WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle reconversion stage

  1. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  2. Comparative myoanatomy of cycliophoran life cycle stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, Ricardo C.; Cunha, Maria R.; Funch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The metazoan phylum Cycliophora includes small cryptic epibionts that live attached to the mouthparts of clawed lobsters. The life cycle is complex, with alternating sexual and asexual generations, and involves several sessile and free-living stages. So far, the morphological and genetic...... on the dorsal side, whereas on the ventral side, longitudinal muscles and a V-shaped muscle structure are present. These muscles are complemented by additional dorsoventral muscles. The mesodermal muscle fibers attach to the cuticle via the epidermis in all life cycle stages studied herein. The musculature...... of the female is similar to that of the Pandora larva of Symbion americanus and includes dorsoventral muscles and longitudinal muscles that run in the dorsal and ventral body region. Overall, our results reveal striking similarities in the muscular arrangement of the life cycle stages of both Symbion species. J...

  3. The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2005-01-01

    Kristensen NH (2005): The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination. Paper presented at Working Group 5 at the XXI Congress of the ESRS 22-27 August, 2005 Keszthely, Hungary......Kristensen NH (2005): The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination. Paper presented at Working Group 5 at the XXI Congress of the ESRS 22-27 August, 2005 Keszthely, Hungary...

  4. Combating land degradation: the potential of soil reconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Silvia; Conen, Franz; Duss, Adrian; Wenzel, Leonore; Buser, Christine; Alewell, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is usually not seen as a major problem in industrialised countries, although continuous soil sealing for human settlements and infrastructure entails the loss of agricultural land, landscape fragmentation and the loss of natural habitats. In many European countries, land-take on greenfields is unbowed, while, at the same time, there is a considerable number of unused brownfields, like abandoned rail yards and industrial or military sites. In addition, many new by-pass roads have been constructed to take up the volume of traffic and unburden the towns and villages from traffic emissions, but the old roads are rarely downgraded or reconverted and risk being used as shortcuts. Today the sealed area exceeds the requirements of the current generation and contributes to degraded land with heavily disturbed soil-borne ecosystem services. Soil reconversion, i.e. replacing a sealed surface with soil to restore ecosystem services, could mitigate this unsustainable trend that restricts the options of future generations. This contribution discusses the potential and challenges of soil reconversion to reduce net soil loss. The expanses of brownfield area vary between countries, whereas the rate of new soil sealing is still high in most countries and soil reconversion should be considered more. Our research revealed that the current techniques enable successful restoration of agricultural soils and pioneer habitats on site. However, reconverting single small areas can hardly mitigate landscape fragmentation at a regional scale. The same principle prevails as for soil sealing, but in the inverse way: the benefit of soil reconversion may appear small for single cases, but in the sum soil reconversion might be effective. Today, many brownfield areas stay sealed because of economic and political reasons, or because the potential benefit from restoring ecosystem services at these brownfield sites is not known. We developed a mapping approach to assess the potential

  5. The hybrid two stage anticlockwise cycle for ecological energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyklis Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticlockwise cycle is commonly used for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps applications. The application of refrigerant in the compression cycle is within the temperature limits of the triple point and the critical point. New refrigerants such as 1234yf or 1234ze have many disadvantages, therefore natural refrigerants application is favourable. The carbon dioxide and water can be applied only in the hybrid two stages cycle. The possibilities of this solutions are shown for refrigerating applications, as well some experimental results of the adsorption-compression double stages cycle, powered with solar collectors are shown. As a high temperature cycle the adsorption system is applied. The low temperature cycle is the compression stage with carbon dioxide as a working fluid. This allows to achieve relatively high COP for low temperature cycle and for the whole system.

  6. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Double-Stage Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Ikegami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC using non-azeotropic mixtures such as ammonia/water as working fluid and the multistage cycle has been investigated in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the cycle because of small ocean temperature differences. The performance and effectiveness of the multistage cycle are barely understood. In addition, previous evaluation methods of heat exchange process cannot clearly indicate the influence of the thermophysical characteristics of the working fluid on the power output. Consequently, this study investigated the influence of reduction of the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process on the system performance in double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid. Single Rankine, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles were analyzed to ascertain the system characteristics. The simple evaluation method of the temperature difference between the working fluid and the seawater is applied to this analysis. From the results of the parametric performance analysis it can be considered that double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid can reduce the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process as with the Kalina cycle using an ammonia/water mixture. Considering the maximum power efficiency obtained in the study, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles can improve the power output by reducing the irreversible losses in the cycle.

  7. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Frajndlich, E.U. de.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F 6 to uranium dioxide (U O 2 ) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  8. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Life-cycle stages of Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite many observations of different life-cycle stages of Dinophysis species, the complete life history of the genus is still unknown owing to the difficulties encountered in culturing these species. The seasonal distribution of D. acuminata was followed at two offshore stations in the brackish Baltic Sea by means of in situ ...

  10. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of single-stage and multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycles with activated carbon–ammonia working pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigerator was analyzed. • COP, exergetic efficiency and entropy production of cycles were calculated. • Single-stage cycle usually has the advantages of simple structure and high COP. • Multi-stage cycles adapt to critical conditions better than single-stage cycle. • Boundary conditions for choosing optimal cycle were summarized as tables. - Abstract: Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed in this article, which realized deep-freezing for evaporating temperature under −18 °C with heating source temperature much lower than 100 °C. Cycle mathematical models for single, two and three-stage cycles were established on the basis of thorough thermodynamic analysis. According to simulation results of thermodynamic evaluation indicators such as COP (coefficient of performance), exergetic efficiency and cycle entropy production, multi-stage cycle adapts to high condensing temperature, low evaporating temperature and low heating source temperature well. Proposed cycle with selected working pair can theoretically work under very severe conditions, such as −25 °C evaporating temperature, 40 °C condensing temperature, and 70 °C heating source temperature, but under these working conditions it has the drawback of low cycle adsorption quantity. It was found that both COP and exergetic efficiency are of great reference value in the choice of cycle, whereas entropy production is not so useful for cycle stage selection. Finally, the application boundary conditions of single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage cycles were summarized as tables according to the simulation results, which provides reference for choosing optimal cycle under different conditions.

  12. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...... the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...

