19. Safety and economic comparison of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The DT, DD and DHe fusion fuel cycles are compared on the basis of safety and economics. The designs for the comparison employ HT-9 structure and helium coolant; liquid lithium is used as the tritium breeder for the DT fuel cycle. The reactors are pulsed superconducting tokamaks, producing 4000 MW thermal power. The DT and DD designs are developed utilizing a plasma beta of 5%, 10% and 20%, assuming first stability scaling laws; a single value of 10% for beta is used for the DHe design. Modest extrapolations of current day technology are employed, providing a reference point for the relative ranking of the fuel cycles. Technological advances and improved understanding of the physics involved may alter the relative positions from what has been determined here. 92 figs., 59 tabs

  20. Asphalt Concrete Mixtures: Requirements with regard to Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of asphalt concrete, required properties of constituent materials and their mixing ratios, is of tremendous significance and should be implemented with consideration given to the whole life cycle of those materials and the final construction. Conformity with requirements for long term performance of embedded materials is the general objective of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Therefore, within the assessment, material properties need to be evaluated with consideration given to the whole service life—from the point of embedding in the construction until their disposal or recycling. The evaluation focuses on verification of conformity with criteria set for these materials and should guarantee serviceability and performance during their whole service life. Recycling and reuse of asphalt concrete should be preferred over disposal of the material. This paper presents methodology for LCA of asphalt concrete. It was created to ensure not only applicability of the materials in the initial stage, at the point of their embedding, but their suitability in terms of normatively prescribed service performance of the final construction. Methods described and results are presented in a case study for asphalt mixture AC 11; I design.

  1. Reliability and availability requirements analysis for DEMO: fuel cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinna, T.; Borgognoni, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) will be a fusion reactor prototype designed to demonstrate the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. Two of the key elements of the engineering development of the DEMO reactor are the definitions of reliability and availability requirements (or targets). The availability target for a hypothesized Fuel Cycle has been analysed as a test case. The analysis has been done on the basis of the experience gained in operating existing tokamak fusion reactors and developing the ITER design. Plant Breakdown Structure (PBS) and Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) related to the DEMO Fuel Cycle and correlations between PBS and FBS have been identified. At first, a set of availability targets has been allocated to the various systems on the basis of their operating, protection and safety functions. 75% and 85% of availability has been allocated to the operating functions of fuelling system and tritium plant respectively. 99% of availability has been allocated to the overall systems in executing their safety functions. The chances of the systems to achieve the allocated targets have then been investigated through a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Reliability Block Diagram analysis. The following results have been obtained: 1) the target of 75% for the operations of the fuelling system looks reasonable, while the target of 85% for the operations of the whole tritium plant should be reduced to 80%, even though all the tritium plant systems can individually reach quite high availability targets, over 90% - 95%; 2) all the DEMO Fuel Cycle systems can reach the target of 99% in accomplishing their safety functions. (authors)

  2. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attempting to evaluate their data quality. Carbon dioxide well-to-pump emissions for gasoline showed a variation of 35 %, and other pollutants such as ammonia and particulate matter varied up to 100 %. Differences in allocation do not appear to explain differences in predictions. Effects of these deviations on well-to-wheels passenger vehicle and truck transportation life cycle models may be minimal for effects such as global warming potential (6 % spread), but for respiratory effects of criteria pollutants (41 % spread) and other impact categories, they can be significant. A data quality assessment of the models’ documentation revealed real differences between models in temporal and geographic representativeness, completeness, as well as transparency. Stakeholders may need to consider carefully the tradeoffs inherent when selecting a model to conduct life cycle assessments for systems that make heavy use of petroleum products. This is a qualitative and quantitative comparison of petroleum LCA models intended for an expert audience interested in better understanding the data quality of existing petroleum life cycle models and the quantitative differences between these models.

  3. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.

    2013-02-01

    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  4. Heat recovery from Diesel engines: A thermodynamic comparison between Kalina and ORC cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombarda, Paola; Invernizzi, Costante M.; Pietra, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In the context of heat recovery for electric power generation, Kalina cycle (a thermodynamic cycle using as working fluid a mixture of water and ammonia) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) represent two different eligible technologies. In this work a comparison between the thermodynamic performances of Kalina cycle and an ORC cycle, using hexamethyldisiloxane as working fluid, was conducted for the case of heat recovery from two Diesel engines, each one with an electrical power of 8900 kWe. The maximum net electric power that can be produced exploiting the heat source constituted by the exhaust gases mass flow (35 kg/s for both engines, at 346 deg. C) was calculated for the two thermodynamic cycles. Owing to the relatively low useful power, for the Kalina cycle a relatively simple plant layout was assumed. Supposing reasonable design parameters and a logarithmic mean temperature difference in the heat recovery exchanger of 50 deg. C, a net electric power of 1615 kW and of 1603 kW respectively for the Kalina and for the ORC cycle was calculated. Although the obtained useful powers are actually equal in value, the Kalina cycle requires a very high maximum pressure in order to obtain high thermodynamic performances (in our case, 100 bar against about 10 bar for the ORC cycle). So, the adoption of Kalina cycle, at least for low power level and medium-high temperature thermal sources, seems not to be justified because the gain in performance with respect to a properly optimized ORC is very small and must be obtained with a complicated plant scheme, large surface heat exchangers and particular high pressure resistant and no-corrosion materials.

  5. A comparison between thorium-uranium and low enrichment uranium cycles in the high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerles, J M

    1973-03-15

    In a previous report, it was shown that the Uranium cycle could be used as well with multi-hole block (GGA type) as with tubular elements. Now, in a F.S.V. geometry, a comparison is made between Thorium cycle and Uranium cycle. This comparison will be concerned with the physical properties of the materials, the needs of natural Uranium, the fissile material inventory and, at last, an attempt of economical considerations. In this report the cycle will be characterizd by the fertile material. So, we write ''Thorium cycle'' for Highly Enriched Uranium - Thorium cycle and ''Uranium cycle'' for low Enrichment Uranium cycle.

  6. Assessment of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Comparison between closed and open fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.; Combernoux, N.; Rostaing, C.; Vargas-Gonzalez, M.; Bruno, J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy perspectives for the current century are dominated by the anticipated significant increase of energy needs. Particularly, electricity consumption is anticipated to increase by a factor higher than two before 2050. Energy choices are considered as structuring political choices that implies a long-standing and stable policy based on objective criteria. LCA (life cycle analysis) is a structured basis for deriving relevant indicators which can allow the comparison of a wide range of impacts of different energy sources. Among the energy-mix, nuclear power is anticipated to have very low GHG-emissions. However, its viability is severely addressed by the public opinion after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, a global LCA of the French nuclear fuel cycle was performed as a reference model. Results were compared in terms of impact with other energy sources. It emphasized that the French nuclear energy is one of the less impacting energy, comparable with renewable energy. In a second, part, the French scenario was compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle scenario. It demonstrates that an open fuel cycle would require about 16% more natural uranium, would have a bigger environmental footprint on the “non radioactive indicators” and would produce a higher volume of high level radioactive waste. - Highlights: • A life cycle analysis of the French close nuclear fuel cycle is performed. • The French nuclear energy is one of the less environmental impacting energy. • The French close fuel cycle is compared to an equivalent open fuel cycle. • An open fuel cycle would have a bigger environmental impact than the French fuel cycle. • Spent nuclear fuel recycling has a positive impact on the environmental footprint

  7. Comparison of Engine Cycle Codes for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltrup, Paul J.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Bradford, John E.; Carreiro, Louis R.; Gettinger, Christopher; Komar, D. R.; McDonald, J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a one day workshop on Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine Cycle Codes held in Monterey CA in November of 2000 at the 2000 JANNAF JPM with the authors as primary participants. The objectives of the workshop were to discuss and compare the merits of existing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine cycle codes being used by government and industry to predict RBCC engine performance and interpret experimental results. These merits included physical and chemical modeling, accuracy and user friendliness. The ultimate purpose of the workshop was to identify the best codes for analyzing RBCC engines and to document any potential shortcomings, not to demonstrate the merits or deficiencies of any particular engine design. Five cases representative of the operating regimes of typical RBCC engines were used as the basis of these comparisons. These included Mach 0 sea level static and Mach 1.0 and Mach 2.5 Air-Augmented-Rocket (AAR), Mach 4 subsonic combustion ramjet or dual-mode scramjet, and Mach 8 scramjet operating modes. Specification of a generic RBCC engine geometry and concomitant component operating efficiencies, bypass ratios, fuel/oxidizer/air equivalence ratios and flight dynamic pressures were provided. The engine included an air inlet, isolator duct, axial rocket motor/injector, axial wall fuel injectors, diverging combustor, and exit nozzle. Gaseous hydrogen was used as the fuel with the rocket portion of the system using a gaseous H2/O2 propellant system to avoid cryogenic issues. The results of the workshop, even after post-workshop adjudication of differences, were surprising. They showed that the codes predicted essentially the same performance at the Mach 0 and I conditions, but progressively diverged from a common value (for example, for fuel specific impulse, Isp) as the flight Mach number increased, with the largest differences at Mach 8. The example cases and results are compared and discussed in this paper.

  8. Mass Flow Data Comparison for Comprehensive Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.; Wigeland, R.A.; Dixon, B.W.; Gehin, J.C.; Todosow, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key objectives stated in the United States Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy R and D road-map is the development of sustainable nuclear fuel cycles that improve natural resource utilisation and provide adequate capability and capacity to manage wastes produced by the fuel cycle. In order to inform this objective, an evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options has been conducted. As part of that effort, the entire fuel cycle options space was represented by 40 Evaluation Groups (EGs), and mass flow information for each of the EGs was provided by using an Analysis Example (AE). In this paper, the mass flow data of the 40 AEs are compared to inform on trends in the natural resource utilisation and nuclear waste generation. For the AEs that need enriched uranium support, the natural uranium required is high and the natural resource utilisation is generally lower than 2% regardless of the fuel cycle strategy (i.e., once-through, limited recycle, or continuous recycle). However, the utilisation could be improved by avoiding enriched uranium fuel support. The natural resource utilisation increases to more than 80% by recycling the nuclear fuel continuously without enriched uranium support. The combined mass of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW), i.e., SNF+HLW mass, is lower by using a continuous recycle option compared to a once-through fuel cycle option, because SNF mass is converted to mass of recycled products and only fission products and other process losses need to be disposed. The combined disposed mass of depleted uranium (DU), recovered uranium (RU) and thorium (RTh), i.e. DU+RU+RTh mass, has a similar trend to the uranium utilisation. For the AEs that need enriched uranium fuel, the DU and RU are the major fraction by mass of the DU+RU+RTh, which are two orders of magnitude higher in mass compared to those for the AEs that do not need enriched uranium fuel. (authors)

  9. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  10. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C 2 H 5 OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable

  11. Analysis on the fuel cycle requirements of the FR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Takashi; Horiuchi, Nobutake

    2002-01-01

    The functions of the nuclear fuel cycle amount analysis code, developed in 2001 were extended. This code is a program that calculates the change in characteristics with time of mass balance (for example, the amount of natural uranium demand, plutonium mass balance, environmental load reduction, etc.) in a nuclear fuel cycle, to examine the state of future reactor types or recycling facilities. In 2002, as for this code, calculation functions of reprocessing facilities on plutonium-thermal spent fuels, recovery uranium recycling, and multiple FR concepts were added, and the I/O function was improved according to it. Moreover, benchmark calculation to the extended amount analysis code was performed using the other tool, and it was confirmed that mass balance was calculated appropriately. Furthermore, the mass balance of a few typical FR cycle concepts was calculated in this analysis code, and the feature of each concept was clarified. (author)

  12. Analysis on the fuel cycle requirements of the FR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Takashi; Horiuchi, Nobutake

    2003-01-01

    The functions of the nuclear fuel cycle amount analysis code, developed in 2002 were extended. This code calculates the change in characteristics with time of mass balance (for example, the amount of natural uranium demand, plutonium mass balance, environmental load reduction, etc.) in nuclear fuel cycles, to examine the state of future reactor types or recycling facilities. In 2003, as for this code, calculation functions of automatic adjustment of FR capacity, LWR's recovery minor actinide (MA) recycling, were added, and the I/O function was improved according to it. Moreover, benchmark calculation to the extended amount analysis code was performed using the other tool, and it was confirmed that mass balance was calculated appropriately. Furthermore, the mass balance of a few typical FR cycle concepts was calculated with this analysis code, and the further of each concept was clarified. (author)

  13. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Millwater, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semielliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT versus SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  14. Technical comparison between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Andres Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Federal University of Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil). Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation - NEST], e-mails: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Among the emerging clean coal technologies for power generation, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) systems are receiving considerable attention as a potentially attractive option to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The main reason is because these systems has high efficiency and low emissions in comparison with traditional power generation plants. Currently in IGCC and NGCC systems at demonstration stage is been considered to implement CCS technology. CO{sub 2} emissions can be avoided in a gasification-based power plant because by transferring almost all carbon compounds to CO{sub 2} through the water gas shift (WGS) reaction, then removing the CO{sub 2} before it is diluted in the combustion stage. The aim of this study is to compare the technical performance of an IGCC system that uses Brazilian coal and petroleum coke as fuel with a NGCC system, with the same fixed output power of 450 MW. The first section of this paper presents the plant configurations of IGCC systems. The following section presents an analysis of NGCC technology. (author)

  15. Meeting the special requirements of the fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle industry is generally thriving, despite the slow-down in nuclear power plant construction. Turnover is expected to grow from the present Pound4.7 billion to Pound12 billion in 1985 and nearly Pound16 billion in 1988. The emerging fuel cycle companies have large demands for investment and working capital but are not yet financially strong. Utilities also are finding the funding of fuel onerous. Special nuclear fuel finance companies have been formed to help both satisfy their financing needs. A particular problem is the security of loans and much creative thinking is being applied to the use of contracts as collaterals. (U.K.)

  16. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions

  17. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Park

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy

  18. Comparison for thorium fuel cycle facilities of two different capacities for implementation of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangotra, Suresh; Grover, R.B.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Facilities for implementation of safeguards for thorium fuel cycle have been compared. • Two concepts have been compared. • In one concept, the facilities are designed in hub and spoke concept. • In second concept the facilities are designed as self-contained concept. • The comparison is done on a number of factors, which affect safeguardability and proliferation resistance. -- Abstract: Thorium based nuclear fuel cycle has many attractive features, its inherent proliferation resistance being one of them. This is due to the presence of high energy gamma emitting daughter products of U 232 associated with U 233 . This high energy gamma radiation also poses challenges in nuclear material accounting. A typical thorium fuel cycle facility has a number of plants including a fuel fabrication plant for initial and equilibrium core, a reprocessed U 233 fuel fabrication plant, a reprocessing plant, a fuel assembly/disassembly plant and associated waste handling and management plants. A thorium fuel cycle facility can be set up to serve reactors at a site. Alternatively, one can follow a hub and spoke approach with a large thorium fuel cycle facility acting as a hub, catering to the requirements of reactors at several sites as spokes. These two concepts have their respective merits and shortcomings in terms of engineering and economics. The present paper is aimed at comparing the merits and challenges for implementation of safeguards on the two concepts viz. a large fuel cycle hub catering to reactors at several sites versus a small fuel cycle facility dedicated to reactors at a single site

  19. Comparison for thorium fuel cycle facilities of two different capacities for implementation of safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangotra, Suresh, E-mail: sgangotra@yahoo.co.in; Grover, R.B.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Facilities for implementation of safeguards for thorium fuel cycle have been compared. • Two concepts have been compared. • In one concept, the facilities are designed in hub and spoke concept. • In second concept the facilities are designed as self-contained concept. • The comparison is done on a number of factors, which affect safeguardability and proliferation resistance. -- Abstract: Thorium based nuclear fuel cycle has many attractive features, its inherent proliferation resistance being one of them. This is due to the presence of high energy gamma emitting daughter products of U{sup 232} associated with U{sup 233}. This high energy gamma radiation also poses challenges in nuclear material accounting. A typical thorium fuel cycle facility has a number of plants including a fuel fabrication plant for initial and equilibrium core, a reprocessed U{sup 233} fuel fabrication plant, a reprocessing plant, a fuel assembly/disassembly plant and associated waste handling and management plants. A thorium fuel cycle facility can be set up to serve reactors at a site. Alternatively, one can follow a hub and spoke approach with a large thorium fuel cycle facility acting as a hub, catering to the requirements of reactors at several sites as spokes. These two concepts have their respective merits and shortcomings in terms of engineering and economics. The present paper is aimed at comparing the merits and challenges for implementation of safeguards on the two concepts viz. a large fuel cycle hub catering to reactors at several sites versus a small fuel cycle facility dedicated to reactors at a single site.

  20. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNLs Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts

  1. Development and comparison of different advanced absorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arh, S; Gaspersic, B [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubjana (YU)

    1990-01-01

    A method for the calculation of the coefficient of performance for any absorption cycle is described. This method was used for the evaluation of different advanced absorption cycles working between four temperature and two or three pressure levels. Similar cycles were compared in the same temperature range with regard to the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency and two working fluid pairs, NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O-LiBr. Cycles and numerical results are presented and a computer-aided absorption cycle development system described. (author).

  2. A comparison of advanced heat recovery power cycles in a combined cycle for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Sigthorsson, Oskar; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Strong motivation exists within the marine sector to reduce fuel expenses and to comply with ever stricter emission regulations. Heat recovery can address both of these issues. The ORC (organic Rankine cycle), the Kalina cycle and the steam Rankine cycle have received the majority of the focus...... fluids possess high global warming potentials and hazard levels. It is concluded that the ORC has the greatest potential for increasing the fuel efficiency, and the combined cycle offers very high thermal efficiency. While being less efficient, the steam cycle has the advantages of being well proven...

  3. Gender differences in recreational and transport cycling: a cross-sectional mixed-methods comparison of cycling patterns, motivators, and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender differences in cycling are well-documented. However, most analyses of gender differences make broad comparisons, with few studies modeling male and female cycling patterns separately for recreational and transport cycling. This modeling is important, in order to improve our efforts to promote cycling to women and men in countries like Australia with low rates of transport cycling. The main aim of this study was to examine gender differences in cycling patterns and i...

  4. Measuring business cycles in The Netherlands, 1815-1913: a comparison of business cycle dating methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bonenkamp, Jan; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares different business cycle dating methods both on theoretical and practical grounds. Weighing the pros and cons of these methods, and based on a new data set for The Netherlands in the nineteenth century, we finally recommend two preferred methods for doing further business cycle research on the economy of the Netherlands. With respect to the methods for finding turning points in the level of economic activity, the classical cycle definition, we prefer the Bry-Boschan algori...

  5. Exergoeconomic comparison of TLC (trilateral Rankine cycle), ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle using a low grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Mehr, A.S.; Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the TLC (trilateral power cycle) has attracted significant interest as it provides better matching between the temperature profiles in the evaporator compared to conventional power cycles. This article investigates the performance of this cycle and compares it with those for the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and the Kalina cycle, from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and thermoeconomics. A low-grade heat source with a temperature of 120 °C is considered for all the three systems. Parametric studies are performed for the systems for several working fluids in the ORC and TLC. The systems are then optimized for either maximum net output power or minimum product cost, using the EES (engineering equation solver) software. The results for the TLC indicate that an increase in the expander inlet temperature leads to an increase in net output power and a decrease in product cost for this power plant, whereas this is not the case for the ORC system. It is found that, although the TLC can achieve a higher net output power compared with the ORC and Kalina (KCS11 (Kalina cycle system 11)) systems, its product cost is greatly affected by the expander isentropic efficiency. It is also revealed that using n-butane as the working fluid can result in the lowest product cost in the ORC and the TLC. In addition, it is observed that, for both the ORC and Kalina systems, the optimum operating condition for maximum net output power differs from that for minimum product cost. - Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analysis of trilateral Rankine cycle is performed. • The system performance is compared with Organic Rankine and Kalina cycles. • Net power from trilateral Rankine cycle is higher than the other power systems. • Superiority of trilateral cycle depends on its expander isentropic efficiency

  6. Underwater Cycle Ergometry: Power Requirements With and Without Diver Thermal Dress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2009-01-01

    .... An ongoing problem has been that, although the power requirement of cycling in the water is known to be greater than that in air for the same ergometer setting, the magnitude of the difference...

  7. Comparison between theoretical values foreseen and measured during the commissioning of second cycle of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelkorte, G.; Dias, A.M.; Sakai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the most important results of the comparison of the data measured during the start-up tests for the second cycle of Angra 1 with the calculated values for this cycle. This short comparison considered the following quantities: Critical boron concentration, Control rod worths, Isothermal temperature coefficient, Reaction rates of the incore detector system. The calculated results showed good agreement with the measured ones remaining within the acceptation criteria limits, confirming the fuel management calculations for the second cycle, namely that for the reload scheme obtained, the core is capable of operating at nominal power safety and without restrictions. (author) [pt

  8. A comparison of exchange economies within a monetary business cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benk, S.; Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    -, E2005/14 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1749-6101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : cash-in-advance * credit production * monetary business cycle Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/carbs/econ/workingpapers/papers/2005_14.pdf

  9. A comparison of improved power plant technologies on lignite with (PFBC) and (IGCC) cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Ilija

    1997-01-01

    Technologies and process diagrams descriptions for PFBC (Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) are presented as for improved cycles with modern clean coal technologies, the most popular currently. A special attention is paid to the possibilities for Macedonian lignites use on the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles. The comparison of the above mention technologies has been done particularly on the desulfurization, NO x reduction, ash elimination and its use in the building and construction industries. A comparison between the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles is made by the following criteria: cycle efficiency, desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, power plant complexity and their cost, as well as plant reliability. (Author)

  10. A comparison of exchange economies within a monetary business cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benk, S.; Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2005), s. 542-562 ISSN 1463-6786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/2172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary business cycle * credit model Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9957.2005.00458.x

  11. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    -based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  12. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miron, Adrian; Valentine, Joshua; Christenson, John; Hawwari, Majd; Bhatt, Santosh; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Lineberry, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), University of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  13. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  14. Centriole maturation requires regulated Plk1 activity during two consecutive cell cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dong; Farmer, Veronica; Shukla, Anil; James, Jana; Gruskin, Richard; Kiriyama, Shigeo; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2014-09-29

    Newly formed centrioles in cycling cells undergo a maturation process that is almost two cell cycles long before they become competent to function as microtubule-organizing centers and basal bodies. As a result, each cell contains three generations of centrioles, only one of which is able to form cilia. It is not known how this long and complex process is regulated. We show that controlled Plk1 activity is required for gradual biochemical and structural maturation of the centrioles and timely appendage assembly. Inhibition of Plk1 impeded accumulation of appendage proteins and appendage formation. Unscheduled Plk1 activity, either in cycling or interphase-arrested cells, accelerated centriole maturation and appendage and cilia formation on the nascent centrioles, erasing the age difference between centrioles in one cell. These findings provide a new understanding of how the centriole cycle is regulated and how proper cilia and centrosome numbers are maintained in the cells.

  15. Uranium requirements for advanced fuel cycles in expanding nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Tamm, H.

    1978-01-01

    When considering advanced fuel cycle strategies in rapidly expanding nuclear power systems, equilibrium analyses do not apply. A computer simulation that accounts for system delay times and fissile inventories has been used to study the effects of different fuel cycles and different power growth rates on uranium consumption. The results show that for a given expansion rate of installed capacity, the main factors that affect resource requirements are the fissile inventory needed to introduce the advanced fuel cycle and the conversion (or breeding) ratio. In rapidly expanding systems, the effect of fissile inventory dominates, whereas in slowly expanding systems, conversion or breeding ratio dominates. Heavy-water-moderated and -cooled reactors, with their high conversion ratios, appear to be adaptable vehicles for accommodating fuel cycles covering a wide range of initial fissile inventories. They are therefore particularly suitable for conserving uranium over a wide range of nuclear power system expansion rates

  16. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis

  17. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  18. Comparison of air-standard rectangular cycles with different specific heat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Ge, Yanlin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-standard rectangular cycle models are built and investigated. • Finite-time thermodynamics is applied. • Different dissipation models and variable specific heats models are adopted. • Performance characteristics of different cycle models are compared. - Abstract: In this paper, performance comparison of air-standard rectangular cycles with constant specific heat (SH), linear variable SH and non-linear variable SH are conducted by using finite time thermodynamics. The power output and efficiency of each cycle model and the characteristic curves of power output versus compression ratio, efficiency versus compression ratio, as well as power output versus efficiency are obtained by taking heat transfer loss (HTL) and friction loss (FL) into account. The influences of HTL, FL and SH on cycle performance are analyzed by detailed numerical examples.

  19. A comparison of an algorithm for automated sequential beam orientation selection (Cycle) with simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woudstra, Evert; Heijmen, Ben J M; Storchi, Pascal R M

    2008-01-01

    Some time ago we developed and published a new deterministic algorithm (called Cycle) for automatic selection of beam orientations in radiotherapy. This algorithm is a plan generation process aiming at the prescribed PTV dose within hard dose and dose-volume constraints. The algorithm allows a large number of input orientations to be used and selects only the most efficient orientations, surviving the selection process. Efficiency is determined by a score function and is more or less equal to the extent of uninhibited access to the PTV for a specific beam during the selection process. In this paper we compare the capabilities of fast-simulated annealing (FSA) and Cycle for cases where local optima are supposed to be present. Five pancreas and five oesophagus cases previously treated in our institute were selected for this comparison. Plans were generated for FSA and Cycle, using the same hard dose and dose-volume constraints, and the largest possible achieved PTV doses as obtained from these algorithms were compared. The largest achieved PTV dose values were generally very similar for the two algorithms. In some cases FSA resulted in a slightly higher PTV dose than Cycle, at the cost of switching on substantially more beam orientations than Cycle. In other cases, when Cycle generated the solution with the highest PTV dose using only a limited number of non-zero weight beams, FSA seemed to have some difficulty in switching off the unfavourable directions. Cycle was faster than FSA, especially for large-dimensional feasible spaces. In conclusion, for the cases studied in this paper, we have found that despite the inherent drawback of sequential search as used by Cycle (where Cycle could probably get trapped in a local optimum), Cycle is nevertheless able to find comparable or sometimes slightly better treatment plans in comparison with FSA (which in theory finds the global optimum) especially in large-dimensional beam weight spaces

  20. Performance comparison of three trigeneration systems using organic rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Hamdullahpur, Feridun; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, energetic performance comparison of three trigeneration systems is presented. The systems considered are SOFC-trigeneration, biomass-trigeneration, and solar-trigeneration systems. This study compares the performance of the systems considered when there is only electrical power and the efficiency improvement of these systems when there is trigeneration. Different key output parameters are examined: energy efficiency, net electrical power, electrical to heating and cooling ratios, and (GHG) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. This study shows that the SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency among the three systems. Alternatively, when trigeneration is used, the efficiencies of all three systems considered increase considerably. The maximum trigeneration efficiency of the SOFC-trigeneration system is around 76% while it is around 90% for the biomass-trigeneration system. On the other hand, the maximum trigeneration efficiencies of the solar-trigeneration system is around 90% for the solar mode, 45% for storage and storage mode, and 41% for the storage mode. In addition, this study shows that the emissions of CO 2 in kg per MWh of electrical power are high for the biomass-trigeneration and SOFC-trigeneration systems. However, by considering the emissions per MWh of trigeneration, their values drop to less than one fourth. -- Highlights: → We have compared the energetic performance of three potential trigeneration systems. → These systems are SOFC, biomass, and solar-trigeneration systems. → The SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency. → The trigeneration efficiencies of the biomass-trigeneration system and solar mode of the solar-trigeneration system are the highest. → The CO 2 emissions per MWh of combined cooling, heating, and power production drop significantly when trigeneration is used.

  1. Crosscutting Requirements in the International Project on Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steur, Ronald; Lyubenov Yaven, Yanko; Gueorguiev, Boris; Mahadeva, Rao; Shen, Wenquan

    2002-01-01

    There are two categories of requirements: (i) user requirements that need to be met by the designers and manufacturers of innovative reactors and fuel cycles, and (ii) a wide spectrum of requirements that need to be met by countries, willing to successfully deploy innovative nuclear reactors for energy production. This part of the International Project on Innovative Reactors and Fuel Cycles will mainly deal with the second category of requirements. Both categories of requirements will vary depending on the institutional development, infrastructure availability and social attitude in any given country. Out of the need for sustainable development requirements will also more specific in the future. Over a 50-year time frame both categories of requirements will evolve with social and economic development as nuclear technology develops further. For example, the deployment of innovative reactors in countries with marginal or non-existing nuclear infrastructures would be possible only if the reactors are built, owned and operated by an international nuclear utility or if they are inherently safe and can be delivered as a 'black box - nuclear battery'. A number of issues will need to be addressed and conditions and requirements developed if this is going to become a reality. One general requirement for wider utilization of innovative nuclear power will be the public and environmental considerations, which will play a role in the decision making processes. Five main clusters of topics will be handled: - Infra-structural aspects, typology and consequences for nuclear development. - Industrial requirements for the different innovative concepts. - Institutional developments and requirements for future deployment of nuclear energy. (National as well as international) - Socio-political aspects, a.o. public acceptance and role of governments. - Sustainability: requirements following the need for sustainability Analysis will be made of the evolution of national and international

  2. Comparison of different back end fuel cycle concepts and evaluation of their feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetke, K.; Baumgaertel, G.; Bechthold, W.; Becker, R.; Closs, K.D.; Dippel, T.; Engelmann, H.J.; Fischer, P.M.; Fischer, U.; Haug, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    The study represents a comparison between the two alternative back end fuel cycle concepts, i.e., the 'integrated back end fuel cycle concept', (reprocessing, recycling of uranium and plutonium) and the 'spent fuel disposal concept', under aspects of technical feasibility, radiation accidents, radiological impact, and energy policy as well as with respect of the proliferation hazards issuing from each of these concepts. An overall comparison of the two back end fuel cycle concepts and the two fuel cycles, respectively, is not yet feasible at the present time, pending clarification of a number of problems of detail. For this reason, the Study also indicates the research activities that must still be carried out on spent fuel disposal in the next few years, in order to allow the comparison of the two back end fuel cycle alternatives to be carried out with respect to safety, as demanded by the heads of government of the Federal Republic and the Federal States for the mid-eighties. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Identification and Comparison of Requirements Placed on Brand Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Wroblowská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article: Building a strong brand is difficult, even when viewing brands as an essential asset of the company is a lasting trend. So for brand managers to succeed in their job roles, they must possess knowledge, skills, and relevant personality traits. The purpose of the author’s work was to provide the insight into the offering of brand manager’s posts in the Czech Republic and to analyze the collected data with the special interest in finding the answer, whether the employers see a brand manager as a knowledge worker. Methodology/methods: For a successful empirical research, the content analysis method by Berelson was used to study the texts in recruitment advertisements. The statistical verification of results was conducted using the chi-squared test. Scientific aim: The goal of the primary survey was to provide answers to the research questions, which arise from the following research assumption: (1 the set of requirements for candidates for the job of Brand Manager will confirm that a brand manager is one of the workers who have skills and personality prerequisites expected for knowledge workers and (2 after the period of economic recession and despite the oncoming recovery, employers do not concede their requirements placed on candidates for the job of Brand Manager. Findings: The results of the actual research project confirmed a fundamental need of excellent communication skills (69.6%, a high degree of creativity (51.8% and analytical ability (42.9% of candidates for the position “Brand Manager”. During the comparison of the data results gathered in 2007 there were recorded some differences. Statistical verification confirmed the shift of requirements in the group of traits and skills connected to motivation and self-control. The results also showed significant differences in the analysed group of ads for the position of “Brand Manager” and “Product Manager” in almost all groups of psychological

  4. KWIKPLAN: a computer program for projecting the annual requirements of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Kee, C.W.

    1977-06-01

    The computer code KWIKPLAN was written to facilitate the calculation of projected nuclear fuel cycle activities. Using given projections of power generation, the code calculates annual requirements for fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, uranium mining, and plutonium use and production. The code uses installed capacity projections and mass flow data for six types of reactors to calculate projected fuel cycle activities and inventories. It calculates fissile uranium and plutonium flows and inventories after allowing for an economy with limited reprocessing capacity and a backlog of unreprocessed fuel. All calculations are made on a quarterly basis; printed and punched output of the projected fuel cycle activities are made on an annual basis. Since the punched information is used in another code to determine waste inventories, the code punches a table from which the effective average burnup can be calculated for the fuel being reprocessed

  5. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  6. Comparison of the Environment, Health, And Safety Characteristics of Advanced Thorium- Uranium and Uranium-Plutonium Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Timothy M.

    The environment, health, and safety properties of thorium-uranium-based (''thorium'') fuel cycles are estimated and compared to those of analogous uranium-plutonium-based (''uranium'') fuel cycle options. A structured assessment methodology for assessing and comparing fuel cycle is refined and applied to several reference fuel cycle options. Resource recovery as a measure of environmental sustainability for thorium is explored in depth in terms of resource availability, chemical processing requirements, and radiological impacts. A review of available experience and recent practices indicates that near-term thorium recovery will occur as a by-product of mining for other commodities, particularly titanium. The characterization of actively-mined global titanium, uranium, rare earth element, and iron deposits reveals that by-product thorium recovery would be sufficient to satisfy even the most intensive nuclear demand for thorium at least six times over. Chemical flowsheet analysis indicates that the consumption of strong acids and bases associated with thorium resource recovery is 3-4 times larger than for uranium recovery, with the comparison of other chemical types being less distinct. Radiologically, thorium recovery imparts about one order of magnitude larger of a collective occupational dose than uranium recovery. Moving to the entire fuel cycle, four fuel cycle options are compared: a limited-recycle (''modified-open'') uranium fuel cycle, a modified-open thorium fuel cycle, a full-recycle (''closed'') uranium fuel cycle, and a closed thorium fuel cycle. A combination of existing data and calculations using SCALE are used to develop material balances for the four fuel cycle options. The fuel cycle options are compared on the bases of resource sustainability, waste management (both low- and high-level waste, including used nuclear fuel), and occupational radiological impacts. At steady-state, occupational doses somewhat favor the closed thorium option while low

  7. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bandura

    Full Text Available The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+ reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  8. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Jiang, Huaqi; Nickerson, Derek W; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+) reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  9. REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  10. A Model-Model and Data-Model Comparison for the Early Eocene Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Huber, Matthew; Heinemann, Malte; Kiehl, Jeffrey; LeGrande, Allegra; Loptson, Claire A.; Roberts, Chris D.; Sagoo, Navjit; Shields, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A range of proxy observations have recently provided constraints on how Earth's hydrological cycle responded to early Eocene climatic changes. However, comparisons of proxy data to general circulation model (GCM) simulated hydrology are limited and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised. In this work, we undertake an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation and P - E distributions within the extended EoMIP ensemble (Eocene Modelling Intercomparison Project; Lunt et al., 2012), which includes previously published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure, and precipitation-relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle, manifested in enhanced global precipitation and evaporation rates, is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to the preindustrial conditions. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, resulting in elevated temperatures, although the effects of differences in paleogeography and ice sheets are also important in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely arising from different simulated surface air temperatures. Models with a similar global sensitivity of precipitation rate to temperature (dP=dT ) display different regional precipitation responses for a given temperature change. Regions that are particularly sensitive to model choice include the South Pacific, tropical Africa, and the Peri-Tethys, which may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of early and middle Eocene leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with the GCM output illustrates that GCMs generally underestimate precipitation rates at high latitudes, although a possible seasonal bias of the proxies cannot be excluded. Models which warm these regions, either via elevated CO2 or by varying poorly constrained model parameter values, are most successful in simulating a

  11. Understanding the life cycle surface land requirements of natural gas-fired electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Sarah M.; Heath, Garvin A.; Macknick, Jordan; Bush, Brian W.; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Ben-Horin, Dan; Urrea, Victoria; Marceau, Danielle

    2017-10-01

    The surface land use of fossil fuel acquisition and utilization has not been well characterized, inhibiting consistent comparisons of different electricity generation technologies. Here we present a method for robust estimation of the life cycle land use of electricity generated from natural gas through a case study that includes inventories of infrastructure, satellite imagery and well-level production. Approximately 500 sites in the Barnett Shale of Texas were sampled across five life cycle stages (production, gathering, processing, transmission and power generation). Total land use (0.62 m2 MWh-1, 95% confidence intervals ±0.01 m2 MWh-1) was dominated by midstream infrastructure, particularly pipelines (74%). Our results were sensitive to power plant heat rate (85-190% of the base case), facility lifetime (89-169%), number of wells per site (16-100%), well lifetime (92-154%) and pipeline right of way (58-142%). When replicated for other gas-producing regions and different fuels, our approach offers a route to enable empirically grounded comparisons of the land footprint of energy choices.

  12. IAEA safety requirements for safety assessment of fuel cycle facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorises the Agency to establish standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property. In that respect, the IAEA has established a Safety Fundamentals publication which contains ten safety principles for ensuring the protection of workers, the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation. A number of these principles require safety assessments to be carried out as a means of evaluating compliance with safety requirements for all nuclear facilities and activities and to determine the measures that need to be taken to ensure safety. The safety assessments are required to be carried out and documented by the organisation responsible for operating the facility or conducting the activity, are to be independently verified and are to be submitted to the regulatory body as part of the licensing or authorisation process. In addition to the principles of the Safety Fundamentals, the IAEA establishes requirements that must be met to ensure the protection of people and the environment and which are governed by the principles in the Safety Fundamentals. The IAEA's Safety Requirements publication 'Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities', establishes the safety requirements that need to be fulfilled in conducting and maintaining safety assessments for the lifetime of facilities and activities, with specific attention to defence in depth and the requirement for a graded approach to the application of these safety requirements across the wide range of fuel cycle facilities and activities. Requirements for independent verification of the safety assessment that needs to be carried out by the operating organisation, including the requirement for the safety assessment to be periodically reviewed and updated are also covered. For many fuel cycle facilities and activities, environmental impact assessments and non-radiological risk assessments will be required. The

  13. DNA adenine methylation is required to replicate both Vibrio cholerae chromosomes once per cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarre, Gaëlle; Chattoraj, Dhruba K

    2010-05-06

    DNA adenine methylation is widely used to control many DNA transactions, including replication. In Escherichia coli, methylation serves to silence newly synthesized (hemimethylated) sister origins. SeqA, a protein that binds to hemimethylated DNA, mediates the silencing, and this is necessary to restrict replication to once per cell cycle. The methylation, however, is not essential for replication initiation per se but appeared so when the origins (oriI and oriII) of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes were used to drive plasmid replication in E. coli. Here we show that, as in the case of E. coli, methylation is not essential for oriI when it drives chromosomal replication and is needed for once-per-cell-cycle replication in a SeqA-dependent fashion. We found that oriII also needs SeqA for once-per-cell-cycle replication and, additionally, full methylation for efficient initiator binding. The requirement for initiator binding might suffice to make methylation an essential function in V. cholerae. The structure of oriII suggests that it originated from a plasmid, but unlike plasmids, oriII makes use of methylation for once-per-cell-cycle replication, the norm for chromosomal but not plasmid replication.

  14. DNA adenine methylation is required to replicate both Vibrio cholerae chromosomes once per cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Demarre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA adenine methylation is widely used to control many DNA transactions, including replication. In Escherichia coli, methylation serves to silence newly synthesized (hemimethylated sister origins. SeqA, a protein that binds to hemimethylated DNA, mediates the silencing, and this is necessary to restrict replication to once per cell cycle. The methylation, however, is not essential for replication initiation per se but appeared so when the origins (oriI and oriII of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes were used to drive plasmid replication in E. coli. Here we show that, as in the case of E. coli, methylation is not essential for oriI when it drives chromosomal replication and is needed for once-per-cell-cycle replication in a SeqA-dependent fashion. We found that oriII also needs SeqA for once-per-cell-cycle replication and, additionally, full methylation for efficient initiator binding. The requirement for initiator binding might suffice to make methylation an essential function in V. cholerae. The structure of oriII suggests that it originated from a plasmid, but unlike plasmids, oriII makes use of methylation for once-per-cell-cycle replication, the norm for chromosomal but not plasmid replication.

  15. Comparison of several hydrological cycle parameters in Croatia for two periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandzic, Kreso; Trninic, Dusan

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of several hydrological cycle parameter averages for two periods in Croatia is considered. Parameters are: yearly averages of: 2m air temperature, precipitation amounts, potential and real evapotranspiration amounts. A basic period (1951-1980) and period for comparison (1981-1997) have been chosen. (These periods accepted at The First Sub-Regional Expert Meeting on the 'Assesment of Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Cycles in South-Eastern Europe' held in Sofia (Bulgaria) 17-20 February 1999.) Differences between two period averages for 30 weather stations have been calculated. Temperature differences and those for potential evaporation are positive while for precipitation they are mainly negative. Real evaporation differences for two periods are an exception i.e. they are positive in continental but negative in Mediterranean part of Croatia. These results agree with global warming trend. (Author)

  16. Comparison of the Net Work Output between Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Costa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare Stirling and Ericsson cycles to determine which engine produces greater net work output for various situations. Both cycles are for external heat engines that utilize regenerators, where the difference is the nature of the regeneration process, which is constant volume for Stirling and constant pressure for Ericsson. This difference alters the performance characteristics of the two engines drastically, and our comparison reveals which one produces greater net work output based on the thermodynamic parameters. The net work output equations are derived and analysed for three different scenarios: (i equal mass and temperature limits; (ii equal mass and pressure or volume; and (iii equal temperature and pressure or volume limits. The comparison is performed by calculating when both cycles produce equal net work output and then analysing which one produces greater net work output based on how the parameters are varied. In general, the results demonstrate that Stirling engines produce more net work output at higher pressures and lower volumes, and Ericsson engines produce more net work output at lower pressures and higher volumes. For certain scenarios, threshold values are calculated to illustrate precisely when one cycle produces more net work output than the other. This paper can be used to inform the design of the engines and to determine when a Stirling or Ericsson engine should be selected for a particular application.

  17. Thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles for multi-stream waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Tang, Qikui; Wang, Mengying; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles (KC) for multi-stream waste heat recovery. • Divide waste heat into straight, convex and concave based on its composite curve. • Use heat ratio and temperature of the most point to show the feature of waste heat. • KC is suitable for straight and most concave heat, while ORC for convex one. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and Kalina cycle are the main technologies to recover waste heat for power generation. Up to now, many works dealing with the thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles are available, but these studies considered for heat recovery from a single heat source or stream. In the process industry, there are multiple waste heat streams, forming a complex heat source profile. In this paper, based on the simulation model developed in the Aspen Hysys software, the two cycles are calculated and compared. According to the waste heat composite curve, the multi-stream waste heat is divided into three kinds, straight, convex, and concave waste heat. Two parameters, the ratio of the heat above and below the most salient/concave point (R) and the temperature of the most point, are used to roughly express the feature of waste heat. With the efficiency from waste heat (exergy) to power as energy performance indicator, the calculation results for waste heat with maximum supply temperature 180 °C show that for straight and concave waste heat with R not less than 0.2, Kalina cycle is better than ORC, while for convex waste heat, ORC is preferable. The work can provide a reference to choose a suitable technology to recover low temperature waste heat for power generation in the process industry.

  18. A comparison of advanced thermal cycles suitable for upgrading existing power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyen, G.; Kalitventzeff, B.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the constant growth of electricity usage and public pressure to reduce the dependence on nuclear power plants in the energy supply, solutions are sought to increase the capacity of power plants using fossil fuels. Highly efficient cycles are available: gas turbines combined with waste heat boilers and steam cycles are able to achieve efficiencies above 50-55%. However building new plants requires a large amount of capital.Alternative proposals are based on upgrades of existing plants : capital savings are expected by reusing part of the facilities. In the present study, three parallel proposals are compared on the basis of exergy efficiency; cost of investment and flexibility of operation are also discussed. They are compared with classical Rankine cycle and state of the art combined cycles. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Patricia M., E-mail: pmg24@drexel.edu [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States); Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  20. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Patricia M.; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  1. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  3. Gender differences in recreational and transport cycling: a cross-sectional mixed-methods comparison of cycling patterns, motivators, and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2012-09-08

    Gender differences in cycling are well-documented. However, most analyses of gender differences make broad comparisons, with few studies modeling male and female cycling patterns separately for recreational and transport cycling. This modeling is important, in order to improve our efforts to promote cycling to women and men in countries like Australia with low rates of transport cycling. The main aim of this study was to examine gender differences in cycling patterns and in motivators and constraints to cycling, separately for recreational and transport cycling. Adult members of a Queensland, Australia, community bicycling organization completed an online survey about their cycling patterns; cycling purposes; and personal, social and perceived environmental motivators and constraints (47% response rate). Closed and open-end questions were completed. Using the quantitative data, multivariable linear, logistic and ordinal regression models were used to examine associations between gender and cycling patterns, motivators and constraints. The qualitative data were thematically analyzed to expand upon the quantitative findings. In this sample of 1862 bicyclists, men were more likely than women to cycle for recreation and for transport, and they cycled for longer. Most transport cycling was for commuting, with men more likely than women to commute by bicycle. Men were more likely to cycle on-road, and women off-road. However, most men and women did not prefer to cycle on-road without designed bicycle lanes, and qualitative data indicated a strong preference by men and women for bicycle-only off-road paths. Both genders reported personal factors (health and enjoyment related) as motivators for cycling, although women were more likely to agree that other personal, social and environmental factors were also motivating. The main constraints for both genders and both cycling purposes were perceived environmental factors related to traffic conditions, motorist aggression and

  4. Gender differences in recreational and transport cycling: a cross-sectional mixed-methods comparison of cycling patterns, motivators, and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesch Kristiann C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender differences in cycling are well-documented. However, most analyses of gender differences make broad comparisons, with few studies modeling male and female cycling patterns separately for recreational and transport cycling. This modeling is important, in order to improve our efforts to promote cycling to women and men in countries like Australia with low rates of transport cycling. The main aim of this study was to examine gender differences in cycling patterns and in motivators and constraints to cycling, separately for recreational and transport cycling. Methods Adult members of a Queensland, Australia, community bicycling organization completed an online survey about their cycling patterns; cycling purposes; and personal, social and perceived environmental motivators and constraints (47% response rate. Closed and open-end questions were completed. Using the quantitative data, multivariable linear, logistic and ordinal regression models were used to examine associations between gender and cycling patterns, motivators and constraints. The qualitative data were thematically analyzed to expand upon the quantitative findings. Results In this sample of 1862 bicyclists, men were more likely than women to cycle for recreation and for transport, and they cycled for longer. Most transport cycling was for commuting, with men more likely than women to commute by bicycle. Men were more likely to cycle on-road, and women off-road. However, most men and women did not prefer to cycle on-road without designed bicycle lanes, and qualitative data indicated a strong preference by men and women for bicycle-only off-road paths. Both genders reported personal factors (health and enjoyment related as motivators for cycling, although women were more likely to agree that other personal, social and environmental factors were also motivating. The main constraints for both genders and both cycling purposes were perceived environmental factors

  5. Sustainable thorium nuclear fuel cycles: A comparison of intermediate and fast neutron spectrum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.R., E-mail: nbrown@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Powers, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, B.; Heidet, F.; Stauff, N.E.; Zhang, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of intermediate and fast spectrum thorium-fueled reactors. • Variety of reactor technology options enables self-sustaining thorium fuel cycles. • Fuel cycle analyses indicate similar performance for fast and intermediate systems. • Reproduction factor plays a significant role in breeding and burn-up performance. - Abstract: This paper presents analyses of possible reactor representations of a nuclear fuel cycle with continuous recycling of thorium and produced uranium (mostly U-233) with thorium-only feed. The analysis was performed in the context of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to develop a compendium of informative nuclear fuel cycle performance data. The objective of this paper is to determine whether intermediate spectrum systems, having a majority of fission events occurring with incident neutron energies between 1 eV and 10{sup 5} eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. The intermediate spectrum options analyzed include tight lattice heavy or light water-cooled reactors, continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. All options were modeled in reactor physics codes to calculate their lattice physics, spectrum characteristics, and fuel compositions over time. Based on these results, detailed metrics were calculated to compare the fuel cycle performance. These metrics include waste management and resource utilization, and are binned to accommodate uncertainties. The performance of the intermediate systems for this self-sustaining thorium fuel cycle was similar to a representative fast spectrum system. However, the number of fission neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed limits performance in intermediate spectrum systems.

  6. Sustainable thorium nuclear fuel cycles: A comparison of intermediate and fast neutron spectrum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.R.; Powers, J.J.; Feng, B.; Heidet, F.; Stauff, N.E.; Zhang, G.; Todosow, M.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of intermediate and fast spectrum thorium-fueled reactors. • Variety of reactor technology options enables self-sustaining thorium fuel cycles. • Fuel cycle analyses indicate similar performance for fast and intermediate systems. • Reproduction factor plays a significant role in breeding and burn-up performance. - Abstract: This paper presents analyses of possible reactor representations of a nuclear fuel cycle with continuous recycling of thorium and produced uranium (mostly U-233) with thorium-only feed. The analysis was performed in the context of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to develop a compendium of informative nuclear fuel cycle performance data. The objective of this paper is to determine whether intermediate spectrum systems, having a majority of fission events occurring with incident neutron energies between 1 eV and 10 5 eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. The intermediate spectrum options analyzed include tight lattice heavy or light water-cooled reactors, continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. All options were modeled in reactor physics codes to calculate their lattice physics, spectrum characteristics, and fuel compositions over time. Based on these results, detailed metrics were calculated to compare the fuel cycle performance. These metrics include waste management and resource utilization, and are binned to accommodate uncertainties. The performance of the intermediate systems for this self-sustaining thorium fuel cycle was similar to a representative fast spectrum system. However, the number of fission neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed limits performance in intermediate spectrum systems

  7. User requirements in the area of safety of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.; Fukuda, K.; )

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Against the background of already existing IAEA and INSAC publications in the area of safety, in the framework of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) a set of user requirements for the safety of future nuclear installations has been established. Five top-level requirements are expected to apply to any type of innovative design. They should foster an increased level of safety that is transparent to and fully accepted by the general public. The approach to future reactor safety includes two complementary strategies: increased emphasis on inherent safety characteristics and enhancement of defense in depth. As compared to existing plants, the effectiveness of preventing measures should be highly enhanced, resulting in fewer mitigation measures. The targets and possible approaches of each of the five levels of defense developed for innovative reactor designs are outlined in the paper

  8. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); Phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    OpenAIRE

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G.A.; Merritt, J.L.; Feigenbaum, A.; Jomphe, C.; Marier, J.F.; Beliveau, M.; Mauney, J.; Dickinson, K.; Martinez, A.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.; Rhead, W.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs).

  9. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  10. Comparison of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder based on prospective mood ratings in 539 outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, RW; Luckenbaugh, DA; Post, RM; Suppes, T; Altshuler, LL; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Denicoff, KD; Grunze, H; Leverich, GS; McElroy, SL; Walden, J; Nolen, WA

    Objective: To detect risk factors for rapid cycling in bipolar disorder, the authors compared characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling patients both from a categorical and a dimensional perspective. Method: Outpatients with bipolar I disorder (N = 419), bipolar II disorder (N = 104),

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Pappas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that cycles between a mammalian host and tick vector. This complex life cycle requires that the spirochete modulate its gene expression program to facilitate growth and maintenance in these diverse milieus. B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previous studies indicated that expression of the operon is elevated at 23°C and is repressed in the presence of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that glycerol utilization may play an important role during the tick phase. This possibility was further explored in the current study by expression analysis and mutagenesis of glpD, a gene predicted to encode glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcript levels for glpD were significantly lower in mouse joints relative to their levels in ticks. Expression of GlpD protein was repressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during growth of spirochetes within dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. In medium supplemented with glycerol as the principal carbohydrate, wild-type B. burgdorferi grew to a significantly higher cell density than glpD mutant spirochetes during growth in vitro at 25°C. glpD mutant spirochetes were fully infectious in mice by either needle or tick inoculation. In contrast, glpD mutants grew to significantly lower densities than wild-type B. burgdorferi in nymphal ticks and displayed a replication defect in feeding nymphs. The findings suggest that B. burgdorferi undergoes a switch in carbohydrate utilization during the mammal to tick transition. Further, the results demonstrate that the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis during the tick phase of the infectious cycle is critical for maximal B. burgdorferi fitness.

  12. Combined cycles, impacts of technological requirements; Ciclos combinados, impactos de requerimientos tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Santalo, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The fundamental growth of the Mexican electrical sector for the next ten years is planned on base of the installation of 20 thousand Mw plants of combined cycle. This article presents an analysis of the impact of these power stations finding out that the power stations of combined cycle are at the moment cheaper - from 600 to 700 dollars by installed kW- than the alternative coal options or fuel oil, that are in the range of 900 to 1200 dollars per kW, in addition to which the time required for their construction is shorter. [Spanish] El crecimiento fundamental del sector electrico mexicano para los proximos diez anos esta planeado con base en la instalacion de 20 mil Mw de plantas de ciclo combinado. Este articulo presenta un analisis del impacto de dichas centrales encontrando que las centrales de ciclo combinado actualmente resultan mas baratas - de 600 a 700 dolares por kW instalado - que las opciones alternativas de carbon o combustoleo que estan en el rango de 900 a 1200 dolares por kW, ademas de que los tiempos requeridos para su construccion son menores.

  13. Improving metabolic efficiency of the reverse beta-oxidation cycle by balancing redox cofactor requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Xia; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jiaying; Xia, Xiudong; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyu; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yinghao; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on pushing the functional reversal of beta-oxidation cycle (r-BOX) to more widespread adoption for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, the redox cofactor requirement for the efficient operation of r-BOX remains unclear. In this work, the metabolic efficiency of r-BOX for medium-chain fatty acid (C 6 -C 10 , MCFA) production was optimized by redox cofactor engineering. Stoichiometric analysis of the r-BOX pathway and further experimental examination identified NADH as a crucial determinant of r-BOX process yield. Furthermore, the introduction of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii using fermentative inhibitor byproduct formate as a redox NADH sink improved MCFA titer from initial 1.2g/L to 3.1g/L. Moreover, coupling of increasing the supply of acetyl-CoA with NADH to achieve fermentative redox balance enabled product synthesis at maximum titers. To this end, the acetate re-assimilation pathway was further optimized to increase acetyl-CoA availability associated with the new supply of NADH. It was found that the acetyl-CoA synthetase activity and intracellular ATP levels constrained the activity of acetate re-assimilation pathway, and 4.7g/L of MCFA titer was finally achieved after alleviating these two limiting factors. To the best of our knowledge, this represented the highest titer reported to date. These results demonstrated that the key constraint of r-BOX was redox imbalance and redox engineering could further unleash the lipogenic potential of this cycle. The redox engineering strategies could be applied to acetyl-CoA-derived products or other bio-products requiring multiple redox cofactors for biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bottoming organic Rankine cycle for a small scale gas turbine: A comparison of different solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Stefano; Micheli, Diego; Reini, Mauro; Taccani, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ORC bottoming section for a commercial micro gas turbine has been studied. ► Six different organic working fluids have been considered and compared. ► The preliminary designs of both axial and radial turbines have been developed. ► Also scroll and reciprocating expanders have been analyzed for comparison. ► The best suited machine has to be selected after a detailed analysis in each case. - Abstract: Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the improvement of the thermal efficiency of small gas turbines, in order to approach the typical values of the internal combustion engines in the same range of power. One possibility is represented by a combined cycle, obtained coupling the gas turbine to a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC). This paper deals with the definition of the main features of an ORC system aimed to recover heat from a 100 kWe commercial gas turbine with internal recuperator. After the optimization of the thermodynamic cycles, involving a comparison between six working fluids, different expanders are analyzed, with the aim of detecting, if possible, the best suited machine. First, single stage turbines, in both radial and axial flow configuration, are designed specifically for each considered fluid, in particular investigating the opportunity of mounting the ORC expander directly on the high-speed shaft of the gas turbine. Then, the performances of these dynamic machines are compared with those of positive displacement expanders, such as scroll devices, obtainable from commercial HVAC compressor with minor revisions, and reciprocating ones, here newly designed

  15. Study on the FBR cycle introduction scenario. 4. Evaluation of the FBR cycle introduction scenario from the viewpoints of the fuel cycle requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki; Hirao, Kazunori

    2003-07-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of the scenario studies on FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) cycle introduction. Recently, people value the reduction of environmental impact in addition to the recycle of energy resources and the energy security in these scenario studies. This report summarizes the analysis about the necessity of plutonium recycling in LWR (Light water Reactor) from short-term view and about the necessity of FBR cycle introduction from a long-term view in Japan, by comparing 'FBR scenario' with 'LWR once-through scenario' and 'Pu recycle in LWR scenario', from the viewpoints of cumulative uranium demand, spent fuel storage, radioactive waste arising, etc. It becomes clear that the plutonium recycling in LWR has a good effect on the reduction of spent fuel storage and the cumulative natural uranium demand before FBR cycle introduction, from short-term view (20-30 years). On the other hand, this analysis also shows that there is much effect of FBR deployment not only on saving amount of uranium use and energy security but also on reduction of high-level radioactive waste (spent fuels and vitrified waste) and minor actinide arising, from long-term view (100-200 years). (author)

  16. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, M [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany); Mertz, W [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    1993-12-01

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

  17. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.; Mertz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.) [de

  18. Fitness of Escherichia coli during urinary tract infection requires gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Alteri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogenesis studies traditionally encompass dissection of virulence properties such as the bacterium's ability to elaborate toxins, adhere to and invade host cells, cause tissue damage, or otherwise disrupt normal host immune and cellular functions. In contrast, bacterial metabolism during infection has only been recently appreciated to contribute to persistence as much as their virulence properties. In this study, we used comparative proteomics to investigate the expression of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC cytoplasmic proteins during growth in the urinary tract environment and systematic disruption of central metabolic pathways to better understand bacterial metabolism during infection. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and tandem mass spectrometry, it was found that UPEC differentially expresses 84 cytoplasmic proteins between growth in LB medium and growth in human urine (P<0.005. Proteins induced during growth in urine included those involved in the import of short peptides and enzymes required for the transport and catabolism of sialic acid, gluconate, and the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose. Proteins required for the biosynthesis of arginine and serine along with the enzyme agmatinase that is used to produce the polyamine putrescine were also up-regulated in urine. To complement these data, we constructed mutants in these genes and created mutants defective in each central metabolic pathway and tested the relative fitness of these UPEC mutants in vivo in an infection model. Import of peptides, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are required for E. coli fitness during urinary tract infection while glycolysis, both the non-oxidative and oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were dispensable in vivo. These findings suggest that peptides and amino acids are the primary carbon source for E. coli during infection of

  19. Comparison of SUREPAK life cycle costs to other methods of low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, S.J.; Little, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of costs of low-level radioactive waste management techniques invariably degenerate into parochial arguments over differences in commercial objectives. The purpose of this paper is to establish a common basis for comparing technologies and then to examine the result as a complete cycle instead of a snapshot view taken at an arbitrary point in the progression. One objective is to portray cost sensitivity in terms of the options available for waste management. A second, perhaps less obvious, point is the definition of cost factors hidden from the short-term view. The final objective is to show the cumulative effects of costs externally imposed without reference to the technology employed (e.g., legislated surcharges based on arbitrary parameters)

  20. Dual-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems using genetic algorithm: a comparison between basic and recuperative cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Nasir; Ameen, Muhammad Tahir; Tariq, Muhammad Kashif; Shah, Syed Nadeem Abbas; Naveed, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Exploitation of low potential waste thermal energy for useful net power output can be done by manipulating organic Rankine cycle systems. In the current article dual-objectives (η_{th} and SIC) optimization of ORC systems [basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and recuperative organic Rankine cycle (RORC)] has been done using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (II). Seven organic compounds (R-123, R-1234ze, R-152a, R-21, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in basic cycle and four dry compounds (R-123, R-236ea, R-245ca and R-601) have been employed in recuperative cycle to investigate the behaviour of two systems and compare their performance. Sensitivity analyses show that recuperation boosts the thermodynamic behaviour of systems but it also raises specific investment cost significantly. R-21, R-245ca and R-601 show attractive performance in BORC whereas R-601 and R-236ea in RORC. RORC, due to higher total investment cost and operation & maintenance costs, has longer payback periods as compared to BORC.

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  2. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  3. Acoustic design of open plan schools and comparison of requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    between groups and satisfac¬tory speech intelligibility internally in groups. This paper describes the newest Danish requirements and recommendations for such open plan areas and presents the design, measurements and subjective evaluation of two newer Danish schools. According to the users, the general...... conditions at both schools are satisfactory due to both optimized acoustical conditions and teaching methods adapted to the special open environment. The results from room acoustical modelling, verification measurements and questionnaire survey are presented and evaluated in relation to the newest Danish...

  4. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Kinetics Determined by Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences - Comparisons between Walking and Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Thieschäfer, L; Heine, O; Baum, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to compare cardiorespiratory kinetics as a response to a standardised work rate protocol with pseudo-random binary sequences between cycling and walking in young healthy subjects. Muscular and pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) kinetics as well as heart rate kinetics were expected to be similar for walking and cycling. Cardiac data and V̇O 2 of 23 healthy young subjects were measured in response to pseudo-random binary sequences. Kinetics were assessed applying time series analysis. Higher maxima of cross-correlation functions between work rate and the respective parameter indicate faster kinetics responses. Muscular V̇O 2 kinetics were estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V̇O 2 using a circulatory model. Muscular (walking vs. cycling [mean±SD in arbitrary units]: 0.40±0.08 vs. 0.41±0.08) and pulmonary V̇O 2 kinetics (0.35±0.06 vs. 0.35±0.06) were not different, although the time courses of the cross-correlation functions of pulmonary V̇O 2 showed unexpected biphasic responses. Heart rate kinetics (0.50±0.14 vs. 0.40±0.14; P=0.017) was faster for walking. Regarding the biphasic cross-correlation functions of pulmonary V̇O 2 during walking, the assessment of muscular V̇O 2 kinetics via pseudo-random binary sequences requires a circulatory model to account for cardio-dynamic distortions. Faster heart rate kinetics for walking should be considered by comparing results from cycle and treadmill ergometry. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    %) fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane), toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison....... The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power....

  7. Comparison of the Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) to other advanced vapor cycles for intermediate and high temperature waste heat reclamation and solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed as a vapor power cycle that could potentially improve the efficiency with which high and intermediate temperature finite thermal sources are utilized. The OFC's aim is to improve temperature matching and reduce exergy losses during heat addition. A theoretical investigation is conducted using high accuracy equations of state such as BACKONE, Span–Wagner, and REFPROP in a detailed thermodynamic and exergetic analysis. The study examines 10 different aromatic hydrocarbons and siloxanes as potential working fluids. Comparisons are drawn between the OFC and an optimized basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), a zeotropic Rankine cycle using a binary ammonia-water mixture, and a transcritical CO 2 cycle. Results showed aromatic hydrocarbons to be the better suited working fluid for the ORC and OFC due to higher power output and less complex turbine designs. Results also showed that the single flash OFC achieves comparable utilization efficiencies to the optimized basic ORC. Although the OFC improved heat addition exergetic efficiency, this advantage was negated by irreversibilities introduced during flash evaporation. A number of potentially significant improvements to the OFC are possible though which includes using a secondary flash stage or replacing the throttling valve with a two-phase expander. -- Highlights: ► The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed to improve temperature matching. ► Ten aromatic hydrocarbon and siloxane working fluids are considered. ► Accurate equations of state explicit in Helmholtz energy are used in the analysis. ► The OFC is compared to basic ORCs, zeotropic, and transcritical cycles. ► The OFC achieves comparable power output to the optimized basic ORC.

  8. Comparison of Heat Transfer Fluid and Direct Steam Generation technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Montes, María José; Varela, Fernando; Gil, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    At present time and in the medium term, Solar Thermal Power Plants are going to share scenario with conventional energy generation technologies, like fossil and nuclear. In such a context, Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs) may be an interesting choice since integrated designs may lead to a very efficient use of the solar and fossil resources. In this work, different ISCC configurations including a solar field based on parabolic trough collectors and working with the so-called Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and Direct Steam Generation (DSG) technologies are compared. For each technology, four layouts have been studied: one in which solar heat is used to evaporate part of the high pressure steam of a bottoming Rankine cycle with two pressure levels, another that incorporates a preheating section to the previous layout, the third one that includes superheating instead of preheating and the last one including both preheating and superheating in addition to the evaporation. The analysis is made with the aim of finding out which of the different layouts reaches the best performance. For that purpose, three types of comparisons have been performed. The first one assesses the benefits of including a solar steam production fixed at 50 MW th . The second one compares the configurations with a standardised solar field size instead of a fixed solar steam production. Finally, the last one consists on an even more homogeneous comparison considering the same steam generator size for all the configurations as well as standardised solar fields. The configurations are studied by mean of exergy analyses. Several figures of merit are used to correctly assess the configurations. Results reveal that the only-evaporative DSG configuration becomes the best choice, since it benefits of both low irreversibility at the heat recovery steam generator and high thermal efficiency in the solar field. Highlights: ► ISCC configurations with DSG and HTF technologies are compared. ► Four

  9. Waste prevention in liquid detergent distribution: a comparison based on life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2014-11-15

    The distribution of liquid detergents through self-dispensing systems has been adopted in some Italian retail stores over the last few years. By enabling the consumer to refill several times the same container, it is proposed as a less waste-generating and more environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional distribution with single-use plastic containers. For this reason, its implementation is encouraged by the national waste prevention programme recently adopted in Italy. In order to assess such claims, a life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate whether detergent distribution through self-dispensing systems actually allows to achieve the expected reduction in waste generation and environmental impacts. The focus was on the distribution within the large-scale retail trade and on the categories of laundry detergents, fabric softeners and hand dishwashing detergents. For each of them, a set of baseline single-use scenarios were compared with two alternative waste prevention scenarios, where the detergent is distributed through self-dispensing systems. Beyond waste generation, also the Cumulative Energy Demand and thirteen midpoint-level potential impact indicators were calculated for the comparison. Results showed that a reduction in waste generation up to 98% can be achieved, depending on the category of detergent, on the baseline scenario of comparison and on the number of times the refillable container is used. A progressive reduction in the energy demand and in most of the potential impacts was also observed, starting from a minimum number of uses of the refillable container. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance comparison and parametric optimization of subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and transcritical power cycle system for low-temperature geothermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shengjun, Zhang; Huaixin, Wang; Tao, Guo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We conduct the thermodynamic and economic performance comparison of the fluids in both subcritical ORC and transcritical power cycle. → We perform parameter optimization based on five indicators. → The optimum operation parameters and working fluids are not the same for different indicators. → The LEC value is used as the determining factor for fluids screening. → The transcritical power cycle with R125 as the working fluid was a cost-effective approach. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising technology for converting the low-grade energy to electricity. This paper presents an investigation on the parameter optimization and performance comparison of the fluids in subcritical ORC and transcritical power cycle in low-temperature (i.e. 80-100 o C) binary geothermal power system. The optimization procedure was conducted with a simulation program written in Matlab using five indicators: thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, recovery efficiency, heat exchanger area per unit power output (APR) and the levelized energy cost (LEC). With the given heat source and heat sink conditions, performances of the working fluids were evaluated and compared under their optimized internal operation parameters. The optimum cycle design and the corresponding operation parameters were provided simultaneously. The results indicate that the choice of working fluid varies the objective function and the value of the optimized operation parameters are not all the same for different indicators. R123 in subcritical ORC system yields the highest thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of 11.1% and 54.1%, respectively. Although the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of R125 in transcritical cycle is 46.4% and 20% lower than that of R123 in subcritical ORC, it provides 20.7% larger recovery efficiency. And the LEC value is relatively low. Moreover, 22032L petroleum is saved and 74,019 kg CO 2 is reduced per year when the LEC value is used as

  11. Integration of the AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotopic separation) process into the nuclear fuel cycle. [Effect of AVLIS feed requirements on overall fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF/sub 6/-in UF/sub 6/-out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO{sub 2} emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  13. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO 2 emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  14. Comparison of Algal Biodiesel Production Pathways Using Life Cycle Assessment Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    The consideration of algal biomass in biodiesel production increased very rapidly in the last decade. A life cycle assessment (LCA) study is presented to compare six different biodiesel production pathways (three different harvesting techniques, i.e., aluminum as flocculent, lime flocculent, and ......, ecosystem quality, and resources were higher than the conventional diesel. This study recommends more practical data at pilot-scale production plant with maximum utilization of by-products generated during the production to produce a sustainable algal biodiesel......., and centrifugation, and two different oil extraction methods, i.e., supercritical CO2 (sCO2) and press and co-solvent extraction). The cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. considered in a flat-panel photobioreactor (FPPBR). These algal biodiesel production systems were compared with the conventional diesel in a EURO 5...... passenger car used for transport purpose (functional unit 1 person km (pkm). The algal biodiesel production systems provide lesser impact (22–105 %) in comparison with conventional diesel. Impacts of algal biodiesel on climate change were far better than conventional diesel, but impacts on human health...

  15. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  17. Exergetic and economic comparison of ORC and Kalina cycle for low temperature enhanced geothermal system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Rodríguez, Carlos Eymel; Escobar Palacio, José Carlos; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Silva Lora, Electo E.; Cobas, Vladimir Melián; Marques dos Santos, Daniel; Lofrano Dotto, Fábio R.; Gialluca, Vernei

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis, of both the first and second law of thermodynamic of two different technologies, (ORC and Kalina cycle) for power production through an enhanced geothermal system (EGS). In order to find a better performance of both thermal cycles it were evaluated 15 different working fluids for ORC and three different composition of the ammonia–water mixture for the Kalina cycle. In this work, the Aspen-HYSYS software was used to simulate both thermal cycles and to calculate the thermodynamic properties based on Peng–Robinson Stryjek–Vera (PRSV) Equation of State (EoS). At the end the two cycles was compared using an economic analysis with the fluid that offers the best performance for each thermal cycle which are R-290 for ORC and for Kalina cycle a composition of the mixture of 84% of ammonia mass fraction and 16% of water mass fraction. For this conditions the Kalina cycle produce 18% more net power than the ORC. A levelized electricity costs of 0.22 €/kW h was reached for ORC and 0.18 €/kW h for Kalina cycle. Finally a sensitivity analysis of the EGS LCOE was carried out for a few economic parameters to determinate how is the variation of LCOE for a % change from the base case. -- Highlights: ► The aim of this paper is to compare both cycles (ORC and Kalina). ► Kalina cycle offer 18% more net power than ORC and require 37% less mass flow rate. ► It was obtained 17.8% lower levelized electricity costs for Kalina cycle over the ORC

  18. Exergetic and economic comparison of ORC and Kalina cycle for low temperature enhanced geothermal system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Rodríguez, Carlos Eymel, E-mail: eymelcampos@hotmail.com [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Mechanical Engineering Institute – IEM, Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation (NEST), Minas Gerais (Brazil); Escobar Palacio, José Carlos; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Silva Lora, Electo E.; Cobas, Vladimir Melián [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Mechanical Engineering Institute – IEM, Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation (NEST), Minas Gerais (Brazil); Marques dos Santos, Daniel, E-mail: danielmarques.Santos@aes.com [AES Tietê, Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Lofrano Dotto, Fábio R., E-mail: fabio@farolconsultoria.com.br [FAROL Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria (Brazil); Gialluca, Vernei [Gênera Serviços e Comércio LTDA (Brazil)

    2013-04-05

    This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis, of both the first and second law of thermodynamic of two different technologies, (ORC and Kalina cycle) for power production through an enhanced geothermal system (EGS). In order to find a better performance of both thermal cycles it were evaluated 15 different working fluids for ORC and three different composition of the ammonia–water mixture for the Kalina cycle. In this work, the Aspen-HYSYS software was used to simulate both thermal cycles and to calculate the thermodynamic properties based on Peng–Robinson Stryjek–Vera (PRSV) Equation of State (EoS). At the end the two cycles was compared using an economic analysis with the fluid that offers the best performance for each thermal cycle which are R-290 for ORC and for Kalina cycle a composition of the mixture of 84% of ammonia mass fraction and 16% of water mass fraction. For this conditions the Kalina cycle produce 18% more net power than the ORC. A levelized electricity costs of 0.22 €/kW h was reached for ORC and 0.18 €/kW h for Kalina cycle. Finally a sensitivity analysis of the EGS LCOE was carried out for a few economic parameters to determinate how is the variation of LCOE for a % change from the base case. -- Highlights: ► The aim of this paper is to compare both cycles (ORC and Kalina). ► Kalina cycle offer 18% more net power than ORC and require 37% less mass flow rate. ► It was obtained 17.8% lower levelized electricity costs for Kalina cycle over the ORC.

  19. What are the elements required to improve exposure estimates in life cycle assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    human toxicity and ecosystem toxicity of chemicals posed by different product life cycle stages are characterized in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. Exposure and effect quantification as part of LCIA toxicity characterization faces numerous challenges related to inventory analysis (e.......g. number and quantity of chemicals emitted), substance-specific modelling (e.g. organics, inorganics, nano-materials) in various environments and time horizons, human and ecosystem exposure quantification (e.g. exposed organisms and exposure pathways), and toxicity end-points (e.g. carcinogenicity...... chemical exposure and harmful effects. Thereby, we structure this study of key elements identified as areas of elevated public, industrial, regulatory, and scientific concerns. We found the majority of missing elements are directly related to the definition of exposed populations (both ecosystems...

  20. Comparison of the thorium- and low-enriched uranium fuel cycle in the OTTO pebble bed HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuchert, E; Maly, V

    1973-03-15

    From the study of the physical, technical and economical properties of the LOTTO and TOTTO fuel cycle the authors draw the conclusion that no fundamental reason can be found for a definite preference of one of the two cycles. Either of them can be developed to become a very attractive concept. The flexibility of this reactor allows the design performance in that way that the reactor becomes a safe system with reasonable economy. The decision for the preference of the LOTTO or TOTTO can be allowed to be governed by the requirements of the outer fuel cycle or by politics.

  1. Comparison of methods for extracting annual cycle with changing amplitude in climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Fu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Changes of annual cycle gains a growing concern recently. The basic hypothesis regards annual cycle as constant. Climatology mean within a time period is usually used to depict the annual cycle. Obviously this hypothesis contradicts with the fact that annual cycle is changing every year. For the lack of a unified definition about annual cycle, the approaches adopted in extracting annual cycle are various and may lead to different results. The precision and validity of these methods need to be examined. In this work we numerical experiments with known monofrequent annual cycle are set to evaluate five popular extracting methods: fitting sinusoids, complex demodulation, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Nonlinear Mode Decomposition (NMD) and Seasonal trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL). Three different types of changing amplitude will be generated: steady, linear increasing and nonlinearly varying. Comparing the annual cycle extracted by these methods with the generated annual cycle, we find that (1) NMD performs best in depicting annual cycle itself and its amplitude change, (2) fitting sinusoids, complex demodulation and EEMD methods are more sensitive to long-term memory(LTM) of generated time series thus lead to overfitting annual cycle and too noisy amplitude, oppositely the result of STL underestimate the amplitude variation (3)all of them can present the amplitude trend correctly in long-time scale but the errors on account of noise and LTM are common in some methods over short time scales.

  2. Performance analysis and comparison of an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs under maximum power and maximum power density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle requirements and supply considerations, through the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have for many years published a joint report entitled ''Uranium Resources, Production and Demand'', and a revised edition of this work, dated December 1977, is now available. This report, on the other hand, is the result of a separate study of the supply and demand outlook for all fuel cycle services, as well as for uranium, through the long-term. The work was undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Agency's Working Party on Uranium Demand, whose members are listed in Appendix III. The intent here has been to contribute to the orderly development of nuclear power, by: 1. identifying potential problems in the supply of uranium and fuel cycle services, and possible areas for international co-operation in the resolution of such problems; 2. examining several long-range scenarios to determine the comparative needs of advanced reactors for uranium and for supporting services, thereby establishing the basis for the further development of uranium resources and specific reactor systems; and 3. assisting those having responsibilities in planning, forecasting, and programme management. This report is the work of a group of technical experts and does not necessarily reflect official policy or endorsement of the report's projections and conclusions by the Member Governments of the Nuclear Energy Agency

  4. The PM/S module and the BIO/TSR requirements comparison report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEERY, B.Q.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the comparison between the Preventive Maintenance/Surveillance System (PM/S) database and the requirements identified in the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001); the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR's) (HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006); The Tank Farms Administrative Controls Manual, (HNF-IP-1266); and The TWRS Facility Safety Equipment List, (HNF-SD-WM-SEL-0404). Corrective actions identified are completed or in process

  5. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    A high energy return on energy investment (EROI) of an energy production process is crucial to its long-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much higher than those of renewable energy life-cycles, and specifically of photovoltaics (PVs). We show that this is largely a misconception fostered by the use of outdated data and, often, a lack of consistency among calculation methods. We hereby present a thorough review of the methodology, discuss methodological variations and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel based electricity life-cycles. - Highlights: ► We perform a review of the EROI methodology. ► We provide new calculations for PV compared to oil- and coal-based energy systems. ► If compared consistently, PV sits squarely in the same range of EROI as conventional fossil fuel life cycles.

  6. Comparison of low-cycle fatigue data of 2 1/4 % CrMo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Petrequin, P.; Nieuwland, H.C.D.; Breuer, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Data files have been produced on international strain-controlled fatigue information available for 2 1/4 %CrMo steels. The available data have been considered generally in terms of total strain range vs. cycles to failure (Nsub(f)), tensile stress at Nsub(f)/2 vs. cycles to failure and time to failure vs. cycles to failure. Where possible the continuous cycling data been statistically analysed in terms of the elastic and plastic strain components and cycles to failure to yield best-fit equations over defined temperature (T) regime viz: T 0 C, 427 0 C 0 C and 550 0 C 0 C. Increasing test temperatures result in a progressive decrease in continuous cycling fatigue endurance and sustainable stress range

  7. Comparison of potential radiological impacts of 233U and 239Pu fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.R.; Little, C.A.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Till, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles utilizing 233 U are currently the subject of considerable interest in the United States. This paper focuses on the identification of significant differences between the off-site radiological hazards posed by 232 Th/ 233 U (Th/U) and 238 U/ 239 Pu (U/Pu) fuel cycles, and represents a portion of our involvement in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), to be used in support of the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). The major contributors to radiological dose are likely to be uranium mining and milling (58.5% of total fuel cycle dose), reprocessing (33.9%), and light-water reactor power generation (7.3%). The remainder of the cycle, including enrichment processes, fuel fabrication, transportation, and waste management, contributes only 0.3% to total estimated fuel cycle dose

  8. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Matthews, H Damon

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gases other than CO 2 make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO 2 emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO 2 following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by ∼ 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO 2 from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  9. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  10. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6152 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  11. A comparison study on radioactive waste management effectiveness in various nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2001-07-01

    This study examines whether the DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) fuel cycle make radioactive waste management more effective, by comparing it with other fuel cycles such as the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) once-through cycle, the HWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) once-through cycle and the thermal recycling option to use an existing PWR with MOX (Mixed Oxide) fuel. This study first focuses on the radioactive waste volume generated in all fuel cycle steps, which could be one of the measures of effectiveness of the waste management. Then the total radioactive waste disposition cost is estimated based on two units measuring; m3/GWe-yr and US$/GWe-yr. We find from the radioactive waste volume estimation that the DUPIC fuel cycle could have lower volumes for milling tailings, low level waste and spent fuel than those of other fuel cycle options. From the results of the disposition cost analysis, we find that the DUPIC waste disposition cost is the lowest among fuel cycle options. If the total waste disposition cost is used as a proxy for quantifying the easiness or difficulty in managing wastes, then the DUPIC option actually make waste management easier

  12. Performance comparison of different thermodynamic cycles for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.

  13. Weighting comparison of the production of α-emitters in HTR-fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckert, M.; Hecker, R.; Migenda, J.; Mirza, N.

    1976-03-01

    This study compares three fuel-cycles of the OTTO-Pebble-Bed High-Temperature Reactor to each other and as a reference to a Light-Water Reactor with regard to the 'Theoretical Environmental Risk' of their heavy-metal production. For the weighting of the α-activity those water- and air masses are used, which according to the recommendations of the 'International Committee for Radiation Protection' are necessary for the dilution of radioactive substances in the cycle. The Th/U-cycles are better than the U/Pu-cycles; one has to put into account, however, that in the Th/U-cycles the Ra which comes up after long time period increases the 'Theoretical Environmental Risk'. (orig.) [de

  14. Venous thromboembolism in assisted reproductive technologies: comparison between unsuccessful versus successful cycles in an Italian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Michela; Favuzzi, Giovanni; Totaro, Pasquale; Chinni, Elena; Vecchione, Gennaro; Vergura, Patrizia; Fischetti, Lucia; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). On the contrary, the magnitude of this risk in unsuccessful ART cycles (not resulting in a clinical pregnancy) has not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of VTE in unsuccessful cycles and compared it with that recorded in successful cycles in the same study population. From a cohort of 998 women consecutively referred by local Fertility Clinics to our Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Unit (April 2002-July 2011), we identified and included women with at least one cycle of ovarian stimulation and a negative history for VTE. Overall, 661 women undergone 1518 unsuccessful and 318 successful cycles of ovarian stimulation, respectively, were analysed. VTE events occurred in 2/1518 (1.3‰) unsuccessful cycles compared with 3/318 (9.4‰) successful cycles, (Two-tailed Fisher exact test, p = 0.04, OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-1.02). Both cases observed in unsuccessful cycles were isolated pulmonary embolism occurred after OHSS; no antithrombotic prophylaxis had been prescribed. At logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of successful cycle and BMI were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of VTE with an OR of 13.94 (95% CI 1.41-137.45) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.49), respectively. VTE incidence is significantly lower in unsuccessful cycles as compared to that of successful ones. However, although rare, thrombotic risk during ovarian stimulation cannot be excluded and, when it occurs, can be life-threatening. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to these women, independently of ART outcome.