  13. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  14. The peculiarities offish sex cycles and their ovary ripeness stages

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Rabazanov; M. M. Shihshabekov; D. R. Aduyeva; G. Sh. Gadjimuradov; M. M. Nabiyev; D. M. Ramazanova

    2009-01-01

    All the ovogenesis and sex cycles peculiarities of the studied fishes are species-specific with biology particularity of different fishes including their reproductions. The research showed that the changes caused by different anthropogenic factors often change the whole process of gametogenesis thereby the character and fish reproduction intensity in the ecologically changed conditions.

  15. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae...... into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. Results: We used two sets...... supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more...

  16. The peculiarities offish sex cycles and their ovary ripeness stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Rabazanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All the ovogenesis and sex cycles peculiarities of the studied fishes are species-specific with biology particularity of different fishes including their reproductions. The research showed that the changes caused by different anthropogenic factors often change the whole process of gametogenesis thereby the character and fish reproduction intensity in the ecologically changed conditions.

  17. Performance analysis of a potassium-steam two stage vapour cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitachi, Kohshi; Saito, Takeshi

    1983-01-01

    It is an important subject to raise the thermal efficiency in thermal power plants. In present thermal power plants which use steam cycle, the plant thermal efficiency has already reached 41 to 42 %, steam temperature being 839 K, and steam pressure being 24.2 MPa. That is, the thermal efficiency in a steam cycle is facing a limit. In this study, analysis was made on the performance of metal vapour/steam two-stage Rankine cycle obtained by combining a metal vapour cycle with a present steam cycle. Three different combinations using high temperature potassium regenerative cycle and low temperature steam regenerative cycle, potassium regenerative cycle and steam reheat and regenerative cycle, and potassium bleed cycle and steam reheat and regenerative cycle were systematically analyzed for the overall thermal efficiency, the output ratio and the flow rate ratio, when the inlet temperature of a potassium turbine, the temperature of a potassium condenser, and others were varied. Though the overall thermal efficiency was improved by lowering the condensing temperature of potassium vapour, it is limited by the construction because the specific volume of potassium in low pressure section increases greatly. In the combinatipn of potassium vapour regenerative cycle with steam regenerative cycle, the overall thermal efficiency can be 58.5 %, and also 60.2 % if steam reheat and regenerative cycle is employed. If a cycle to heat steam with the bled vapor out of a potassium vapour cycle is adopted, the overall thermal efficiency of 63.3 % is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Classifying stages of cirrus life-cycle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Benedikt; Groß, Silke; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Airborne lidar backscatter data is used to determine in- and out-of-cloud regions. Lidar measurements of water vapor together with model temperature fields are used to calculate relative humidity over ice (RHi). Based on temperature and RHi we identify different stages of cirrus evolution: homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, depositional growth, ice sublimation and sedimentation. We will present our classification scheme and first applications on mid-latitude cirrus clouds.

  19. Two-stage, self-cycling process for the production of bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper David G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A two-stage, self-cycling process for the production of bacteriophages was developed. The first stage, containing only the uninfected host bacterium, was operated under self-cycling fermentation (SCF conditions. This automated method, using the derivative of the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER as the control parameter, led to the synchronization of the host bacterium. The second stage, containing both the host and the phage, was operated using self-cycling infection (SCI with CER and CER-derived data as the control parameters. When each infection cycle was terminated, phages were harvested and a new infection cycle was initiated by adding host cells from the SCF (first stage. This was augmented with fresh medium and the small amount of phages left from the previous cycle initiated the next infection cycle. Both stages were operated independently, except for this short period of time when the SCF harvest was added to the SCI to initiate the next cycle. Results It was demonstrated that this mode of operation resulted in stable infection cycles if the growth of the host cells in the SCF was synchronized. The final phage titers obtained were reproducible among cycles and were as good as those obtained in batch productions performed under the same conditions (medium, temperature, initial multiplicity of infection, etc.. Moreover, phages obtained in different cycles showed no important difference in infectivity. Finally, it was shown that cell synchronization of the host cells in the first stage (SCF not only maintained the volumetric productivity (phages per volume but also led to higher specific productivity (phage per cell per hour in the second stage (SCI. Conclusions Production of bacteriophage T4 in the semi-continuous, automated SCF/SCI system was efficient and reproducible from cycle to cycle. Synchronization of the host in the first stage prior to infection led to improvements in the specific productivity of phages in

  20. Two-stage, self-cycling process for the production of bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Dominic; Cooper, David G

    2010-11-01

    A two-stage, self-cycling process for the production of bacteriophages was developed. The first stage, containing only the uninfected host bacterium, was operated under self-cycling fermentation (SCF) conditions. This automated method, using the derivative of the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) as the control parameter, led to the synchronization of the host bacterium. The second stage, containing both the host and the phage, was operated using self-cycling infection (SCI) with CER and CER-derived data as the control parameters. When each infection cycle was terminated, phages were harvested and a new infection cycle was initiated by adding host cells from the SCF (first stage). This was augmented with fresh medium and the small amount of phages left from the previous cycle initiated the next infection cycle. Both stages were operated independently, except for this short period of time when the SCF harvest was added to the SCI to initiate the next cycle. It was demonstrated that this mode of operation resulted in stable infection cycles if the growth of the host cells in the SCF was synchronized. The final phage titers obtained were reproducible among cycles and were as good as those obtained in batch productions performed under the same conditions (medium, temperature, initial multiplicity of infection, etc.). Moreover, phages obtained in different cycles showed no important difference in infectivity. Finally, it was shown that cell synchronization of the host cells in the first stage (SCF) not only maintained the volumetric productivity (phages per volume) but also led to higher specific productivity (phage per cell per hour) in the second stage (SCI). Production of bacteriophage T4 in the semi-continuous, automated SCF/SCI system was efficient and reproducible from cycle to cycle. Synchronization of the host in the first stage prior to infection led to improvements in the specific productivity of phages in the second stage while maintaining the volumetric

  1. Cycle Commuting and Perceptions of Barriers: Stages of Change, Gender and Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E.; Williams, Joanne M.; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate perceptions of cycle commuting barriers in relation to stage of change, gender and occupational role. Stage of change is a key construct of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change that defines behavioural readiness (intentions and actions) into five distinct categories.…

  2. Modelling of an air-cooled two-stage Rankine cycle for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This work considers a two stage Rankine cycle architecture slightly different from a standard Rankine cycle for electricity generation. Instead of expanding the steam to extremely low pressure, the vapor leaves the turbine at a higher pressure then having a much smaller specific volume. It is thus possible to greatly reduce the size of the steam turbine. The remaining energy is recovered by a bottoming cycle using a working fluid which has a much higher density than the water steam. Thus, the turbines and heat exchangers are more compact; the turbine exhaust velocity loss is lower. This configuration enables to largely reduce the global size of the steam water turbine and facilitate the use of a dry cooling system. The main advantage of such an air cooled two stage Rankine cycle is the possibility to choose the installation site of a large or medium power plant without the need of a large and constantly available water source; in addition, as compared to water cooled cycles, the risk regarding future operations is reduced (climate conditions may affect water availability or temperature, and imply changes in the water supply regulatory rules). The concept has been investigated by EDF R and D. A 22 MW prototype was developed in the 1970's using ammonia as the working fluid of the bottoming cycle for its high density and high latent heat. However, this fluid is toxic. In order to search more suitable working fluids for the two stage Rankine cycle application and to identify the optimal cycle configuration, we have established a working fluid selection methodology. Some potential candidates have been identified. We have evaluated the performances of the two stage Rankine cycles operating with different working fluids in both design and off design conditions. For the most acceptable working fluids, components of the cycle have been sized. The power plant concept can then be evaluated on a life cycle cost basis. (author)

  3. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lin, C. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hader, J. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Park, T. K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Deng, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yang, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jung, Y. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stauff, N. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  4. Effect of simulated stages of the canine oestrous cycle on Escherichia coli binding to canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, N; Lodge, K M; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra, a prevalent infectious uterine disease that affects intact middle-aged bitches, is typically associated with Escherichia coli. Our hypotheses were (i) that bacterial adhesion to canine endometrium differs between different stages of the oestrous cycle and (ii) that the adhesin FimH facilitates this adhesion. Twelve post-pubertal, ovariectomized greyhound bitches were treated with exogenous hormones to simulate different stages of the oestrous cycle. Tissue samples from each uterus were incubated with a pathogenic E. coli strain carrying the fimH gene, but no other adhesin genes (P4-wt)--or an E. coli strain in which fimH was insertionally inactivated (P4-∆fimH::kan)--or with phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control. After washing, tissue samples were homogenized for quantification of adherent bacteria. The differences in binding to canine endometrium at different stages of the oestrous cycle were not significant. However, the mean difference in binding of the P4-wt and the P4-∆fimH::kan across all stages of the simulated oestrous cycle was significant (p < 0.001 by paired t-test on geometric means). Individual differences in numbers of P4-wt bacteria bound between dogs might suggest genetic variations or epigenetic differences in FimH receptor expression by the endometrium, unrelated to the stage of the oestrous cycle. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiv...

  6. Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-β-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  7. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  9. Satisfaction in Stages of the Life Cycle, Levels of General Happiness and Frequency of Peak Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert A. C.

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses on reported (a) satisfaction in stages of the life cycle; (b) levels of general happiness; and (c) frequency of peak experiences. Subjects were 48 undergraduate students (17 males, 31 females) at Laurentian University, Canada. Results from all three areas in this study accord closely with other relevant published work. (Author)

  10. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.......The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. The overall aim...

  11. Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Agneta; Smith, Barry C; Cyronak, Tyler; Cooper, Emily; DiTullio, Giacomo R

    2016-02-01

    Various life cycle stages of cyst-producing dinoflagellates often appear differently colored under the microscope; gametes appear paler while zygotes are darker in comparison to vegetative cells. To compare physiological and photochemical competency, the pigment composition of discrete life cycle stages was determined for the common resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Vegetative cells had the highest cellular pigment content (25.2 ± 0.5 pg · cell(-1) ), whereas gamete pigment content was 22% lower. The pigment content of zygotes was 82% lower than vegetative cells, even though they appeared darker under the microscope. Zygotes of S. lachrymosa contained significantly higher cellular concentrations of β-carotene (0.65 ± 0.15 pg · cell(-1) ) than all other life stages. Photoprotective pigments and the de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls-cycle pigments in S. lachrymosa were significantly elevated in zygotes and cysts compared to other stages. This suggests a role for accessory pigments in combating intracellular oxidative stress during sexual reproduction or encystment. Resting cysts contained some pigments even though chloroplasts were not visible, suggesting that the brightly colored accumulation body contained photosynthetic pigments. The differences in pigmentation between life stages have implications for interpretation of pigment data from field samples when sampled during dinoflagellate blooms. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Differential Editosome Protein Function between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne M; Guo, Xuemin; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-10-09

    Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. The mRNAs are differentially edited in bloodstream form (BF) and procyclic form (PF) life cycle stages, and this correlates with the differential utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation between the stages. The mechanism that controls this differential editing is unknown. Editing is catalyzed by multiprotein ∼20S editosomes that contain endonuclease, 3'-terminal uridylyltransferase, exonuclease, and ligase activities. These editosomes also contain KREPB5 and KREPA3 proteins, which have no functional catalytic motifs, but they are essential for parasite viability, editing, and editosome integrity in BF cells. We show here that repression of KREPB5 or KREPA3 is also lethal in PF, but the effects on editosome structure differ from those in BF. In addition, we found that point mutations in KREPB5 or KREPA3 differentially affect cell growth, editosome integrity, and RNA editing between BF and PF stages. These results indicate that the functions of KREPB5 and KREPA3 editosome proteins are adjusted between the life cycle stages. This implies that these proteins are involved in the processes that control differential editing and that the 20S editosomes differ between the life cycle stages. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  14. Discovery of HDAC inhibitors with potent activity against multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Finn K; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Stenzel, Katharina; Duffy, Sandra; Meister, Stephan; Marek, Linda; Schmetter, Rebekka; Kuna, Krystina; Hamacher, Alexandra; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kassack, Matthias U; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Avery, Vicky M; Andrews, Katherine T; Kurz, Thomas