  15. Determining the requirements for e-selection in a small recruitment company - using the regulative cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Timmermans, P.; Buragga, K.A.; Zaman, N.

    2013-01-01

    The requirements for e-selection technology to be of practical use for Company T have been investigated. Company T’s main business is in identifying and seconding personnel, especially in the technical sector, and it had been anticipating a shortage in the supply of candidates. This served as the

  16. Comparison between regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC) and basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) based on thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization considering exergy efficiency and levelized energy cost (LEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Bingxi; Yang, Jinfu; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermoeconomic comparison of regenerative RORC and BORC is investigated. • The Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective compares with the corresponding single-objective solutions. • The three-objective optimization of the RORC and BORC is studied. • The RORC owns 8.1% higher exergy efficiency and 21.1% more LEC than the BORC under the Pareto-optimal solution. - Abstract: Based on the thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization by using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), considering both thermodynamic performance and economic factors, the thermoeconomic comparison of regenerative organic Rankine cycles (RORC) and basic organic Rankine cycles (BORC) are investigated. The effects of five key parameters including evaporator outlet temperature, condenser temperature, degree of superheat, pinch point temperature difference and degree of supercooling on the exergy efficiency and levelized energy cost (LEC) are examined. Meanwhile, the Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective for maximizing exergy efficiency and minimizing LEC is obtained and compared with the corresponding single-objective solutions. Research demonstrates that there is a significant negative correlation between thermodynamic performance and economic factors. And the optimum exergy efficiency and LEC for the Pareto-optimal solution of the RORC are 55.97% and 0.142 $/kW h, respectively, which are 8.1% higher exergy efficiency and 21.1% more LEC than that of the BORC under considered condition. Highest exergy and thermal efficiencies are accompanied with lowest net power output and worst economic performance. Furthermore, taking the net power output into account, detailed investigation on the three-objective optimization for maximizing exergy efficiency, maximizing net power output and minimizing LEC is discussed

  17. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, Nathan P [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6 (Canada); Matthews, H Damon, E-mail: nathan.gillett@ec.gc.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, H 1255-26, Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO{sub 2} emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO{sub 2} following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by {approx} 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO{sub 2} from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  18. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  19. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  20. Comparison of real driving cycles and consumed braking power in suburban Slovakian driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gechev Tsvetomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the features of suburban real driving cycles performed with CORRSYS DATRON measurement equipment on routes in the region of Žilina, Slovakia. It observes differences in the maximum and average vehicle velocities and the amount of braking in relation to the elevation profile of each individual cycle. Consumed braking power was also calculated in the different cycles in order to review the potential electricity regeneration capabilities of hybrid electric vehicles, operating on the same routes. The change in braking energy depending on vehicle mass and presence of grade on the routes in the measured cycles was also assessed. The calculations and plotting were done by using Matlab software.

  1. Exergetic comparison of two different cooling technologies for the power cycle of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Marigorta, Ana M.; Victoria Sanchez-Henriquez, M.; Pena-Quintana, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Exergetic analysis is without any doubt a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. In the present paper, two different cooling technologies for the power cycle of a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant are compared from the exergetic viewpoint. The Rankine cycle design is a conventional, single reheat design with five closed and one open extraction feedwater heaters. The software package GateCycle is used for the thermodynamic simulation of the Rankine cycle model. The first design configuration uses a cooling tower while the second configuration uses an air cooled condenser. With this exergy analysis we identify the location, magnitude and the sources or thermodynamic inefficiencies in this thermal system. This information is very useful for improving the overall efficiency of the power system and for comparing the performance of both technologies.

  2. A comparison of nuclear power systems for Brazil using plutonium and binary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Fernandes, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power systems based on plutonium cycle and binary cycle are compared taking into account natural uranium demand and reactor combination. The systems start with PWR type reactors (U5/U8) and change to systems composed exclusively of FBR type reactors or PWR-FBR symbiotic systems. Four loading modes are considered for the PWR and two for the FBR. The FBR is either a LMFBR loaded with PU/U or a LMFBR loaded the binary way. A linear and a non-linear capacity growth and two different criteria for the FBR introduction are considered. The results show that a 100 GWe permanent system can be established in 50 years in all cases, based on 300000 t of natural uranium and in case of delay in the FBR introduction and if a thermal-fast symbiotic system is chosen, a binary cycle could be more advantageous than a plutonium cycle. (F.E.) [pt

  3. Chemical cycling and deposition of atmospheric mercury in polar regions: review of recent measurements and comparison with models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a worldwide contaminant that can cause adverse health effects to wildlife and humans. While atmospheric modeling traces the link from emissions to deposition of Hg onto environmental surfaces, large uncertainties arise from our incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes (oxidation pathways, deposition, and re-emission. Atmospheric Hg reactivity is exacerbated in high latitudes and there is still much to be learned from polar regions in terms of atmospheric processes. This paper provides a synthesis of the atmospheric Hg monitoring data available in recent years (2011–2015 in the Arctic and in Antarctica along with a comparison of these observations with numerical simulations using four cutting-edge global models. The cycle of atmospheric Hg in the Arctic and in Antarctica presents both similarities and differences. Coastal sites in the two regions are both influenced by springtime atmospheric Hg depletion events and by summertime snowpack re-emission and oceanic evasion of Hg. The cycle of atmospheric Hg differs between the two regions primarily because of their different geography. While Arctic sites are significantly influenced by northern hemispheric Hg emissions especially in winter, coastal Antarctic sites are significantly influenced by the reactivity observed on the East Antarctic ice sheet due to katabatic winds. Based on the comparison of multi-model simulations with observations, this paper discusses whether the processes that affect atmospheric Hg seasonality and interannual variability are appropriately represented in the models and identifies research gaps in our understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycling in high latitudes.

  4. Comparison of treatment outcome using two definitions of rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We examined differences in treatment outcome between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined rapid cycling and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that, compared with the DSM-IV definition, the average lifetime definition of rapid cycling may better identify subjects with a history of more mood lability and a greater likelihood of hypomanic symptom induction during long-term treatment. Subjects ≥18 years old with a bipolar II major depressive episode (n=129) were categorized into DSM-IV- and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling and prospectively treated with either venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. These exploratory analyses found moderate agreement between the two rapid-cycling definitions (κ=0.56). The lifetime definition captured subjects with more chronic courses of bipolar II depression, whereas the DSM-IV definition captured subjects with more acute symptoms of hypomania. There was no difference between rapid-cycling definitions with respect to the response to acute venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy. However, the lifetime definition was slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying subjects who went on to experience hypomanic symptoms during continuation therapy. Although sample sizes were limited, the findings suggest that the lifetime definition of rapid cycling may identify individuals with a chronic rapid-cycling course and may also be slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying individuals with hypomania during relapse-prevention therapy. These findings are preliminary in nature and need replication in larger, prospective, bipolar II studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Comparison of Business Cycles Synchronization in the Euro Area and Some Potential Monetary Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of business cycle is one of the main criteria for creation of a monetary union. With increasing synchronization of business cycle, a probability of occurrence of demand and supply shocks, which are asymmetric, decreases. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate synchronicity of business cycle in the euro area and some potential monetary unions. There are MERCOSUR (i.e. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, NAFTA (Canada, Mexico and the United States of America. For this aim, correlation analysis and two indexes of cyclical components of GDP are used. The cyclical components of GDP are obtained due to the Hodrick-Prescott filter. The results indicate a high degree of business cycles synchronization among states of the euro area (especially in countries of so called core of the euro area and states of NAFTA. In opposite, a lower degree of business cycles synchronization was reached among states of MERCOSUR. According to the criterion of business cycle synchronization, NAFTA is more appropriate candidate than MERCOSUR for creation monetary area.

  6. Comparison of the radiological impacts of thorium and uranium nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.; McBride, J.P.; Frederick, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report compares the radiological impacts of a fuel cycle in which only uranium is recycled, as presented in the Final Generic Environmental Statement on the Use of Recycle Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Fuel in Light Water Cooled Reactors (GESMO), with those of the light-water breeder reactor (LWBR) thorium/uranium fuel cycle in the Final Environmental Statement, Light Water Breeder Reactor Program. The significant offsite radiological impacts from routine operation of the fuel cycles result from the mining and milling of thorium and uranium ores, reprocessing spent fuel, and reactor operations. The major difference between the impacts from the two fuel cycles is the larger dose commitments associated with current uranium mining and milling operations as compared to thorium mining and milling. Estimated dose commitments from the reprocessing of either fuel type are small and show only moderate variations for specific doses. No significant differences in environmental radiological impact are anticipated for reactors using either of the fuel cycles. Radiological impacts associated with routine releases from the operation of either the thorium or uranium fuel cycles can be held to acceptably low levels by existing regulations

  7. Legal aspects concerning the requirement for completion of the backend of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W. Dr.

    1987-01-01

    Most european states are forced by their political institutions, parliaments or governments to establish integrated programmes about the recycling and safe disposal of all kinds of radioactive materials resulting from the application of nuclear energy. A proper solution is not an option as on other continents, but an obligation, due to environmental and economical reasons. First, I will outline the ''Fuel Management Concept'' in the Federal Republic of Germany, than, I will say something about the institutional responsibilities, the package deal clause and the actual practice of management and disposal. We will look into the legal aspects of the atomic energy act, the hazard protection and precaution, the administrative requirements, the discretionary rules of law and some undefined legal conceptions, the practice of public licencing, the advanced public participation and the immediate effectiveness as the substance of my reflections. Finally there shall be some closing remarks on assessing the German fuel management concept

  8. The semi-diurnal cycle of dissipation in a ROFI: model-measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John H.; Burchard, Hans; Fisher, Neil R.; Rippeth, Tom P.

    2002-07-01

    The Liverpool Bay Region of Freshwater Influence in the Irish Sea exhibits strong horizontal gradients which interact with the dominant tidal flow. A 25 h series of measurements of the cycle of turbulent dissipation with the FLY dissipation profiler shows a strong asymmetry between ebb and flood which is associated with a cycle of increasing stratification on the ebb and progressive mixing on the flood which results in vertical homogeneity as high water is approached. At this time strong dissipation extends throughout the water column in contrast to the ebb when there is a near shutdown of dissipation in the upper half of the column. The cycle of stratification and dissipation is closely consistent for the two semi-diurnal tidal cycles observed. We have attempted to simulate this situation, which involves a complex suite of processes including tidal straining and mixing, using a version of the k-ɛ closure scheme in a 1-d dynamical model which is forced by a combination of the observed tidal flow and horizontal temperature and salinity gradients. The latter were measured directly at the end of the observational series but, in order to focus on the cycle of dissipation, the correct reproduction of the temperature and salinity cycle can be assured by a nudging procedure which obliges the model temperature and salinity values to track the observations. With or without this procedure, the model gives a reasonable account of the dissipation and its asymmetric behaviour on ebb and flood although nudging improves the timing of peak dissipation in the upper part of the water column near highwater. The model has also been used to examine the ratio of shear production (P/ɛ) and buoyancy inputs to dissipation (B/ɛ). The variation of these quantities over the tidal cycle confirms the important role of convective motions forced by tidal straining near the end of the flood phase of the tide.

  9. Comparison of the Overall Environmental Footprint between Current and Future Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is anticipated to be one of the possible energy sources which can allow the production of energy at high load with a high level of reliability without significant impact on the environment. Nowadays, most of the countries have chosen an open fuel cycle which basically considers spent nuclear fuel as a waste, whereas others like France, the United Kingdom, Japan and soon China reprocess their spent fuel to recover the plutonium (and partially U) to produce mixed oxide fuel to be irradiated in a second cycle. In a second step, considering the possibility of fertilising 238 U to 239 Pu in fast reactors, recycling major actinides is thought to be a major improvement towards the global sustainability of the nuclear energy: It will indeed allow the natural resource efficiency to be increased by orders of magnitude by consuming quantitatively the natural uranium resource involved. Driven by the Fukushima accident, nuclear energy is currently questioned about its overall environmental impact and footprint. However, very little information is available on the actual footprint of current and future nuclear systems. In order to bring insights on this issue, a life cycle assessment simulation tool NELCAS was developed based on the French nuclear closed fuel cycle. It allows the calculation of representative key environmental indicators and potential impact indicators for the whole nuclear systems. The very good consistency of the results with the literature data confirms the relevance and robustness of NELCAS. It was subsequently used to derive representative indicators for open and future potential fuel cycles, i.e. mixed GEN3 and GEN4 reactors fleet and full GEN4 reactors fleet. The results demonstrate the very significant improvement brought by the actinides recycling and the future fuel cycle. Most of the indicators are very significantly decreased with the implementation of long-term recycling strategies. This paper will

  10. International comparison of requirements for connection of wind turbines to power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Wind Energy; Matevosyan, J.; Ackermann, T. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Bolik, S. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Power production from wind turbines has increased considerably during the last decade. Therefore today's wind turbines, which are typically set up in wind farms, have a significant influence on the operation of power systems. The efficient and secure operation of power systems is supported by grid codes, which are sets of requirements for all network users (suppliers, customers, etc.). In Europe, several transmission network operators have introduced special grid connection requirements for wind farms. These requirements are mainly based on existing grid codes, initially written for conventional power plants usually equipped with synchronous generators. This article presents a comparison of grid connection requirements for wind farms issued, or proposed as a draft, by transmission network operators in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Scotland and Ireland. (author)

  11. Comparison of running and cycling economy in runners, cyclists, and triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Wannes; Kipp, Shalaya; Kram, Rodger

    2018-07-01

    Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors. We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W. Gross rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were collected and used to calculate gross metabolic rate in watts for both running and cycling. Runners had better RE than cyclists (917 ± 107 W vs. 1111 ± 159 W) (p < 0.01). Triathletes had intermediate RE values (1004 ± 98 W) not different from runners or cyclists. CE was not different (p = 0.20) between the three groups (runners: 945 ± 60 W; cyclists: 982 ± 44 W; triathletes: 979 ± 54 W). RE can be enhanced with running-specific training, but CE is independent of cycling-specific training.

  12. Comparison of low-cycle fatigue data of 2 1/4%CrMo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, S.J.; Petrequin, P.; Nieuwland, H.C.D.

    Data files have been produced on international strain-controlled fatigue information available for 2 1/4%CrMo steels; data assessment from these files is treated in three categories viz: annealed and isothermally annealed 2 1/4%Cr1%Mo steel; normalised and tempered and quenched and tempered 2 1/4%Cr1%Mo steel; and 2 1/4%CrMo variants. The available data have been considered generally in terms of total strain range vs. cycles to failure (Nsub(f)), tensile stress at Nsub(f)/2 vs. cycles to failure and time to failure vs. cycles to failure. Where possible the continuous cycling data have been statistically analysed in terms of the elastic and plastic strain components and cycles to failure to yield best-fit equations over defined temperature (T) regimes viz: T <= 427 deg. C, 427 deg. C < T <= 550 deg. C. and 550 deg. C < T <= 600 deg. C. The behaviour of the steels within the various classifications is discussed. (author)

  13. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  14. COMPARISON OF S-CO2 POWER CYCLES FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Vesely

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2 is a possible cooling system for the new generations of nuclear reactors and fusion reactors. The S-CO2 power cycles have several advantages over other possible coolants such as water and helium. The advantages are the compression work, which is lower than in the case of helium, near the critical point and the S-CO2 is more compact than water and helium. The disadvantage is so called Pinch point which occurs in the regenerative heat exchanger. The pinch point can be eliminated by an arrangement of the cycle or using a mixture of CO2. This paper describes the S-CO2 power cycles for nuclear fission and fusion reactors.

  15. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  16. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  17. Experimental Comparison Of Working Fluids For Organic Rankine Cycle With Single-Screw Expander

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Sergei; Ziviani, Davide; Bell, Ian; De Paepe, Michel; van den Broek, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) fed by a heat source with adaptable temperature and mass flow. For a suitable choice of working fluid, the setting of its evaporation pressure is crucial for the performance of an ORC installation. The higher the evaporation pressure, the higher the cycle efficiency on the one hand, but the lower the energy recovered from the heat source due to a higher outlet temperature on the other hand. An optimum has to be found to achie...

  18. Comparison of Quantity Versus Quality Using Performance, Reliability, and Life Cycle Cost Data. A Case Study of the F-15, F-16, and A-10 Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    CoC S~04 COMPARISON OF QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY USING PERFORMANCE, RELIABILITY, AND LIFE CYCLE COST DATA. A CASE STUDY OF THE F-15, F-16, AND A-10...CYCLE COSTIATU.AT CAE AIR ORE HEO OG .- jAITR UIVERSITY W right.,Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio .! 5ൔ ,6 198 C.IT. U AF’IT/GSL,4/L3Q/65:S Ŗ J...COMPARISON OF QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY USING PERFORMANCE, RELIABILITY, AND LIFE CYCLE COST DATA. A CASE STUDY OF THE F-15, F-16, AND A-10 AIRCRAFT THESIS David

  19. Comparison of requirements for location, maintenance and removal of road advertising between polish and foreign regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żukowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of Polish and international formal and legal requirements for roadside advertising and the relevant road safety impacts. The analysis focussed on outdoor advertising life cycle consisting of three stages: location, operation and removal of advertising. Experience of road authorities from Australia (Queensland, Republic of South Africa and the United Kingdom was collected. The article is part of a joint project “Development of Road Innovations” funded by the National Centre for Development and Innovation and the General Directorate For National Roads and Motorways.

  20. Friction induced hunting limit cycles : a comparison between the LuGre and switch friction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, R.H.A.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, friction induced limit cycles are predicted for a simple motion system consisting of a motor-driven inertia subjected to friction and a PID-controlled regulator task. The two friction models used, i.e., (i) the dynamic LuGre friction model and (ii) the static switch friction model,

  1. Comparison of Asian Aquaculture Products by Use of Statistically Supported Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, P.J.G.; Rico Artero, A.; Zhang, W.; Nahid, S.S.A.; Newton, R.; Phan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated aquaculture production of Asian tiger shrimp, whiteleg shrimp, giant river prawn, tilapia, and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand, and Vietnam by using life cycle assessments (LCAs), with the purpose of evaluating the comparative eco-efficiency of producing different

  2. Cycles of Expansion in Higher Education 1870-1985: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windolf, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between business cycles and expansion in higher education in 1870-1985 is analyzed and compared for Germany, Italy, France, the United States, and Japan. In most countries, expansion corresponded to economic recession. Spectral analysis, used to explore the cyclical character of the phenomenon, was found to be a powerful…

  3. Squat Jump Performance during Growth in Both Sexes: Comparison with Cycling Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Eric; Bedu, Mario; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate leg muscle power and compare two activities (jumping and cycling) in 383 girls and 407 boys ages 9-19 years. Results in anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance were comparable until midadolescence, and sex differences were observed. Lean leg volume (LLV) was the reason for…

  4. Comparison of ISO 9000 and recent software life cycle standards to nuclear regulatory review guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the assessment of certain quality and software life cycle standards to determine whether additional guidance for the U.S. nuclear regulatory context should be derived from the standards. This report describes the nature of the standards and compares the guidance of the standards to that of the recently updated Standard Review Plan

  5. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  6. Comparison of data-driven and model-driven approaches to brightness temperature diurnal cycle interpolation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two new schemes for interpolating missing samples in satellite diurnal temperature cycles (DTCs). The first scheme, referred to here as the cosine model, is an improvement of the model proposed in [2] and combines a cosine...

  7. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  8. Model for economical analysis of oil and gas deepwater production concepts : Comparisons of life cycle cost of subsea production systems vs. floating structures with dry wellheads.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Mata, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The scope of the work was to create a model that will allow the comparison of Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for subsea production systems and floating structures with dry wellheads for the Mexican territorial waters of the Gulf of Mexico. To give validity to the model, an empirical comparison on the resulting recovery factor based on data of the US Gulf of Mexico was included. This comparison is intended to answer ¿Is there a significant diffe...

  9. A comparison of ultra-endurance cyclists in a qualifying ultra-cycling race for Paris-Brest-Paris and Race Across America-Swiss cycling marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-endurance events test the adaptation of human physiology to extreme physical and mental demands, high levels of training, motivation, and physical conditioning among participants. To understand basic differences among participants according to the severity of the race, participants in qualifying events for two ultra-endurance cycling races, differing in length and intensity, were compared on measures of anthropometry, training, and support. One race was four times longer, required supporting teams, and racers typically had little sleep, which should lead to the qualifiers being substantially more highly trained than those from the shorter race. The qualifiers in the longer race had greater intensity in training while the qualifiers in the shorter race relied more on training volume. Different strategies and types of training reflected the different demands of the races. Future studies should evaluate personality and motivational differences in ultra-endurance events and between these athletes and athletes in other sports.

  10. Dosage-sensitive function of retinoblastoma related and convergent epigenetic control are required during the Arabidopsis life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal J Johnston

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant life cycle alternates between two distinct multi-cellular generations, the reduced gametophytes and the dominant sporophyte. Little is known about how generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development are controlled by the core regulators of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR, an evolutionarily ancient cell cycle regulator, controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 genes and METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1 in the male and female gametophytes, as well as cell fate establishment in the male gametophyte. Here we demonstrate that RBR is also essential for cell fate determination in the female gametophyte, as revealed by loss of cell-specific marker expression in all the gametophytic cells that lack RBR. Maintenance of genome integrity also requires RBR, because diploid plants heterozygous for rbr (rbr/RBR produce an abnormal portion of triploid offspring, likely due to gametic genome duplication. While the sporophyte of the diploid mutant plants phenocopied wild type due to the haplosufficiency of RBR, genetic analysis of tetraploid plants triplex for rbr (rbr/rbr/rbr/RBR revealed that RBR has a dosage-dependent pleiotropic effect on sporophytic development, trichome differentiation, and regulation of PRC2 subunit genes CURLY LEAF (CLF and VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2, and MET1 in leaves. There were, however, no obvious cell cycle and cell proliferation defects in these plant tissues, suggesting that a single functional RBR copy in tetraploids is capable of maintaining normal cell division but is not sufficient for distinct differentiation and developmental processes. Conversely, in leaves of mutants in sporophytic PRC2 subunits, trichome differentiation was also affected and expression of RBR and MET1 was reduced, providing evidence for a RBR-PRC2-MET1 regulatory feedback loop involved in sporophyte development. Together, dosage-sensitive RBR

  11. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni–MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA–MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni–MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  12. Economic comparison of long-term nuclear fuel cycle management scenarios: The influence of the discount rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, Aude; Loaec, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This article presents some main economic results obtained by the CEA in the DERECO project, which aimed to evaluate the global cost of contrasted and long-term nuclear fuel cycle scenarios. The scenarios have been studied for the period 2000-2150 in the French context. They all assume a sustainable nuclear development. These scenarios must not be considered as forecasts and do not reflect any industrial strategy. The article focuses on the comparison of five scenarios including the Generation IV fast reactors and their associated fuel cycles. Common trends as well as specific features can be identified. The article describes the scenarios with the replacement of the nuclear power and the associated fuel cycle. It details the main technical and economic assumptions common to all the scenarios, and exposes some main key results, concerning the flows and inventories as well as concerning economic evaluation. Economic results are given in a comparative manner due to the level of uncertainties at this time horizon. The key economic elements described in the article deal with the sensitivity of the results to the choice of the discount rate

  13. Comparison of low cycle fatigue of ductile cast irons with different matrix alloyed with nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, Martin; Tesařová, H.; Beran, Přemysl; Šmíd, Miroslav; Roupcová, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 2307-2316 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [ Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Low cycle fatigue * ferritic ductile cast iron * ADI * nickel alloying * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue , Friction Mechanics

  14. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  15. Comparison of Different Technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles: Analysis of Concentrating Technology and Solar Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rovira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the annual performance of Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs using different solar concentration technologies: parabolic trough collectors (PTC, linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR and central tower receiver (CT. Each solar technology (i.e. PTC, LFR and CT is proposed to integrate solar energy into the combined cycle in two different ways. The first one is based on the use of solar energy to evaporate water of the steam cycle by means of direct steam generation (DSG, increasing the steam production of the high pressure level of the steam generator. The other one is based on the use of solar energy to preheat the pressurized air at the exit of the gas turbine compressor before it is introduced in the combustion chamber, reducing the fuel consumption. Results show that ISCC with DSG increases the yearly production while solar air heating reduces it due to the incremental pressure drop. However, air heating allows significantly higher solar-to-electricity efficiencies and lower heat rates. Regarding the solar technologies, PTC provides the best thermal results.

  16. A Novel Interaction of Ecdysoneless (ECD) Protein with R2TP Complex Component RUVBL1 Is Required for the Functional Role of ECD in Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Riyaz A; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Srivastava, Shashank; Olou, Appolinaire A; Ammons, Shalis A; Kim, Jun Hyun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-12-28

    Ecdysoneless (ECD) is an evolutionarily conserved protein whose germ line deletion is embryonic lethal. Deletion of Ecd in cells causes cell cycle arrest, which is rescued by exogenous ECD, demonstrating a requirement of ECD for normal mammalian cell cycle progression. However, the exact mechanism by which ECD regulates cell cycle is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ECD protein levels and subcellular localization are invariant during cell cycle progression, suggesting a potential role of posttranslational modifications or protein-protein interactions. Since phosphorylated ECD was recently shown to interact with the PIH1D1 adaptor component of the R2TP cochaperone complex, we examined the requirement of ECD phosphorylation in cell cycle progression. Notably, phosphorylation-deficient ECD mutants that failed to bind to PIH1D1 in vitro fully retained the ability to interact with the R2TP complex and yet exhibited a reduced ability to rescue Ecd-deficient cells from cell cycle arrest. Biochemical analyses demonstrated an additional phosphorylation-independent interaction of ECD with the RUVBL1 component of the R2TP complex, and this interaction is essential for ECD's cell cycle progression function. These studies demonstrate that interaction of ECD with RUVBL1, and its CK2-mediated phosphorylation, independent of its interaction with PIH1D1, are important for its cell cycle regulatory function. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Vulnerability of Polar Oceans to Anthropogenic Acidification: Comparison of Arctic and Antarctic Seasonal Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    E. H. Shadwick; T. W. Trull; H. Thomas; J. A. E. Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Polar oceans are chemically sensitive to anthropogenic acidification due to their relatively low alkalinity and correspondingly weak carbonate buffering capacity. Here, we compare unique CO2 system observations covering complete annual cycles at an Arctic (Amundsen Gulf) and Antarctic site (Prydz Bay). The Arctic site experiences greater seasonal warming (10 vs 3?C), and freshening (3 vs 2), has lower alkalinity (2220 vs 2320??mol/kg), and lower summer pH (8.15 vs 8.5), than the Antarctic sit...

  18. Comparison between numerical and analytical results on the required rf current for stabilizing neoclassical tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Yu, Qingquan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Sizheng; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wu, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Numerical studies on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) have been carried out based on reduced MHD equations, focusing on the amount of the required driven current for mode stabilization and the comparison with analytical results. The dependence of the minimum driven current required for NTM stabilization on some parameters, including the bootstrap current density, radial width of the driven current, radial deviation of the driven current from the resonant surface, and the island width when applying ECCD, are studied. By fitting the numerical results, simple expressions for these dependences are obtained. Analysis based on the modified Rutherford equation (MRE) has also been carried out, and the corresponding results have the same trend as numerical ones, while a quantitative difference between them exists. This difference becomes smaller when the applied radio frequency (rf) current is smaller.

  19. Velocity fluctuations in polar solar wind: a comparison between different solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar solar wind is a fast, tenuous and steady flow that, with the exception of a relatively short phase around the Sun's activity maximum, fills the high-latitude heliosphere. The polar wind properties have been extensively investigated by Ulysses, the first spacecraft able to perform in-situ measurements in the high-latitude heliosphere. The out-of-ecliptic phases of Ulysses cover about seventeen years. This makes possible to study heliospheric properties at high latitudes in different solar cycles. In the present investigation we focus on hourly- to daily-scale fluctuations of the polar wind velocity. Though the polar wind is a quite uniform flow, fluctuations in its velocity do not appear negligible. A simple way to characterize wind velocity variations is that of performing a multi-scale statistical analysis of the wind velocity differences. Our analysis is based on the computation of velocity differences at different time lags and the evaluation of statistical quantities (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for the different ensembles. The results clearly show that, though differences exist in the three-dimensional structure of the heliosphere between the investigated solar cycles, the velocity fluctuations in the core of polar coronal holes exhibit essentially unchanged statistical properties.

  20. A comparison of simulation results from two terrestrial carbon cycle models using three climate data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Sasai, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    This study addressed how different climate data sets influence simulations of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. For the period 1982-2001, we compared the results of simulations based on three climate data sets (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP-II and ERA40) employed in meteorological, ecological and biogeochemical studies and two different models (BEAMS and Sim-CYCLE). The models differed in their parameterizations of photosynthetic and phenological processes but used the same surface climate (e.g. shortwave radiation, temperature and precipitation), vegetation, soil and topography data. The three data sets give different climatic conditions, especially for shortwave radiation, in terms of long-term means, linear trends and interannual variability. Consequently, the simulation results for global net primary productivity varied by 16%-43% only from differences in the climate data sets, especially in these regions where the shortwave radiation data differed markedly: differences in the climate data set can strongly influence simulation results. The differences among the climate data set and between the two models resulted in slightly different spatial distribution and interannual variability in the net ecosystem carbon budget. To minimize uncertainty, we should pay attention to the specific climate data used. We recommend developing an accurate standard climate data set for simulation studies

  1. Comparison of open cycles of uranium and mixed oxides of thorium-uranium using advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Letícia C.; Maiorino, José R.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of the mass balance and production costs of uranium oxide fuels was carried out for an AP1000 reactor and thorium-uranium mixed oxide in a reactor proposal using thorium called AP-Th1000. Assuming the input mass values for a fuel load the average enrichment for both reactors as well as their feed mass was determined. With these parameters, the costs were calculated in each fuel preparation process, assuming the prices provided by the World Nuclear Association. The total fuel costs for the two reactors were quantitatively compared with 18-month open cycle. Considering enrichment of 20% for the open cycle of mixed U-Th oxide fuel, the total uranium consumption of this option was 50% higher and the cost due to the enrichment was 70% higher. The results show that the use of U-Th mixed oxide fuels can be advantageous considering sustainability issues. In this case other parameters and conditions should be investigated, especially those related to fuel recycling, spent fuel storage and reduction of the amount of transuranic radioactive waste

  2. Velocity fluctuations in polar solar wind: a comparison between different solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar solar wind is a fast, tenuous and steady flow that, with the exception of a relatively short phase around the Sun's activity maximum, fills the high-latitude heliosphere. The polar wind properties have been extensively investigated by Ulysses, the first spacecraft able to perform in-situ measurements in the high-latitude heliosphere. The out-of-ecliptic phases of Ulysses cover about seventeen years. This makes possible to study heliospheric properties at high latitudes in different solar cycles. In the present investigation we focus on hourly- to daily-scale fluctuations of the polar wind velocity. Though the polar wind is a quite uniform flow, fluctuations in its velocity do not appear negligible. A simple way to characterize wind velocity variations is that of performing a multi-scale statistical analysis of the wind velocity differences. Our analysis is based on the computation of velocity differences at different time lags and the evaluation of statistical quantities (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for the different ensembles. The results clearly show that, though differences exist in the three-dimensional structure of the heliosphere between the investigated solar cycles, the velocity fluctuations in the core of polar coronal holes exhibit essentially unchanged statistical properties.

  3. COMPARISON OF CORONAL EXTRAPOLATION METHODS FOR CYCLE 24 USING HMI DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arden, William M. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Norton, Aimee A.; Sun, Xudong; Zhao, Xuepu [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Two extrapolation models of the solar coronal magnetic field are compared using magnetogram data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument. The two models, a horizontal current–current sheet–source surface (HCCSSS) model and a potential field–source surface (PFSS) model, differ in their treatment of coronal currents. Each model has its own critical variable, respectively, the radius of a cusp surface and a source surface, and it is found that adjusting these heights over the period studied allows for a better fit between the models and the solar open flux at 1 au as calculated from the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The HCCSSS model provides the better fit for the overall period from 2010 November to 2015 May as well as for two subsets of the period: the minimum/rising part of the solar cycle and the recently identified peak in the IMF from mid-2014 to mid-2015 just after solar maximum. It is found that an HCCSSS cusp surface height of 1.7 R {sub ⊙} provides the best fit to the IMF for the overall period, while 1.7 and 1.9 R {sub ⊙} give the best fits for the two subsets. The corresponding values for the PFSS source surface height are 2.1, 2.2, and 2.0 R {sub ⊙} respectively. This means that the HCCSSS cusp surface rises as the solar cycle progresses while the PFSS source surface falls.

  4. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  5. The Identification and Comparison of the Requirements Placed on Product Managers during the Recruitment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblowská Zuzana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The submitted paper focuses on personality traits and behavioural competencies of a key role bearer in product oriented marketing management, generally referred to as product management. An interdisciplinary approach was applied while looking into this subject, since both research into theoretical bases and analysis of the current state of the topic and the tendencies of its development required work in several fields of study. Based on research in the field of secondary data, the assumption was set that a product manager is an example of a knowledge worker of the 21st century and that the business practice sees him/her as such, which has an effect on the requirements a candidate for this position is confronted with in the recruitment process. An independent research project was carried out and it confirmed that product managers are considered to be knowledge workers and that independence and analytical thinking skills were among the most common requirements for product managers both in 2007 and 2014. A comparison of results from 2007 and 2014 also showed some differences. The statistical verification confirmed a shift in requirements within the interpersonal competency group. The findings were used to formulate recommendations for the recruitment strategy and realization of selection for positions in product management.

  6. The timing of pollution abatement investments and the business cycle. An international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouman, M. [Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hofkes, M.W. [Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    A simple equilibrium business-cycle model for an economy with both clean- and dirty-producing plants is developed. The authors derive that the optimal timing of cleaning the production process is during a slowdown of the economy. Due to external effects and market failures the timing of pollution abatement investments is not expected to be optimal in the real world. We test the optimality of the timing of those investments with data for Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S.A. It appears that for more than 25 percent of the sectors pollution abatement investments show counter-cyclical behaviour, while in only one sector these investments are pro-cyclical. 1 tab., 3 appendices, 10 refs.

  7. Fuel cycle cost comparison of choices in U-235 recycle in the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothstein, M.P.

    1976-07-01

    An analysis of alternative options for the recycle of discharged makeup U-235 (''residual'' makeup) in HTGRs shows that the three-particle system which has been the reference plan remains optimal. This result considers both the resource utilization and the handling costs attendant to the alternative strategies (primarily in the recycle facility and in waste disposal). Furthermore, this result appears to be true under all forseeable economic conditions. A simple risk assessment indicates that recycle cost (including reprocessing, refabrication, and related waste disposal) would have to double or triple in order for the alternative U-235 recycle schemes to become attractive. This induces some degree of confidence in the choice of staying with the reference cycle in spite of the large degree of uncertainty over recycle and its costs

  8. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  9. The timing of pollution abatement investments and the business cycle. An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouman, M.; Hofkes, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    A simple equilibrium business-cycle model for an economy with both clean- and dirty-producing plants is developed. The authors derive that the optimal timing of cleaning the production process is during a slowdown of the economy. Due to external effects and market failures the timing of pollution abatement investments is not expected to be optimal in the real world. We test the optimality of the timing of those investments with data for Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S.A. It appears that for more than 25 percent of the sectors pollution abatement investments show counter-cyclical behaviour, while in only one sector these investments are pro-cyclical. 1 tab., 3 appendices, 10 refs

  10. Comparison of radiation shielding requirements for HDR brachytherapy using 169Yb and 192Ir sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymperopoulou, G.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Hourdakis, C. J.; Baltas, D.

    2006-01-01

    169 Yb has received a renewed focus lately as an alternative to 192 Ir sources for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Following the results of a recent work by our group which proved 169 Yb to be a good candidate for HDR prostate brachytherapy, this work seeks to quantify the radiation shielding requirements for 169 Yb HDR brachytherapy applications in comparison to the corresponding requirements for the current 192 Ir HDR brachytherapy standard. Monte Carlo simulation (MC) is used to obtain 169 Yb and 192 Ir broad beam transmission data through lead and concrete. Results are fitted to an analytical equation which can be used to readily calculate the barrier thickness required to achieve a given dose rate reduction. Shielding requirements for a HDR brachytherapy treatment room facility are presented as a function of distance, occupancy, dose limit, and facility workload, using analytical calculations for both 169 Yb and 192 Ir HDR sources. The barrier thickness required for 169 Yb is lower than that for 192 Ir by a factor of 4-5 for lead and 1.5-2 for concrete. Regarding 169 Yb HDR brachytherapy applications, the lead shielding requirements do not exceed 15 mm, even in highly conservative case scenarios. This allows for the construction of a lead door in most cases, thus avoiding the construction of a space consuming, specially designed maze. The effects of source structure, attenuation by the patient, and scatter conditions within an actual treatment room on the above-noted findings are also discussed using corresponding MC simulation results

  11. Comparison of the APA-H (Westinghouse) calculations with the operational data for ZpNPP unit 3 cycles 16-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Gorbachenko, O. V.; Ignatchenko, A.I.; Maryokhin, S.V.; Zhukov, A. I.

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation of ZpNPP Unit 3 (WWER-1000) Cycles 16-19 core depletion has been performed on the basis of the operational data. The changes in reactor heat rate, lead bank position and inlet temperature during the core operation have been taken into account. These calculations were performed by using Westinghouse APA-H (ALPHA/PHOENIX/ ANC-H) code system. The main objectives of the calculations were the comparison with operational data for core loading with TVS-M (Cycle 16) and transition core loading with TVS-A (Cycle 17-19). The calculation results were compared with the results of Critical boric acid concentration vs. Cycle Burnup measurements and Start up Physics Test measurements (at HZP, BOC, NoXe core conditions). Additionally, the comparison between the results of assemblies power calculation performed by ANC-H and BIPR-7A codes is presented (Authors)

  12. A new comparison between the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric vehicles and internal combustion vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongrui; Balthasar, Felix; Tait, Nigel; Riera-Palou, Xavier; Harrison, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicles have recently been gaining increasing worldwide interest as a promising potential long-term solution to sustainable personal mobility; in particular, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer zero tailpipe emissions. However, their true ability to contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions can only be properly assessed by comparing a life cycle assessment of their GHG emissions with a similar assessment for conventional internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). This paper presents an analysis for vehicles typically expected to be introduced in 2015 in two example markets (the UK and California), taking into account the impact of three important factors: •Like-for-like vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving conditions. •Accounting for the GHG emissions associated with meeting the additional electricity demand for charging the batteries. •GHG emissions associated with vehicle manufacture, disposal, etc. This work demonstrates that all of these factors are important and emphasises that it is therefore crucial to clearly define the context when presenting conclusions about the relative GHG performance of BEVs and ICVs – such relative performance depends on a wide range of factors, including the marginal regional grid GHG intensity, vehicle size, driving pattern, loading, etc. - Highlights: ► Develops new insights into the life cycle GHG emissions of electric vehicles. ► Addresses like-for-like vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving. ► Accounts for marginal GHG intensity of the electricity used to charge EVs. ► Accounts for the GHG emissions associated with vehicle manufacture and disposal.

  13. Lifecycle comparison of selected Li-ion battery chemistries under grid and electric vehicle duty cycle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alasdair J.; Huang, Qian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Reed, David M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon

    2018-03-01

    Li-ion batteries are expected to play a vital role in stabilizing the electrical grid as solar and wind generation capacity becomes increasingly integrated into the electric infrastructure. This article describes how two different commercial Li-ion batteries based on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiFePO4 (LFP) chemistries were tested under grid duty cycles recently developed for two specific grid services: (1) frequency regulation (FR) and (2) peak shaving (PS) with and without being subjected to electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles. The lifecycle comparison derived from the capacity, round-trip efficiency (RTE), resistance, charge/discharge energy, and total used energy of the two battery chemistries are discussed. The LFP chemistry shows better stability for the energy-intensive PS service, while the NCA chemistry is more conducive to the FR service under the operating regimes investigated. The results can be used as a guideline for selection, deployment, operation, and cost analyses of Li-ion batteries used for different applications.

  14. Comparison of OMI NO2 Observations and Their Seasonal and Weekly Cycles with Ground-Based Measurements in Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Herman, Jay; Krotkov, Nick; Lamsal, Lok; Boersma, Folkert; Hovila, Jari; Tamminen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present the comparison of satellite-based OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 products with ground-based observations in Helsinki. OMI NO2 total columns, available from standard product (SP) and DOMINO algorithm, are compared with the measurements performed by the Pandora spectrometer in Helsinki in 2012. The relative difference between Pandora 21 and OMI SP retrievals is 4 and 6 for clear sky and all sky conditions, respectively. DOMINO NO2 retrievals showed slightly lower total columns with median differences about 5 and 14 for clear sky and all sky conditions, respectively. Large differences often correspond to cloudy autumn-winter days with solar zenith angles above 65. Nevertheless, the differences remain within the retrieval uncertainties. Furthermore, the weekly and seasonal cycles from OMI, Pandora and NO2 surface concentrations are compared. Both satellite- and ground-based data show a similar weekly cycle, with lower NO2 levels during the weekend compared to the weekdays as result of reduced emissions from traffic and industrial activities. Also the seasonal cycle shows a similar behavior, even though the results are affected by the fact that most of the data are available during spring-summer because of cloud cover in other seasons. This is one of few works in which OMI NO2 retrievals are evaluated in an urban site at high latitudes (60N). Despite the city of Helsinki having relatively small pollution sources, OMI retrievals have proved to be able to describe air quality features and variability similar to surface observations. This adds confidence in using satellite observations for air quality monitoring also at high latitudes.

  15. Activation-Inactivation Cycling of Rab35 and ARF6 Is Required for Phagocytosis of Zymosan in RAW264 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Egami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis of zymosan by phagocytes is a widely used model of microbial recognition by the innate immune system. Live-cell imaging showed that fluorescent protein-fused Rab35 accumulated in the membranes of phagocytic cups and then dissociated from the membranes of newly formed phagosomes. By our novel pull-down assay for Rab35 activity, we found that Rab35 is deactivated immediately after zymosan internalization into the cells. Phagosome formation was inhibited in cells expressing the GDP- or GTP-locked Rab35 mutant. Moreover, the simultaneous expression of ACAP2—a Rab35 effector protein—with GTP-locked Rab35 or the expression of plasma membrane-targeted ACAP2 showed a marked inhibitory effect on phagocytosis through ARF6 inactivation by the GAP activity of ACAP2. ARF6, a substrate for ACAP2, was also localized on the phagocytic cups and dissociated from the membranes of internalized phagosomes. In support of the microscopic observations, ARF6-GTP pull-down experiments showed that ARF6 is transiently activated during phagosome formation. Furthermore, the expression of GDP- or GTP-locked ARF6 mutants also suppresses the uptake of zymosan. These data suggest that the activation-inactivation cycles of Rab35 and ARF6 are required for the uptake of zymosan and that ACAP2 is an important component that links Rab35/ARF6 signaling during phagocytosis of zymosan.

  16. Phytophthora capsici homologue of the cell cycle regulator SDA1 is required for sporangial morphology, mycelial growth and plant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lv, Rongfei; Li, Zhuang; Ding, Xiaomeng; Tyler, Brett M; Zhang, Xiuguo

    2016-04-01

    SDA1 encodes a highly conserved protein that is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. SDA1 is essential for cell cycle progression and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in yeasts and humans. In this study, we identified a Phytophthora capsici orthologue of yeast SDA1, named PcSDA1. In P. capsici, PcSDA1 is strongly expressed in three asexual developmental states (mycelium, sporangia and germinating cysts), as well as late in infection. Silencing or overexpression of PcSDA1 in P. capsici transformants affected the growth of hyphae and sporangiophores, sporangial development, cyst germination and zoospore release. Phalloidin staining confirmed that PcSDA1 is required for organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and PcSDA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions revealed that PcSDA1 is involved in the regulation of nuclear distribution in hyphae and sporangia. Both silenced and overexpression transformants showed severely diminished virulence. Thus, our results suggest that PcSDA1 plays a similar role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear division in this filamentous organism as in non-filamentous yeasts and human cells. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mareev, Ivan; Becker, Jan Nicolas; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2018-01-01

    The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventio...

  18. Comparison of Post Weld Treatment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints in Medium Cycle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of three post-weld treatments for fatigue life improvement of welded joints. The objective is to determine the most suitable post-weld treatment for implementation in mass production of certain crane components manufactured from very high-strength steel...... the stress range can exceed the yield-strength of ordinary structural steel, especially when considering positive stress ratios (R > 0). Fatigue experiments and qualitative evaluation of the different post-weld treatments leads to the selection of TIG dressing. The process of implementing TIG dressing...... in mass production and some inherent initial problems are discussed. The treatment of a few critical welds leads to a significant increase in fatigue performance of the entire structure and the possibility for better utilization of very high-strength steel....

  19. Comparison of materials resistance to rupture for low-cycle fatigue under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, N.D.; Egorov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed is the following conception of damage at cyclic change of deformation and temperature allowing for two effects: 1) material damage occurs mainly in the stretching semicycle and the higher the temperature and the greater the ageing time, the greater the material damage; 2) the healing effect may take place in the compression semicycle and the higher the temperature and the greater the ageing time, the greater the effect. Comparison in durability of some loading conditions is carried out for the 304 stainless steel to confirm the above conception. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account separately damages is stretching and compression semicycles with allowance for temperature and durability of active loading and holdings

  20. Comparison of exertion required to perform standard and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, J J; Mianulli, M J; Gisch, T M; Coffeen, P R; Haidet, G C; Lurie, K G

    1995-02-01

    Active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizes a hand-held suction device with a pressure gauge that enables the operator to compress as well as actively decompress the chest. This new CPR method improves hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters when compared with standard CPR. ACD-CPR is easy to perform but may be more labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the work required to perform ACD and standard CPR. Cardiopulmonary testing was performed on six basic cardiac life support- and ACD-trained St. Paul, MN fire-fighter personnel during performance of 10 min each of ACD and standard CPR on a mannequin equipped with a compression gauge. The order of CPR techniques was determined randomly with > 1 h between each study. Each CPR method was performed at 80 compressions/min (timed with a metronome), to a depth of 1.5-2 inches, and with a 50% duty cycle. Baseline cardiopulmonary measurements were similar at rest prior to performance of both CPR methods. During standard and ACD-CPR, respectively, rate-pressure product was 18.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 23.8 +/- 1.7 (x 1000, P CPR compared with standard CPR. Both methods require subanaerobic energy expenditure and can therefore be sustained for a sufficient length of time by most individuals to optimize resuscitation efforts. Due to the slightly higher work requirement, ACD-CPR may be more difficult to perform compared with standard CPR for long periods of time, particularly by individuals unaccustomed to the workload requirement of CPR, in general.

  1. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  2. International variation in ethics committee requirements: comparisons across five Westernised nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachson Israel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable amendments designed to minimise participant harm in New Zealand. Assessment of minimal risk is a complex and unreliable estimation further compounded by insufficient information on probabilities of particular individuals suffering harm. Estimating potential benefits/ risks ratio and protecting participants' autonomy similarly are not straightforward exercises. Summary Safeguarding moral/humane principles should be balanced with promotion of ethical research which does not impede research posing minimal risk to participants. In ensuring that ethical standards are met and research has scientific merit, ethics committees have obligations to participants (to meet their rights and protect them from harm; to society (to ensure good quality research is conducted; and to researchers (to treat their proposals with just consideration and respect. To facilitate meeting all these obligations, the preferable focus should be promotion of ethical research, rather than the prevention of unethical research, which inevitably results in the impediment of researchers from doing their work. How the ethical principles should be applied and balanced requires further consideration.

  3. Comparison of Diverting Colostomy and Bowel Management Catheter Applications in Fournier Gangrene Cases Requiring Fecal Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eray, Ismail Cem; Alabaz, Omer; Akcam, Atilgan Tolga; Ulku, Abdullah; Parsak, Cem Kaan; Sakman, Gurhan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2015-12-01

    In some patients of Fournier gangrene originated from perianal region, it is important to prevent fecal contamination in order to provide healing without wound infection. For this purposes, diverting colostomy or bowel management catheter methods were performed. In this study, it is aimed to carry out a comparison of prognosis and cost efficiency between diverting colostomy and bowel management catheter methods applied for preventing fecal contamination in Fournier's gangrene patients. Fourty-eight patients with diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene, serious perianal infections, and preserved sphincters and without rectum injury after debridement were included in the study. The cases were divided into two groups as patients who were subjected to colostomy for fecal diversion and who were subjected to bowel management catheter without colostomy. Then, the groups were compared in terms of age, predisposing factors, duration of hospital stay, mortality, additional surgery requirements, and cost. Fourty-eight patients were included the study. Sixteen patients were treated without colostomy. Decreased duration of total hospital stay, additional surgery requirements, and hospital expense in bowel management catheter group has determined. It is thought that preferring bowel management catheter method instead of colostomy in patients without rectum injury, who require diverting colostomy and have undamaged anal sphincters, can relieve patients, patients' relatives, healthcare organizations, and the national economy of a serious burden. In addition, although patients' satisfaction and workforce loss factors are not taken into consideration in this study, the bowel management catheter method is thought to have positive effects also on these parameters.

  4. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut [Joint Research Centre, EC-JRC, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 2, NL-0 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  5. Comparison of lead and sodium-cooled reactors - Safety, fuel cycle performance and some economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Tucek, Kamil; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) regarding different aspects of the coolant, safety and economics. A brief review of design and safety experience of an SFR (BN-600) and some safety philosophy of the most developed LFR (BREST) are presented as well. The pros and cons of the lead and the sodium coolants are discussed. This paper presents results concerning the coolant temperature evolution during three accident scenarios, i.e. Loss-Of- Flow (LOF), Loss-Of-Heat-Sink (LOHS), and Total-Loss-Of-Power (TLOP). It also studies possible moderators, like BeO and hydrides, for the core designs to have negative reactivity feedbacks and favorable reactivity swings. LFR seems to be able to accommodate more minor actinides than SFR at comparable coolant and Doppler feedbacks. We show that LFR can be designed both to breed and burn transuranics from LWRs. The hydrides lead to the most favorable reactivity feedbacks, but the poorest reactivity swing. It is shown that the LFR can handle the LOF transient better than the SFR. This is due to the much lower pressure drop in the LFR core. The coolant outlet temperatures stabilize at 2050 K and 940 K for SFR and LFR, respectively when no feedbacks are considered. Investigations also concern the SFR's performance when the pitch-to-diameter was increased from 1.2 to 1.4. For the LOHS and TLOP accidents their temperature evolutions are milder for the LFR since lead has a 50% larger volumetric heat capacity. For the TLOP the core outlet temperature of the LFR peaks at 1080 K after 2 days. Regarding economics it appears easier to avoid an intermediate cycle in an LFR than an SFR. (authors)

  6. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological comparison of concentric and eccentric arm cycling in males and females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Martyn Beaven

    Full Text Available Lower body eccentric exercise is well known to elicit high levels of muscular force with relatively low cardiovascular and metabolic strain. As a result, eccentric exercise has been successfully utilised as an adaptive stressor to improve lower body muscle function in populations ranging from the frail and debilitated, to highly-trained individuals. Here we investigate the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and energy costs of upper body eccentric exercise in a healthy population. Seven men and seven women performed 4-min efforts of eccentric (ECC or concentric (CON arm cycling on a novel arm ergometer at workloads corresponding to 40, 60, and 80% of their peak workload as assessed in an incremental concentric trial. The heart rate, ventilation, cardiac output, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood lactate concentrations were all clearly greater in CON condition at all of the relative workloads (all p0.05. In contrast, delta efficiency (ηΔ, as previously defined by Coyle and colleagues in 1992, demonstrated a sex difference (men>women; p<0.05. Sex differences were also apparent in arteriovenous oxygen difference and heart rate during CON. Here, we reinforce the high-force, low cost attributes of eccentric exercise which can be generalised to the muscles of the upper body. Upper body eccentric exercise is likely to form a useful adjunct in debilitative, rehabilitative, and adaptive clinical exercise programs; however, reports of a shift towards an oxidative phenotype should be taken into consideration by power athletes. We suggest delta efficiency as a sensitive measure of efficiency that allowed the identification of sex differences.

  8. Comparison of total mercury and methylmercury cycling at five sites using the small watershed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, James B. [US Geological Survey, PO Box 628, Montpelier, VT 05601 (United States)], E-mail: jshanley@usgs.gov; Alisa Mast, M. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: mamast@usgs.gov; Campbell, Donald H. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: dhcampbe@usgs.gov; Aiken, George R. [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: graiken@usgs.gov; Krabbenhoft, David P. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: dpkrabbe@usgs.gov; Hunt, Randall J. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: rjhunt@usgs.gov; Walker, John F. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: jfwalker@usgs.gov; Schuster, Paul F. [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: pschuste@usgs.gov; Chalmers, Ann [US Geological Survey, PO Box 628, Montpelier, VT 05601 (United States)], E-mail: chalmers@usgs.gov; Aulenbach, Brent T. [US Geological Survey, 3039 Amwiler Road, Suite 130, Atlanta, GA 30360 (United States)], E-mail: btaulenb@usgs.gov; Peters, Norman E. [US Geological Survey, 3039 Amwiler Road, Suite 130, Atlanta, GA 30360 (United States)], E-mail: nepeters@usgs.gov; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., MS 480, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)], E-mail: mmarvin@usgs.gov; Clow, David W. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: dwclow@usgs.gov; Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: mmshafer@wisc.edu

    2008-07-15

    mercury and methylmercury cycling in five diverse USA watersheds.

  9. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: Incineration and base catalyzed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xintao; Zhu Jianxin; Ding Qiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the environmental impacts of two kinds of remediation technologies including Infrared High Temperature Incineration(IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition(BCD). → Combined midpoint/damage approaches were calculated for two technologies. → The results showed that major environmental impacts arose from energy consumption. → BCD has a lower environmental impact than IHTI in the view of single score. - Abstract: Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and

  10. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  11. Comparison of different methods to extract the required coefficient of friction for level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) is an important predictor for slip incidents. Despite the wide use of the RCOF there is no standardised method for identifying the RCOF from ground reaction forces. This article presents a comparison of the outcomes from seven different methods, derived from those reported in the literature, for identifying the RCOF from the same data. While commonly used methods are based on a normal force threshold, percentage of stance phase or time from heel contact, a newly introduced hybrid method is based on a combination of normal force, time and direction of increase in coefficient of friction. Although no major differences were found with these methods in more than half the strikes, significant differences were found in a significant portion of strikes. Potential problems with some of these methods were identified and discussed and they appear to be overcome by the hybrid method. No standard method exists for determining the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), an important predictor for slipping. In this study, RCOF values from a single data set, using various methods from the literature, differed considerably for a significant portion of strikes. A hybrid method may yield improved results.

  12. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  13. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  14. Life cycle assessment of hybrid vehicles recycling: Comparison of three business lines of dismantling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belboom, Sandra; Lewis, Grégory; Bareel, Pierre-François; Léonard, Angélique

    2016-04-01

    This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis and comparison between CO_2 transcritical power cycles and R245fa organic Rankine cycles for low grade heat to power energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Ge, Y.T.; Luo, X.; Tassou, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 is a promising working fluid to be applied in low-grade power generation systems. • Thermodynamic models of CO_2 transcritical power cycles (T-CO_2) and R245fa ORC were developed. • Energy and exergy analyses were carried out for T-CO_2 and R245fa ORC systems. • Optimal system designs are existed for both T-CO_2 and R245fa ORC systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a theoretical study is conducted to investigate and compare the performance of CO_2 transcritical power cycles (T-CO_2) and R245fa organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) using low-grade thermal energy to produce useful shaft or electrical power. Each power cycle consists of typical Rankine cycle components, such as a working fluid pump, gas generator or evaporator, turbine with electricity generator, air cooled condenser and recuperator (internal heat exchanger). The thermodynamic models of both cycles have been developed and are applied to calculate and compare the cycle thermal and exergy efficiencies at different operating conditions and control strategies. The simulation results show that the system performances for both cycles vary with different operating conditions. When the heat source (waste heat) temperature increases from 120 °C to 260 °C and heat sink (cooling air) temperature is reduced from 20 °C to 0 °C, both thermal efficiencies of R245fa ORC and T-CO_2 with recuperator can significantly increase. On the other hand, R245fa ORC and T-CO_2 exergy efficiencies increase with lower heat sink temperatures and generally decrease with higher heat source temperatures. In addition, with the same operating conditions and heat transfer assumptions, the thermal and exergy efficiencies of R245fa ORCs are both slightly higher than those of T-CO_2. However, the efficiencies of both cycles can be enhanced by installing a recuperator in each system at specified operating conditions. Ultimately, optimal operating states can be predicted, with particular focus on the working fluid expander

  16. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E. Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Peter Scheiber, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS, cross-country skiing (XCS, and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2, total energy expenditure (EE, heart rate (HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs.

  17. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakou C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Christina Giannakou,1,2 Margriet VDZ Park,1 Wim H de Jong,1 Henk van Loveren,1,2 Rob J Vandebriel,1 Robert E Geertsma1 1Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 2Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome

  19. In Pursuit of LSST Science Requirements: A Comparison of Photometry Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Owen, Russell E.; Ivezić, Željko; Lupton, Robert H.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed an end-to-end photometric data-processing pipeline to compare current photometric algorithms commonly used on ground-based imaging data. This test bed is exceedingly adaptable and enables us to perform many research and development tasks, including image subtraction and co-addition, object detection and measurements, the production of photometric catalogs, and the creation and stocking of database tables with time-series information. This testing has been undertaken to evaluate existing photometry algorithms for consideration by a next-generation image-processing pipeline for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We outline the results of our tests for four packages: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Photo package, DAOPHOT and ALLFRAME, DOPHOT, and two versions of Source Extractor (SExtractor). The ability of these algorithms to perform point-source photometry, astrometry, shape measurements, and star-galaxy separation and to measure objects at low signal-to-noise ratio is quantified. We also perform a detailed crowded-field comparison of DAOPHOT and ALLFRAME, and profile the speed and memory requirements in detail for SExtractor. We find that both DAOPHOT and Photo are able to perform aperture photometry to high enough precision to meet LSST's science requirements, and less adequately at PSF-fitting photometry. Photo performs the best at simultaneous point- and extended-source shape and brightness measurements. SExtractor is the fastest algorithm, and recent upgrades in the software yield high-quality centroid and shape measurements with little bias toward faint magnitudes. ALLFRAME yields the best photometric results in crowded fields.

  20. Ionizing radiations in aseptic bottling: a comparison between technologies and safety requirements [beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottani, E.; Rizzo, R.; Vignali, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiations, commonly adopted in the medical field, are recently experiencing a wide diffusion in industrials applications. One of the most widespread uses of ionizing radiations refers to foodstuffs and packaging sterilization. In the aseptic bottling area, the application of this technology on polymeric caps is quickly developing. In such application, sterilization could be obtained with beta-rays, generated by an electron beam, or with gamma-rays, emitted by a radioactive source. After a brief explanation of physical properties of ionizing radiations, the aim of this paper is to discuss the use of radiations in aseptic bottling. Based on results available in literature, radiations effects on treated materials are discussed, as well as safety requirements aiming at reducing risks related to radiation exposure. Finally, sterilization plants with gamma and beta radiation are compared, with the aim of examining functioning principles and management complexity. As a result of the comparison between the two technologies, the electron beam (beta-rays) adoption for caps sterilization process proves to be preferable [it

  1. Poor response cycles: when should we cancel? Comparison of outcome between egg collection, intrauterine insemination conversion, and follow-up cycles after abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicopoullos, James D M; Abdalla, Hossam

    2011-01-01

    To determine optimal management with one or two mature follicles after stimulation. Retrospective analysis. Lister fertility clinic. A total of 1,350 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (7.3% of total) during 1998-2009 were found to have one or two mature follicles. Group 1 (n = 807) comprised those who proceeded to vaginal egg collection (VEC) (59.8%; outcome per egg collection), group 2 (n=248) those who converted to IUI (18.4%; outcome per insemination) and group 3 (n=259) those who abandoned the current cycle (21.9%; outcome per abandoned cycle in first subsequent cycle). Live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and biochemical pregnancy rate. Biochemical pregnancy rates of 13.1%, 4.9%, and 9.7%, clinical pregnancy rates of 8.1%, 3.6%, and 7.2%, and ongoing pregnancy rates of 6.8%, 2.0%, and 5.5% were achieved in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All pregnancy outcomes were significantly higher after VEC (group 1) than for those converted to IUI (group 2), and all pregnancy outcomes were higher with borderline significance in group 3 vs. group 2. There was no significant difference in outcome between groups 1 and 3. Our data suggest that for such poor responders, proceeding to VEC may represent their best chance of successful outcome. Conversion to IUI offers the poorest outcome, and despite the potential for improvements in cycle protocol, abandoning and a further attempt does not improve outcome (using abandoned cycle as the denominator). Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Requirements on the provisional safety analyses and technical comparison of safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    decide on the provision of a design license for a repository site for SMA and another one for HAA, or for a common site for both SMA and HAA. The present report concerns the second step and recapitulates the assertions of SGT on the provisional safety analyses and on the safety technical comparison. It establishes the specific requirements of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) on provisional safety and the safety technical comparison. Further, it defines the extent and content of the safety technical documentation necessary for step 2

  3. Reverse TCA cycle flux through isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 is required for lipogenesis in hypoxic melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Fabian V; Scott, David A; Ronai, Ze'ev A; Osterman, Andrei L; Smith, Jeffrey W

    2012-05-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the central hub of oxidative metabolism, running in the classic forward direction to provide carbon for biosynthesis and reducing agents for generation of ATP. Our metabolic tracer studies in melanoma cells showed that in hypoxic conditions the TCA cycle is largely disconnected from glycolysis. By studying the TCA branch point metabolites, acetyl CoA and citrate, as well as the metabolic endpoint glutamine and fatty acids, we developed a comprehensive picture of the rewiring of the TCA cycle that occurs in hypoxia. Hypoxic tumor cells maintain proliferation by running the TCA cycle in reverse. The source of carbon for acetyl CoA, citrate, and fatty acids switches from glucose in normoxia to glutamine in hypoxia. This hypoxic flux from glutamine into fatty acids is mediated by reductive carboxylation. This reductive carboxylation is catalyzed by two isocitrate dehydrogenases, IDH1 and IDH2. Their combined action is necessary and sufficient to effect the reverse TCA flux and maintain cellular viability. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Comparison of the leading candidate combinations of blanket materials, thermodynamic cycles, and tritium systems for full scale fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The many possible combinations of blanket materials, tritium generation and recovery systems, and power conversion systems were surveyed and a comprehensive set of designs were generated by using a common set of ground rules that include all of the boundary conditions that could be envisioned for a full-scale commercial fusion power plant. Particular attention was given to the effects of blanket temperature on power plant cycle efficiency and economics, the interdependence of the thermodynamic cycle and the tritium recovery system, and to thermal and pressure stresses in the blanket structure. The results indicate that, of the wide variety of systems that have been considered, the most promising employs lithium recirculated in a closed loop within a niobium blanket structure and cooled with boiling potassium or cesium. This approach gives the simplest and lowest cost tritium recovery system, the lowest pressure and thermal stresses, the simplest structure with the lowest probability of a leak, the greatest resistance to damage from a plasma energy dump, and the lowest rate of plasma contamination by either outgassing or sputtering. The only other blanket materials combination that appears fairly likely to give a satisfactory tritium generation and recovery system is a lithium-beryllium fluoride-Incoloy blanket, and even this system involves major uncertainties in the effectiveness, size, and cost of the tritium recovery system. Further, the Li 2 BeF 4 blanket system has the disadvantage that the world reserves of beryllium are too limited to support a full-blown fusion reactor economy, its poor thermal conductivity leads to cooling difficulties and a requirement for a complex structure with intricate cooling passages, and this inherently leads to an expansive blanket with a relatively high probability of leaks. The other blanket materials combinations yield even less attractive systems

  5. Statutory Requirements of Teacher Contract Laws: A Comparison of the 50 States' Continuing Contract and Teacher Tenure Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkom, Kris Van

    This publication summarizes and compares legal provisions covering teacher tenure and contracts for each of the 50 states. The report is organized in three sections. Section 1 presents a summary comparison of the provisions of Washington's teacher contract law with corresponding statutory requirements of the other 49 states. Section 2 identifies…

  6. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet Vdz; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs.

  7. Sensitivity analysis and thermoeconomic comparison of ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Bingxi; Yang, Jinfu; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity analysis for low temperature ORCs (organic Rankine cycles), as well as the thermoeconomic comparison between the basic ORC and regenerative ORC using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), are conducted in this paper. The derivatives of five system parameters on system performance are used to evaluate the parametric sensitiveness. The exergy efficiency and the APR (heat exchanger area per unit net power output) are selected as the objective functions for multi-objective optimization using R123 under the low temperature heat source of 423 K. The Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective for maximizing exergy efficiency and minimizing APR is obtained and compared with the corresponding single-objective solutions. The results indicate that the prior consideration of improving thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency is to increase the evaporator outlet temperature. A fitting curve can be yielded from the Pareto frontier between the thermodynamic performance and economic factor. The optimum exergy efficiency and APR of the regenerative ORC obtained from the Pareto-optimal solution are 59.93% and 3.07 m 2 /kW, which are 8.10% higher and 15.89% lower than that of the basic ORC, respectively. The Pareto optimization compromises the thermodynamic performance and economic factor, therefore being more suitable for decision making. - Highlights: • The sensitivity analysis of the basic ORC is conducted. • The Pareto-optimal solution is compared with the single-objective solutions. • Evaporator outlet temperature should be preferentially considered. • 8.10% higher exergy efficiency and 15.89% lower APR for the regenerative ORC

  8. Life cycle inventory and external costs of the gas fuel cycle. An overview of the main results and a brief comparison with other fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Wouters, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of a research project funded by the Belgian electricity utilities Electrabel/SPE, VITO made a life cycle inventory of the primary energy use and airborne emissions (including greenhouse gases, SO2 and NOx) of different fuels. Consequently, the impacts of these pollutants on human health, manmade and the natural environment are quantified and these impacts are valued in monetary terms. This analysis is based on the European ExternE methodology to estimate the external costs of energy. The LCI and external cost analysis confirm clearly that natural gas is a relative clean fossil fuel cycle. External cost are in the range of 1.2 to 2.6 EUROcent /kWh, which roughly corresponds from 30 % to 80 % of the private production costs. These results are introduced into a software module, which allows the utilities to compare economic costs and environmental benefits of different measures to reduce CO2 emissions. (author)

  9. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment - special observation period (hymex-sop1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Donato; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; De Rosa, Benedetto; Cacciani, Marco; Stelitano, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL), an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2), a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  10. Water vapour inter-comparison effort in the framework of the hydrological cycle in the mediterranean experiment – special observation period (hymex-sop1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summa Donato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of the vertical profiles of water vapour are of paramount importance for most key areas of atmospheric sciences. A comprehensive inter-comparison between different remote sensing and in-situ sensors has been carried out in the frame work of the first Special Observing Period of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment for the purpose of obtaining accurate error estimates for these sensors. The inter-comparison involves a ground-based Raman lidar (BASIL, an airborne DIAL (LEANDRE2, a microwave radiometer, radiosondes and aircraft in-situ sensors.

  11. Software safety analysis on the model specified by NuSCR and SMV input language at requirements phase of software development life cycle using SMV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Safety-critical software process is composed of development process, verification and validation (V and V) process and safety analysis process. Safety analysis process has been often treated as an additional process and not found in a conventional software process. But software safety analysis (SSA) is required if software is applied to a safety system, and the SSA shall be performed independently for the safety software through software development life cycle (SDLC). Of all the phases in software development, requirements engineering is generally considered to play the most critical role in determining the overall software quality. NASA data demonstrate that nearly 75% of failures found in operational software were caused by errors in the requirements. The verification process in requirements phase checks the correctness of software requirements specification, and the safety analysis process analyzes the safety-related properties in detail. In this paper, the method for safety analysis at requirements phase of software development life cycle using symbolic model verifier (SMV) is proposed. Hazard is discovered by hazard analysis and in other to use SMV for the safety analysis, the safety-related properties are expressed by computation tree logic (CTL)

  12. Idas, a Novel Phylogenetically Conserved Geminin-related Protein, Binds to Geminin and Is Required for Cell Cycle Progression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pefani, Dafni-Eleutheria; Dimaki, Maria; Spella, Magda; Karantzelis, Nickolas; Mitsiki, Eirini; Kyrousi, Christina; Symeonidou, Ioanna-Eleni; Perrakis, Anastassis; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi

    2011-01-01

    Development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms relies on an intricate balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. Geminin regulates the cell cycle by directly binding and inhibiting the DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1. Geminin also interacts with transcriptional regulators of differentiation and chromatin remodelling factors, and its balanced interactions are implicated in proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. Here, we describe Idas (Idas being a cousin of the Gemini in Ancient Greek Mythology), a previously uncharacterised coiled-coil protein related to Geminin. We show that human Idas localizes to the nucleus, forms a complex with Geminin both in cells and in vitro through coiled-coil mediated interactions, and can change Geminin subcellular localization. Idas does not associate with Cdt1 and prevents Geminin from binding to Cdt1 in vitro. Idas depletion from cells affects cell cycle progression; cells accumulate in S phase and are unable to efficiently progress to mitosis. Idas protein levels decrease in anaphase, whereas its overexpression causes mitotic defects. During development, we show that Idas exhibits high level expression in the choroid plexus and the cortical hem of the mouse telencephalon. Our data highlight Idas as a novel Geminin binding partner, implicated in cell cycle progression, and a putative regulator of proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. PMID:21543332

  13. Study on the supercritical CO2 power cycles for landfill gas firing gas turbine bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Seok; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Beomjoo; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of nine supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) bottoming power cycles in conjunction with a topping cycle of landfill gas (LFG) fired 5MWe gas turbine is presented. For the comparison purpose, a sensitivity study of the cycle design parameters for nine different cycles was conducted and each cycle thermodynamic performance is evaluated. In addition, the cycle performance evaluation dependency on the compressor inlet temperature variation is performed to investigate how S-CO 2 cycles sensitive to the heat sink temperature variation. Furthermore, the development of new S-CO 2 cycle layouts is reported and the suggested cycles' performances are compared to the existing cycle layouts. It was found that a recompression cycle is not suitable for the bottoming cycle application, but a partial heating cycle has relatively higher net produced work with a simple layout and small number of components. Although a dual heated and flow split cycle has the highest net produced work, it has disadvantages of having numerous components and complex process which requires more sophisticated operational strategies. This study identified that the recuperation process is much more important than the intercooling process to the S-CO 2 cycle design for increasing the thermal efficiency and the net produced work point of view. - Highlights: • Study of nine S-CO 2 power cycle layouts for a small scale landfill gas power generation application. • Development of new S-CO 2 cycle layouts. • Sensitivity analysis of S-CO 2 cycles to evaluate and compare nine cycles' performances.

  14. The Aspergillus nidulans acuL gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the TCA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipphi, Michel; Oestreicher, Nathalie; Nicolas, Valérie; Guitton, Audrey; Vélot, Christian

    2014-07-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). Most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. This is the case for acuD and acuE, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acuL that we have identified as AN7287, and characterized in this study. Deletion of acuL resulted in the same phenotype as the original acuL217 mutant. acuL encodes a 322-amino acid protein which displays all the structural features of a mitochondrial membrane carrier, and shares 60% identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate/fumarate mitochondrial antiporter Sfc1p (also named Acr1p). Consistently, the AcuL protein was shown to localize in mitochondria, and partial cross-complementation was observed between the S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans homologues. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the acuL gene is involved in the utilization of carbon sources that are catabolized via the TCA cycle, and therefore require gluconeogenesis. In addition, acuL proves to be co-regulated with acuD and acuE. Overall, our data suggest that AcuL could link the glyoxylate cycle to gluconeogenesis by exchanging cytoplasmic succinate for mitochondrial fumarate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Cell Cycle Timing of Centromeric Chromatin Assembly in Drosophila Meiosis Is Distinct from Mitosis Yet Requires CAL1 and CENP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2012-01-01

    CENP-A (CID in flies) is the histone H3 variant essential for centromere specification, kinetochore formation, and chromosome segregation during cell division. Recent studies have elucidated major cell cycle mechanisms and factors critical for CENP-A incorporation in mitosis, predominantly in cultured cells. However, we do not understand the roles, regulation, and cell cycle timing of CENP-A assembly in somatic tissues in multicellular organisms and in meiosis, the specialized cell division cycle that gives rise to haploid gametes. Here we investigate the timing and requirements for CID assembly in mitotic tissues and male and female meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster, using fixed and live imaging combined with genetic approaches. We find that CID assembly initiates at late telophase and continues during G1 phase in somatic tissues in the organism, later than the metaphase assembly observed in cultured cells. Furthermore, CID assembly occurs at two distinct cell cycle phases during male meiosis: prophase of meiosis I and after exit from meiosis II, in spermatids. CID assembly in prophase I is also conserved in female meiosis. Interestingly, we observe a novel decrease in CID levels after the end of meiosis I and before meiosis II, which correlates temporally with changes in kinetochore organization and orientation. We also demonstrate that CID is retained on mature sperm despite the gross chromatin remodeling that occurs during protamine exchange. Finally, we show that the centromere proteins CAL1 and CENP-C are both required for CID assembly in meiosis and normal progression through spermatogenesis. We conclude that the cell cycle timing of CID assembly in meiosis is different from mitosis and that the efficient propagation of CID through meiotic divisions and on sperm is likely to be important for centromere specification in the developing zygote. PMID:23300382

  17. STAKEHOLDER OPINION-BASED COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURKEY WITH SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Gorkem Uctug

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey were compared to those of Denmark, France, and Poland. The reason for selecting these particular countries for benchmarking was the fact that electricity generation in these countries is dominated mostly by a single source, that is wind, nuclear, and coal, respectively. OpenLCA software and European Life Cycle Database database were used, CML2001 method was employed. The life cycle analysis approach was from cradle to gr...

  18. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Cassimere

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140, which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks.

  19. Life-cycle assessment of redwood decking in the United States with a comparison to three other decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bergman; H. Sup-Han; E. Oneil; I. Eastin

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to conduct a life-cycle inventory (LCI) of California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) decking that would quantify the critical environmental impacts of decking from cradle to grave. Using that LCI data, a life-cycle assessment (LCA) was produced for redwood decking. The results were used to compare the environmental footprint...

  20. The circle of life: A cross-cultural comparison of children's attribution of life-cycle traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Emily R R; Barrett, Justin L

    2016-06-01

    Do children attribute mortality and other life-cycle traits to all minded beings? The present study examined whether culture influences young children's ability to conceptualize and differentiate human beings from supernatural beings (such as God) in terms of life-cycle traits. Three-to-5-year-old Israeli and British children were questioned whether their mother, a friend, and God would be subject to various life-cycle processes: Birth, death, ageing, existence/longevity, and parentage. Children did not anthropomorphize but differentiated among human and supernatural beings, attributing life-cycle traits to humans, but not to God. Although 3-year-olds differentiated significantly among agents, 5-year-olds attributed correct life-cycle traits more consistently than younger children. The results also indicated some cross-cultural variation in these attributions. Implications for biological conceptual development are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mareev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventional diesel trucks in different transportation scenarios. The average consumption is simulated for different battery electric truck configurations on the main German highways and transportation scenarios incorporating battery charging during driver rest periods. The results show that in average case the required battery would restrict the payload to only 80% of a usual diesel truck payload that might be acceptable considering the statistical payload use. The life cycle costs in the examined scenarios also considering the charging infrastructure show that battery electric trucks can already perform on the same costs level as diesel trucks in certain scenarios.

  2. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area

  3. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful.

  4. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area.

  5. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful

  6. Analysis and Comparison of Various Requirements Management Tools for Use in the Shipbuilding Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Eric D

    2006-01-01

    .... Some are clearly defined while many more are undefined. Some requirements have to be generated from the implication of other requirements while even more have to be pulled from other industry or military standards...

  7. Scenario comparisons of gasification technology using energy life cycle assessment for bioenergy recovery from rice straw in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shie, J.L.; Lee, C.H.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, K.L.; Chang, C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy balances of potential gasification technology and limitation boundary are evaluated. • The transportation and pre-treatment are the greatest parts of energy use. • Every technology process has positive energy benefits at all on-site pre-treatment cases. • The optimal ranges of transportation distance and treatment capacity are suggested. • The optimal technology from the tendency model is addressed. - Abstract: This study uses different scenarios to evaluate, by means of energy life-cycle assessments (ELCAs), the energy balance of potential gasification technology and limitation boundaries in Taiwan. Rice straw is chosen as the target material in this study because it is the most significant agriculture waste in Taiwan. Energy products include syngas (CO + H 2 ), methane, carbon dioxide and carbon black residue. The scenarios simulate capacities of 50,000–200,000 tons/year. The distances of collection and transportation are calculated by a circular area 50–100 km in diameter. Also, the on-site and off-site pretreatments of rice straw are evaluated. For this optimum scenario case, the average of the total input energy for the assessed systems is about 15.9% of the average output energy; the value of the net energy balance (NEB) is 0.841. Every technological process has positive energy benefits at all on-site scenario cases. As the capacity is increased, the energy consumption required for transportation increases and the values of the energy indicators decrease. According to the limitation boundaries from the tendency model at on-site cases, the suggested transportation distance and treatment capacity are below 114.72 km and 251,533 tons/year, respectively, while the energy return on investment (EROI) value is greater than 1

  8. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO x emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO 2 -eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO 2 -eq, with 294 kg CO 2 -eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO x process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  9. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  10. Comparison of inter-trial recovery times for the determination of critical power and W' in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Bettina; Hopker, James; Jobson, Simon A; Baker, Jonathan; Petrigna, Luca; Klose, Andreas; Beedie, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Critical Power (CP) and W' are often determined using multi-day testing protocols. To investigate this cumbersome testing method, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences between the conventional use of a 24-h inter-trial recovery time with those of 3 h and 30 min for the determination of CP and W'. 9 moderately trained cyclists performed an incremental test to exhaustion to establish the power output associated with the maximum oxygen uptake (p[Formula: see text] max ), and 3 protocols requiring time-to-exhaustion trials at a constant work-rate performed at 80%, 100% and 105% of p[Formula: see text] max. Design: Protocol A utilised 24-h inter-trial recovery (CP 24 /W' 24 ), protocol B utilised 3-h inter-trial recovery (CP 3 /W' 3 ), and protocol C used 30-min inter-trial recovery period (CP 0.5 /W' 0.5 ). CP and W' were calculated using the inverse time (1/t) versus power (P) relation (P = W'(1/t) + CP). 95% Limits of Agreement between protocol A and B were -9 to 15 W; -7.4 to 7.8 kJ (CP/W') and between protocol A and protocol C they were -27 to 22 W; -7.2 to 15.1 kJ (CP/W'). Compared to criterion protocol A, the average prediction error of protocol B was 2.5% (CP) and 25.6% (W'), whilst for protocol C it was 3.7% (CP) and 32.9% (W'). 3-h and 30-min inter-trial recovery time protocols provide valid methods of determining CP but not W' in cycling.

  11. Comparison of quay wall designs in concrete, steel, woord and composites with regard to the co2-emission and the life cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, T.; De Gijt, J.G.; Van Heel, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper quay wall designs in different materials are compared with regard to the CO2-emission and the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). For this study the requirements and boundary conditions of the quay wall in the Euromax Terminal, the Port of Rotterdam, have been used. An overview of preliminary

  12. Cost analysis and economic comparison for alternative fuel cycles in the heavy water cooled canadian reactor (CANDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, S.

    2000-01-01

    Three main options in a CANDU fuel cycle involve use of: (1) natural uranium (0.711 weight percent U-235) fuel, (2) slightly enriched uranium (1.2 weight percent U-235) fuel, and (3) recovered uranium (0.83 weight percent U-235) fuel from light water reactor spent fuel. ORIGEN-2 computer code was used to identify composition of the spent fuel for each option, including the standard LWR fuel (3.3 weight percent U-235). Uranium and plutonium credit calculations were performed using ORIGEN-2 output. WIMSD-5 computer code was used to determine maximum discharge burnup values for each case. For the 3 cycles selected (natural uranium, slightly enriched uranium, recovered uranium), levelized fuel cycle cost calculations are performed over the reactor lifetime of 40 years, using unit process costs obtained from literature. Components of the fuel cycle costs are U purchase, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, SF storage, SF disposal, and reprocessing where applicable. Cost parameters whose effects on the fuel cycle cost are to be investigated are escalation ratio, discount rate and SF storage time. Cost estimations were carried out using specially developed computer programs. Share of each cost component on the total cost was determined and sensitivity analysis was performed in order to show how a change in a main cost component affects the fuel cycle cost. The main objective of this study has been to find out the most economical option for CANDU fuel cycle by changing unit prices and cost parameters

  13. Energy performance requirements for new buildings in 11 countries from Central Europe. Exemplary comparison of three buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Knissel, Jens; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2008-12-05

    The objective of the present comparison study is to show which energy efficiency require-ments have to be complied in different European countries when a new building is going to be constructed. For this purpose three Model Buildings were defined: a single-family house, a multi-family house and a school building. For each involved country (or region) the energy quality of the thermal envelope was determined which is necessary in order to just comply with the building code. Due to requirements on the overall energy performance the requested envelope quality usually depends also on the type of heat supply system or energy carrier. Therefore the systems were varied in a parameter study. The main result for each of the three Model Buildings is a comparison table which shows the heat transfer coefficient by transmission (a sort of mean U-value) for the different countries differenti-ated by supply system types. In a final step the primary energy demand according to the German regulation (EnEV 2007) was calculated for every envelope/system combination of the different countries. This allows a comparison of buildings with different supply systems. The study was performed by experts from 11 European member states: Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, UK, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. (orig.)