    2014-07-23

    In this work we investigated the antiplasmodial activity of a series of HDAC inhibitors containing an alkoxyamide connecting-unit linker region. HDAC inhibitor 1a (LMK235), previously shown to be a novel and specific inhibitor of human HDAC4 and 5, was used as a starting point to rapidly construct a mini-library of HDAC inhibitors using a straightforward solid-phase supported synthesis. Several of these novel HDAC inhibitors were found to have potent in vitro activity against asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Representative compounds were shown to hyperacetylate P. falciparum histones and to inhibit deacetylase activity of recombinant PfHDAC1 and P. falciparum nuclear extracts. All compounds were also screened in vitro for activity against Plasmodium berghei exo-erythrocytic stages and selected compounds were further tested against late stage (IV and V) P. falciparum gametocytes. Of note, some compounds showed nanomolar activity against all three life cycle stages tested (asexual, exo-erythrocytic and gametocyte stages) and several compounds displayed significantly increased parasite selectivity compared to the reference HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). These data suggest that it may be possible to develop HDAC inhibitors that target multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Schistosoma mansoni soluble proteome: a comparison across four life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwen, Rachel S; Ashton, Peter D; Johnston, David A; Wilson, R Alan

    2004-11-01

    Differential analysis of immune responses to schistosomes has routinely been performed using complex mixtures of soluble proteins from various life-cycle stages, on the assumption that these differed significantly in composition. Proteomic techniques now allow us to characterise and compare such mixtures. The soluble proteins from cercariae, lung-schistosomula, adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma mansoni were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and the resulting images analysed using appropriate software. A high degree of quantitative and qualitative similarity in spot pattern was revealed across the life-cycle, greatest between adjacent stages. To initiate mapping of these soluble proteomes, the 40 most abundant spots in each preparation, accounting for 21-46% of the total protein, were subjected to peptide fingerprinting by mass spectrometry. On average 55% of the spots were identified, but overall, these comprised only 32 different protein species. With one exception all proteins originated in the cytosol and 24 of the 32 had previously been pinpointed by virtue of their immunoreactivity, including four of the WHO priority vaccine candidates. The similarity in composition between the four preparations means that they are unlikely to discriminate adequately between immune responses to different life-cycle stages and argues strongly for the need to identify true stage-specific marker proteins. Equally, it is difficult to reconcile the abundance and immunogenicity of such cytosolic proteins with their status as vaccine candidates, as it is unlikely they will be accessible to the immune system in an intact parasite.

  16. Resistance Torque Based Variable Duty-Cycle Control Method for a Stage II Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Meipeng; Zheng, Shuiying

    2017-07-01

    The resistance torque of a piston stage II compressor generates strenuous fluctuations in a rotational period, and this can lead to negative influences on the working performance of the compressor. To restrain the strenuous fluctuations in the piston stage II compressor, a variable duty-cycle control method based on the resistance torque is proposed. A dynamic model of a stage II compressor is set up, and the resistance torque and other characteristic parameters are acquired as the control targets. Then, a variable duty-cycle control method is applied to track the resistance torque, thereby improving the working performance of the compressor. Simulated results show that the compressor, driven by the proposed method, requires lower current, while the rotating speed and the output torque remain comparable to the traditional variable-frequency control methods. A variable duty-cycle control system is developed, and the experimental results prove that the proposed method can help reduce the specific power, input power, and working noise of the compressor to 0.97 kW·m-3·min-1, 0.09 kW and 3.10 dB, respectively, under the same conditions of discharge pressure of 2.00 MPa and a discharge volume of 0.095 m3/min. The proposed variable duty-cycle control method tracks the resistance torque dynamically, and improves the working performance of a Stage II Compressor. The proposed variable duty-cycle control method can be applied to other compressors, and can provide theoretical guidance for the compressor.

  17. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  18. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiveness of innovation project by providing cost-management services at all stages of investment project, identifying opportunities for reducing them, thereby contributing to sustainable development of construction organization over time. It has been concluded that the more specific the program of activities of construction organization, the more accurate the process of identification of costs becomes, the more efficient is the management of costs, targeted at saving resources, reducing the self cost of construction works.

  19. TRIM E3 ligases interfere with early and late stages of the retroviral life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep D Uchil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse. We identified approximately 20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV, murine leukemia virus (MLV, or avian leukosis virus (ALV. While TRIM11 and 31 inhibited HIV entry, TRIM11 enhanced N-MLV entry by interfering with Ref1 restriction. Strikingly, many TRIM proteins affected late stages of the viral life cycle. Gene silencing of endogenously expressed TRIM 25, 31, and 62 inhibited viral release indicating that they play an important role at late stages of the viral life cycle. In contrast, downregulation of TRIM11 and 15 enhanced virus release suggesting that these proteins contribute to the endogenous restriction of retroviruses in cells.

  20. Upregulation of eIF5B controls cell-cycle arrest and specific developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sooncheol; Truesdell, Samuel S.; Bukhari, Syed I. A.; Lee, Ju Huck; LeTonqueze, Olivier; Vasudevan, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    This study uncovers a critical role for a general translation factor in specific developmental stages, including immature oocytes and ES cells, and during growth-factor deprivation of mammalian cells, which induces the transition to cell-cycle arrest. These conditions alter and decrease general translation yet maintain ongoing translation. We reveal upregulation of the eukaryotic translation factor 5B (eIF5B), which becomes essential for general translation, specifically in these conditions. ...

  1. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Carl D., E-mail: carl.d.smith179.mil@mail.mil; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female

  2. Evidence for Rosettes as an Unrecognized Stage in the Life Cycle of Leishmania Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Iovannisci, David M.; Plested, C. Paul; Moe, Gregory R.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania parasites, which afflict 12 million people in 88 countries, exist as promastigotes transmitted by insect vectors and as amastigotes residing in mammalian macrophages. Promastigote cells arranged in rosettes have also been described but universally disregarded as a distinct stage in the life cycle. We present evidence that only rosettes of Leishmania major promastigotes express cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) and PSA containing de-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NeuPSA). Expression of ...

  3. Power and efficiency in a regenerative gas-turbine cycle with multiple reheating and intercooling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.

    1996-06-01

    Using an improved Brayton cycle as a model, a general analysis accounting for the efficiency and net power output of a gas-turbine power plant with multiple reheating and intercooling stages is presented. This analysis provides a general theoretical tool for the selection of the optimal operating conditions of the heat engine in terms of the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies and of the heat exchanger efficiency. Explicit results for the efficiency, net power output, optimized pressure ratios, maximum efficiency, maximum power, efficiency at maximum power, and power at maximum efficiency are given. Among others, the familiar results of the Brayton cycle (one compressor and one turbine) and of the corresponding Ericsson cycle (infinite compressors and infinite turbines) are obtained as particular cases.

  4. Effects of starvation on moult cycle and hepatopancreas of Stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, K.; Storch, V.; Anger, V.; Capuzzo, J. M.

    1985-06-01

    Effects of feeding and starvation on the moult cycle and on the ultrastructure of hepatopancreas cells were studied in Stage I lobster larvae ( Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards). The relative significance of yolk and first food was quite different in larvae originating from two females. This difference was evident also in the amounts of stored lipid in the R-cells of the larval hepatopancreas. Most larvae from one hatch were, in principle, able to develop exclusively with yolk reserves (without food) to the second instar. The larvae from the second hatch showed lecithotrophic development only to the transition between late intermoult and early premoult (Stages C/D0 of Drachs's moult cycle) of the first larval instar. When initial starvation in this group lasted for 3 days or more, the point of no return (PNR) was exceeded. After the PNR, consumption of food was still possible, but development ceased in the transition C/D0 or in late premoult (D3 4). It is suggested that these stages of the moult cycle are critical points were cessation of development and increased mortality are particularly likely in early larval lobsters under nutritional stress. Examination of hepatopancreas R-cells suggested that the PNR is caused by an irreversible loss of the ability to restore lipid reserves depleted during initial starvation. Initial periods of starvation ending before the PNR prolonged mainly Stage D0 of the same instar (I). During this delay, structural changes in the R-cells caused by the preceding period of starvation were reversed: reduced lipid inclusions, swollen mitochondria, an increased number of residual bodies indicating autolysis, and a reduction of the microvillous processes. Continually starved larvae which showed lecithotrophic development throughout the first instar and were then re-fed after moulting successfully, had later a prolonged intermoult (Stage C) period in the second instar. This shows that, despite occasional lecithotrophy, food is an important

  5. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  6. Alger : prospection de scénarii pour sa reconversion portuaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Khalil Aouissi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Algiers currently suffers from a very pronounced city/port separation, the negative consequences of this situation affect the daily life of the city, the urban interests of the city, mainly the comfort of the citizens, overlap with the economic interests of the port, because urban activity and port activity remain opposite in nature. Based on its conflicted situation between city and port, the purpose of this article is to prospect through a set of future city / port scenarios. Using the scenario method, this research is carried out in two parts, in a first phase, the aim is to understand the evolution and mutations of port cities considered standard on a global scale, on this basis, and in a second phase, the objective is to prospect the future urban-port of Algiers. Four scenarios for the future reconversion of the port of Algiers, in which Algiers could become one of the great world capitals, are discussed. In fine, the appropriate scenario could be the one that proposes the organization of a universal event such as the Olympic Games. This option remains very interesting and feasible because it will achieve all the goals to promote Algiers in a sustainable way and to put it back in competitiveness against its rivals and counterparts in Mediterranean metropolises.

  7. Dry uranium tetrafluoride process preparation using the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Joao Batista da

    2008-01-01

    It is a well known fact that the use of uranium tetrafluoride allows flexibility in the production of uranium suicide and uranium oxide fuel. To its obtention there are two conventional routes, the one which reduces uranium from the UF 6 hydrolysis solution with stannous chloride, and the hydro fluorination of a solid uranium dioxide. In this work we are introducing a third and a dry way route, mainly utilized to the recovery of uranium from the liquid effluents generated in the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process, at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Working in the liquid phase, this route comprises the recuperation of ammonium fluoride by NH 4 HF 2 precipitation. Working with the solid residues, the crystallized bifluoride is added to the solid UO 2 , which comes from the U mini plates recovery, also to its conversion in a solid state reaction, to obtain UF 4 . That returns to the process of metallic uranium production unity to the U 3 Si 2 obtention. This fuel is considered in IPEN CNEN/SP as the high density fuel phase for IEA-R1m reactor, which will replace the former low density U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel. (author)

  8. Organic Rankine Cycle recovering stage heat from MSF desalination distillate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Weshahi, Mohammed A.; Anderson, Alexander; Tian, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The ORC model is validated against measured performance of an existing ORC unit. • This ORC model highlights the importance of refrigerant choice (R245fa performs better than R134a for this specific application). • For heat recovery from desalination plant, ORC evaporator and cooling water temperatures significantly influence the performance. - Abstract: This investigation addresses the potential for heat recovery from Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination plant hot distillate water to power an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), comparing R134a and R245fa refrigerants as the working fluid. Using design characteristics of an existing ORC unit, the model was first validated against its measured output. The distillate hot water from MSF stages is utilised to provide heat to the ORC and performance is investigated for both working fluids and for the number of MSF stages for heat recovery. For the specific MSF plant investigated, the net produced ORC power is found the highest with extraction up to MSF powering stage 8, generating 359 kW when R245fa is used and 307 kW when R134a is used. Both refrigerants exhibit an increase of power output and decrease of energy efficiency as heat is recovered from more MSF stages. The influence of variation of the evaporator and cooling temperature on ORC performance is demonstrated to be significant for both refrigerants, with R245fa performing better in this specific application

  9. Evidence for rosettes as an unrecognized stage in the life cycle of Leishmania parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovannisci, David M; Plested, C Paul; Moe, Gregory R

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania parasites, which afflict 12 million people in 88 countries, exist as promastigotes transmitted by insect vectors and as amastigotes residing in mammalian macrophages. Promastigote cells arranged in rosettes have also been described but universally disregarded as a distinct stage in the life cycle. We present evidence that only rosettes of Leishmania major promastigotes express cell surface poly-alpha2,8 N-acetyl neuraminic acid (PSA) and PSA containing de-N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NeuPSA). Expression of rosette-specific PSA antigens was mosaic, with individual promastigotes expressing PSA, NeuPSA or both. A 50 kDa protein was detected by Western blot analysis of a detergent-insoluble cell fraction with both PSA and NeuPSA-reactive antibodies. Frequencies of rosette formation as well as cell surface PSA/NeuPSA expression were temperature dependent. Rosettes also engaged in an unusual swarming behavior, congregating into extended clusters. Distinct structures resembling cellular fusion bodies were formed in and released from rosettes. The results indicate that rosettes are an unrecognized stage in the life cycle of Leishmania. We hypothesize that rosettes initiate mating in Leishmania during which PSA/NeuPSA expression plays an important role. Recognizing rosettes as a distinct form of the Leishmania life cycle opens new possibilities for treatment or prevention of disease and, possibly, in vitro genetic recombination without passage of cells through insect vectors.