  14. Catalysis by Glomerella cingulata cutinase requires conformational cycling between the active and inactive states of its catalytic triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyon, Mun Peak; Rice, David W; Berrisford, John M; Hounslow, Andrea M; Moir, Arthur J G; Huang, Huazhang; Nathan, Sheila; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Craven, C Jeremy

    2009-01-09

    Cutinase belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and triglycerides. Structural studies on the enzyme from Fusarium solani have revealed the presence of a classic catalytic triad that has been implicated in the enzyme's mechanism. We have solved the crystal structure of Glomerella cingulata cutinase in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitors E600 (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and PETFP (3-phenethylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one) to resolutions between 2.6 and 1.9 A. Analysis of these structures reveals that the catalytic triad (Ser136, Asp191, and His204) adopts an unusual configuration with the putative essential histidine His204 swung out of the active site into a position where it is unable to participate in catalysis, with the imidazole ring 11 A away from its expected position. Solution-state NMR experiments are consistent with the disrupted configuration of the triad observed crystallographically. H204N, a site-directed mutant, was shown to be catalytically inactive, confirming the importance of this residue in the enzyme mechanism. These findings suggest that, during its catalytic cycle, cutinase undergoes a significant conformational rearrangement converting the loop bearing the histidine from an inactive conformation, in which the histidine of the triad is solvent exposed, to an active conformation, in which the triad assumes a classic configuration.

  15. The KDM5 family is required for activation of pro-proliferative cell cycle genes during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Ann-Sofie B; Loft, Anne; Madsen, Jesper G S

    2017-01-01

    The KDM5 family of histone demethylases removes the H3K4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) mark frequently found at promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and is therefore generally considered to contribute to corepression. In this study, we show that knockdown (KD) of all expressed members...... of the KDM5 family in white and brown preadipocytes leads to deregulated gene expression and blocks differentiation to mature adipocytes. KDM5 KD leads to a considerable increase in H3K4me3 at promoter regions; however, these changes in H3K4me3 have a limited effect on gene expression per se. By contrast......, genome-wide analyses demonstrate that KDM5A is strongly enriched at KDM5-activated promoters, which generally have high levels of H3K4me3 and are associated with highly expressed genes. We show that KDM5-activated genes include a large set of cell cycle regulators and that the KDM5s are necessary...

  16. The Seasonal cycle of the Tropical Lower Stratospheric Water Vapor in Chemistry-Climate Models in Comparison with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Dessler, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    The seasonal cycle is one of the key features of the tropical lower stratospheric water vapor, so it is important that the climate models reproduce it. In this analysis, we evaluate how well the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) reproduce the seasonal cycle of tropical lower stratospheric water vapor. We do this by comparing the models to observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim (ERAi). We also evaluate if the chemistry-climate models (CCMs) reproduce the key transport and dehydration processes that regulate the seasonal cycle using a forward, domain filling, diabatic trajectory model. Finally, we explore the changes of the seasonal cycle during the 21st century in the two CCMs. Our results show general agreement in the seasonal cycles from the MLS, the ERAi, and the CCMs. Despite this agreement, there are some clear disagreements between the models and the observations on the details of transport and dehydration in the TTL. Finally, both the CCMs predict a moister seasonal cycle by the end of the 21st century. But they disagree on the changes of the seasonal amplitude, which is predicted to increase in the GEOSCCM and decrease in the WACCM.

  17. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); Phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G.A.; Merritt, J.L.; Feigenbaum, A.; Jomphe, C.; Marier, J.F.; Beliveau, M.; Mauney, J.; Dickinson, K.; Martinez, A.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.; Rhead, W.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Study Design Protocol HPN-100-005 involved open label fixed-sequence switch-over from the prescribed NaPBA dose to a PBA-equimolar GPB dose with controlled diet. After 7 days on NaPBA or GPB, subjects underwent 24-hour blood sampling for ammonia and drug metabolite levels as well as measurement of 24-hour urinary phenyacetylglutamine (PAGN). Adverse events (AEs), safety labs and triplicate ECGs were monitored. Results Eleven subjects (9 OTC, 1 ASS, 1 ASL) enrolled and completed the switch-over from NaPBA (mean dose=12.4 g/d or 322 mg/kg/d; range=198–476 mg/kg/d) to GPB (mean dose=10.8 mL or 0.284 mL/kg/d or 313 mg/kg/d; range = 192–449 mg/kg/d). Possibly-related AEs were reported in 2 subjects on NaPBA and 4 subjects on GPB. All were mild, except for one moderate AE of vomiting on GPB related to an intercurrent illness. No clinically significant laboratory or ECG changes were observed. Ammonia was lowest after overnight fast, peaked postprandially in the afternoon to early evening and varied widely over 24 h with occasional values >100 μmol/L without symptoms. Ammonia values were ~25% lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (p ≥ 0.1 for ITT and p<0.05 for per protocol population). The upper 95% confidence interval for the difference between ammonia on GPB vs. NaPBA in the ITT population (95% CI 0.575, 1.061; p = 0.102) was less than the predefined non-inferiority margin of 1.25 and less than 1.0 in the pre-defined per-protocol population (95% CI 0.516, 0.958; p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in plasma phenylacetic acid and PAGN exposure during dosing with GPB vs. NaPBA, and the percentage of orally administered PBA excreted as PAGN (66% for GPB vs. 69% for NaPBA) was very similar. GPB and Na

  18. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G A; Merritt, J L; Feigenbaum, A; Jomphe, C; Marier, J F; Beliveau, M; Mauney, J; Dickinson, K; Martinez, A; Mokhtarani, M; Scharschmidt, B; Rhead, W

    2011-08-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Protocol HPN-100-005 involved open label fixed-sequence switch-over from the prescribed NaPBA dose to a PBA-equimolar GPB dose with controlled diet. After 7 days on NaPBA or GPB, subjects underwent 24-hour blood sampling for ammonia and drug metabolite levels as well as measurement of 24-hour urinary phenyacetylglutamine (PAGN). Adverse events (AEs), safety labs and triplicate ECGs were monitored. Eleven subjects (9 OTC, 1 ASS, 1 ASL) enrolled and completed the switch-over from NaPBA (mean dose=12.4 g/d or 322 mg/kg/d; range=198-476 mg/kg/d) to GPB (mean dose=10.8 mL or 0.284 mL/kg/d or 313 mg/kg/d; range=192-449 mg/kg/d). Possibly-related AEs were reported in 2 subjects on NaPBA and 4 subjects on GPB. All were mild, except for one moderate AE of vomiting on GPB related to an intercurrent illness. No clinically significant laboratory or ECG changes were observed. Ammonia was lowest after overnight fast, peaked postprandially in the afternoon to early evening and varied widely over 24h with occasional values >100 μmol/L without symptoms. Ammonia values were ~25% lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (p≥0.1 for ITT and p<0.05 for per protocol population). The upper 95% confidence interval for the difference between ammonia on GPB vs. NaPBA in the ITT population (95% CI 0.575, 1.061; p=0.102) was less than the predefined non-inferiority margin of 1.25 and less than 1.0 in the pre-defined per-protocol population (95% CI 0.516, 0.958; p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in plasma phenylacetic acid and PAGN exposure during dosing with GPB vs. NaPBA, and the percentage of orally administered PBA excreted as PAGN (66% for GPB vs. 69% for NaPBA) was very similar. GPB and NaPBA dose correlated best with

  19. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O emission. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon and nitrogen balance, including the exchange of greenhouse gases, of European forests over the period 2010–2030, with a particular emphasis on the spatial variability of change. The analysis was carried out for two tree species: European beech and Scots pine. For this purpose, four different dynamic models were used: BASFOR, DailyDayCent, INTEGRATOR and Landscape-DNDC. These models span a range from semi-empirical to complex mechanistic. Comparison of these models allowed assessment of the extent to which model predictions depended on differences in model inputs and structure. We found a European average carbon sink of 0.160 ± 0.020 kgC m−2 yr−1 (pine and 0.138 ± 0.062 kgC m−2 yr−1 (beech and N2O source of 0.285 ± 0.125 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (pine and 0.575 ± 0.105 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (beech. The European average greenhouse gas potential of the carbon sink was 18 (pine and 8 (beech times that of the N2O source. Carbon sequestration was larger in the trees than in the soil. Carbon sequestration and forest growth were largest in central Europe and lowest in northern Sweden and Finland, N. Poland and S. Spain. No single driver was found to dominate change across Europe. Forests were found to be most sensitive to change in environmental drivers where the drivers were limiting growth, where changes were particularly large or where changes acted in concert. The models disagreed as to which environmental changes were most significant for the geographical variation in forest growth and as to which tree species showed the largest rate of carbon sequestration. Pine and beech forests were found to

  20. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, A.M.; Melamu, Rethabi; Knoetze, J.H.; Görgens, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  1. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  2. On the evaluation of feed requirements and costs analysis of preirradiated fuel cycle operations for uranium fuelled light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.; Yasso, K.A.; Abdel Salam, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    This work is a part of an integrated scheme for nuclear power cost evaluation. The paper gives a brief description of the different operations included to get enriched UO 2 in its final form. A Material Balance Sheet is developed to estimate quantitatively the input material reguirements to each fuel operation. An improved approach for fuel cost analysis is developed. The paper includes a complete FORTRAN listing for the computer program carried out for this purpose together with description of the program input data requirements and output facilities. Illustrative numerical results are provided

  3. Comparison of Cooling System Designs for an Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using an Organic Rankine Cycle on a Heavy Duty Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stanzel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex simulation model of a heavy duty truck, including an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC based waste heat recovery system and a vehicle cooling system, was applied to determine the system fuel economy potential in a typical drive cycle. Measures to increase the system performance were investigated and a comparison between two different cooling system designs was derived. The base design, which was realized on a Mercedes-Benz Actros vehicle revealed a fuel efficiency benefit of 2.6%, while a more complicated design would generate 3.1%. Furthermore, fully transient simulation results were performed and are compared to steady state simulation results. It is shown that steady state simulation can produce comparable results if averaged road data are used as boundary conditions.

  4. Sex Difference in Draft-Legal Ultra-Distance Events - A Comparison between Ultra-Swimming and Ultra-Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Lejla; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-04-30

    Recent studies reported that the sex difference in performance in ultra-endurance sports such as swimming and cycling changed over the years. However, the aspect of drafting in draft-legal ultra-endurance races has not yet been investigated. This study investigates the sex difference in ultra-swimming and ultra-cycling draft-legal races where drafting - swimming or cycling behind other participants to save energy and have more power at the end of the race to overtake them, is allowed. The change in performance of the annual best and the annual three best in an ultra-endurance swimming race (16-km 'Faros Swim Marathon') over 38 years and in a 24-h ultra-cycling race ('World Cycling Race') over 13 years were compared and analysed with respect to sex difference. Furthermore, performances of the fastest female and male finishers ever were compared. In the swimming event, the sex difference of the annual best male and female decreased non-significantly (P = 0.262) from 5.3% (1976) to 1.0% (2013). The sex gap of speed in the annual three fastest swimmers decreased significantly (P = 0.043) from 5.9 ± 1.6% (1979) to 4.7 ± 3.1% (2013). In the cycling event, the difference in cycling speed between the annual best male and female decreased significantly (P = 0.026) from 33.31% (1999) to 10.89% (2011). The sex gap of speed in the annual three fastest decreased significantly (P = 0.001) from 32.9 ± 0.6% (1999) to 16.4 ± 5.9% (2011). The fastest male swimmer ever (swimming speed 5.3 km/h, race time: 03:01:55 h:min:s) was 1.5% faster than the fastest female swimmer (swimming speed 5.2 km/h, race time: 03:04:09 h:min:s). The three fastest male swimmers ever (mean 5.27 ± 0.13 km/h) were 4.4% faster than the three fastest female swimmers (mean 5.05 ± 0.20 km/h) (P swimming and cycling, the sex difference in the annual top and annual top three swimmers and cyclists decreased (i.e. non-linearly in swimmers and linearly in cyclists) over the years. The sex difference of the

  5. Comparison of clinical outcome and costs with CC + gonadotropins and gnrha + gonadotropins during Ivf/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Peter; Matyas, Szabolcs; Bernard, l Artur; Kaali, Steven G

    2004-06-01

    To compare clinical outcome and costs of CC + gonadotropins with GnRHa + gonadotropins during IVF/ICSI cycles. Clinical outcome and expenses of 382 CC + gonadotropin and 964 GnRHa + gonadotropin cycles were compared. Medication costs were calculated on the basis of the mean number of ampoules and the proportion of various gonadotropins. Costs per clinical pregnancy were calculated on the basis of expenses and clinical pregnancy rates. Women in the CC + gonadotropin group were younger, and had fewer follicles, oocytes, embryos, and embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancy rates were higher in the GnRHa group (35.9 % vs 26.2%, p costs per cycle were higher in the GnRHa group (US dollars 357 vs 248). Expenses per pregnancy however were lower in the GnRHa group (USdollars 4197 vs 5335 with IVF; USdollars 5590 vs 7244 with ICSI). When different age subgroups with similar baseline characteristics and stimulation parameters were compared, pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the GnRHa groups. Medication cost per cycle was higher in the GnRHa subgroups, and the expense per pregnancy was lower with GnRHa protocol. Cost per cycle is higher with GnRHa + gonadotropin. However, because of the better performance of the GnRHa + gonadotropin stimulation, the cumulative costs are reduced by the time a clinical pregnancy is achieved.

  6. Comparison of shell-and-tube with plate heat exchangers for the use in low-temperature organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walraven, Daniël; Laenen, Ben; D’haeseleer, William

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary cycles for low-temperature heat sources are investigated. • Shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers are modeled. • System optimization of the cycle variables and heat exchanger geometry. • ORCs with plate heat exchangers obtain in most cases higher efficiencies. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) can be used for electricity production from low-temperature heat sources. These ORCs are often designed based on experience, but this experience will not always lead to the most optimal configuration. The ultimate goal is to design ORCs by performing a system optimization. In such an optimization, the configuration of the components and the cycle parameters (temperatures, pressures, mass flow rate) are optimized together to obtain the optimal configuration of power plant and components. In this paper, the configuration of plate heat exchangers or shell-and-tube heat exchangers is optimized together with the cycle configuration. In this way every heat exchanger has the optimum allocation of heat exchanger surface, pressure drop and pinch-point-temperature difference for the given boundary conditions. ORCs with plate heat exchangers perform mostly better than ORCs with shell-and-tube heat exchangers, but one disadvantage of plate heat exchangers is that the geometry of both sides is the same, which can result in an inefficient heat exchanger. It is also shown that especially the cooling-fluid inlet temperature and mass flow have a strong influence on the performance of the power plant

  7. Acoustic design of open-plan offices and comparison of requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Møller; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, most office buildings include open-plan offices. However, to optimize working conditions, such spaces require special acoustic design to obtain reasonable sound attenuation between groups and satisfactory speech intelligibility internally in groups, although optimal worki...

  8. SUV2, which encodes an ATR-related cell cycle checkpoint and putative plant ATRIP, is required for aluminium-dependent root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Caroline A; Larsen, Paul B

    2017-09-01

    A suppressor mutagenesis screen was conducted in order to identify second site mutations that could reverse the extreme hypersensitivity to aluminium (Al) seen for the Arabidopsis mutant, als3-1. From this screen, it was found that a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described SUV2 (SENSITIVE TO UV 2), which encodes a putative plant ATRIP homologue that is a component of the ATR-dependent cell checkpoint response, reversed the als3-1 phenotype. This included prevention of hallmarks associated with als3-1 including Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip and transition to endoreduplication. From this analysis, SUV2 was determined to be required for halting cell cycle progression and triggering loss of the quiescent centre (QC) following exposure to Al. In conjunction with this, SUV2 was found to have a similar role as ATR, ALT2 and SOG1 in Al-dependent stoppage of root growth, all of which are required for promotion of expression of a suite of genes that likely are part of an Al-dependent DNA damage transcriptional response. This work argues that these Al response factors work together to detect Al-dependent damage and subsequently activate a DNA damage response pathway that halts the cell cycle and subsequently promotes QC differentiation and entrance into endocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Life Cycle Analysis of a Geothermal Heatpump Installation and Comparison with a Conventional Fuel Boiler System in a Nursery School in Galicia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the work lines in sustainable energy field of the EnergyLab Technology Centre (Vigo, Spain, associated with the technologies that are under investigation by this centre, it is developed a study about the Life Cycle Analysis (hereinafter, LCA over a geothermal heatpump (hereafter, GSHP installation in a nursery school in the province of Pontevedra (Galicia, Spain, and its comparison with the fuel boiler system prior to GHP. Thus, with the use of computer tools and following specific rules about the calculation of LCA, assessing the environmental impact of each system, and perform the appropriate comparison in order to quantify the savings emissions and the improvement in sustainability related to the replacement of diesel boiler system by the GSHP system.

  10. Vce-based methods for temperature estimation of high power IGBT modules during power cycling - A comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoiridis, Anastasios; Anurag, Anup; Ghimire, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    . This experimental work evaluates the validity and accuracy of two Vce based methods applied on high power IGBT modules during power cycling tests. The first method estimates the chip temperature when low sense current is applied and the second method when normal load current is present. Finally, a correction factor......Temperature estimation is of great importance for performance and reliability of IGBT power modules in converter operation as well as in active power cycling tests. It is common to be estimated through Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters such as the forward voltage drop (Vce) of the chip...

  11. Comparison of two thorium fuel cycles for use in light water prebreeder/breeder reactor systems (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, F.C.; McCoy, D.F.; Boyd, W.A.; Dwyer, J.R.

    1983-05-01

    Light water prebreeder/breeder conceptual reactor systems have been developed which have the potential to significantly improve the fuel utilization of present generation light water reactors. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare two possible types of thorium fuel cycles for use in these light water prebreeder and breeder concepts. The two types of thorium fuel cycles basically differ in the fuel rod design used in the prebreeder cores and the uranium isotopic concentration of fuel supplied to the breeder cores

  12. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major contributions to

  13. Life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester and ethanol as fuels - a comparison between large- and smallscale production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernesson, Sven [Swedish Univ. of Agriculture Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Production of rapeseed oil, rape methyl ester (RME) and ethanol fuel for heavy diesel engines can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The main purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale rapeseed oil, RME and ethanol fuel production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three fuels and the three plant sizes. Four different methods to allocate the environmental burden between different products were compared: physical allocation according to the lower heat value in the products [MJ/kg], economic allocation according to the product prices [SEK/kg], no allocation and allocation with a system expansion so that rapemeal and distiller's waste could replace soymeal mixed with soyoil and glycerine could replace glycerine produced from fossil raw material. The functional unit, to which the total environmental load was related, was 1.0 MJ of energy delivered on the engine shaft to the final consumer. Production of raw materials, cultivation, transport, fuel production and use of the fuels produced were included in the systems studied. It was shown in the study that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible in most cases for all three fuels, except for the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) during ethanol fuel production. The longer transport distances to a certain degree outweighed the higher oil extraction efficiency, the higher energy efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, followed by soil emissions and tractive power, made major

  14. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  15. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars B; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    with transport-related walking and cycling. METHODS: This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability...

  16. Assessing Energy Requirements in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Comparison Against Doubly Labeled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Klempel, Monica C; Gilmore, L Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Altazan, Abby D; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    Weight loss is prescribed to offset the deleterious consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but a successful intervention requires an accurate assessment of energy requirements. Describe energy requirements in women with PCOS and evaluate common prediction equations compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Cross-sectional study. Academic research center. Twenty-eight weight-stable women with PCOS completed a 14-day DLW study along with measures of body composition and resting metabolic rate and assessment of physical activity by accelerometry. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) determined by DLW. TDEE was 2661 ± 373 kcal/d. TDEE estimated from four commonly used equations was within 4% to 6% of the TDEE measured by DLW. Hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was associated with TDEE estimates from all prediction equations (both r = 0.45; P = 0.02) but was not a significant covariate in a model that predicts TDEE. Similarly, hyperandrogenemia (total testosterone, free androgen index, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was not associated with TDEE. In weight-stable women with PCOS, the following equation derived from DLW can be used to determine energy requirements: TDEE (kcal/d) = 438 - [1.6 * Fat Mass (kg)] + [35.1 * Fat-Free Mass (kg)] + [16.2 * Age (y)]; R2 = 0.41; P = 0.005. Established equations using weight, height, and age performed well for predicting energy requirements in weight-stable women with PCOS, but more precise estimates require an accurate assessment of physical activity. Our equation derived from DLW data, which incorporates habitual physical activity, can also be used in women with PCOS; however, additional studies are needed for model validation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  17. Technical report of comparison in design control on R and D and industrial quality requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to establish the requirements on nuclear R and D facilities. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in research reactor. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of nuclear project

  18. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive due to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Although the uranium ore as well as the separative work requirements are usually lower for any thorium-based fuel cycle in comparison to present uranium-plutonium fuel cycles of thermal water reactors, interest by nuclear industry has hitherto been marginal. Fast increasing uranium prices, public reluctance against widespread Pu-recycling and expected retardations for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, it could be learned in the meantime that problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, but particularly with a remote refabrication of 233 U are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu-recycling. This may not only be due to psychological constraints but be based upon technological as well as economical facts, which have been mostly neglected up till now. In order to diversify from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems to be worthwhile to greatly intensify efforts in the future for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGR's are particularly promising for economic application. However, further R and D activites should not be solely focussed on this reactor type alone. Light and heavy-water moderated reactors, as well as even fast breeders later on, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art of Th/ 233 U-recycling technology and the efforts still necessary to demonstrate this technology all the way through to its industrial application

  19. A metabolic nitrogen balance study for 40 d and evaluation of the menstrual cycle on protein requirement in young Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egun, G N; Atinmo, T

    1993-09-01

    A long-term N balance study was carried out to determine the adequacy of an estimated protein requirement level recommended for young healthy Nigerian women and the effect of the menstrual cycle on the requirement. Eleven healthy young women, 25 (SD 2.6) years, were fed on a diet providing 0.6 g protein (N x 6.25)/kg per d and an average energy intake of 0.17 (SD 0.012) MJ/kg per d. Urine, faeces, sweat and menstrual fluids were collected for estimation of N balance. Menstrual N loss varied among individuals ranging from 46 to 124 mg N/d with an average of 89 (SD 21.8) mg N/d. Individual N balance was found to vary according to the day of the menstrual cycle. Positive N balances were recorded at about ovulation while negative balances were observed just before the onset of menstruation. The average N balance ranged from +8.49 (SD 5.64) to -430 (SD 7.84) mg N/kg per d. Nevertheless, an overall cumulative positive N balance of +5.7 (SD 6.98) mg N/kg per d which did not change significantly with time was observed for the last 5 d of two consecutive 20 d diet periods, although three subjects were in negative N balance. Blood biochemical measurements were stable except for one subject who had elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1) levels. These findings suggest that our estimate of protein requirements was sufficient to achieve N balance equilibrium in a majority (70%) of young women. However, to satisfy 97.5% of the population, slight adjustments might be necessary in the energy intake since subjects who were in cumulative negative N balance also lost weight.

  20. A comparison of the different regulatory requirements of NPP in vertical ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Chunlin; Pan Rong; Yang Yu; Wang Shuguo; Li Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the importance of vertical motion in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) and equipment identification of seismic test, we summarize the existing laws and regulations cited by China's NPPs in the vertical seismic ground motion of the regulations. Then, according to the interpretation of various laws and regulations content, we may identified four vertical earthquake response spectrums. Finally, combined with the seismic safety requirements of China NPPs evaluation and the vertical seismic design of M310, EPR, AP1000 and CAP1400 pressurized water reactor, we explain that the vertical seismic ground motion selection should distinguish the effects between near field and far field earthquake, the existing regulations and specifications that China used are still required to further improve on the selection of vertical ground motion. The results of this study can provide reference for seismic design of China's nuclear power plant and nuclear safety review. (authors)

  1. A 2nd generation static model of greenhouse energy requirements (horticern) : a comparison with dynamic models

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L

    1989-01-01

    Optimisation of a greenhouse and its components requires a suitable model permitting precise determination of its energy requirements. Existing static models are simple but lack precision; dynamic models though more precise, are unsuitable for use over long periods and difficult to handle in practice. A theoretical study and measurements from the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed the development of new static model named "HORTICERN", precise and easy to use for predicting energy consumption and which takes into account effects of solar energy, wind and radiative loss to the sky. This paper compares the HORTICERN model with the dynamic models of Bot, Takakura, Van Bavel and Gembloux, and demonstrates that its precision is comparable; differences on average being less than 5%, it is independent of type of greenhouse (e.g. single or double glazing, Hortiplus, etc.) and climate. The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and is proving to be a powerful tool for greenhouse optimisation by research work...

  2. Comparison of initial capital investment requirements for new domestic energy supplies: 1980 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.; Hay, N.E.; Wilkinson, P.

    1980-01-01

    A.G.A.'s update of its 1978 analysis comparing the initial capital investments required for several domestic sources of alternative energy (coal conversion, oil shale, unconventional natural gas, Alaskan gas, nuclear power, and solar energy) concludes that US energy-supply and utilization systems based on gaseous fuels need substantially less initial capital investment than do equivalent nuclear, coal, and solar electric systems or synthetic-liquids systems. The capital estimates include the costs of resource extraction, processing and conversion, transmission and distribution, and end-use equipment. The cost advantages shown for the three end-use applications compared - residential and small-commercial space heating, premium industrial usage, and large industrial boilers - reflect both the lower capital requirements and higher energy efficiencies of the gaseous systems

  3. A comparison of alcohol positive and alcohol negative trauma patients requiring an emergency laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Cedric; Weinberg, Janice; Narsule, Chaitan K; Brahmbhatt, Tejal S

    2018-07-01

    The effect of alcohol exposure on patients undergoing a laparotomy for trauma is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of morbidity and mortality between alcohol positive and alcohol negative trauma patients who required emergent laparotomies using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). A retrospective database analysis was performed using 28,354 NTDB incident trauma cases, from 2007 through 2012, who had been tested for alcohol and who required abdominal operations (using ICD-9-CM procedure codes) within 24h of presentation. Variables used: age, gender, admission year, alcohol presence, ISS, GCS, injury type & mechanism, discharge status, hospital LOS, ICU stay, ventilator use, and hospital complications. In adjusted analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between the alcohol positive and alcohol negative cohorts when evaluating in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.93; 95% CI: 0.84-1.03), likelihood of earlier hospital discharge (HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99-1.05), and the all-inclusive category of in-hospital complications (OR, 1.04; 95% CI: 0.97-1.12). After adjusting for age, gender, admission year, ISS, GCS, and injury mechanism, there were no major differences between the alcohol positive and alcohol negative cohorts when it came to in-hospital mortality, likelihood of earlier hospital discharge, and most of the in-hospital complications measured among adult trauma patients requiring emergency laparotomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish...... cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34......-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts...

  5. Basic analysis and comparison among GCFR and LMFBR characteristics in thorium cycle by difusion theory in one energy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, G.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary study of the neutronic characteristics of fast of fast breeding reactors with thorium cycle, is done, using models and simplified methods of reactor analysis, aiming to meet an adequate type of breeder reactor with an efficient thorium utilization, that is abundant at Brazil. Basic methods of cross section and reactor calculations are studied, and they are applied for the analysis of GCFRs and LMFBRs breeding characteristics. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Comparison of fuel cycles characteristics for nuclear energy systems based on WWER-TOI and BN-1200 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagramanyan, V.S.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Kapranova, Eh.N.; Puzakov, A.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Authors determine the characteristics of the fuel cycle (FC) based on stationary nuclear power system based on WWER-TOI and BN-1200 reactors with fuel of different composition. Characteristics of reactor systems with partial or complete spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and recycling of plutonium are compared to those of the reference system consisting only of WWER-TOI with uranium oxide fuel, operating in an open FC [ru

  7. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran: 1- Comparison of Inputs Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural intensification has serious environmental consequences such as depletion of non-renewable resources, emission of greenhouse gases, threatening of biodiversity and pollution of both surface and underground water resources. The life cycle assessment (LCA provides a standard method for assessing environmental impacts from various economic activities, including agriculture, and covers a wide range of impact categories across the entire production chain. Over the past few decades, food production in Iran has been increased drastically due to heavier use of chemical inputs. Since the use of LCA method is overlooked for assesseing the effects of agricultural intensification in Iran and few researches are conducted at local level (such as province, cities, the purpose of this research is evaluation of wheat production systems throughout the country based on the level of intensification using LCA method. Materials and Methods Fourteen provinces covering 80 percent of total cultivated area of wheat production in the country were subjected to a cradle to gate LCA study using the standard method. The selected provinces were classified as low, medium and high input based on the level of intensification and all inputs and emissions were estimated within the system boundaries during inventory stage. Required data for yield, and level of applied inputs for 14 provinces were collected from the official databases of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. The various environmental impacts including, abiotic resource depletion, land use, global warming potential, acidification and eutrophication potential, human, aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential of wheat production systems over the country was studied based on emission coefficients and characterization factors provided by standard literatures. The integrated effects of emission of each impact category were calculated per functional units (hectare cultivated area as well as ton

  8. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Jaramillo Riveri, Sebastian I.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.

    2014-12-15

    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux in the different oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on equations of state and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the selforganization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals, such as biofuels.

  9. Comparison of Optimal Thermodynamic Models of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle from Heterotrophs, Cyanobacteria, and Green Sulfur Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G; Jaramillo-Riveri, Sebastian; Baxter, Douglas J; Cannon, William R

    2014-12-26

    We have applied a new stochastic simulation approach to predict the metabolite levels, material flux, and thermodynamic profiles of the oxidative TCA cycles found in E. coli and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and in the reductive TCA cycle typical of chemolithoautotrophs and phototrophic green sulfur bacteria such as Chlorobaculum tepidum. The simulation approach is based on modeling states using statistical thermodynamics and employs an assumption similar to that used in transition state theory. The ability to evaluate the thermodynamics of metabolic pathways allows one to understand the relationship between coupling of energy and material gradients in the environment and the self-organization of stable biological systems, and it is shown that each cycle operates in the direction expected due to its environmental niche. The simulations predict changes in metabolite levels and flux in response to changes in cofactor concentrations that would be hard to predict without an elaborate model based on the law of mass action. In fact, we show that a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can still have flux in the forward direction when it is part of a reaction network. The ability to predict metabolite levels, energy flow, and material flux should be significant for understanding the dynamics of natural systems and for understanding principles for engineering organisms for production of specialty chemicals.

  10. Thermal efficiency improvement in high output diesel engines a comparison of a Rankine cycle with turbo-compounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasinghe, W.M.S.R.; Stobart, R.K.; Hounsham, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal management, in particular, heat recovery and utilisation in internal combustion engines result in improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, fast warm up and optimized cylinder head temperatures. turbo-compounding is a heat recovery technique that has been successfully used in medium and large scale engines. Heat recovery to a secondary fluid and expansion is used in large scale engines, such as in power plants in the form of heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) . The present paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of turbo-compounding and heat recovery and utilisation through a fluid power cycle, a technique that is also applicable to medium and small scale engines. In a fluid power cycle, the working fluid is stored in a reservoir and expanded subsequently. The reservoir acts as an energy buffer that improves the overall efficiency, significantly. This paper highlights the relative advantage of exhaust heat secondary power cycles over turbo-compounding with the aid of MATLAB based QSS Toolbox simulation results. Steam has been selected as the working fluid in this work for its superior heat capacity over organic fluids and gases.

  11. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-01

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review handbook that

  12. Performance comparison of two low-CO2 emission solar/methanol hybrid combined cycle power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Na; Lior, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel solar hybrid combined cycle systems have been proposed and analyzed. • The power systems integrate solar-driven thermo-chemical conversion and CO 2 capture. • Exergy efficiency of about 55% and specific CO 2 emissions of 34 g/kW h are predicted. • Systems CO 2 emissions are 36.8% lower compared to a combined cycle with CO 2 capture. • The fossil fuel demand is ∼30% lower with a solar share of ∼20%. - Abstract: Two novel hybrid combined cycle power systems that use solar heat and methanol, and integrate CO 2 capture, are proposed and analyzed, one based on solar-driven methanol decomposition and the other on solar-driven methanol reforming. The high methanol conversion rates at relatively low temperatures offer the advantage of using the solar heat at only 200–300 °C to drive the syngas production by endothermic methanol conversions and its conversion to chemical energy. Pre-combustion decarbonization is employed to produce CO 2 -free fuel from the fully converted syngas, which is then burned to produce heat at the high temperature for power generation in the proposed advanced combined cycle systems. To improve efficiency, the systems’ configurations were based on the principle of cascade use of multiple heat sources of different temperatures. The thermodynamic performance of the hybrid power systems at its design point is simulated and evaluated. The results show that the hybrid systems can attain an exergy efficiency of about 55%, and specific CO 2 emissions as low as 34 g/kW h. Compared to a gas/steam combined cycle with flue gas CO 2 capture, the proposed solar-assisted system CO 2 emissions are 36.8% lower, and a fossil fuel saving ratio of ∼30% is achievable with a solar thermal share of ∼20%. The system integration predicts high efficiency conversion of solar heat and low-energy-penalty CO 2 capture, with the additional advantage that solar heat is at relatively low temperature where its collection is cheaper and

  13. Indexes of power and aerobic capacity obtained in cycle ergometry and treadmill running: comparisons between sedentary, runners, cyclists and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Caputo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: a to determine, in a cross-sectional manner, the effect of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (O2peak, the intensity at O2peak (IO2peak and the anaerobic threshold (AnT during running and cycling; and b to verify if the transference of the training effects are dependent on the analized type of exercise or physiological index. Eleven untrained males (UN, nine endurance cyclists (EC, seven endurance runners (ER, and nine triathletes (TR were submitted, on separate days, to incremental tests until voluntary exhaustion on a mechanical braked cycle ergometer and on a treadmill. The values of O2peak (ml.kg-1.min-1 obtained in running and cycle ergometer (ER = 68.8 ± 6.3 and 62.0 ± 5.0; EC = 60.5 ± 8.0 and 67.6 ± 7.6; TR = 64.5 ± 4.8 and 61.0 ± 4.1; UN = 43.5 ± 7.0 and 36.7 ± 5.6; respectively were higher in the group that presented specific training in the modality. The UN group presented the lower values of O2peak, regardless of the type of exercise. This same behavior was observed for the AnT (ml.kg-1.min-1 determined in running and cycle ergometer (ER = 56.8 ± 6.9 and 44.8 ± 5.7; EC = 51.2 ± 5.2 and 57.6 ± 7.1; TR = 56.5 ± 5.1 and 49.0 ± 4.8; UN = 33.2 ± 4.2 and 22.6 ± 3.7; respectively. It can be concluded that the transference of the training effects seems to be only partial, independently of the index (O2peak, IO2peak or AnT or exercise type (running or cycling. In relation to the indices, the specificity of training seems to be less present in the O2peak than in the IO2peak and the AnT.

  14. Comparison of the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts using two Brazilian ultrasound devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Brito-Júnior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the time required for removal of intraradicular cast posts cemented with zinc phosphate (ZF or glass ionomer cement (GIC, using two Brazilian ultrasound devices (BUD. Seventy two human inferior premolars with single root canals were sectioned transversally at the cementoenamel junction. In each specimen, the root canal was endodontically treated, the post space was prepared to a depth of 9 mm and the canal was molded to obtain a post impression. After the casting procedures, the posts were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 36 according to the luting material used: G1 - ZF and G2 - GIC. The tooth and luted post set was then embedded in an acrylic resin block. The groups were then divided into 3 subgroups (n = 12 according to the ultrasound device used: A - Enac (Osada Electric, Japan, used as a control group; B - Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante, Brazil and C - Jet Sonic Satelec (Gnatus, Brazil. The posts were submitted to the vibration process with maximum power set on all surrounding surfaces. Time of application was recorded with a chronometer until complete post dislodgment, and the data were analyzed by the ANOVA test (p < 0.05. The averages required for post removal in G1 and G2 were respectively 41.42 and 92.03 seconds, with significant statistical difference (p = 0.001. No statistical difference was observed among the three ultrasound devices (p = 0.088, and the BUD presented a performance similar to that of the international gold standard device (Enac. Moreover, the type of luting agent had a greater influence on the time required for post removal than the origin of the ultrasonic unit.

  15. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2011-03-15

    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  16. A comparison of the difference of requirements between functional safety and nuclear safety controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.K.; Lee, C.L.; Shyu, S.S. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In order to establish self-reliant capabilities of nuclear I&C systems in Taiwan, Taiwan's Nuclear I&C System (TNICS) project had been established by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). A Triple Modular Redundant (TMR) safety controller (SCS-2000) has been completed and gone through the IEC 61508 Safety Integrity Level 3 (SIL3) certification of Functional Safety for industries. Based on the certification processes, the difference of requirements between Functional Safety and Nuclear Safety controllers in term of hardware and software are addressed in this study. Besides, the measures used to determine and verify the reliability of the safety control system design are presented. (author)

  17. Comparison of the Force Required for Dislodgement Between Secured and Unsecured Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Curtis; Martin-Gill, Christian; Wang, Henry E; Mayrose, James; Carlson, Jestin N

    2018-05-01

    Airway device placement and maintenance are of utmost importance when managing critically ill patients. The best method to secure airway devices is currently unknown. We sought to determine the force required to dislodge 4 types of airways with and without airway securing devices. We performed a prospective study using 4 commonly used airway devices (endotracheal tube [ETT], laryngeal mask airway [LMA], King laryngeal tube [King], and iGel) performed on 5 different mannequin models. All devices were removed twice per mannequin in random order, once unsecured and once secured as per manufacturers' recommendations; Thomas Tube Holder (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) for ETT, LMA, and King; custom tube holder for iGel. A digital force measuring device was attached to the exposed end of the airway device and gradually pulled vertically and perpendicular to the mannequin until the tube had been dislodged, defined as at least 4 cm of movement. Dislodgement force was reported as the maximum force recorded during dislodgement. We compared the relative difference in the secured and unsecured force for each device and between devices using a random-effects regression model accounting for variability in the manikins. The median dislodgment forces (interquartile range [IQR]) in pounds for each secured device were: ETT 13.3 (11.6, 14.1), LMA 16.6 (13.9, 18.3), King 21.7 (16.9, 25.1), and iGel 8 (6.8, 8.3). The median dislodgement forces for each unsecured device were: ETT 4.5 (4.3, 5), LMA 8.4 (6.8, 10.7), King 10.6 (8.2, 11.5), and iGel 3.9 (3.2, 4.2). The relative difference in dislodgement forces (95% confidence intervals) were higher for each device when secured: ETT 8.6 (6.2 to 11), LMA 8.8 (4.6 to 13), King 12.1 (7.2 to 16.6), iGel 4 (1.1 to 6.9). When compared to secured ETT, the King required greater dislodgement force (relative difference 8.6 [4.5-12.7]). The secured iGel required less force than the secured ETT (relative difference -4.8 [-8.9 to -0.8]). Compared with a

  18. Comparison of time required for traditional versus virtual orthognathic surgery treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, M K; Peacock, Z S; Laviv, A; Goldwaser, B R; Ortiz, R; Resnick, C M; Troulis, M J; Kaban, L B

    2016-09-01

    Virtual surgical planning (VSP) is a tool for predicting complex surgical movements in three dimensions and it may reduce preoperative laboratory time. A prospective study to compare the time required for standard preoperative planning versus VSP was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital from January 2014 through January 2015. Workflow data for bimaxillary cases planned by both standard techniques and VSP were recorded in real time. Time spent was divided into three parts: (1) obtaining impressions, face-bow mounting, and model preparation; (2) occlusal analysis and modification, model surgery, and splint fabrication; (3) online VSP session. Average times were compared between standard treatment planning (sum of parts 1 and 2) and VSP (sum of parts 1 and 3). Of 41 bimaxillary cases included, 20 were simple (symmetric) and 21 were complex (asymmetry and segmental osteotomies). Average times for parts 1, 2, and 3 were 4.43, 3.01, and 0.67h, respectively. The average time required for standard treatment planning was 7.45h and for VSP was 5.10h, a 31% time reduction (Porthognathic surgery cases. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement for three gait trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleg, Ginny; Huang, Morris; Vasquez Gabela, Stephanie C; Sprigle, Stephen; Livingstone, Roslyn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement on two different surfaces in a sample of three commonly prescribed gait trainers. Tests were conducted in a laboratory setting to compare the Prime Engineering KidWalk, Rifton Pacer, and Snug Seat Mustang with and without a weighted anthropometric test dummy configured to the weight and proportions of a 4-year-old child. The Pacer was the lightest and the KidWalk the heaviest while footprints of the three gait trainers were similar. Weight was borne fairly evenly on the four casters of the Pacer and Mustang while 85% of the weight was borne on the large wheels of the mid-wheel drive KidWalk. These differences in frame style, wheel, and caster style and overall mass impact inertial properties and forces required to initiate movement. Test results suggest that initiation forces on tile were equivalent for the Pacer and KidWalk while the Mustang had the highest initiation force. Initiation forces on carpet were lowest for the KidWalk and highest for the Mustang. This initial study of inertia and movement initiation forces may provide added information for clinicians to consider when selecting a gait trainer for their clients.