  10. Modulation of the ultradian human nasal cycle by sleep stage and body position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Frye

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The nasal cycle, which is present in a significant number of people, is an ultradian side-to-side rhythm of nasal engorgement associated with cyclic autonomic activity. We studied the nasal cycle during REM/non-REM sleep stages and examined the potentially confounding influence of body position on lateralized nasal airflow. Methods: Left- and right-side nasal airflow was measured in six subjects during an eight-hour sleep period using nasal thermistors. Polysomnography was performed. Simultaneously, body positions were monitored using a video camera in conjunction with infrared lighting. Results: Significantly greater airflow occurred through the right nasal chamber (relative to the left during periods of REM sleep than during periods of non-REM sleep (p<0.001. Both body position (p < 0.001 and sleep stage (p < 0.001 influenced nasal airflow lateralization. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the lateralization of nasal airflow and sleep stage are related. Some types of asymmetrical somatosensory stimulation can alter this relationship.

  11. Using the Boston Matrix at Identification of the Corporate Life Cycle Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Konečný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to develop a new model supporting the identification of the particular corporate life stage within the corporate life cycle. This model will be derived from the Boston matrix. The main reason for using this approach as the base for making new model of the corporate life cycle is the fact, that every quadrant of the Boston matrix can be assigned to one phase of the product life cycle and there is supposed, that the phase, in which are most products, determines the phase of the corporate life cycle. For application the Boston matrix by identification phases of the corporate life cycle is necessary to define low and high values of both its variables using some quantities from the model of corporate- and market life cycle by Reiners (2004. So the interval of low and high sales growth is determined by comparing sales of the company and sales of the market and furthermore, there is considered the rate of inflation to eliminate the impact of price changes. And for determination low and high market shares, there are compared the shares of sales and shares of total assets. After that, there will be possible to identify all the quadrants and thus all the individual phases unequivocally, which is the basic advantage compared to most existing models of the corporate life cycle. The following aim of this article is to compare the occurrence of individual phases, identified by this modified model, depending on the sector sensitivity to the economic cycle, measured by the coefficient of correlation between sales on the market and GDP. There are selected two sectors of the Czech economy, namely one cyclical and one neutral sector. Subsequently there is selected a sample of companies from both these sectors. The data are collected from financial statements of companies and from analytical materials by the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade and by the Czech Statistical Office. On the basis of this research, there were recorded

  12. THE EFFICIENCY OF PROMOTIONAL INSTRUMENTS RELATED TO THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA MARCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarded as a planning tool, PLC (product life cycle strongly contributes to the identification of the main marketing challenges that may arise throughout the life of a product/service. Thus, the marketing management has the opportunity to develop and implement those solutions designed to optimize each of the 4P of marketing mix: product (quality, price, distribution (placement and promotion. The communication program has an essential role, because the company presents through it its "product" to actual or potential customers in order to convince them of the benefits of purchasing/using it. The efficiency of the promotional instruments involves an appropriate allocation of funds needed to promote the product/service in relation to the stage of its life cycle.

  13. Teaching Science Process Skills by Using the 5-Stage Learning Cycle in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaah, E. S.; Muslim, M.; Liliawati, W.

    2017-09-01

    Science process skills are a set of skills used in scientific activities. Students with science process skills are actively involved in learning. Opportunities to be actively involved in learning can be obtained by students if the learning stage is designed in such a way. This article is about a lesson that is expected to teach students’ science process skills and can help build their understanding of the concept of buoyant force. This learning can be carried out for students at the junior high school level. This learning process uses the 5-stage learning cycle consisting of observation, manipulation, generalization, verification, and application phase. Each activity is expected to facilitates students to develop science process skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, asking questions, constructing hypotheses, designing experiments, applying concepts, and communicating.

  14. [The 4-stage continence-micturition cycle. The presentation of a urodynamic, diagnostic and therapeutic abacus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardennois, B; Clément, T; Coulon, J M; Brandt, B

    1990-01-01

    The complexity of the mode of operation of the bladder and urinary sphincter has led to the development of a number of temporospatial physiologic models that divide the process of micturition into several stages in order to facilitate investigations. Ten years ago, the authors described a two-stage continence-micturition model intended to improve the accuracy of studies of urodynamic disorders and thus contribute to the development of more effective and more rational therapeutic solutions. A large number of diseases can affect the distal urinary tract and recent advances in neurophysiology [10] have made the selection of the appropriate therapy extremely complex. Consequently, the authors have developed a decision analysis system that simultaneously confronts diseases, urodynamic manifestations, risks for the patient, and the main therapeutic approaches available. In 1985, they increased the number of stages in their continence-micturition model from two the four. This four-stage model has provided satisfactory result when used with an abacus for modeling observed biologic phenomena. In addition to offering simulation exercises for teaching purposes, this abacus provides the means for studying the instantaneous urodynamic situation (correspondences between cycle time points, symptoms, and effects of treatments) and determining the effect of various medicosocial events on the course of the bladder and sphincter dysfunction. The authors hope this abacus will be an attractive aide to the understanding of the complex function of the distal urinary tract.

  15. Sp100 colocalizes with HPV replication foci and restricts the productive stage of the infectious cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley H Stepp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that Sp100 (a component of the ND10 nuclear body represses transcription, replication and establishment of incoming human papillomavirus (HPV DNA in the early stages of infection. In this follow up study, we show that Sp100 does not substantially regulate viral infection in the maintenance phase, however at late stages of infection Sp100 interacts with amplifying viral genomes to repress viral processes. We find that Sp100 localizes to HPV16 replication foci generated in primary keratinocytes, to HPV31 replication foci that form in differentiated cells, and to HPV16 replication foci in CIN 1 cervical biopsies. To analyze this further, Sp100 was down regulated by siRNA treatment of differentiating HPV31 containing cells and levels of viral transcription and replication were assessed. This revealed that Sp100 represses viral transcription and replication in differentiated cells. Analysis of Sp100 binding to viral chromatin showed that Sp100 bound across the viral genome, and that binding increased at late stages of infection. Therefore, Sp100 represses the HPV life cycle at both early and late stages of infection.