  20. Performance of a full-scale ITER metal hydride storage bed in comparison with requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Fanghaenel, E.; Perevezentsev, A.; Wagner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen isotopes as metal hydride is the technique chosen for the ITER Tritium Plant Storage and Delivery System (SDS). A prototype storage bed of a full-scale has been designed, manufactured and intensively tested at the Tritium Laboratory, addressing main performance parameters specified for the ITER application. The main requirements for the hydrogen storage bed are a strict physical limitation of the tritium storage capacity (currently 70 g T 2 ), a high supply flow rate of hydrogen isotopes, in-situ calorimetry capabilities with an accuracy of 1 g and a fully tritium compatible design. The pressure composition isotherm of the ZrCo hydrogen system, as a reference material for ITER, is characterised by significant slope. As a result technical implementation of the ZrCo hydride bed in the SDS system requires further considerations. The paper presents the experience from the operation of ZrCo getter bed including loading/de-loading operation, calorimetric loop performance, and active gas cooling of the bed for fast absorption operation. The implications of hydride material characteristics on the SDS system configuration and design are discussed. (authors)

  1. ASDEX Upgrade-JT-60U comparison and ECRH power requirements for NTM stabilization in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, L.; Zohm, H.; Maraschek, M.; Poli, E.; Isayama, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are experimentally controlled with local electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and the island width decay during NTM stabilization is modelled using the so-called modified Rutherford equation (MRE). In this paper, a modelling of the MRE is carried out and simulations of the island width decay are compared with the experimentally observed ones in order to fit the two free machine-independent parameters present in the equation. A systematic study on a database of NTM stabilization discharges from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U is done for extrapolating the ECCD power requirements for ITER. The extrapolation to ITER of the NTM stabilization results from ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U shows that 10 MW of ECCD power are enough to stabilize large NTMs. The 10 MW power estimate for ITER is based on the assumption that the free parameters in the MRE are machine independent. Indeed, this assumption is verified in this paper for ASDEX Upgrade and JT-60U. An interesting consequence of the relatively modest power requirement for ITER is that the installed 20 MW will suffice for simultaneous 2/1 and 3/2 NTM stabilization.

  2. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  3. Analysis of geomagnetically induced currents at a low-latitude region over the solar cycles 23 and 24: comparison between measurements and calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Cleiton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC are a space weather effect, which affects ground-based technological structures at all latitudes on the Earth’s surface. GIC occurrence and amplitudes have been monitored in power grids located at high and middle latitudes since 1970s and 1980s, respectively. This monitoring provides information about the GIC intensity and the frequency of occurrence during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, we investigate GIC occurrence in a power network at low latitudes (in the central Brazilian region during the solar cycles 23 and 24. Calculated and measured GIC data are compared for the most intense geomagnetic storms (i.e. −50 < Dst < −50 nT of the solar cycle 24. The results obtained from this comparison show a good agreement. The success of the model employed for the calculation of GIC leads to the possibility of determining GIC for events during the solar cycle 23 as well. Calculated GIC in one transformer reached ca. 30 A during the “Halloween storm” in 2003 whilst most frequent intensities lie below 10 A. The normalized inverse cumulative frequency for GIC data was calculated for the solar cycle 23 in order to perform a statistical analysis. It was found that a q-exponential Tsallis distribution fits the calculated GIC frequency distribution for more than 99% of the data. This analysis provides an overview of the long-term GIC monitoring at low latitudes and suggests new insight into critical phenomena involved in the GIC generation.

  4. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery.

  5. Data requirement comparison between the fixed site upgrade rule guidance compendium and the Structured Assessment Approach Licensee Submittal Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-12-01

    We compared the Structured Assessment Approach's (SAA) Licensee Submittal Document (LSD) with the Fixed Site Physical Protection Upgrade Rule Guidance Compendium Standard Format and Content (SFC) Guide using correlation matrices to see how well the data requirements of the SFC Guide coincided with those of a specific automated vulnerability assessment technique for fixed-site nuclear fuel cycle facilities, namely, SAA. We found that a limited SAA assessment is possible using the SFC Guide, but significant and critical safeguards vulnerabilities might be missed. Also, it was found that in some cases the organization and format of the SFC Guide input data and information made the preparation of data for the SAA somewhat awkward. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. A comparison of energy conversion systems for meeting the power requirements of manned rover for Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Morley, N.; Cataldo, R.; Bloomfield, H.

    1990-01-01

    Minimizing system mass for interplanetary missions is of utmost importance in order to keep launch cost within reasonable bounds. For a manned Mars rover, powered by a nuclear reactor power system, the choice of the energy conversion system can play a significant role in lowering the overall system mass. Not only is the mass of the conversion unit affected by the choice, but also the masses of the reactor core, waste heat rejection system, and the radiation shield which are strongly influenced by the system conversion efficiency and operating condition. Several types of conversion systems are of interest for a nuclear reactor Mars manned application. These conversion systems include: free piston Stirling engines, He/XE closed Brayton cycle (CBC), CO 2 open Brayton, and SiGe/GaP thermoelectric. Optimization studies are conducted to determine the impact of the conversion system on the overall mass of the nuclear power system as well as the mobility power requirement of the Rover vehicle

  7. Sodium fast reactors energy conversion systems. Na-CO2 interaction. Comparison with Na-water interaction of conventional water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, Christian; Simon, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    tracks for the complementary experimental study and the appraisal of the potential consequences will contribute to weighing both the advantages and drawbacks of this innovative option, in comparison to the conventional Rankine cycle. The paper has the following contents: Introduction; 1. Literature review; 2. Interaction Na-CO 2 ; 3. The Na-CO Interaction; 4. Interaction Na - Na 2 CO 3 ; 5. Carbon solubility in sodium; 6. Discussion; 7. Conclusion

  8. The comparison between layout and design of APR1400 MCR and EPRI requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis; Sigit Santoso; T J Suryono

    2013-01-01

    A good man-machine interface system is needed by a nuclear power reactor because of its complexity and high safety factor. The man-machine interface system is centralized in the main control room (MCR). All of monitoring and controlling activity to keep the installation operation safety can be done from this place. In order to increase its ability in monitoring and controlling a hard effort to raise the interface system to the highest possible level is done not only by using the latest computer technology and instrumentation system but also using Human Engineering, as well. The paper aims to compare the lay out and design the APR1400 MCR and the requirement from EPRI about main control room lay out and design as response of TMI-2 accident. We can see from the discussion that the design of the MCR of APR1400 have been applied the request of EPRI. (author)

  9. Comparison of Requirements for Composite Structures for Aircraft and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Elliot, Kenny B.; Hampton, Roy W.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Aggarwal, Pravin; Engelstad, Stephen P.; Chang, James B.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the aircraft and space vehicle requirements for composite structures are compared. It is a valuable exercise to study composite structural design approaches used in the airframe industry and to adopt methodology that is applicable for space vehicles. The missions, environments, analysis methods, analysis validation approaches, testing programs, build quantities, inspection, and maintenance procedures used by the airframe industry, in general, are not transferable to spaceflight hardware. Therefore, while the application of composite design approaches from aircraft and other industries is appealing, many aspects cannot be directly utilized. Nevertheless, experiences and research for composite aircraft structures may be of use in unexpected arenas as space exploration technology develops, and so continued technology exchanges are encouraged.

  10. Impact of changes in river fluxes of silica on the global marine silicon cycle: a model comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of dissolved silica (Si in the ocean provides a major control on the growth of siliceous phytoplankton. Diatoms in particular account for a large proportion of oceanic primary production. The original source of the silica is rock weathering, followed by transport of dissolved and biogenic silica to the coastal zone. This model study aims at assessing the sensitivity of the global marine silicon cycle to variations in the river input of silica on timescales ranging from several centuries to millennia. We compare the performance of a box model for the marine silicon cycle to that of a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model (HAMOCC2 and 5. Results indicate that the average global ocean response to changes in river input of silica is comparable in the models on time scales up to 150 kyrs. While the trends in export production and opal burial are the same, the box model shows a delayed response to the imposed perturbations compared to the general circulation model. Results of both models confirm the important role of the continental margins as a sink for silica at the global scale. Our work also demonstrates that the effects of changes in riverine dissolved silica on ocean biogeochemistry depend on the availability of the other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and iron. The model results suggest that the effects of reduced silica inputs due to river damming are particularly pronounced in the Gulf of Bengal, Gulf of Mexico and the Amazon plume where they negatively affect opal production. While general circulation models are indispensable when assessing the spatial variation in opal export production and biogenic Si burial in the ocean, this study demonstrates that box models provide a good alternative when studying the average global ocean response to perturbations of the oceanic silica cycle (especially on longer time scales.

  11. STAKEHOLDER OPINION-BASED COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURKEY WITH SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Uctug

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey were compared to those of Denmark, France, and Poland. The reason for selecting these particular countries for benchmarking was the fact that electricity generation in these countries is dominated mostly by a single source, that is wind, nuclear, and coal, respectively. OpenLCA software and European Life Cycle Database database were used, CML2001 method was employed. The life cycle analysis approach was from cradle to grave. The environmental impact criteria which were studied were acidification, global warming potential, depletion of abiotic resources – elements, depletion of abiotic resources - fossil fuels, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidation, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition to comparing the four countries in terms of these individual impacts, the overall environmental impact scores for all countries were calculated, once with equal weights for all impacts and once with weights which were determined by acquiring the stakeholder opinions via an online questionnaire. In both cases, Poland turned out to have the highest environmental impact due to the high share coal in the electricity mix, and Turkey came second after Poland. Equal-weight-analysis returned Denmark as the country with the cleanest electricity generation infrastructure whereas stakeholder-weight-analysis results showed that it was France who had the lowest environmental impact. This result was attributed to the high weight of global warming potential and France’s nuclear-energy-based electricity generation system has a very low global warming potential when compared to other three countries. It was concluded that the prospective addition of nuclear energy, solar energy, and clean coal technologies into Turkey’s electricity mix shall reduce the overall environmental impact of electricity

  12. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts...... of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life...... cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions....

  13. Thermo-Economic Comparison and Parametric Optimizations among Two Compressed Air Energy Storage System Based on Kalina Cycle and ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressed air energy storage (CAES system, considered as one method for peaking shaving and load-levelling of the electricity system, has excellent characteristics of energy storage and utilization. However, due to the waste heat existing in compressed air during the charge stage and exhaust gas during the discharge stage, the efficient operation of the conventional CAES system has been greatly restricted. The Kalina cycle (KC and organic Rankine cycle (ORC have been proven to be two worthwhile technologies to fulfill the different residual heat recovery for energy systems. To capture and reuse the waste heat from the CAES system, two systems (the CAES system combined with KC and ORC, respectively are proposed in this paper. The sensitivity analysis shows the effect of the compression ratio and the temperature of the exhaust on the system performance: the KC-CAES system can achieve more efficient operation than the ORC-CAES system under the same temperature of exhaust gas; meanwhile, the larger compression ratio can lead to the higher efficiency for the KC-CAES system than that of ORC-CAES with the constant temperature of the exhaust gas. In addition, the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm is conducted between the thermodynamic and economic performances to find the optimal parameters of the two systems. The optimum results indicate that the solutions with an exergy efficiency of around 59.74% and 53.56% are promising for KC-CAES and ORC-CAES system practical designs, respectively.

  14. Comparison of corifollitropin alfa and daily recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responder patients undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effect of corifollitropin alfa (CFA and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH in poor-responder patients undergoing antagonist cycles. Materials and Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of the treatment results of 214 poor responder patients who had been admitted to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit of İzmir Medical Park Hospital between November 2014 and November 2016. Intracytoplasmic sperm injections were performed in 38 patients (group 1 with CFA, and the remaining 176 (group 2 with rFSH for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Results The age, body mass index, anti-müllerian hormone level, duration of infertility, duration of induction and antral follicle number were similar in the two groups. There was no difference in the total aspirated oocyte counts, mature oocyte ratio, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups. The implantation rate was 9/38 (23.6% in group 1 and 42/176 (23.8% in group 2, whereas the clinical pregnancy rates were 16.3% and 17.2%, respectively. Conclusion No difference was found in terms of oocyte count, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and clinical pregnancy rates of CFA or rFSH use in the antagonist cycles in poor-responder patients.

  15. Oxygen uptake in water polo, comparison and agreement in cycle ergometer and eggbeater kick: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Ignêz Engelmann

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare and verify the agreement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max values obtained from tests on land and in water. Twelve recreational water polo players (30.5 ± 7.7 years; 79.2 ± 7.2 kg body mass; 179.1 ± 5.9 cm height were assessed in two phases: (1 in laboratory with maximal test on a cycle ergometer and (2 in a swimming pool with maximal test in eggbeater kick. Maximum values obtained in the two tests (respectively, cycle ergometer, and eggbeater kick: VO2 max = 40.2 ± 2.7 ml.kg-1.min-1 and 38.4 ± 5.7 ml.kg-1.min-1; RER = 1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.12; HR max = 181.4 ± 11.7 bpm and 179 ± 11.7 bpm; IEP = 20 and 20 did not show significant differences. According to the Bland-Altman analyses, there were acceptable limits of agreement between the two tests (land and water. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggbeater kick test is a specific and valid protocol to asses VO2 max in water polo players.

  16. A COMPARISON OF PEBBLE MIXING AND DEPLETION ALGORITHMS USED IN PEBBLE-BED REACTOR EQUILIBRIUM CYCLE SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougar, Hans D.; Reitsma, Frederik; Joubert, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    Recirculating pebble-bed reactors are distinguished from all other reactor types by the downward movement through and reinsertion of fuel into the core during operation. Core simulators must account for this movement and mixing in order to capture the physics of the equilibrium cycle core. VSOP and PEBBED are two codes used to perform such simulations, but they do so using different methods. In this study, a simplified pebble-bed core with a specified flux profile and cross sections is used as the model for conducting analyses of two types of burnup schemes. The differences between the codes are described and related to the differences observed in the nuclide densities in pebbles discharged from the core. Differences in the methods for computing fission product buildup and average number densities lead to significant differences in the computed core power and eigenvalue. These test models provide a key component of an overall equilibrium cycle benchmark involving neutron transport, cross section generation, and fuel circulation.

  17. Sq field characteristics at Phu Thuy, Vietnam, during solar cycle 23: comparisons with Sq field in other longitude sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Thi Thu, H.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Le Huy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Quiet days variations in the Earth's magnetic field (the Sq current system) are compared and contrasted for the Asian, African and American sectors using a new dataset from Vietnam. This is the first presentation of the variation of the Earth's magnetic field (Sq), during the solar cycle 23, at Phu Thuy, Vietnam (geographic latitudes 21.03° N and longitude: 105.95° E). Phu Thuy observatory is located below the crest of the equatorial fountain in the Asian longitude sector of the Northern Hemisphere. The morphology of the Sq daily variation is presented as a function of solar cycle and seasons. The diurnal variation of Phu Thuy is compared to those obtained in different magnetic observatories over the world to highlight the characteristics of the Phu Thuy observations. In other longitude sectors we find different patterns. At Phu Thuy the solar cycle variation of the amplitude of the daily variation of the X component is correlated to the F.10.7 cm solar radiation (~0.74). This correlation factor is greater than the correlation factor obtained in two observatories located at the same magnetic latitudes in other longitude sectors: at Tamanrasset in the African sector (~0.42, geographic latitude ~22.79) and San Juan in the American sector (~0.03, geographic latitude ~18.38). At Phu Thuy, the Sq field exhibits an equinoctial and a diurnal asymmetry: - The seasonal variation of the monthly mean of X component exhibits the well known semiannual pattern with 2 equinox maxima, but the X component is larger in spring than in autumn. Depending of the phase of the sunspot cycle, the maximum amplitude of the X component varies in spring from 30 nT to 75 nT and in autumn from 20 nT to 60 nT. The maximum amplitude of the X component exhibits roughly the same variation in both solstices, varying from about ~20 nT to 50 nT, depending on the position into the solar cycle. - In all seasons, the mean equinoctial diurnal Y component has a morning maximum Larger than the afternoon

  18. Sq field characteristics at Phu Thuy, Vietnam, during solar cycle 23: comparisons with Sq field in other longitude sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pham Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quiet days variations in the Earth's magnetic field (the Sq current system are compared and contrasted for the Asian, African and American sectors using a new dataset from Vietnam. This is the first presentation of the variation of the Earth's magnetic field (Sq, during the solar cycle 23, at Phu Thuy, Vietnam (geographic latitudes 21.03° N and longitude: 105.95° E. Phu Thuy observatory is located below the crest of the equatorial fountain in the Asian longitude sector of the Northern Hemisphere. The morphology of the Sq daily variation is presented as a function of solar cycle and seasons. The diurnal variation of Phu Thuy is compared to those obtained in different magnetic observatories over the world to highlight the characteristics of the Phu Thuy observations. In other longitude sectors we find different patterns. At Phu Thuy the solar cycle variation of the amplitude of the daily variation of the X component is correlated to the F.10.7 cm solar radiation (~0.74. This correlation factor is greater than the correlation factor obtained in two observatories located at the same magnetic latitudes in other longitude sectors: at Tamanrasset in the African sector (~0.42, geographic latitude ~22.79 and San Juan in the American sector (~0.03, geographic latitude ~18.38. At Phu Thuy, the Sq field exhibits an equinoctial and a diurnal asymmetry: – The seasonal variation of the monthly mean of X component exhibits the well known semiannual pattern with 2 equinox maxima, but the X component is larger in spring than in autumn. Depending of the phase of the sunspot cycle, the maximum amplitude of the X component varies in spring from 30 nT to 75 nT and in autumn from 20 nT to 60 nT. The maximum amplitude of the X component exhibits roughly the same variation in both solstices, varying from about ~20 nT to 50 nT, depending on the position into the solar cycle. – In all seasons, the mean equinoctial diurnal Y component has a morning maximum Larger

  19. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  20. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.

  1. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  2. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm. PMID:25280752

  3. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  4. Comparison of Outcomes of Pericardiocentesis Versus Surgical Pericardial Window in Patients Requiring Drainage of Pericardial Effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel E; Mentias, Amgad; Houghtaling, Penny L; Toth, Andrew J; Blackstone, Eugene H; Johnston, Douglas R; Klein, Allan L

    2017-09-01

    requiring therapeutic or diagnostic drainage of a pericardial effusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  6. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  7. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: a comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Alexander A; Staib, A; Görlinger, K; Perrey, M; Dirkmann, D; Kienbaum, P

    2010-02-26

    Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24), triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22), and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22) were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM). Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP) by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19). CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4%) without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8%) and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3%) and TRI (+57.5%). While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  8. Comparison of ground-based and Viking Orbiter measurements of Martian water vapor - Variability of the seasonal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Barker, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Earth-based observations of Mars atmospheric water vapor are presented for the 1975-1976, 1977-1978, and 1983 apparitions. Comparisons are made with near-simultaneous spacecraft measurements made from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detection experiment during 1976-1978 and with previous earth-based measurements. Differences occur between the behavior in the different years, and may be related to the Mars climate. Measurements during the southern summer in 1969 indicate a factor of three times as much water as is present at this same season in other years. This difference may have resulted from the sublimation of water from the south polar residual cap upon removal of most or all of the CO2 ice present; sublimation of all of the CO2 ice during some years could be a result of a greater thermal load being placed on the cap due to the presence of differing amounts of atmospheric dust.

  9. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  10. Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on postural balance: a comparison of treadmill versus cycle fatiguing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine E; Lyons, Thomas S; Navalta, James W

    2013-05-01

    The authors of this study examined the effects of muscle fatigue on balance indices and recovery time in recreationally trained individuals after incremental tests on a treadmill and a cycle ergometer. Sixteen participants (male N = 11, female N = 5) (mean age = 21.2 ± 2 years) completed this study. Balance measures were performed on a Biodex Balance System via the Dynamic Balance Test. Balance was measured pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, 18-, and 21-min post-exercise. Immediately following the fatiguing treadmill test, balance increased significantly in the overall stability index (SI) (from 4.38 ± 2.48 to 6.09 ± 1.80) and the anterior/posterior index (API) (from 3.49 ± 2.18 to 5.28 ± 1.81) (p balance was not altered significantly in SI or API. Balance was not altered significantly for the medial/lateral index for either exercise test at any time point. Additionally, there were no significant differences in time to recovery. At 12-min post-exercise, all indices were below pre-exercise values, indicating that fatiguing exercise has a positive effect on balance over time. These results are consistent with previous research, suggesting that any effects of fatigue on balance are seen immediately and are diminished as time after exercise increases.

  11. Effects of dietary protease on nitrogen emissions from broiler production: a holistic comparison using Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Williams, Adrian G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the effects of the use of a protease Ronozyme® ProAct in broiler feed on the environmental impacts of broiler and broiler feed production chains. This was done by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) modelling approach with data from trials using both standard soya-based broiler diets and reduced-protein diets with added protease. The results for the feed production chain showed that there was a reduction in all environmental impact categories when protease was used in the diets. The biggest reduction occurred in the category of Global Warming Potential, mainly as a result of decreased carbon dioxide emissions from land use changes related to soya production. In the results for the broiler production chain, there were relatively bigger reductions in Eutrophication Potential and especially in Acidification Potential, mainly as a result of reduced feed protein content and subsequent nitrogen emissions from housing and manure management. The use of protease in the broiler diets reduced the environmental impacts of both feed production and broiler production. The latter is mainly through reduced ammonia emissions, which has substantial benefit per se in the poultry industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, Tyron; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2006-01-01

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  13. [Nitrogen bio-cycle in the alpine tundra ecosystem of Changbai Mountain and its comparison with arctic tundra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Deng, Hong-bing; Wu, Gang; Hao, Ying-jie; Shang, Wen-yan

    2005-03-01

    The nitrogen bio-cycle was discussed in the alpine tundra ecosystem of Changbai Mountain through compartment model. The alpine tundra of Changbai Mountain was compared with Arctic tundra by the common ratio of genus and species in this paper. It was found that the 89.3% of genus and 58.6% of species was the common between Changbai alpine tundra and Arctic tundra while 95.5% of lichen genus and 58.7% lichen species, 82.1% of moss genus and 76.3% of moss species, 93.1% of vascular bundle genus and 40.5% of vascular bundle species were the common, respectively, which made vegetation type or community to be similar between Changbai alpine tundra and Arctic tundra. The total storage of nitrogen was 65220.6 t in the vegetation-plant system of Changbai Mountain, of which soil pool amounted to 99.3%. The nitrogen storage of each compartment was as follows: the vegetation pool, litterfall pool and soil pool were 237.4 t, 145.3 t and 64837.9 t respectively. The transferable amounts of nitrogen were 131.7 t x a(-1), 58 t/a and 73.7 t x a(-1) in the aboveground plant, belowground root system and litterfall of alpine tundra ecosystem of Changbai Mountain.

  14. Comparison of a Mass Balance and an Ecosystem Model Approach when Evaluating the Carbon Cycling in a Lake Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Sobek, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Carbon budgets are frequently used in order to understand the pathways of organic matter in ecosystems, and they also have an important function in the risk assessment of harmful substances. We compared two approaches, mass balance calculations and an ecosystem budget, to describe carbon processing in a shallow, oligotrophic hardwater lake. Both approaches come to the same main conclusion, namely that the lake is a net auto trophic ecosystem, in spite of its high dissolved organic carbon and low total phosphorus concentrations. However, there were several differences between the carbon budgets, e.g. in the rate of sedimentation and the air-water flux of CO 2 . The largest uncertainty in the mass balance is the contribution of emergent macrophytes to the carbon cycling of the lake, while the ecosystem budget is very sensitive towards the choice of conversion factors and literature values. While the mass balance calculations produced more robust results, the ecosystem budget gave valuable insights into the pathways of organic matter transfer in the ecosystem. We recommend that when using an ecosystem budget for the risk assessment of harmful substances, mass balance calculations should be performed in parallel in order to increase the robustness of the conclusions

  15. Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola; Finnveden, Goeran; Ekvall, Tomas; Bjoerklund, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels

  16. Co-management of domestic wastewater and food waste: A life cycle comparison of alternative food waste diversion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Adilson M; Yu, Kevin; Stadler, Lauren B; Smith, Adam L

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is increasingly viewed as a resource that should be diverted from landfills. This study used life cycle assessment to compare co-management of food waste and domestic wastewater using anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) against conventional activated sludge (CAS) and high rate activated sludge (HRAS) with three disposal options for food waste: landfilling (LF), anaerobic digestion (AD), and composting (CP). Based on the net energy balance (NEB), AnMBR and HRAS/AD were the most attractive scenarios due to cogeneration of produced biogas. However, cogeneration negatively impacted carcinogenics, non-carcinogenics, and ozone depletion, illustrating unavoidable tradeoffs between energy recovery from biogas and environmental impacts. Fugitive emissions of methane severely increased global warming impacts of all scenarios except HRAS/AD with AnMBR particularly affected by effluent dissolved methane emissions. AnMBR was also most sensitive to food waste diversion participation, with 40% diversion necessary to achieve a positive NEB at the current state of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, Maria Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  18. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses in Kettlebell High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Sprint Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian M; Kraemer, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure rate (kcal·min), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group × time interaction were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2, RER, and TV, with V[Combining Dot Above]O2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group × time interaction were found for f, VE, kcal·min, and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.

  19. Life cycle risks for human health: a comparison of petroleum versus bio-based production of five bulk organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Alexander L; Patel, Martin K

    2007-10-01

    This article describes the development and application of a generic approach to the comparative assessment of risks related to the production of organic chemicals by petrochemical processes versus white biotechnology. White biotechnology, also referred to as industrial biotechnology, typically uses bio-based feedstocks instead of the fossil raw materials used in the petrochemical sector. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the production of chemicals by means of white biotechnology has lower conventional risks than their production by petrochemical processes. Conventional risks are the risks of well-established processes, and not those related to genetically modified microorganisms and plants. Our approach combines classical risk assessment methods (largely based on toxicology), as developed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, with statistics on technological disasters, accidents, and work-related illnesses. Moreover, it covers the total process chain for both petrochemical and bio-based products from cradle to grave. The approach was applied to five products: the plastics polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), and ethanol. Our results show that the conventional risks related to the white biotechnology products studied are lower than those of the petrochemical products. However, considering the uncertainties with respect to the ranges of input data, the (incomplete) coverage of emissions by the environmental priority strategies (EPS) 2000 method, and the uncertainties of the assumptions made in this study (i.e., large to very large), the differences in results between bio-based and petrochemical products fall into the uncertainty range. Because of this, future research is necessary to decrease the uncertainties before we can conclude that the conventional risks of biotechnologically produced chemicals are lower than those of fossil-fuel-derived chemicals.

  20. Comparison of a Novel Organic-Fluid Thermofluidic Heat Converter and an Organic Rankine Cycle Heat Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph J.W. Kirmse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Up-THERM heat converter is an unsteady, two-phase thermofluidic oscillator that employs an organic working fluid, which is currently being considered as a prime-mover in small- to medium-scale combined heat and power (CHP applications. In this paper, the Up-THERM heat converter is compared to a basic (sub-critical, non-regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC heat engine with respect to their power outputs, thermal efficiencies and exergy efficiencies, as well as their capital and specific costs. The study focuses on a pre-specified Up-THERM design in a selected application, a heat-source temperature range from 210 °C to 500 °C and five different working fluids (three n-alkanes and two refrigerants. A modeling methodology is developed that allows the above thermo-economic performance indicators to be estimated for the two power-generation systems. For the chosen applications, the power output of the ORC engine is generally higher than that of the Up-THERM heat converter. However, the capital costs of the Up-THERM heat converter are lower than those of the ORC engine. Although the specific costs (£/kW of the ORC engine are lower than those of the Up-THERM converter at low heat-source temperatures, the two systems become progressively comparable at higher temperatures, with the Up-THERM heat converter attaining a considerably lower specific cost at the highest heat-source temperatures considered.

  1. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: mariacristina.arcangeletti@unipr.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Mirandola, Prisco [Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Gatti, Rita [Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)

    2013-05-25

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  3. Evaluation of the hydrological cycle of MATCH driven by NCEP reanalysis data: comparison with GOME water vapor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines two key parameters of the hydrological cycle, water vapor (WV and precipitation rates (PR, as modelled by the chemistry transport model MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry driven by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis data (NRA. For model output evaluation we primarily employ WV total column data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME on ERS-2, which is the only instrument capable measuring WV on a global scale and over all surface types with a substantial data record from 1995 to the present. We find that MATCH and NRA WV and PR distributions are closely related, but that significant regional differences in both parameters exist in magnitude and distribution patterns when compared to the observations. We also find that WV residual patterns between model and observations show remarkable similarities to residuals observed in the PR when comparing MATCH and NRA output to observations comprised by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP. We conclude that deficiencies in model parameters shared by MATCH and NRA, like in the surface evaporation rates and regional transport patterns, are likely to lead to the observed differences. Monthly average regional differences between MATCH modelled WV columns and the observations can be as large as 2 cm, based on the analysis of three years. Differences in the global mean WV values are, however, below 0.1 cm. Regional differences in the PR between MATCH and GPCP can be above 0.5 cm per day and MATCH computes on average a higher PR than what has been observed. The lower water vapor content of MATCH is related to shorter model WV residence times by up to 1 day as compared to the observations. We find that MATCH has problems in modelling the WV content in regions of strong upward convection like, for example, along the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, where it appears to be generally too dry as compared to the observations. We

  4. Characteristics of fuel cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, C.A.; Everette, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Management System started in 1979 to describe and model the existing commercial low-level waste management system. The system description produced is based on the identification of the different elements making up both the fuel and non-fuel cycle and their relationships to each other. A systems model based on the system description can accurately reflect the flow of low-level waste from generator to disposal site and is only limited by the reliability of the information it uses. For both the fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle large quantities of information is required in order to allow the system to operate at its full potential. Work is ongoing to collect this information. Significant progress is being made in the fuel cycle area primarily because the majority of fuel cycle low-level radioactive waste is produced by commercial power reactor plant operations. The Low-Level Waste Management system is only beginning to derive the benefits to be obtained from an accurate low-level waste management information system. As data is verified and analyzed, results on a national as well as individual organization level will be gained. Comparisons to previous studies will be made. Accurate projections of waste volumes and activities to be produced, projected impacts of waste streams of treatment or management changes are only examples of information to be produced. 1 figure, 1 table

  5. THE CALVIN CYCLE ENZYME PHOSPHOGLYCERATE KINASE OF XANTHOBACTER-FLAVUS REQUIRED FOR AUTOTROPHIC CO2 FIXATION IS NOT ENCODED BY THE CBB OPERON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, WG

    1994-01-01

    During autotrophic growth of Xanthobacter flavus, energy derived from the oxidation of hydrogen methanol or formate is used to drive the assimilation of CO2 via the Calvin cycle. The genes encoding the Calvin cycle enzymes are organized in the cbb operon, which is expressed only during autotrophic

  6. A Comparison of Geodetic and Geologic Rates Prior to Large Strike-Slip Earthquakes: A Diversity of Earthquake-Cycle Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James F.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2017-12-01

    Comparison of preevent geodetic and geologic rates in three large-magnitude (Mw = 7.6-7.9) strike-slip earthquakes reveals a wide range of behaviors. Specifically, geodetic rates of 26-28 mm/yr for the North Anatolian fault along the 1999 MW = 7.6 Izmit rupture are ˜40% faster than Holocene geologic rates. In contrast, geodetic rates of ˜6-8 mm/yr along the Denali fault prior to the 2002 MW = 7.9 Denali earthquake are only approximately half as fast as the latest Pleistocene-Holocene geologic rate of ˜12 mm/yr. In the third example where a sufficiently long pre-earthquake geodetic time series exists, the geodetic and geologic rates along the 2001 MW = 7.8 Kokoxili rupture on the Kunlun fault are approximately equal at ˜11 mm/yr. These results are not readily explicable with extant earthquake-cycle modeling, suggesting that they may instead be due to some combination of regional kinematic fault interactions, temporal variations in the strength of lithospheric-scale shear zones, and/or variations in local relative plate motion rate. Whatever the exact causes of these variable behaviors, these observations indicate that either the ratio of geodetic to geologic rates before an earthquake may not be diagnostic of the time to the next earthquake, as predicted by many rheologically based geodynamic models of earthquake-cycle behavior, or different behaviors characterize different fault systems in a manner that is not yet understood or predictable.

  7. Operation characteristic and performance comparison of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low-grade waste heat using R245fa, R123 and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yong-qiang; Hung, Tzu-Chen; He, Ya-Ling; Wang, Qian; Wang, Shuang; Li, Bing-xi; Lin, Jaw-Ren; Zhang, Wenping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental comparison using R123, R245fa and their mixtures has been investigated. • The basic operation parameters and the detailed operation characteristics of pure and mixture working fluids are addressed. • The mixture owns a relatively higher pump power consumption, 10–50% higher than that of R245fa and 2–47% higher than that of R123. • The highest system generating efficiency of 4.53% is obtained by 0.67R245fa/0.33R123. - Abstract: The operation characteristic and performance comparison of low-grade organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using R245fa, R123 and their mixtures have been investigated. The heat source temperature is set to be 120 °C, while the mass flow rate is controlled by adjusting the pump frequency. The basic operation parameters are first examined, while the detailed operation characteristics of pure and mixture working fluids are addressed. The system overall performance, including thermal efficiency and system generating efficiency, for pure and mixture working fluids are explored. The experimental results show that the mixtures own a relatively higher pump power consumption and enhancing the pump performance is also significant for ORC application. Whether the mixtures exhibit better thermodynamic performance than the pure working fluids depend on the operation parameters and mass fraction of mixtures. 0.67R245fa/0.33R123 owns the highest maximum net electricity output of 1.67 kW, 4.38% higher than that of R245fa and 63.73% higher than that of R123. Compared to the pure working fluids, the mixture working fluids own a better thermodynamic performance and a moderate economic performance.

  8. Combined cycle power plants: A comparison between two different dynamic models to evaluate transient behaviour and residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benato, Alberto; Stoppato, Anna; Bracco, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two procedures aimed at simulating the dynamic behaviour of power plants are compared. • They both are aimed at predicting the residual life of plant devices. • A single pressure gas-steam combined plant has been modelled. • A good correspondence has been found despite the different approaches used. - Abstract: The deregulated energy market and the increasing quota of electrical capacity covered by non-predictable renewable sources require strongly irregular and discontinuous operation of thermoelectric plants to satisfy users demand and compensate the variability of renewable sources. As a consequence, due to thermo-mechanical fatigue, creep and corrosion, a lifetime reduction of the most critical components occurs. The availability of a procedure able to predict the residual life of plant devices is necessary to assist the management decisions about power plants’ operation and maintenance scheduling. The first step of this procedure is the capability of simulating the plant behaviour versus time by evaluating the trends of the main thermodynamic parameters that describe the plant operation during different transient periods. In this context, the main contribution of the present paper is to propose a complete procedure able to simulate the plant dynamic behaviour and estimate the residual life reduction of some components. Indeed, two different models, developed by two different research groups, of the same single pressure heat recovery steam generator unit are presented and utilized to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the above mentioned power plant. The main thermodynamic variables during different transient operation conditions are predicted and good correspondence between the two methods is obtained. It can be also noted that, when the geometry and size of the devices are considered, the thermal inertia related to heat exchangers tubes, pipes and other physical masses causes a delay in the system response. Moreover, a residual life

  9. Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation Comparison of Small-Scale Single and Dual Pressure Organic Rankine Cycles Integrated with Low-Grade Heat Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Fontalvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat sources such as solar thermal, geothermal, exhaust gases and industrial waste heat are suitable alternatives for power generation which can be exploited by means of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. This paper combines thermodynamic optimization and economic analysis to assess the performance of single and dual pressure ORC operating with different organic fluids and targeting small-scale applications. Maximum power output is lower than 45 KW while the temperature of the heat source varies in the range 100–200 °C. The studied working fluids, namely R1234yf, R1234ze(E and R1234ze(Z, are selected based on environmental, safety and thermal performance criteria. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE and Specific Investment Cost (SIC for two operation conditions are presented: maximum power output and maximum thermal efficiency. Results showed that R1234ze(Z achieves the highest net power output (up to 44 kW when net power output is optimized. Regenerative ORC achieves the highest performance when thermal efficiency is optimized (up to 18%. Simple ORC is the most cost-effective among the studied cycle configurations, requiring a selling price of energy of 0.3 USD/kWh to obtain a payback period of 8 years. According to SIC results, the working fluid R1234ze(Z exhibits great potential for simple ORC when compared to conventional R245fa.

  10. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p cycles than in IVF cycles (17.2% vs. 11.4%, p cycle and the second cycle, split insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  11. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  12. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  13. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid.

  14. A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and São Paulo metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2010-05-01

    (rivers and soil). For example treated sewage effluent could be used as a source of N for some crops, especially vegetables. PMA is also a source of reactive nitrogen, emitting in total about 32 Gg of N per year, or about 3000 g of N per capita, being the major part attributed to the atmospheric emissions from transportation and energy. An important outcome of this study has been the identification of several key uncertainties regarding the N budget that require further research for either developed and developing regions studied. The following uncertainties of N cycling in an urban system need better understanding: the mechanisms of dry-deposition processes in urban systems with patchy vegetation; high NOx emissions and the increase in travel distance of smaller particles coming from modern engines; and complex patterns of air flow in the dense build-up areas. Urban soil N dynamics is very uncertain, while soil represents a major sink of N in natural ecosystems. Ultimately, the challenge is to integrate human choices and ecosystem dynamics into a multidisciplinary model of biogeochemical cycling in urban ecosystems, focusing as a first step on the quantitatively evaluating the mutual relationship between urban land-use changes and natural ecosystem from the standpoint of global N balance. To develop those schemes will require the construction of detailed ecosystem-level N balances, an in-depth understanding of the interplay of inputs, geographical and climatic factors, nonspecific management practices, and deliberate N management practices that control the fate of N in urban landscapes.

  15. A life-cycle comparison of the energy, environmental and economic impacts of coal versus wood pellets for generating heat in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Chang, Yuan; Zhang, Lixiao; Pang, Mingyue; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether wood pellets were more sustainable than coal for heating buildings in China by presenting a “fuel-to-heat” energy, environmental and economic comparison for both energy sources. Pellet and coal heating systems were modeled using a process-based life cycle inventory modeling approach, and the energy consumption and air pollutant emissions were calculated in Gigajoules (GJ). Wood pellets were also analyzed for their costs and market competitiveness against coal and other fossil fuel heating alternatives. The results showed that the energy saving potential from using pellets instead of coal was 1382 MJ for every 1-GJ of heat generated. Greenhouse gas emissions from pellets were 11.76 kg CO_2-eq GJ"−"1 heat, which were approximately 94% less than emissions from coal heating systems. Also, the wood pellet systems reduced SO_2, NO_x and PM emissions by 86%, 56% and 33%. However, the cost of pellets is significantly higher than the cost for coal, and is the primary impediment for the transition from coal to pellets in China. In addition, multiple consumers of wood residue, unstable heat values of pellet, limited supplies, and the lack of product and heating equipment standards also render the transition from coal to pellets impractical. - Highlights: • Process-based LCI modeling method was used for fuel-to-heat environmental assessment. • A coal-to-pellet shift for heat generation enables notable environmental benefits. • An average subsidy of 5.80 $ is needed for 1-GJ heat generation from the PTH system. • Low coal price and high feedstock cost hinder the wood pellet industry's development.

  16. Comparison of equatorial GPS-TEC observations over an African station and an American station during the minimum and ascending phases of solar cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Akala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available GPS-TEC data were observed at the same local time at two equatorial stations on both longitudes: Lagos (6.52° N, 3.4° E, 3.04° S magnetic latitude, Nigeria; and Pucallpa (8.38° S, 74.57° W, 4.25° N magnetic latitude, Peru during the minimum (2009, 2010 and ascending (2011 phases of solar cycle 24. These data were grouped into daily, seasonal and solar activity sets. The day-to-day variations in vertical TEC (VTEC recorded the maximum during 14:00–16:00 LT and minimum during 04:00–06:00 LT at both longitudes. Seasonally, during solar minimum, maximum VTEC values were observed during March equinox and minimum during solstices. However, during the ascending phase of the solar activity, the maximum values were recorded during the December solstice and minimum during the June solstice. VTEC also increased with solar activity at both longitudes. On longitude by longitude comparison, the African GPS station generally recorded higher VTEC values than the American GPS station. Furthermore, harmonic analysis technique was used to extract the annual and semi-annual components of the amplitudes of the TEC series at both stations. The semi-annual variations dominated the TEC series over the African equatorial station, while the annual variations dominated those over the American equatorial station. The GPS-TEC-derived averages for non-storm days were compared with the corresponding values derived by the IRI-2007 with the NeQuick topside option. The NeQuick option of IRI-2007 showed better performance at the American sector than the African sector, but generally underestimating TEC during the early morning hours at both longitudes.