  16. The changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Li, Jing; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men. Point counting method was used to analyze the stereological parameters of Leydig cells. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was calculated in the same testicular tissue samples which were used for Leydig cell stereological analysis. The aging group had shown more severe pathological changes as well as higher pathologic scores than the young group. Compared with the control group, the volume density (VV) and surface density (NA) of Leydig cells in the aging group were increased significantly. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle in the aging group was decreased coincidently compared to the young group. Leydig cell Vv in the young group has a positive relationship with stages I, II, III, V and VI of seminiferous epithelium cycle, and Leydig cell NA and numerical density (NV) were positively related to stage IV. However, only the correlation between NV and stage II was found in the aging group. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was decreased in aging testes. Changes in the stage distribution in aging testes were related to the Leydig cell stereological parameters which presented as a sign of morphological changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Biopsy of human morula-stage embryos: outcome of 215 IVF/ICSI cycles with PGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Zakharova

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is commonly performed on biopsies from 6-8-cell-stage embryos or blastocyst trophectoderm obtained on day 3 or 5, respectively. Day 4 human embryos at the morula stage were successfully biopsied. Biopsy was performed on 709 morulae from 215 ICSI cycles with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS, and 3-7 cells were obtained from each embryo. The most common vital aneuploidies (chromosomes X/Y, 21 were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. No aneuploidy was observed in 72.7% of embryos, 91% of those developed to blastocysts. Embryos were transferred on days 5-6. Clinical pregnancy was obtained in 32.8% of cases, and 60 babies were born. Patients who underwent ICSI/PGS treatment were compared with those who underwent standard ICSI treatment by examining the percentage of blastocysts, pregnancy rate, gestational length, birth height and weight. No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the groups. Day 4 biopsy procedure does not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The increased number of cells obtained by biopsy of morulae might facilitate diagnostic screening. There is enough time after biopsy to obtain PGD results for embryo transfer on day 5-6 in the current IVF cycle.

  18. Thermodynamics analysis of a modified dual-evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two-stage ejector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Tao; Yan, Gang; Yu, Jianlin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a modified dual-evaporator CO 2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two-stage ejector (MDRC) is proposed. In MDRC, the two-stage ejector are employed to recover the expansion work from cycle throttling processes and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analyses. The simulation results for the modified cycle show that two-stage ejector exhibits more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in CO 2 dual-temperature refrigeration cycle, and the improvements of the maximum system COP (coefficient of performance) and system exergy efficiency could reach 37.61% and 31.9% over those of the conventional dual-evaporator cycle under the given operating conditions. The exergetic analysis for each component at optimum discharge pressure indicates that the gas cooler, compressor, two-stage ejector and expansion valves contribute main portion to the total system exergy destruction, and the exergy destruction caused by the two-stage ejector could amount to 16.91% of the exergy input. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system. - Highlights: • Two-stage ejector is used in dual-evaporator CO 2 transcritical refrigeration cycle. • Energetic and exergetic methods are carried out to analyze the system performance. • The modified cycle could obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. • Two-stage ejector could effectively improve system COP and exergy efficiency

  19. Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal-mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early 'refractory' and late 'competent' telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active 'regenerative mode' of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen biology also

  20. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  1. Growth and airborne transmission of cell-sorted life cycle stages of Pneumocystis carinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Martinez

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis organisms are airborne opportunistic pathogens that cannot be continuously grown in culture. Consequently, the follow-up of Pneumocystis stage-to-stage differentiation, the sequence of their multiplication processes as well as formal identification of the transmitted form have remained elusive. The successful high-speed cell sorting of trophic and cystic forms is paving the way for the elucidation of the complex Pneumocystis life cycle. The growth of each sorted Pneumocystis stage population was followed up independently both in nude rats and in vitro. In addition, by setting up a novel nude rat model, we attempted to delineate which cystic and/or trophic forms can be naturally aerially transmitted from host to host. The results showed that in axenic culture, cystic forms can differentiate into trophic forms, whereas trophic forms are unable to evolve into cystic forms. In contrast, nude rats inoculated with pure trophic forms are able to produce cystic forms and vice versa. Transmission experiments indicated that 12 h of contact between seeder and recipient nude rats was sufficient for cystic forms to be aerially transmitted. In conclusion, trophic- to cystic-form transition is a key step in the proliferation of Pneumocystis microfungi because the cystic forms (but not the trophic forms can be transmitted by aerial route from host to host.

  2. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  3. Spirocyclic chromanes exhibit antiplasmodial activities and inhibit all intraerythrocytic life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bracken F; Iyamu, Iredia D; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Kyle, Dennis E; Yuan, Yu; Manetsch, Roman; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2016-04-01

    We screened a collection of synthetic compounds consisting of natural-product-like substructural motifs to identify a spirocyclic chromane as a novel antiplasmodial pharmacophore using an unbiased cell-based assay. The most active spirocyclic compound UCF 201 exhibits a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 350 nM against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain and a selectivity over 50 using human liver HepG2 cells. Our analyses of physicochemical properties of UCF 201 showed that it is in compliance with Lipinski's parameters and has an acceptable physicochemical profile. We have performed a limited structure-activity-relationship study with commercially available chromanes preserving the spirocyclic motif. Our evaluation of stage specificities of UCF 201 indicated that the compound is early-acting in blocking parasite development at ring, trophozoite and schizont stages of development as well as merozoite invasion. SPC is an attractive lead candidate scaffold because of its ability to act on all stages of parasite's aexual life cycle unlike current antimalarials.

  4. Cell cycle stage dependent variations in drug-induced topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, E.; Adlakha, R.C.; Hittelman, W.N.; Zwelling, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA cleavage produced by 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA) in mammalian cells is putatively mediated by topoisomerase II. The authors found that in synchronized HeLa cells the frequency of such cleavage was 4-15-fold greater in mitosis than in S while the DNA of G 1 and G 2 cells exhibited an intermediate susceptibility to cleavage. The hypersensitivity of mitotic DNA to m-AMSA-induced cleavage was acquired relatively abruptly in late G 2 and was lost similarly abruptly in early G 1 . The susceptibility of mitotic cells to m-AMSA-induced DNA cleavage was not clearly paralleled by an increase in topoisomerase II activity in 350 mM NaCl extracts from mitotic cells compared to similar extracts from cells in G 1 , S, or G 2 . Furthermore, equal amounts of decatenating activity from cells in mitosis and S produced equal amounts of m-AMSA-induced cleavage of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA; i.e., the interaction between m-AMSA and extractable enzyme was similar in mitosis and S. The DNA of mitotic cells was also hypersensitive to cleavage by 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin 4-(4,6-O-ethylidene-β-D-glucopyranoside) (etoposide), a drug that produces topoisomerase II mediated DNA cleavage without binding to DNA. Cell cycle stage dependent fluctuations in m-AMSA-induced DNA cleavage may result from fluctuations in the structure of chromatin per se that occur during the cell cycle. Surprisingly, cell cycle stage dependent differences in m-AMSA-induced DNA cleavage did not correlate with differences in the susceptibility to the cytotoxic effects of the drug. In fact, cells in S were most sensitive to these effects. These results are an exception to the previously observed parallel between the susceptibility of mammalian cells to drug-induced DNA cleavage and the susceptibility of the cells to drug-induced cytotoxicity and indicate the complexity of any relationship between the two phenomena