  17. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is required for cytokinesis and progression of cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaowu; Yu, Guanghui

    2010-02-15

    The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in plant cytokinesis remains largely uncharacterized. To elucidate its role, tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells have been synchronized using a two-step procedure, and the different phases of the cell cycle identified by Histone 4 gene expression and the mitotic index. MAPK expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative (SQ) RT-PCR and protein gel blot analysis for phosphorylated MAPK during cell cycle progression. The SQ RT-PCR analysis indicated that MAPK expression is lower in mitosis than in interphase (G1, G2 and S). However, the amount of phosphorylated MAPK remained stable throughout the cell cycle, indicating that MAPK activity is predominantly regulated at the post-translational level and that phosphorylation of MAPK plays an important role in mitosis. Application of the specific MAPK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126 revealed that while U0126 treatment decreases the phosphorylation of MAPK and the progression from telophase to early cytokinesis is significantly inhibited. The formation of the phragmoplast is also negatively affected at this stage. These results demonstrate that MAPK phosphorylation is involved in the formation of the cell plate within the phragmoplast during cytokinesis and that MAPK predominantly functions during the cytokinesis stage of the cell cycle in tobacco BY-2 cells. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  19. Cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappernman, J.G.; Albertson, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that for many electric utility systems, Solar Cycle 22 has been the first introduction to the phenomena of Geomagnetic Disturbances and the disrupting and damaging effects that they can have upon modern power systems. For all intents and purposes, Power Industry awareness of Cycle 22 started with a bang during the Great Geomagnetic Storm of March 13, 1989. This storm caused a blackout to the entire Province of Quebec, permanently damaged a large nuclear plant GSU transformer in New Jersey, and created enough havoc across the entire North American power grid to create the plausible threat of a massive power system blackout. The flurry of activity and investigation that followed has led many engineers to realize that their power systems are indeed vulnerable to this phenomena and if anything are becoming ever more vulnerable as the system grows to meet future requirements. As a result some organizations such as Hydro Quebec, PSE and G, and the PJM Pool now implement strategic measures as a remedial response to detection of geomagnetic storm conditions. Many more companies pay particularly close attention to storm forecasts and alerts, and the industry in general has accelerated research and monitoring activities through their own means of in concert with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  20. Data Requirements and Modeling for Gas Hydrate-Related Mixtures and a Comparison of Two Association Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Aloupis, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2017-01-01

    the performance of the CPA and sPC-SAFT EOS for modeling the fluid-phase equilibria of gas hydrate-related systems and will try to explore how the models can help in suggesting experimental measurements. These systems contain water, hydrocarbon (alkane or aromatic), and either methanol or monoethylene glycol...... parameter sets have been chosen for the sPC-SAFT EOS for a fair comparison. The comparisons are made for pure fluid properties, vapor liquid-equilibria, and liquid liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures as well as vapor liquid liquid equilibria of quaternary mixtures. The results show, from...

  1. BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3 are required for cell cycle progression in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minhui; Hong, Kaili; Chen, Xiangyun; Pan, Chun; Chen, Xuemei; Kuang, Xiuxiu; Lu, Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Cyclin B is an important regulator of the cell cycle G2 to M phase transition. The silkworm genomic database shows that there are two Cyclin B genes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3. Using silkworm EST data, the cyclin B3 (EU074796) gene was cloned. Its complete cDNA was 1665 bp with an ORF of 1536 bp derived from seven exons and six introns. The BmCyclin B3 gene encodes 511 amino acids, and the predicted molecular weight is 57.8 kD with an isoelectric point of 9.18. The protein contains one protein damage box and two cyclin boxes. RNA interference-mediated reduction of BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3 expression induced cell cycle arrest in G2 or M phase in BmN-SWU1 cells, thus inhibiting cell proliferation. These results suggest that BmCyclin B and BmCyclin B3 are necessary for completing the cell cycle in silkworm cells.

  2. A comparison between Miller and five-stroke cycles for enabling deeply downsized, highly boosted, spark-ignition engines with ultra expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Wang, Bin; Zheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Deeply downsized, highly boosted SI engine with ultra-expansion cycle is studied. • The Miller and five stroke cycles are compared on BSFC improvements and WOT performance. • The mechanism of fuel conversion efficiency improvement at various loads is discussed. • Performance of the two-stage boosting system for the downsized SI engine is investigated. • A unique strategy using the bypass for the five-stroke engine is proposed. - Abstract: It has been well known that the engine downsizing combined with intake boosting is an effective way to improve the fuel conversion efficiency without penalizing the engine torque performance. However, the potential of engine downsizing is not yet fully explored, and the major hurdles include the knocking combustion and the pre-turbine temperature limit, owing to the aggressive intake boosting. Using the engine cycle simulation, this paper compares the effects of the Miller and five stroke cycles on the performance of the deeply downsized and highly boosted SI engine, taking the engine knock and pre-turbine temperature into consideration. In the simulation, the downsizing is implemented by reducing the combustion cylinder number from four to two, while a two stage boosting system is designed for the deeply downsized engine to ensure the wide-open-throttle (WOT) performance comparable to the original four cylinder engine. The Miller cycle is realized by varying the intake valve timing and lift, while the five stroke cycle is enabled with addition of an extra expansion cylinder between the two combustion cylinders. After calibration and validation of the engine cycle simulation models using the experimental data in the original engine, the performances of the deeply downsized engines with both the Miller and five stroke cycles are numerically studied. For the most frequently operated points on the torque-speed map, at low loads the Miller cycle exhibits superior performance over the five-stroke cycle in terms

  3. Evaluation and Comparison of Environmental Indicators of Hybrid Corn (Zea mays L. Production by Three Different Harvesting Methods in Alborz Province using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khanali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agriculture itself serves a dual role as an energy user and also energy supplier in the form of bio-energy. Recently, the energy use in agriculture has been intensified in response to the rising population, the increasing of standards of living and the limitation sources of energy. Efficient use of energy is a possible pathway for reducing the environmental impacts of energy inputs in agriculture, and providing sustainable agricultural production, since it brings financial savings, fossil resources preservation and air pollution reduction. Life cycle assessment (LCA is defined as the compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. Hybrid seed in agriculture is produced by cross-pollinated plants. Hybrid seed production is one of the main contributors to the dramatic rise in agricultural output during the last half of the 20th century. The alternatives to hybridization are open pollination and cloonal propagation. All of the hybrid seeds planted by the farmer will produce similar plants while the seeds of the next generation from those hybrids will not consistently have the desired characteristics. Controlled hybrids provide very uniform characteristics because they are produced by crossing two inbred strains. Materials and Methods The purpose of this study was to compare the energy consumption pattern and environmental consequences caused by the use of agricultural inputs in the production of seed corn harvested by hand, combine and picker husker. Information required was prepared by the questionnaire method in Alborz Province using census the total producers of hybrid corn in the Province. The investigated inputs were labor, agricultural machinery, diesel fuel, chemical pesticides, fertilizers, gas, electricity, water and seed. The energy of each input was calculated by multiplying the amount of that input with its energy equivalent. The ten

  4. Comparison of selected DOE and non-DOE requirements, standards, and practices for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.; Kudera, D.; Newberry, W.

    1995-12-01

    This document results from the Secretary of Energy's response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94--2. The Secretary stated that the US Department of Energy (DOE) would ''address such issues as...the need for additional requirements, standards, and guidance on low-level radioactive waste management. '' The authors gathered information and compared DOE requirements and standards for the safety aspects Of low-level disposal with similar requirements and standards of non-DOE entities

  5. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  6. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing

  7. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  8. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was

  9. Compositional and expression analyses of the glideosome during the Plasmodium life cycle reveal an additional myosin light chain required for maximum motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Judith L; Wall, Richard J; Vahokoski, Juha; Yusuf, Noor A; Ridzuan, Mohd A Mohd; Stanway, Rebecca R; Stock, Jessica; Knuepfer, Ellen; Brady, Declan; Martin, Stephen R; Howell, Steven A; Pires, Isa P; Moon, Robert W; Molloy, Justin E; Kursula, Inari; Tewari, Rita; Holder, Anthony A

    2017-10-27

    Myosin A (MyoA) is a Class XIV myosin implicated in gliding motility and host cell and tissue invasion by malaria parasites. MyoA is part of a membrane-associated protein complex called the glideosome, which is essential for parasite motility and includes the MyoA light chain myosin tail domain-interacting protein (MTIP) and several glideosome-associated proteins (GAPs). However, most studies of MyoA have focused on single stages of the parasite life cycle. We examined MyoA expression throughout the Plasmodium berghei life cycle in both mammalian and insect hosts. In extracellular ookinetes, sporozoites, and merozoites, MyoA was located at the parasite periphery. In the sexual stages, zygote formation and initial ookinete differentiation precede MyoA synthesis and deposition, which occurred only in the developing protuberance. In developing intracellular asexual blood stages, MyoA was synthesized in mature schizonts and was located at the periphery of segmenting merozoites, where it remained throughout maturation, merozoite egress, and host cell invasion. Besides the known GAPs in the malaria parasite, the complex included GAP40, an additional myosin light chain designated essential light chain (ELC), and several other candidate components. This ELC bound the MyoA neck region adjacent to the MTIP-binding site, and both myosin light chains co-located to the glideosome. Co-expression of MyoA with its two light chains revealed that the presence of both light chains enhances MyoA-dependent actin motility. In conclusion, we have established a system to study the interplay and function of the three glideosome components, enabling the assessment of inhibitors that target this motor complex to block host cell invasion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Reduction in the Number of Comparisons Required to Create Matrix of Expert Judgment in the Comet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sałabun Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods are associated with the ranking of alternatives based on expert judgments made using a number of criteria. In the MCDM field, the distance-based approach is one popular method for receiving a final ranking. One of the newest MCDM method, which uses the distance-based approach, is the Characteristic Objects Method (COMET. In this method, the preferences of each alternative are obtained on the basis of the distance from the nearest characteristic ob jects and their values. For this purpose, the domain and fuzzy numbers set for all the considered criteria are determined. The characteristic objects are obtained as the combination of the crisp values of all the fuzzy numbers. The preference values of all the characteristic ob ject are determined based on the tournament method and the principle of indifference. Finally, the fuzzy model is constructed and is used to calculate preference values of the alternatives. In this way, a multi-criteria model is created and it is free of rank reversal phenomenon. In this approach, the matrix of expert judgment is necessary to create. For this purpose, an expert has to compare all the characteristic ob jects with each other. The number of necessary comparisons depends squarely to the number of ob jects. This study proposes the improvement of the COMET method by using the transitivity of pairwise comparisons. Three numerical examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed improvement with respect to results from the original approach. The proposed improvement reduces significantly the number of necessary comparisons to create the matrix of expert judgment.

  11. Characteristics of several equilibrium fuel cycles of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of neutron spectrum on characteristics of several equilibrium fuel cycles of pressurized water reactor (PWR). In this study, five kinds of fuel cycles were investigated. Required uranium enrichment, required natural uranium amount, and toxicity of heavy metals (HMs) in spent fuel were presented for comparison. The results showed that the enrichment and the required amount of natural uranium decrease significantly with increasing number of confined heavy nuclides when uranium is discharged from the reactor. On the other hand, when uranium is totally confined, the enrichment becomes extremely high. The confinement of plutonium and minor actinides (MA) seems effective in reducing radio-toxicity of discharged wastes. By confining all heavy nuclides except uranium those three characteristics could be reduced considerably. For this fuel cycle the toxicity of HMs in spent fuel become nearly equal to or less than that of loaded uranium. (author)

  12. Comparison of Amount of Primary Tooth Reduction Required for Anterior and Posterior Zirconia and Stainless Steel Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Larkin; Wells, Martha H; Harris, Edward F; Lou, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine if aggressiveness of primary tooth preparation varied among different brands of zirconia and stainless steel (SSC) crowns. One hundred primary typodont teeth were divided into five groups (10 posterior and 10 anterior) and assigned to: Cheng Crowns (CC); EZ Pedo (EZP); Kinder Krowns (KKZ); NuSmile (NSZ); and SSC. Teeth were prepared, and assigned crowns were fitted. Teeth were weighed prior to and after preparation. Weight changes served as a surrogate measure of tooth reduction. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in tooth reduction among brand/type for both the anterior and posterior. Tukey's honest significant difference test (HSD), when applied to anterior data, revealed that SSCs required significantly less tooth removal compared to the composite of the four zirconia brands, which showed no significant difference among them. Tukey's HSD test, applied to posterior data, revealed that CC required significantly greater removal of crown structure, while EZP, KKZ, and NSZ were statistically equivalent, and SSCs required significantly less removal. Zirconia crowns required more tooth reduction than stainless steel crowns for primary anterior and posterior teeth. Tooth reduction for anterior zirconia crowns was equivalent among brands. For posterior teeth, reduction for three brands (EZ Pedo, Kinder Krowns, NuSmile) did not differ, while Cheng Crowns required more reduction.

  13. Comparison of implementation of selected TMI action plan requirements on operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, J.O.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined

  14. Impact of the filtered venting system design upon the total radioactive release in case of a severe accident and a comparison of European requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederqvist, H.; Elisson, K.; Loewenhielm, G.; Appelgren, E.

    1991-01-01

    Filtered containment venting systems have been introduced in several nuclear power plants in Europe. The objective is to relieve the containment overpressure in a controlled way during a severe accident involving core-melt. The release of fission products when operating the venting system has been compared to that resulting from diffuse leakage from the containment. The conclusion is that the diffuse leakage of gaseous and particulate species can not be neglected in comparison to that resulting from operating the filtered containment venting system. Representative European requirements related to filtered containment venting have been analyzed and compared

  15. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  16. COMPARISON OF INTRAOPERATIVE KETAMINE VS. FENTANYL USE DECREASES POSTOPERATIVE OPIOID REQUIREMENTS IN TRAUMA PATIENTS UNDERGOING CERVICAL SPINE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aviva C; Ginsburg, Aryeh M; Pesso, Raymond M; Angus, George L D; Kang, Amiee; Ginsburg, Dov B

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative airway compromise following cervical spine surgery is a potentially serious adverse event. Residual effects of anesthesia and perioperative opioids that can cause both sedation and respiratory depression further increase this risk. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides potent analgesia without noticeable respiratory depression. We investigated whether intraoperative ketamine administration could decrease perioperative opioid requirements in trauma patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. We retrospectively reviewed anesthesia records identifying cervical spine surgeries performed between March 2014 and February 2015. All patients received a balanced anesthetic technique utilizing sevoflurane 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and propofol infusion (50-100 mcg/kg/min). For intraoperative analgesia, one group of patients received ketamine (N=25) and a second group received fentanyl (N=27). Cumulative opioid doses in the recovery room and until 24 hours postoperatively were recorded. Fewer patients in the ketamine group (11/25 [44%] vs. 20/27 [74%], respectively; p = 0.03) required analgesics in the recovery room. Additionally, the total cumulative opioid requirements in the ketamine group decreased postoperatively at both 3 and 6 hours (p = 0.01). Ketamine use during cervical spine surgery decreased opioid requirements in both the recovery room and in the first 6 hours postoperatively. This may have the potential to minimize opioid induced respiratory depression in a population at increased risk of airway complications related to the surgical procedure.

  17. Comparison of control rod effectiveness for thorium and low-enriched fuel cycles in the GA-1, 160 MW(e) design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neef, Hans Joachim

    1974-03-15

    In an investigation of the properties of the Thorium-Uranium (Th) and the Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel cycles it is also necessary to compare the effectiveness of the control rods in a reactor system operating with these sorts of fuel. Furthermore, it is under consideration to start a reactor with LEU fuel and switch-over to a Th cycle. It is also of interest to look at the switch-over phase in respect to the control rod effectiveness. The various fuel cycles have been studied for the same fuel element and control rod design, namely the one of GA's commercially available 1,160 MW(e) reference power station. This paper gives the first results on the control rod calculations and is presented mainly in two parts. Part 1 describes spectral effects which have been investigated by cell calculations with a discrete ordinates transport code. The main result is the higher effectiveness of a rod in a Th-cycle compared with a LEU-cycle. Part 2 reports on reactor calculations with a diffusion code and shows that this advantage can partially disappear in the reactor because of the spatial flux distribution. This effect has to be studied in further investigations for a full understanding.

  18. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  19. Calculation of demands for nuclear fuels and fuel cycle services. Description of computer model and strategies developed by Working Group 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working Group 1 examined a range of reactor deployment strategies and fuel cycle options, in oder to estimate the range of nuclear fuel requirements and fuel cycle service needs which would result. The computer model, its verification in comparison with other models, the strategies to be examined through use of the model, and the range of results obtained are described

  20. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling: IPEN Adult Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Lars B; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Davey, Rachel; Troelsen, Jens; van Dyck, Delfien; Mitáš, Josef; Schofield, Grant; Sugiyama, Takemi; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo; Adams, Marc; Frank, Larry; Sallis, James F

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling. This cross-sectional study maximized variation of environments and demographics by including multiple countries and by selecting adult participants living in neighborhoods based on higher and lower classifications of objectively measured walkability and socioeconomic status. Analyses were conducted on 12,181 adults aged 18-66 years, drawn from 14 cities across 10 countries worldwide. Frequency of transport-related walking and cycling over the last seven days was assessed by questionnaire and four objectively measured built environment variables were calculated. Associations of built environment variables with transport-related walking and cycling variables were estimated using generalized additive mixed models, and were tested for curvilinearity and study site moderation. We found positive associations of walking for transport with all the environmental attributes, but also found that the relationships was only linear for land use mix, but not for residential density, intersection density, and the number of parks. Our findings suggest that there may be optimum values in these attributes, beyond which higher densities or number of parks could have minor or even negative impact. Cycling for transport was associated linearly with residential density, intersection density (only for any cycling), and land use mix, but not with the number of parks. Across 14 diverse cities and countries, living in more densely populated areas, having a well-connected street network, more diverse land uses, and having more parks were positively associated with transport-related walking and/or cycling. Except for land-use-mix, all built environment variables had curvilinear

  1. Cycling and walking for transport: Estimating net health effects from comparison of different transport mode users' self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Flügel, Stefan; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Minken, Harald

    2011-07-20

    There is comprehensive evidence of the positive health effects of physical activity, and transport authorities can enable this by developing infrastructure for cycling and walking. In particular, cycling to work or to school can be a relatively high intensity activity that by itself might suffice for maximum health gain. In this paper, we present estimates of net health effects that can be assumed for demand responses to infrastructure development. The estimation was based on comparing current cyclists/pedestrians against potential cyclists/pedestrians, applying the international physical activity questionnaire, which is a survey-based method for estimating metabolic equivalent task levels from self-reported types of physical activity, and their frequency, duration and level of intensity (moderate or vigorous).. By comparing between shares of individuals with medium or high intensity levels, within the segments of current cyclists/pedestrians and potential cyclists/pedestrians, we estimate the possible net health effects of potential new users of improved cycling/walking infrastructure. For an underpinning of the estimates, we also include the respondents' assessments of the extent to which cycling/walking for transport replaces other physical activity, and we carry out a regression of cycling/walking activity levels on individual characteristics and cycle/walk facility features. The estimated share of new regular cyclists obtaining net health gains was ca. 30%, while for new regular pedestrians this was only ca. 15%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the new users of improved cycle/walk facilities are best represented by self-declared potential users of such improved facilities. For potential cyclists/pedestrians, exercise was stated as the main motivation for physical active transport, but among current regular cyclists "fast and flexible" was just as important as exercising. Measured intensity levels from physically active transport increased with

  2. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  3. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  4. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require ''immediate'' shutdown of the plant. In this paper, the authors present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion

  5. A comparison of intraoperative morphine sulfate and methadone hydrochloride on postoperative visual analogue scale pain scores and narcotic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, D F; Sinkovich, J; Betley, K

    1995-02-01

    Morphine sulfate and methadone hydrochloride exhibit very different half-lives but are described as having an analgesic potency of one. The use of a drug like methadone may provide prolonged and constant analgesia in the perioperative setting. This double-blinded investigation used methadone and morphine intraoperatively and measured pain scores and narcotic requirements in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Thirty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) patients, physical status I through III, between the ages of 18 to 65 years were scheduled for orthopedic surgery and randomly assigned to receive morphine or methadone at 0.30 mg/kg. Fifteen patients received morphine and fifteen patients received methadone. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, height, weight, and ASA status. No statistically significant difference was observed among the two groups between the amount of analgesic requirements postoperatively or in the visual analogue scale pain score.

  6. Comparison of Warfarin Requirements in Post-cardiac Surgery Patients: Valve Replacement Versus Non-valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Logan M; Nei, Andrea M; Joyce, David L; Ou, Narith N; Dierkhising, Ross A; Nei, Scott D

    2018-01-11

    Anticoagulation with warfarin affects approximately 140,000 post-cardiac surgery patients every year, yet there remains limited published data in this patient population. Dosing remains highly variable due to intrinsic risk factors that plague cardiac surgery candidates and a lack of diverse literature that can be applied to those who have undergone a cardiac surgery alternative to heart valve replacement (HVR). In the present study, our aim was to compare the warfarin requirements between HVR and non-HVR patients. This was a single-center, retrospective study of post-cardiac surgery patients initiated on warfarin at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Rochester, from January 1st, 2013 to October 31st, 2016. The primary outcome was the maintenance warfarin dose at the earliest of discharge or warfarin day 10 between patients with HVR and non-HVR cardiac surgeries. A total of 683 patients were assessed during the study period: 408 in the HVR group and 275 in the non-HVR group. The mean warfarin maintenance doses in the HVR and non-HVR groups were 2.55 mg [standard deviation (SD) 1.52] and 2.43 mg (SD 1.21), respectively (adjusted p = 0.65). A multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, body mass index and drug interactions. This was the largest study to evaluate warfarin dose requirements in post-cardiac surgery patients and is the first to compare warfarin requirements between HVR and non-HVR patients during the immediate post-operative period. Both groups had similar warfarin requirements, which supports expanding the initial warfarin dosing recommendations of the 9th edition Chest guideline to include non-HVR patients as well as HVR patients.

  7. Comparison of Survival and Safety Requirements in European Union for Recreational Craft Inspections. A Spanish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Torralbo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistical data shows that a large number of maritime accidents are related to recreational craft. For instance, in Spain, more than fifty percent of the emergencies are related to pleasure boats at sea. Recreational craft marketed in the EU must comply with harmonized technical safety and environmental requirements defined by Directive 94/25/EC, as amended in 2003. On 28 December 2013, the new recreational craft directive 2013/53/EU was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. EU Member States have until 18 January 2016 to amend their national legislation and transpose the new directive. The current directive 94/25/EC as amended by directive 2003/44/EC will be repealed on 18 January 2016, after the full application of the new text. Although this directive, there is not a clear coordination and equivalence among the EU countries according to the survival and safety equipment compulsory for recreational crafts. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the types of survey / inspections to be carried in pleasure craft (non-commercial use, periodicity and required safety equipment in some member states of the European Union. A case study of Spain is presented. From the results obtained, we can make clear that in the European Union there is a lack of coordination in this area and indicate the need to unify a common pattern in inspections and survival and safety requirements of recreational boats in the EU.

  8. Optimizing conservation of migratory species over their full annual cycle in the Western Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Joseph; Auer, Tom; Fink, Daniel; Arcese, Peter; Rodewald, Amanda; Wilson, Scott; Schuster, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Strategic plans to conserve migratory species require detailed knowledge on species distribution, abundance, and habitat use over the annual cycle, but such data are lacking for most species. We developed a hemispheric approach to planning using spatiotemporally explicit species abundance models to prioritize land needed to conserve ≥17% of the global populations of 109 species of Neotropical migratory birds. The efficiency of annual cycle plans was evaluated in comparisons to single-season p...

  9. Uranium Resource Availability Analysis of Four Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    Making the national policy regarding nuclear fuel cycle option, the policy should be established in ways that nuclear power generation can be maintained through the evaluation on the basis of the following aspects. To establish the national policy regarding nuclear fuel cycle option, that must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suited for the country, and the evaluation work for that should be proceeded. Like all the policy decision, however, a certain nuclear fuel cycle option cannot be superior in all aspects of sustain ability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies, which make the comparison of the fuel cycle options very complicated. For such a purpose, this paper set up four different fuel cycle of nuclear power generation considering 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP), and analyzed material flow and features in steady state of all four of the fuel cycle options. As a result of an analysis on material flow of each nuclear fuel cycle, it was analyzed that Pyro-SFR recycling is most effective on U resource availability among four fuel cycle option. As shown in Figure 3, OT cycle required the most amount of U and Pyro-SFR recycle consumed the least amount of U. DUPIC recycling, PWR-MOX recycling, and Pyro-SFR recycling fuel cycle appeared to consumed 8.2%, 12.4%, 39.6% decreased amount of uranium respectively compared to OT cycle. Considering spent fuel can be recycled as potential energy resources, U and TRU taken up to be 96% is efficiently used. That is, application period of limited uranium natural resources can be extended, and it brings a great influence on stable use of nuclear energy

  10. Hat cycle dynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucco, A.; Corallo, C.; Pini Prato, A.; Porro, S.

    1999-01-01

    Among the innovative cycle recently proposed in literature, the Humid Air Turbine Cycle - Hat better seems to fulfil the main energy market requirements of today: High efficiency in a large power ranger, low pollution, low specific capital cost. The previous results of an analysis at partial load and transient conditions are here presented, where the Hat plant has been simulated using the original model implemented in LEGO environment [it

  11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Kim, Ho Dong

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) which has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Categorizing various mix of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles into 11 scenario groups, the FAST calculates all the required quantities for each nuclear fuel cycle component, such as mining, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication for each scenario. A major advantage of the FAST is that the code employs a MS Excel spread sheet with the Visual Basic Application, allowing users to manipulate it with ease. The speed of the calculation is also quick enough to make comparisons among different options in a considerably short time. This user-friendly simulation code is expected to be beneficial to further studies on the nuclear fuel cycle to find best options for the future all proliferation risk, environmental impact and economic costs considered.

  12. Comparison of strategies and performance of functional electrical stimulation cycling in spinal cord injury pilots for competition in the first ever CYBATHLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES can elicit muscular contraction and restore motor function in paralyzed limbs. FES is a rehabilitation technique applied to various sensorimotor deficiencies and in different functional situations, e.g. grasping, walking, standing, transfer, cycling and rowing. FES can be combined with mechanical devices. FES-assisted cycling is mainly used in clinical environments for training sessions on cycle ergometers, but it has also been adapted for mobile devices, usually tricycles. In October 2016, twelve teams participated in the CYBATHLON competition in the FES-cycling discipline for persons with motor-complete spinal cord injury. It was the first event of this kind and a wide variety of strategies, techniques and designs were employed by the different teams in the competition. The approaches of the teams are detailed in this special issue. We hope that the knowledge contained herein, together with recent positive results of FES for denervated degenerating muscles, will provide a solid basis to encourage improvements in FES equipment and open new opportunities for many patients in need of safe and effective FES management. We hope to see further developments and/or the benefit of new training strategies at future FES competitions, e.g. at the Cybathlon 2020 (www.cybathlon.ethz.ch.

  13. Life cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in eastern U.S. with comparison to solid strip wood flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacture. Our study followed the life cycle inventory approach for prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern US and compared the results with those of solid strip wood flooring. Our study surveyed five engineered wood flooring manufacturers in the eastern US....

  14. Minimum energy requirements for desalination of brackish groundwater in the United States with comparison to international datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdab, Yvana D.; Thiel, Gregory P.; Böhlke, John Karl; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Lienhard, John H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses chemical and physical data from a large 2017 U.S. Geological Surveygroundwater dataset with wells in the U.S. and three smaller international groundwater datasets with wells primarily in Australia and Spain to carry out a comprehensive investigation of brackish groundwater composition in relation to minimum desalinationenergy costs. First, we compute the site-specific least work required for groundwater desalination. Least work of separation represents a baseline for specific energy consumptionof desalination systems. We develop simplified equations based on the U.S. data for least work as a function of water recovery ratio and a proxy variable for composition, either total dissolved solids, specific conductance, molality or ionic strength. We show that the U.S. correlations for total dissolved solids and molality may be applied to the international datasets. We find that total molality can be used to calculate the least work of dilute solutions with very high accuracy. Then, we examine the effects of groundwater solute composition on minimum energy requirements, showing that separation requirements increase from calcium to sodium for cations and from sulfate to bicarbonate to chloride for anions, for any given TDS concentration. We study the geographic distribution of least work, total dissolved solids, and major ions concentration across the U.S. We determine areas with both low least work and high water stress in order to highlight regions holding potential for desalination to decrease the disparity between high water demand and low water supply. Finally, we discuss the implications of the USGS results on water resource planning, by comparing least work to the specific energy consumption of brackish water reverse osmosisplants and showing the scaling propensity of major electrolytes and silica in the U.S. groundwater samples.

  15. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Clomiphene Citrate versus Letrozole in Mild IVF in Poor Prognosis Subfertile Women with Failed IVF Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Oktem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate (CC vs. letrozole (L plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol in poor prognosis women with previous failed ovarian stimulation undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included cycles with CC and L plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocols of 32 poor responders who had failed to have ideal follicles to be retrieved during oocyte pick-up (OPU or embryo transfer (ET at least for 2 previous in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with microdose flare protocol or GnRH antagonist protocol from January 2006 to December 2009. Main outcome measures were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle. Duration of stimulation, mean gonadotropin dose used, endometrial thickness, number of mature follicles, serum estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of retrieved oocytes and fertilization rates were also evaluated. Results: A total number of 42 cycles of 32 severe poor responders were evaluated. Total gonadotropin consumption was significantly lower (1491 ± 873 vs. 2808 ± 1581 IU, P=0.005 and mean E2 level on the day of hCG injection were significantly higher in CC group than L group (443.3 ± 255.2 vs. 255.4 ± 285.2 pg/mL, P=0.03. ET, overall pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle were significantly higher in CC than L protocol (27.2 vs. 15%, 13.6 vs. 0% and 4.5 vs. 0%, respectively, P<0.05. Conclusion: Severe poor responders who had previously failed to respond to microdose or GnRH antagonist protocols may benefit from CC plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocol despite high cancellation rate.

  16. Dizzy people perform no worse at a motor imagery task requiring whole body mental rotation; a case-control comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Wallwork

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to find out whether people who suffer from dizziness take longer than people who do not, to perform a motor imagery task that involves implicit whole body rotation. Our prediction was that people in the ‘dizzy’ group would take longer at a left/right neck rotation judgment task but not a left/right hand judgment task, because actually performing the former, but not the latter, would exacerbate their dizziness. Secondly, we predicted that when dizzy participants responded to neck rotation images, responses would be greatest when images were in the upside-down orientation; an orientation with greatest dizzy-provoking potential. To test this idea, we used a case-control comparison design. One hundred and eighteen participants who suffered from dizziness and 118 age, gender, arm pain and neck pain matched controls took part in the study. Participants undertook two motor imagery tasks; a left/right neck rotation judgment task and a left/right hand judgment task. The tasks were completed using the Recognise program; an on-line reaction time task program. Images of neck rotation were shown in four different orientations; 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Participants were asked to respond to each ‘neck’ image identifying it as either ‘right neck rotation’ or a ‘left neck rotation’, or for hands, a right or a left hand. Results showed that participants in the ‘dizzy’ group were slower than controls at both tasks (p= 0.015, but this was not related to task (p= 0.498. Similarly, ‘dizzy’ participants were not proportionally worse at images of different orientations (p= 0.878. Our findings suggest impaired performance in dizzy people, an impairment that may be confined to motor imagery or may extend more generally.

  17. Life Cycle Management in the Textile Sector a Study of Up-streram Requirements on Environment, Working Environment, Child Labour, Pesticides and Organic Grown Cotton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne

    2000-01-01

    , working environment, child labour, use of pesticides and use of organic grown cotton the project have resulted in a large number of findings divided on the different aspects. However, the following common findings should be mentioned: - International trade quota and tariffs and changes in currency......: environment, working environment, child labour, use of pesticides in the cotton growing, and use of organic cotton. On the basis of the gathered experiences the team has formulated ideas minimising the barriers and made recommendations for further actions. Focussing on different aspects as environment...... exchange rates used for import and export are influencing heavily on the enterprises' choice of suppliers and set constraints for their ability to set requirements - Enterprises have different reasons to start working with an aspect: Public regulation, public debate, market opportunities and enterprises...

  18. Comparison of topical use of protamine and tranexamic acid in surgical patients requiring cardio-pulmonary bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqeh, M.; Siddiqi, R.; Ali, N.; Iqbal, A.; Younus, Z.; Haq, I.U.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of local protamine in reducing post-operative blood loss compared to local tranexamic acid. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases Rawalpindi from January 2011 to September 2011. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty cardiac surgical patients were randomly divided into two equal groups, one receiving local protamine while the other group receiving local tranexamic acid before chest closure. The efficiency was measured as post-operative blood loss and requirement of blood and blood products in the post-surgical ICU. Results: Average blood loss in protamine group was significantly less (252.97 ml) compared to tranexamic acid group (680.67 ml). Number of patients requiring no post-operative blood transfusion was significantly higher in protamine group (76.7%) compared to tranexamic acid group (53.3%). Conclusion: Local protamine is more effective in reducing post-operative blood loss than local tranexamic acid. (author)

  19. σ2-Adaptin Facilitates Basal Synaptic Transmission and Is Required for Regenerating Endo-Exo Cycling Pool Under High-Frequency Nerve Stimulation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Saumitra Dey; Mushtaq, Zeeshan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Balakrishnan, Sruthi S; Thakur, Rajan S; Krishnan, Kozhalmannom S; Raghu, Padinjat; Ramaswami, Mani; Kumar, Vimlesh

    2016-05-01

    The functional requirement of adapter protein 2 (AP2) complex in synaptic membrane retrieval by clathrin-mediated endocytosis is not fully understood. Here we isolated and functionally characterized a mutation that dramatically altered synaptic development. Based on the aberrant neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapse, we named this mutation angur (a Hindi word meaning "grapes"). Loss-of-function alleles of angur show more than twofold overgrowth in bouton numbers and a dramatic decrease in bouton size. We mapped the angur mutation to σ2-adaptin, the smallest subunit of the AP2 complex. Reducing the neuronal level of any of the subunits of the AP2 complex or disrupting AP2 complex assembly in neurons phenocopied the σ2-adaptin mutation. Genetic perturbation of σ2-adaptin in neurons leads to a reversible temperature-sensitive paralysis at 38°. Electrophysiological analysis of the mutants revealed reduced evoked junction potentials and quantal content. Interestingly, high-frequency nerve stimulation caused prolonged synaptic fatigue at the NMJs. The synaptic levels of subunits of the AP2 complex and clathrin, but not other endocytic proteins, were reduced in the mutants. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was altered in these mutants and was restored by normalizing σ2-adaptin in neurons. Thus, our data suggest that (1) while σ2-adaptin facilitates synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling for basal synaptic transmission, its activity is also required for regenerating SVs during high-frequency nerve stimulation, and (2) σ2-adaptin regulates NMJ morphology by attenuating TGFβ signaling. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Transition from 12 months to 18 months cycles at Krsko in a core physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen-Tornehed, J.

    2004-01-01

    Krsko has historically been operating in 12 months cycles with an annual outage for refuelling and maintenance work. Krsko is now in a transition from 12 months to 18 months cycles. Cycle 19, June 2002 - May 2003, was the last 12 month cycle. Cycle 20, June 2003 - September 2004 is a 15 month transition cycle and cycle 21, September 2004 - April 2006 will be the first 18 month cycle. This paper will describe the effects of the transition in a core physics perspective. There are big differences in how to design an 18 month cycle in comparison with a 12 month cycle. The required number of feed assemblies increases, as well as the content of burnable absorbers in the fuel. The strategy of the loading pattern has to be changed with the increased number of fresh fuel assemblies. The most limiting margins can be different for different cycle lengths which also affect the fresh assembly design and loading pattern during the transition. During the core design for cycle 21 the Moderator Temperature Coefficient was the main issue, which caused the need for extra amount of burnable absorbers. (author)

  1. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL INTERPOLATION METHODS FOR WHEAT WATER REQUIREMENT AND ITS TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION IN HAMEDAN PROVINCE (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Nazarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is the main constraint for production of agricultural crops. The temporal and spatial variations in water requirement for agriculture products are limiting factors in the study of optimum use of water resources in regional planning and management. However, due to unfavorable distribution and density of meteorological stations, it is not possible to monitor the regional variations precisely. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the evapotranspiration of crops at places where meteorological data are not available and then extend the findings from points of measurements to regional scale. Geostatistical methods are among those methods that can be used for estimation of evapotranspiration at regional scale. The present study attempts to investigate different geostatistical methods for temporal and spatial estimation of water requirements for wheat crop in different periods. The study employs the data provided by 16 synoptic and climatology meteorological stations in Hamadan province in Iran. Evapotranspiration for each month and for the growth period were determined using Penman-Mantis and Torrent-White methods for different water periods based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Among the available geostatistical methods, three methods: Kriging Method, Cokriging Method, and inverse weighted distance were selected, and analyzed, using GS+ software. Analysis and selection of the suitable geostatistical method were performed based on two measures, namely Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Mean Bias Error (MBE. The findings suggest that, in general, during the drought period, Kriging method is the proper one for estimating water requirements for the six months: January, February, April, May, August, and December. However, weighted moving average is a better estimation method for the months March, June, September, and October. In addition, Kriging is the best method for July. In normal conditions, Kriging is suitable for April, August, December

  2. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  3. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  4. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  5. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  6. Economic analyses of LWR fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, F.R.

    1977-05-01

    An economic comparison was made of three options for handling irradiated light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. These options are reprocessing of spent reactor fuel and subsequent recycle of both uranium and plutonium, reprocessing and recycle of uranium only, and direct terminal storage of spent fuel not reprocessed. The comparison was based on a peak-installed nuclear capacity of 507 GWe by CY 2000 and retirement of reactors after 30 years of service. Results of the study indicate that: Through the year 2000, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWRs saves about $12 billion (FY 1977 dollars) compared with the throwaway cycle, but this amounts to only about 1.3% of the total cost of generating electricity by nuclear power. If deferred costs are included for fuel that has been discharged from reactors but not reprocessed, the economic advantage increases to $17.7 billion. Recycle of uranium only (storage of plutonium) is approximately $7 billion more expensive than the throwaway fuel cycle and is, therefore, not considered an economically viable option. The throwaway fuel cycle ultimately requires >40% more uranium resources (U 3 O 8 ) than does reprocessing spent fuel where both uranium and plutonium are recycled

  7. Phase 2 Comparison of A Novel Ammonia Scavenging Agent With Sodium Phenylbutyrate In Patients With Urea Cycle Disorders: Safety, Pharmacokinetics And Ammonia Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Brendan; Rhead, William; Diaz, George A.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mian, Asad; Shchelochkov, Oleg; Marier, JF; Beliveau, Martin; Mauney, Joseph; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Gargosky, Sharron; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Berry, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol phenylbutyrate (glyceryl tri (4-phenylbutyrate)) (GPB) is being studied as an alternative to sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) for the treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). This phase 2 study explored the hypothesis that GPB offers similar safety and ammonia control as NaPBA, which is currently approved as adjunctive therapy in the chronic management of UCDs, and examined correlates of 24-hour blood ammonia.

  8. Life cycle and production of Baetis rhodani in a regulated river in Western Norway: comparison of pre- and post-regulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddum, G.G.; Fjellheim, A.

    1993-01-01

    The benthic invertebrate fauna of the lowland part of the Aurland River was investigated in 1966-7 over a full year cycle. The watershed was built out for hydropower production during 1979-83. In this study the life cycle and production of Baetis rhodani from pre-regulated conditions (1966-7) was compared with two types of post-regulation streams(1988-9). Before regulation the water flow was high during May-June and in autumn, combined with heavy rainfall. The lowest flow was in winter and early spring. The pre-regulated temperature was low in winter, increasing from April to a maximum in August (10-14 o C). After regulation one part of the river received reduced flow and increased summer temperatures (upper part) and one received hypolimnion release and reduced summer temperatures (lower part). In the upper part the density of B.rhodani increased between 10 and 20 times. The reason for this seems to be increased temperature, reduced accidental drift of larvae and increased amount of stored organic material on the bottom. In the lower part the density increase was two to five times and the production two times higher after regulation. The lower increase in production than density was due to a much higher proportion of small larvae. B.rhodani had mainly an univoltine life cycle before regulation, but a small part of the population was bivoltine. After regulation the species was univoltine in the lower part. In the upper part the life cycle was about one month faster, but no clear indication of bivoltinism was seen. The absence of the second generation is due to low temperatures and probably a lack of signals connected with temperature. (Author)

  9. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  10. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced adiabatic diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum imporvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  11. Life-cycle assessment of a Solar Assist Plug-in Hybrid electric Tractor (SAPHT) in comparison with a conventional tractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousazadeh, Hossein; Keyhani, Alireza; Javadi, Arzhang; Mobli, Hossein; Abrinia, Karen; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The most well-known reason of global warming is equivalent carbon dioxide (CO 2equ ) emitted from fossil fuels combustion in on-road and off-road vehicles. An appreciable portion of off-road pollution is allocated to farm implements. All cited studies have shown that renewable based electric vehicles (EVs) decrease petroleum consumption and consequently reduce criteria emissions under nearly all circumstances. Considering this, a Solar Assist Plug-in Hybrid electric Tractor (SAPHT) was designed, constructed and evaluated. This research evaluated the life cycle analysis of SAPHT project and compared the results with that of an internal combustion engine tractor (ICET). The life cycle was analyzed based on economical cost and environmental emissions. The externality of environmental pollutions was calculated to derive the life-cycle costs (LCC). The results showed that substituting each ICET by SAPHT can prevent 14 ton CO 2equ emission to atmosphere annually. Also it prevents a high volume of other emissions such as CO, NO x and PM 10 entering the atmosphere. LCC assessment emphasizes on economical effectiveness of SAPHT rather than ICET at any diesel fuel price, therefore, increasing fuel unit prices leads to more effectiveness. It is concluded that levelized cost of energy (LCE) in Euro /kW h for ICET is almost twice as that of SAPHT. Some of these advantages for SAPHT are offset in part by high purchase costs, heavy and massive batteries and low operating range.

  12. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane J. Hayter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI and cold air therapy (CAT on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10 and female (n = 10 participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24, 48 (T48 and 72 (T72 h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05. However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90, T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64 and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76. The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone.

  13. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...... to simulate glacial cycles accurately. Also, results suggest that non-linear 10 dynamics, threshold effects, and/or free oscillations may not play an overriding role in glacial cycles....

  14. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  15. Online purchases of an expanded range of condom sizes in comparison to current dimensional requirements allowable by US national standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Michael; Warner, Lee; Siegler, Aaron J

    2013-11-01

    Across studies, 35-50% of men describe condoms as fitting poorly. Rates of condom use may be inhibited in part due to the inaccessibility of appropriately sized condoms. As regulated medical devices, condom sizes conform to national standards such as those developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) or international standards such as those developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). We describe the initial online sales experience of an expanded range of condom sizes and assess uptake in relation to the current required standard dimensions of condoms. Data regarding the initial 1000 sales of an expanded range of condom sizes in the United Kingdom were collected from late 2011 through to early 2012. Ninety-five condom sizes, comprising 14 lengths (83-238mm) and 12 widths (41-69mm), were available. For the first 1000 condom six-pack units that were sold, a total of 83 of the 95 unique sizes were purchased, including all 14 lengths and 12 widths, and both the smallest and largest condoms. Initial condom purchases were made by 572 individuals from 26 countries. Only 13.4% of consumer sales were in the ASTM's allowable range of sizes. These initial sales data suggest consumer interest in an expanded choice of condom sizes that fall outside the range currently allowable by national and international standards organisations.

  16. Cognitive abilities required in time judgment depending on the temporal tasks used: A comparison of children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, S; Wearden, J H; Zélanti, P S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine age-related differences in time judgments during childhood as a function of the temporal task used. Children aged 5 and 8 years, as well as adults, were submitted to 3 temporal tasks (bisection, generalization and reproduction) with short (0.4/0.8 s) and long durations (8/16 s). Furthermore, their cognitive capacities in terms of working memory, attentional control, and processing speed were assessed by a wide battery of neuropsychological tests. The results showed that the age-related differences in time judgment were greater in the reproduction task than in the temporal discrimination tasks. This task was indeed more demanding in terms of working memory and information processing speed. In addition, the bisection task appeared to be easier for children than the generalization task, whereas these 2 tasks were similar for the adults, although the generalization task required more attention to be paid to the processing of durations. Our study thus demonstrates that it is important to understand the different cognitive processes involved in time judgment as a function of the temporal tasks used before venturing to draw conclusions about the development of time perception capabilities.

  17. LIFE CYCLE OF A WINE BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Paziuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the life cycle of the wine brand, the development of ways to improve its effectiveness at different stages of the life cycle. Being scientifically informed of the existence of the life cycle of the brand allows modern enterprises to enhance their competitive position in the market and take advantage of the acquired differences in order to attract more attention from consumers. Methods. The study is based on scientific methods of research of economic phenomena: the dialectic, abstract logical (in the exercise of theoretical generalizations to the definition of the concept of «life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand, a scientific abstraction, comparison and ordering (the study of factors influencing the life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand and the factors influencing a choice of products for consumers, statistical and problem-chronological (the study of the requirements of the brand in a changing consumer preferences, logical generalization (in determining the social and ethical functions guilty brand. Results. The stages of the life cycle of the wine brand, which take into account its characteristics and form its social and ethical functions. Describing the requirements for the wine brand in the changing tastes and preferences of consumers. Specification of wine promotion of the brand in an increasingly competitive environment. Preconditions have been set for a new wine brand. The practical significance. The brand always increases the value of the product and its entry into new markets, as well as reduces the time to attract consumers. Possibility to ensure the growth of the brand in a declining market; building market share in a highly competitive environment; marketing innovative products in order to create a new sales strategy. After all, to gain and maintain the popularity of a certain product, one must personalize it with giving associations and a way to provide it with distinctive features. Only

  18. Comparison of the Safety Critical Software V and V Requirements for the Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Sungmoon; Suh, Yong-Suk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This study was motivated by a research reactor project where the owner of the project and the equipment vendors are from two different standards frameworks. This paper reviews two major standards frameworks - NRC-IEEE and IAEA-IEC - and the software classification schemes as a background, then discuss the V and V issue. The purpose of this paper is by no means to solve the cross-standards-framework qualification issue, but, rather, is to remind the stakeholders of research reactor projects. V and V are also essential for the approval from regulatory bodies. As standards define or recommend consolidated engineering practices, methods, or criteria, V and V activities for software qualification are not exceptional. Within a standards framework, usually, the processes for the qualification of safety-critical software are well-established such that the safety is maximized while minimizing the compromises in software quality, safety, and reliability. When, however, multiple standards frameworks are involved in a research reactor project, it is difficult for equipment vendors to implement appropriate V and V activities as there is no unified view on this cross-standards-framework qualification issue yet. There are two major standards frameworks for safety-critical software development in nuclear industry. Unfortunately different safety classifications for software and thus different requirements for qualification are in place. What makes things worse is that (i) there are ambiguities in the standards and rooms for each stakeholders’ interpretation, and (ii) there is no one-to-one mapping between the associated V and V methods and activities. These may put the stakeholders of research reactor projects in trouble.

  19. Comparison of the Safety Critical Software V and V Requirements for the Research Reactor Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Sungmoon; Suh, Yong-Suk; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was motivated by a research reactor project where the owner of the project and the equipment vendors are from two different standards frameworks. This paper reviews two major standards frameworks - NRC-IEEE and IAEA-IEC - and the software classification schemes as a background, then discuss the V and V issue. The purpose of this paper is by no means to solve the cross-standards-framework qualification issue, but, rather, is to remind the stakeholders of research reactor projects. V and V are also essential for the approval from regulatory bodies. As standards define or recommend consolidated engineering practices, methods, or criteria, V and V activities for software qualification are not exceptional. Within a standards framework, usually, the processes for the qualification of safety-critical software are well-established such that the safety is maximized while minimizing the compromises in software quality, safety, and reliability. When, however, multiple standards frameworks are involved in a research reactor project, it is difficult for equipment vendors to implement appropriate V and V activities as there is no unified view on this cross-standards-framework qualification issue yet. There are two major standards frameworks for safety-critical software development in nuclear industry. Unfortunately different safety classifications for software and thus different requirements for qualification are in place. What makes things worse is that (i) there are ambiguities in the standards and rooms for each stakeholders’ interpretation, and (ii) there is no one-to-one mapping between the associated V and V methods and activities. These may put the stakeholders of research reactor projects in trouble

  20. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  1. Fuel cycle modelling of open cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, S.F.; Lindley, B.A.; Parks, G.T.; Nuttall, W.J.; Gregg, R.; Hesketh, K.W.; Kannan, U.; Krishnani, P.D.; Singh, B.; Thakur, A.; Cowper, M.; Talamo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study three open cycle Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems. • Comparison of these systems is made to a reference U-fuelled EPR. • Fuel cycle modelling is performed with UK NNL code “ORION”. • U-fuelled system is economically favourable and needs least separative work per kWh. • Th–U-fuelled systems offer negligible waste and proliferation resistance advantages. - Abstract: In this study, we have sought to determine the advantages, disadvantages, and viability of open cycle thorium–uranium-fuelled (Th–U-fuelled) nuclear energy systems. This has been done by assessing three such systems, each of which requires uranium enriched to ∼20% 235 U, in comparison to a reference uranium-fuelled (U-fuelled) system over various performance indicators, spanning material flows, waste composition, economics, and proliferation resistance. The values of these indicators were determined using the UK National Nuclear Laboratory’s fuel cycle modelling code ORION. This code required the results of lattice-physics calculations to model the neutronics of each nuclear energy system, and these were obtained using various nuclear reactor physics codes and burn-up routines. In summary, all three Th–U-fuelled nuclear energy systems required more separative work capacity than the equivalent benchmark U-fuelled system, with larger levelised fuel cycle costs and larger levelised cost of electricity. Although a reduction of ∼6% in the required uranium ore per kWh was seen for one of the Th–U-fuelled systems compared to the reference U-fuelled system, the other two Th–U-fuelled systems required more uranium ore per kWh than the reference. Negligible advantages and disadvantages were observed for the amount and the properties of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generated by the systems considered. Two of the Th–U-fuelled systems showed some benefit in terms of proliferation resistance of the SNF generated. Overall, it appears that there is little

  2. Evolution and comparison of speed, cycle frequency, cycle length and cycle index on 200-m test in young paddlers Evolución y comparación de la velocidad, frecuencia, longitud e índice de ciclo sobre 200 m en palistas infantiles de diferentes modalidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ferrer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Speed evolution, cycle frequency, cycle length and cycle index were analysed during a 200-m maximal test, in young paddlers (23 kayak men, 22 kayak women and 20 canoe men; 13-14 years-old. Recordings were taken from a boat following each test and switched from analogue to digital format to measure the variables cited above. Evolution was similar in three categories. The speed and cycle index decreased through the test after the first 50 m, while the cycle length was stable. The cycle frequency had a progressive decrease along the distance. Men kayak got higher values in all the variables than women kayak and canoeist, but only were significantly higher in speed and cycle index. Lower values of cycle length and cycle frequency were obtained from canoe men and kayak women, respectively.
    Key Words: speed, cycle frequency, cycle length, cycle index, paddlers.

    Un total de 65 palistas de categoría infantil (23 hombres kayak, 22 mujeres kayak y 20 hombres canoa entre 13 y 14 años de edad, realizaron un test máximo de 200 m en una calle acotada por boyas, que fue grabado desde una perspectiva lateral y posteriormente pasado a formato digital para determinar la evolución de la velocidad, frecuencia de ciclo, longitud de ciclo e índice de ciclo. Las variables analizadas mostraron una evolución similar en todas las categorías. La velocidad y el índice de ciclo tuvieron una tendencia decreciente a partir de los primeros 50 m, mientras que la longitud de ciclo se estabilizó a partir de esta distancia hasta el final de la prueba; la frecuencia de ciclo disminuyó progresivamente durante todo el test. Los hombres kayak obtuvieron valores superiores al resto de categorías en todas las variables analizadas, siendo las diferencias significativas en velocidad e índice de ciclo. La menor velocidad en las otras categorías fue el resultado de valores significativamente

  3. Combined cycle power plant with integrated low temperature heat (LOTHECO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakaras, E.; Doukelis, A.; Leithner, R.; Aronis, N.

    2004-01-01

    The major driver to enhance the efficiency of the simple gas turbine cycle has been the increase in process conditions through advancements in materials and cooling methods. Thermodynamic cycle developments or cycle integration are among the possible ways to further enhance performance. The current paper presents the possibilities and advantages from the LOTHECO natural gas-fired combined cycle concept. In the LOTHECO cycle, low-temperature waste heat or solar heat is used for the evaporation of injected water droplets in the compressed air entering the gas turbine's combustion chamber. Following a description of this innovative cycle, its advantages are demonstrated by comparison between different gas turbine power generation systems for small and large-scale applications, including thermodynamic and economic analysis. A commercial gas turbine (ALSTOM GT10C) has been selected and computed with the heat mass balance program ENBIPRO. The results from the energy analysis are presented and the features of each concept are discussed. In addition, the exergy analysis provides information on the irreversibilities of each process and suggested improvements. Finally, the economic analysis reveals that the combined cycle plant with a heavy-duty gas turbine is the most efficient and economic way to produce electricity at base load. However, on a smaller scale, innovative designs, such as the LOTHECO concept, are required to reach the same level of performance at feasible costs

  4. Comparison of scenarios for the integrated management of construction and demolition waste by life cycle assessment: A case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Carmenlucia Santos Giordano; Rosado, Laís Peixoto

    2016-10-01

    Brazil, as a result of economic development and strengthening of the construction industry in recent years, is generating an increasing amount of construction and demolition waste (CDW). Hence, environmental assessment of the management systems is vital. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented of CDW management in a medium-sized municipality located in the southeast region of Brazil, where the impacts of leaching were not considered due to absence of consistent data. Six different proposed scenarios for the current CDW management situation have been considered. These scenarios comprised the combined use of landfilling, sorting, and recycling, and the use of CDW as paving material for landfill roads, in different percentages. Considering 0.8 ton of waste as the functional unit, the life cycle inventory was performed using primary data obtained from field survey and secondary data from the database Ecoinvent version 3.1, and from the literature. The method CML 2 baseline 2001 was used for environmental impacts evaluation. The results highlight that recycling is beneficial when efficient CDW sorting takes place at construction sites, avoiding the transport of refuse to sorting and recycling facilities, and the distance between the generation source and the recycling unit is within 30 km. Thus, our results are helpful to ensure that the decision-making processes are based on environmental and technical aspects, and not only on economic and political factors, and also provide data and support for other LCA studies on CDW. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Comparison of predicted and measured fission product behaviour in the Fort St. Vrain HTGR during the first three cycles of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.; Jovanovic, V.; Burnette, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The 330 MW(e) Fort St. Vrain (M) High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is fueled with (Th,U)C 2 /ThC 2 TRISO-coated fuel particles contained in prismatic graphite fuel elements. Fission product release from the reactor core has been monitored during the first three cycles of operation. In order to assess the validity of the design methods used to predict fission product source terms for HTGRs, fission product release from the reactor core has been predicted by the reference design methods and compared with reactor surveillance measurements and with the results of postirradiation examination (PIE) of spent FSV fuel elements. Overall, the predictive methods have been shown to be conservative: the predicted fission gas release at the end of Cycle 3 is about five times higher than observed. The dominant source of fission gas release is as-manufactured, heavy-metal contamination; in-service failure of the coated fuel particles appears to be negligible, which is consistent with the PIE of spent fuel elements removed during the first two refuelings. The predicted releases of fission metals are insignificant compared to the release and subsequent decay of their gaseous precursors, which is consistent with plateout probe measurements. (author)

  6. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  7. Skills, sunspots and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper explores the ability of a class of one-sector,multi-input models to generate indeterminate equilibrium paths, andendogenous cycles, without relying on factors' hoarding. The modelpresents a novel theoretical economic mechanism that supportssunspot-driven expansions without requiring...

  8. Comparison of GPS-derived TEC with IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 TEC predictions at Surat, a location around the EIA crest in the Indian sector, during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N. C.; Karia, S. P.; Pathak, K. N.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of GPS-derived TEC with IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 TEC Predictions at Surat (21.16°N Geographic latitude, 72.78°E Geographic longitude, 12.90°N Geomagnetic latitude) a location around the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in the Indian sector, during the Ascending Phase of Solar Cycle 24, for a period of three years (January 2010-December 2012). In this comparison, plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) contribution to the GPS-TEC has been removed. It is observed that percentage PEC contribution to the GPS-TEC varies from about ∼15% (at the noon local time) to about ∼30% (at the morning local time). From the monthly comparison of GPS-TEC with IRI-TEC, it is observed that, TEC predicted by both the models overestimates in June-2012 and underestimates TEC in November-2011, December-2011 and March-2011. For all other months IRI estimates the TEC well. From the seasonal comparison, it is observed that the peak time appears ∼1-h later than the actual peak time in Winter 2010, Summer 2011, and Equinox 2010 and 2012 (the result suggest that it may be due to discrepancies/disagreement of both the versions of the IRI model in estimating the peak density as well as the thickness and shape parameters of the electron density profiles). For the Summer season, the IRI-TEC estimates the TEC well for all the years. Further, the seasonal variation of the GPS-TEC for all the three years matches well with IRI-2012 model compared to IRI-2007 model. Also, the mean annual TEC is predicted well by both the versions of the IRI model.

  9. Identification and Comparison of Requirements Imposed on Brand Managers: Cross-National Study in the U.S.A. and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Wroblowská

    2017-11-01

    frequency of identified traits. About one third of American advertisements had requirements for the high degree of creativity, conceptual thinking and analytical skills of candidates for the position of Brand Manager. During the comparison of the data results gathered in both countries, there were recorded significant differences practically in all analysed groups of personality traits, behavioural competencies and so-called soft skills. Statistical verification confirmed the shift of requirements in the group of performance prerequisites and abilities, as well as in the group of interpersonal skills and abilities. Conclusions: Comparison of frequencies of requirements placed on candidates for the position of Brand Manager in the U.S.A. and in the Czech Republic indicated differences, but it does not mean that the US employers are less demanding. The differences in the employers’ expectations supported by a set of psychological requirements placed on candidates for the position of Brand Manager inspire the discussion and are the reason for a deeper investigation of the job roles in product management. The findings indicated that employers are looking for employees possessing personal dispositions and skills of a knowledge worker nevertheless the ability to innovate is not presented in the American job advertisements as often as in the Czech Republic.

  10. Life-cycle comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption for coal and shale gas fired power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Huang, Runze; Ries, Robert J.; Masanet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    China has the world's largest shale gas reserves, which might enable it to pursue a new pathway for electricity generation. This study employed hybrid LCI (life cycle inventory) models to quantify the ETW (extraction-to-wire) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and water consumption per kWh of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity in China. Results suggest that a coal-to-shale gas shift and upgrading coal-fired power generation technologies could provide pathways to less GHG and water intensive power in China. Compared to different coal-fired generation technologies, the ETW GHG emissions intensity of gas-fired CC (combined cycle) technology is 530 g CO 2 e/kWh, which is 38–45% less than China's present coal-fired electricity. Gas-fired CT (combustion turbine) technology has the lowest ETW water consumption intensity at 960 g/kWh, which is 34–60% lower than China's present coal-fired electricity. The GHG-water tradeoff of the two gas-fired power generation technologies suggests that gas-fired power generation technologies should be selected based on regional-specific water resource availabilities and electricity demand fluctuations in China. However, the low price of coal-fired electricity, high cost of shale gas production, insufficient pipeline infrastructures, and multiple consumers of shale gas resources may serve as barriers to a coal-to-shale gas shift in China's power sector in the near term. - Highlights: • The GHG and water footprints of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity are estimated. • A coal-to-shale gas shift can enable less GHG and water intensive power in China. • The GHG emissions of shale gas-fired combined cycle technology is 530 g CO 2 e/kWh. • The water consumption of shale gas-fired combustion turbine technology is 960 g/kWh. • Shale gas-fired power generation technologies selection should be regional-specific

  11. Comparison of Chemistry Learning Outcomes with Inquiry Learning Model and Learning Cycle 5E in Material Solubility and Solubility Multiplication Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Indah Firdausi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Perbandingan Hasil Belajar Kimia dengan Model Pembelajaran Inquiry dan Learning Cycle 5E pada Materi Kelarutan dan Hasil Kali Kelarutan   Abstract: This research is aimed to compare the effectiveness between inquiry and LC 5E in solubility equilibria and the solubility product for students with different prior knowledge. The effectiveness of both learning models is measured from students learning outcome. This quasi experimental research uses factorial2x2 with posttest only design. Research samples are chosen using cluster random sampling. They are two classes of XI IPA SMAN 1 Kepanjen in the 2012/2013 academic year which consist of 31 students in each class. Cognitive learning outcome is measured by test items consist of four objective items and nine subjective items. Technique of data analysis in this research is two way ANOVA. Research results show that: (1 cognitive learning outcome and higher cognitive learning outcome of students in inquiry class is higher than students in LC 5E class; (2 cognitive learning outcome and higher cognitive learning outcome of students who have upper prior knowledge is higher than students who have lower prior knowledge in both inquiry and LC 5E. Key Words: learning outcome, inquiry, learning cycle 5E, solubility equilibria and the solubility product   Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan keefektifan model inquiry dan LC 5E pada materi kelarutan dan hasil kali kelarutan untuk siswa dengan kemampuan awal berbeda. Keefektifan model pembelajaran dilihat dari hasil belajar kognitif siswa. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan eksperimen semu dengan desain faktorial 2x2. Subjek penelitian dipilih secara cluster random sampling yaitu dua kelas XI IPA SMAN 1 Kepanjen dengan jumlah masing-masing kelas sebanyak 31 siswa. Instrumen perlakuan yang digunakan adalah silabus dan RPP sedangkan instrumen pengukuran berupa soal tes terdiri dari empat soal objektif dan sembilan soal subjektif. Teknik analisis data

  12. 125I brachytherapy of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy:a comparison with best supportive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Song* Xiaoxi Fan* Zhongwei Zhao* Minjiang Chen* Weiqian Chen, Fazong Wu, Dengke Zhang, Li Chen, Jianfei Tu, Jiansong Ji Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhejiang University Lishui Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui Central Hospital, Lishui, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of computed tomography (CT-guided 125I brachytherapy alone in improving the survival and quality of life of patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy.Patients and methods: Sixteen patients with locally advanced NSCLC were treated with CT-guided 125I brachytherapy after one cycle of first-line chemotherapy (group A. Sixteen patients who received only best supportive care (group B were matched up with the patients in group A. Primary end point included survival, and secondary end point included assessment of safety, effectiveness of CT-guided 125I brachytherapy, and improvement in the quality of life.Results: The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, disease histology, tumor stage, tumor location, and performance status (P>0.05. The median follow-up time was 16 months (range, 3–30. The total tumor response rate was 75.0% in group A, which was significantly higher than that in group B (0.0% (P<0.01. The median progression-free survival time was 4.80 months for patients in group A and 1.35 months for patients in group B (P<0.001. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the median survival time of group A was 9.4±0.3 months versus 8.4±0.1 months in group B (P=0.013. Tumor-related symptoms of patients were significantly relieved, and the quality of life was markedly improved in group A than in group B.Conclusion: CT-guided 125I brachytherapy improved the survival of patients with locally advanced

  13. GPS TEC near the crest of the EIA at 95°E during the ascending half of solar cycle 24 and comparison with IRI simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Hazarika, Rumajyoti

    2013-10-01

    Total electron content (TEC) data obtained from GPS dual frequency measurements during the ascending half of the solar cycle 24 from 2009 to 2012 over Dibrugarh (27.5°N, 94.9°E; 17.6°N MLAT) have been used to study the diurnal, seasonal, annual and solar cycle variation of TEC. The measurements reported here are for the first time from the location situated at the poleward edge of the northern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and within the peak region of the longitudinal wave number 4 (WN4) structure in EIA crest TEC. TEC exhibits a minimum around 0600 LT and diurnal maximum around 1300-1600 LT. In the low and moderate solar activity years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, average daytime (1000-1600 LT) TEC in summer was higher (25.4 and 36.6 TECU) compared to that in winter (21.5 and 26.1 TECU). However, at the peak of the solar cycle in 2011-2012, reversal in the level of ionization between winter and summer takes place and winter TEC becomes higher (50.6 TECU) than that in summer (45.0 TECU). Further, TEC in spring (34.1, 49.9 and 63.3 TECU respectively in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12) is higher than that in autumn (24.2, 32.3 and 51.9 TECU respectively) thus showing equinoctial asymmetry in all the years of observation. The winter anomaly in high solar activity years and equinoctial asymmetry all throughout may be largely attributed to changes in the thermospheric O/N2 density ratio. A winter to summer delay of ˜1 h in the time of occurrence of the diurnal maximum has also been observed. Daytime maximum TEC bears a nonlinear relationship with F10.7 cm solar flux. TEC increases linearly with F10.7 cm solar flux initially up to about 140 sfu (1 sfu = 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1) after which it tends to saturate. On the contrary, TEC increases linearly with solar EUV flux (photons cm-2 s-1, 0.5-50 nm) during the same period. TEC predicted by the IRI 2012 are lower than the measured TEC for nearly 90% of the time.

  14. X-ray computed tomography comparison of individual and parallel assembled commercial lithium iron phosphate batteries at end of life after high rate cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rachel; Huhman, Brett; Love, Corey T.; Zenyuk, Iryna V.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) across multiple length scales is utilized for the first time to investigate the physical abuse of high C-rate pulsed discharge on cells wired individually and in parallel.. Manufactured lithium iron phosphate cells boasting high rate capability were pulse power tested in both wiring conditions with high discharge currents of 10C for a high number of cycles (up to 1200) until end of life (health (SOH) monitoring methods, is diagnosed using CT by rendering the interior current collector without harm or alteration to the active materials. Correlation of CT observations to the electrochemical pulse data from the parallel-wired cells reveals the risk of parallel wiring during high C-rate pulse discharge.

  15. IMPACT 2002+, ReCiPe 2008 and ILCD’s recommended practice for characterization modelling in life cycle impact assessment: a case study-based comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis; Bjørn, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The European Commission has launched a recommended set of characterization models and factors for application in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). However, it is not known how this recommended practice, referred to as the ILCD 2009, performs relative to some of the most frequently used...... and ecosystems, all studied methodologies consistently identify the same window option as having the lowest and the highest environmental impact. This is mainly because few processes, associated with production of heat, dominate the total impacts, and there is a large difference in demand for heat between...... categories. The differences are somewhat smaller (within 1 order of magnitude) for the impact categories respiratory inorganics and photochemical ozone formation, and are within a factor of 3 for the remaining impact categories. The differences in impact scores in our case study are brought about...

  16. EVANGELICAL IMAGES AND MOTIFS IN SERGEY ORLOV'S POEMS ABOUT THE BATTLE OF KULIKOVO (IN COMPARISON WITH ALEXANDER BLOK'S CYCLE OF POEMS "ON THE FIELD OF KULIKOVO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Olegovna Zakharchenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Battle of Kulikovo is one of the most significant events in Russian history. This article studies five poems by Alexander Blok and Sergey Orlov devoted to this battle. Alexander Blok's cycle of poems On the Field of Kulikovo prophetically predicts future changes in Russia. Sergey Orlov's poems devoted to this historical event can be seen as a certain indicator of his creative evolution. The image of the homeland, as well as the image of his wife (widow, both in Blok's and Orlov's poems originates from the image of the Mother of God. Images of a celestial body used by both poets are associated with military paraphernalia and arise from the evangelical images, while the warrior image is based on the evangelical image of brotherhood. Poetic experience of Alexander Blok and Sergey Orlov reveals Orthodox roots that nourish the entire Russian culture.

  17. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  18. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  19. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  20. Mid-latitude trans-Pacific reconstructions and comparisons of coupled glacial/interglacial climate cycles based on soil stratigraphy of cover-beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, B. V.; Almond, P. C.; Moreno, P. I.; Sagredo, E.; Kaplan, M. R.; Kubik, P. W.; Tonkin, P. J.

    2018-06-01

    South Westland, New Zealand, and southern Chile, are two narrow continental corridors effectively confined between the Pacific Ocean in the west and high mountain ranges in the east which impart significant influence over regional climate, vegetation and soils. In both these southern mid-latitude regions, evidence for extensive and repeated glaciations during cold phases of the Quaternary is manifested by arrays of successively older glacial drift deposits with corresponding outwash plain remnants. In South Westland, these variably aged glacial landforms are mantled by layered (multisequal) soils characterised by slow loess accretion and pedogenesis in an extreme leaching and weathering environment. These cover-bed successions have undergone repeated coupled phases of topdown and upbuilding soil formation that have been related to fluctuating cycles of interglacial/warm and glacial/cold climate during the Quaternary. In this study, we recognise multisequal soils overlying glacial landforms in southern continental Chile but, unlike the spodic (podzolic) soil sequences of South Westland, these are of dominantly volcanigenic (andic) provenance and are very similar to multisequal soils of andic provenance that predominate in, and adjacent to, areas of rhyolitic to andesitic volcanism in North Island, New Zealand. Here we develop a soil-stratigraphic model to explain the observed occurrence of multisequal soils mantling dominantly glacial landforms of southern continental Chile. Based on proxy data from southern Chile, we propose that persistent vegetation cover and high precipitation on the western side of the Andes, during colder-than-present episodes tended to suppress the widespread production of glacially-derived loessial materials despite the pervasive occurrence of glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits that have frequently inundated large tracts of this landscape during the Quaternary. Given the lack of loess cover-beds that have traditionally assisted in the

  1. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740 0 C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000 0 C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th- 233 U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized

  2. Monitoring ovarian cycle activity via progestagens in urine and feces of female mountain gorillas: A comparison of EIA and LC-MS measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habumuremyi, Sosthene; Robbins, Martha M; Fawcett, Katie A; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the reproductive biology of endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) is essential for optimizing conservation strategies, determining any demographic impact of socioecological changes, and providing information for comparative studies of primates. Non-invasive techniques have been used to assess the reproductive function of many primates and the importance of validating the measurements of hormones metabolites is widely recognized because they may vary even within closely related species. To determine if it is possible to non-invasively monitor ovarian activity in wild mountain gorillas, we used enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to quantify both urinary and fecal excretion of immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (iPdG), defined as all metabolites detected by a pregnanediol-3-glucuronide immunoassay (PdG EIA). Simultaneously, we performed the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to quantify the excretion of pregnanediol in urine and feces. Samples were analyzed over nine cycles of five females from the habituated gorillas monitored by Karisoke Research Center, Rwanda. As an additional indicator for ovulation timing, estrone conjugates (E1C) were measured in a subset of urine samples. The concentrations of iPdG and pregnanediol measured in the same samples were significantly correlated. Urinary concentrations of iPdG and pregnanediol fluctuated over the menstrual cycle but did not reveal any cyclic pattern, whereas a typical preovulatory urinary E1C surge and postovulatory increases of fecal iPdG and pregnanediol were detected. The luteal peaks of iPdG and pregnanediol levels in feces were on average 2.8 and 7.6 times higher, respectively, than averaged levels in the corresponding follicular phase. The relative number of days with observed matings was higher within the presumed fertile window than in the preceding period. Overall, the results indicate that fecal analysis of iPdG and pregnanediol is suitable for detecting

  3. Comparison and Evaluation of Large-Scale and On-Site Recycling Systems for Food Waste via Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Hee Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-benefit of on-site food waste recycling system using Life-Cycle Cost analysis, and to compare with large-scale treatment system. For accurate evaluation, the cost-benefit analysis was conducted with respect to local governments and residents, and qualitative environmental improvement effects were quantified. As for the local governments, analysis results showed that, when large-scale treatment system was replaced with on-site recycling system, there was significant cost reduction from the initial stage depending on reduction of investment, maintenance, and food wastewater treatment costs. As for the residents, it was found that the cost incurred from using the on-site recycling system was larger than the cost of using large-scale treatment system due to the cost of producing and installing the on-site treatment facilities at the initial stage. However, analysis showed that with continuous benefits such as greenhouse gas emission reduction, compost utilization, and food wastewater reduction, cost reduction would be obtained after 6 years of operating the on-site recycling system. Therefore, it was recommended for local governments and residents to consider introducing an on-site food waste recycling system if they are to replace an old treatment system or need to establish a new one.

  4. Quantitative analysis of background parenchymal enhancement in whole breast on MRI: Influence of menstrual cycle and comparison with a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yongsik; Jeong, Seong Kyun; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Moon, Yeorae; Kim, Tae Hee

    2018-06-01

    We quantitatively analyzed background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in whole breast according to menstrual cycle and compared it with a qualitative analysis method. A data set of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 273 breast cancer patients was used. For quantitative analysis, we used semiautomated in-house software with MATLAB. From each voxel of whole breast, the software calculated BPE using following equation: [(signal intensity [SI] at 1 min 30 s after contrast injection - baseline SI)/baseline SI] × 100%. In total, 53 patients had minimal, 108 mild, 87 moderate, and 25 marked BPE. On quantitative analysis, mean BPE values were 33.1% in the minimal, 42.1% in the mild, 59.1% in the moderate, and 81.9% in the marked BPE group showing significant difference (p = .009 for minimal vs. mild, p quantitative BPE (r = 0.63, p Quantitative analysis of BPE correlated well with the qualitative BPE grade. Quantitative BPE values were lowest in the second week and highest in the fourth week. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of passive hindlimb cycling and active upper-limb exercise provides new insights into systolic dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVeau, Kathryn M; Harman, Kathryn A; Squair, Jordan W; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Magnuson, David S K; West, Christopher R

    2017-11-01

    Active upper-limb and passive lower-limb exercise are two interventions used in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Although the global cardiac responses have been previously studied, it is unclear how either exercise influences contractile cardiac function. Here, the cardiac contractile and volumetric responses to upper-limb (swim) and passive lower-limb exercise were investigated in rodents with a severe high-thoracic SCI. Animals were divided into control (CON), SCI no exercise (NO-EX), SCI passive hindlimb cycling (PHLC), or SCI swim (SWIM) groups. Severe contusion SCI was administered at the T2 level. PHLC and SWIM interventions began on day 8 postinjury and lasted 25 days. Echocardiography and dobutamine stress echocardiography were performed before and after injury. Cardiac contractile indexes were assessed in vivo at study termination via a left ventricular pressure-volume conductance catheter. Stroke volume was reduced after SCI (91 µl in the NO-EX group vs. 188 µl in the CON group, P spinal cord injury. Here, we demonstrate that lower-limb exercise positively influences flow-derived cardiac indexes, whereas upper-limb exercise does not. Furthermore, neither intervention corrects the cardiac contractile dysfunction associated with spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Environmental Impact of End-of-Life Tires: Life Cycle Assessment Comparison of Three Scenarios from a Case Study in Valle Del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar O. Ortíz-Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been applied to estimate diverse environmental impacts of different usage alternatives for worn-out tires at the end of their useful life in a case study at the Department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Different real scenarios were compared, which allowed for the assessment of the best environmental option for the management of worn-out tires. A method developed in the Institute of Environmental Sciences at University of Leiden, better known as CML-2001, was used to calculate the environmental impact indicators. The results show that the incineration of whole tires in cement plants, and the activities of grinding and floor manufacturing from granulated rubber, exhibited the best indicators, especially in terms of environmental load avoidance through the recovery of materials. Finally, the categories of depletion of the ozone layer, acidification, global warming potential, depletion of abiotic resources, and photochemical ozone formation revealed that the strongest environmental impacts are associated with retreading and the production of multipart asphalt. This is due to the use of synthetic rubber in the former alternative, and of liquid asphalt, gravel, and diesel consumption in the latter.

  7. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  8. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry based on physical input–output life-cycle assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. ► Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. ► Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. ► Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input–output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  9. Life cycle inventory analysis of hydrogen production by the steam-reforming process: comparison between vegetable oils and fossil fuels as feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquevich, M.; Sonnemann, G.W.; Castells, F.; Montane, D.

    2002-01-01

    A life cycle inventory analysis has been conducted to assess the environmental load, specifically CO 2 (fossil) emissions and global warming potential (GWP), associated to the production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks (methane and naphtha) and vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, soybean oil and palm oil). Results show that the GWPs associated with the production of hydrogen by steam reforming in a 100 years time frame are 9.71 and 9.46 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. For vegetable oils, the GWP decreases to 6.42 kg CO 2 -equivalent/kg H 2 for rapeseed oil, 4.32 for palm oil and 3.30 for soybean oil. A dominance analysis determined that the part of the process that has the largest effect on the GWP is the steam reforming reaction itself for the fossil fuel-based systems, which accounts for 56.7% and 74% of the total GWP for natural gas and naphtha, respectively. This contribution is zero for vegetable oil-based systems, for which harvesting and oil production are the main sources of CO 2 -eq emissions.(author)

  10. Full Step Cycle Kinematic and Kinetic Comparison of Barefoot Walking and a Traditional Shoe Walking in Healthy Youth: Insights for Barefoot Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barefoot technology shoes are becoming increasingly popular, yet modifications are still needed. The present study aims to gain valuable insights by comparing barefoot walking to neutral shoe walking in a healthy youth population. Methods. 28 healthy university students (22 females and 6 males were recruited to walk on a 10-meter walkway both barefoot and in neutral running shoes at their comfortable walking speed. Full step cycle kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an 8-camera motion capture system. Results. In the early stance phase, the knee extension moment (MK1, the first peak absorbed joint power at the knee joint (PK1, and the flexion angle of knee/dorsiflexion angle of the ankle were significantly reduced when walking in neutral running shoes. However, in the late stance, barefoot walking resulted in decreased hip joint flexion moment (MH2, second peak extension knee moment (MK3, hip flexors absorbed power (PH2, hip flexors generated power (PH3, second peak absorbed power by knee flexors (PK2, and second peak anterior-posterior component of joint force at the hip (APFH2, knee (APFK2, and ankle (APFA2. Conclusions. These results indicate that it should be cautious to discard conventional elements from future running shoe designs and rush to embrace the barefoot technology fashion.

  11. Basic analysis and a comparison of the characteristics GCFRs and the LMFBR with the thorium cycle in one-group diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, G.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1991-09-01

    A preliminary study of neutronics of thorium cycle fast breeder reactor has been done using simplified reactor models and analyses methods with the aim of finding a type of breeder reactor suitable for an efficient utilization of thorium that is abundant in Brazil. Basic methods of cross section processing and reactor calculation are studied and applied to analyse breeding characteristics of GCFRs and LMFBRs. The GCFR is fueled with oxide pins and cooled with helium. The LMFBR is fueled with thin metallic pins to achieve high power densities. Neutronics characteristics are determined as functions of the average power density and the fuel volume fraction. Results show that a high power density and a high fuel volume fraction are desirable to achieve short doubling times, that the GCFR is inferior to the LMFBR in regard to the doubling time and that the LMFBR can achieve reactor doubling times ten years with an average power density of ∼ 600MW/m 3 and fuel volume fraction of 40%. (author)

  12. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  13. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  14. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  15. Life cycle management in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen; Pattis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The integration of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) into business operations poses great challenges, as it requires a wider range of environmental responsibility often extending beyond a company's immediate control. Simultaneously, it offers many opportunities...

  16. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  17. A review of the OECD/NEA Study on the economics of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarimpas, N.; Stevens, G.H.; Nuclear Energy Agency

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the recent study carried out by OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency on the economics of the nuclear fuel cycle. The investment appraisal method of deriving the lifetime levelised fuel cost required the examination of the entire fuel cycle cash outflow based on component prices. The cash outflows were discounted to a base date using the selected discount rate which was set, for the reference case, at 5 per cent per annum (real). The levelised fuel cycle cost was derived in mills/kWh terms by equating the net present value of the entire fuel cycle cost and the net present value of the total electrical output over the station lifetime, where both have been discounted to the same date. The study's reference fuel cycle options and costs are discussed and a comparison with earlier NEA work is provided. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Ammonia control in children ages 2 months through 5 years with urea cycle disorders: comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wendy; Diaz, George A; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Berry, Susan A; Harding, Cary O; McCandless, Shawn E; LeMons, Cindy; Mauney, Joe; Dickinson, Klara; Coakley, Dion F; Moors, Tristen; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Lee, Brendan

    2013-06-01

    To examine ammonia levels, pharmacokinetics, and safety of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB; also referred to as HPN-100) and sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) in young children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). This open label switch-over study enrolled patients ages 29 days to under 6 years taking NaPBA. Patients underwent 24-hour blood and urine sampling on NaPBA and again on a phenylbutyric acid-equimolar dose of GPB and completed questionnaires regarding signs and symptoms associated with NaPBA and/or their UCD. Fifteen patients (8 argininosuccinate lyase deficiency, 3 argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency, 3 ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, 1 arginase deficiency) ages 2 months through 5 years enrolled in and completed the study. Daily ammonia exposure (24-hour area under the curve) was lower on GPB and met predefined noninferiority criteria (ratio of means 0.79; 95% CI 0.593-1.055; P=.03 Wilcoxon; 0.07 t test). Six patients experienced mild adverse events on GPB; there were no serious adverse events or significant laboratory changes. Liver tests and argininosuccinic acid levels among patients with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency were unchanged or improved on GPB. Eleven of 15 patients reported 35 symptoms on day 1; 23 of these 35 symptoms improved or resolved on GPB. Mean systemic exposure to phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetic acid, and phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) were similar and phenylacetic acid exposure tended to be higher in the youngest children on both drugs. Urinary PAGN concentration was greater on morning voids and varied less over 24 hours on GPB versus NaPBA. GPB results in more evenly distributed urinary output of PAGN over 24 hours were associated with fewer symptoms and offers ammonia control comparable with that observed with NaPBA in young children with UCDs. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of the Diel Cycle of Modeled and Measured Latent Heat Flux During the Warm Season in a Colorado Subalpine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sean P.; Swenson, Sean