  5. Climate change leads to differential shifts in the timing of annual cycle stages in a migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotani, Barbara M; van der Jeugd, Henk; Gienapp, Phillip; de la Hera, Iván; Pilzecker, Jos; Teichmann, Corry; Visser, Marcel E

    2018-02-01

    Shifts in reproductive phenology due to climate change have been well documented in many species but how, within the same species, other annual cycle stages (e.g. moult, migration) shift relative to the timing of breeding has rarely been studied. When stages shift at different rates, the interval between stages may change resulting in overlaps, and as each stage is energetically demanding, these overlaps may have negative fitness consequences. We used long-term data of a population of European pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) to investigate phenological shifts in three annual cycle stages: spring migration (arrival dates), breeding (egg-laying and hatching dates) and the onset of postbreeding moult. We found different advancements in the timing of breeding compared with moult (moult advances faster) and no advancement in arrival dates. To understand these differential shifts, we explored which temperatures best explain the year-to-year variation in the timing of these stages, and show that they respond differently to temperature increases in the Netherlands, causing the intervals between arrival and breeding and between breeding and moult to decrease. Next, we tested the fitness consequences of these shortened intervals. We found no effect on clutch size, but the probability of a fledged chick to recruit increased with a shorter arrival-breeding interval (earlier breeding). Finally, mark-recapture analyses did not detect an effect of shortened intervals on adult survival. Our results suggest that the advancement of breeding allows more time for fledgling development, increasing their probability to recruit. This may incur costs to other parts of the annual cycle, but, despite the shorter intervals, there was no effect on adult survival. Our results show that to fully understand the consequences of climate change, it is necessary to look carefully at different annual cycle stages, especially for organisms with complex cycles, such as migratory birds. © 2017

  6. Influence of irradiation at different stages of mitotic cycle upon production of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoshina, M.M.; Poryadkova, N.A.; Luchnik, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and microexchanges in Chinese hamster cells has been studied by means of the method of differential staining of chromatids on irradiation at different stages of the mitotic cycle. It is shown that the irradiation enhances frequency of SCE and microexchanges if it is carried out before the end of DNA replication synthesis. Comparison of frequency depenedence of radiation-induced microexchanges and SCE at different stages of the mitotic cycle results in the conclusion that the microexchanges are none other than small SCE

  7. A multi-stage malaria vaccine candidate targeting both transmission and asexual parasite life-cycle stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Michael; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K

    2014-01-01

    that combine antigens from both stages may provide direct protection and indirect benefit by reducing the force of infection. We constructed a chimeric antigen composed of a fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) glutamate-rich protein fused in frame to a correctly folded fragment of Pfs48/45. The chimera...... was produced in Lactococcus lactis and induced robust antibody responses in rodents to the individual components. Specific antibodies showed strong transmission blocking activity against multiple Pf-strains in the standard membrane feeding assay and functional activity against asexual stages in the antibody...

  8. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes.

  9. Study of cell cycle parameters of man lymphocytes irradiated at various stages using differential coloring of sister chromatides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poryadkova, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of the cell cycle of human lymphocytes are specified, radiation effect applied at various stages of mitotic cycle on the kinetics of cell advance in the cycle is also investigated. It is shown that increasing mitotic index occurs only due to the introduction of cells into the first mitosis. It is not excluded that cells ready to enter the second mitosis died with greater probability as after second synthesis they contained two-fold amount of BDU (5-brominedesoxiuridine) than cells of the first mitosis. In all cases with irradiation of cells of the third mitosis were not found

  10. Land use reconversion in the drought-and aridity-affected areas in SW Romania (Bechet, Dolj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VIJULIE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the terms of current climate change, reconversion of land use in the drought-and aridityaffected south-western Romania, is an issue of utmost priority. Thus, the present study aim represents a diachronic analysis of the land use within the Bechet town area and proposes viable solutions for soil drought and aridity mitigation. Since 1989, uncontrolled and abusive logging affected the black locust forest areas, enabling the sand dunes expansion and causing ecological disturbance. The main research methods were: field observation, statistical-mathematical methods and GIS mapping. The analysis of topographic maps and orthophotographs in 1970 to 2008 revealed a very low spatial distribution of both the forest shelterbelts and shelterwoods. We proposed a reconstruction of these forest areas, which today can no longer perform their fundamental function of land protection, because of intensive degradation. The positive consequences on long term would be the mitigation of climate change impact and prevention of further land degradation.

  11. The Evaluation Life Cycle: A Retrospective Assessment of Stages and Phases of the Circles of Care Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Gary; Allen, James; Deters, Pamela B.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle metaphor characterizes the evolving relationship between the evaluator and program staff. This framework suggests that common developmental dynamics occur in roughly the same order across groups and settings. There are stage-specific dynamics that begin with Pre-History, which characterize the relationship between the grantees and…

  12. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  13. Performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle and reverse Brayton cycle for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. C.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle (MJTR) and pure refrigerant reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads was conducted in this paper. Nitrogen under various liquefaction pressures was employed as the heat load. The research was conducted under nonideal conditions by exergy analysis methods. Exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity are two main evaluation parameters. Exergy loss distribution in each process of refrigeration cycle was also investigated. The exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity of MJTR were obviously superior to RBC in 90 to 120 K temperature zone, but still inferior to RBC at 80 K. The performance degradation of MJTR was caused by two main reasons: The high fraction of neon resulted in large entropy generation and exergy loss in throttling process. Larger duty and WLMTD lead to larger exergy losses in recuperator.

  14. Brachylaima cribbi (Digenea: Brachylaimidae): scanning electron microscopical observations of the life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A R; Brealey, J K; Grove, D I; Dymock, R B

    2002-09-01

    Brachylaima cribbi is a recently described species of terrestrial trematode that infects mammals and birds with helicid land snails as its first and second intermediate hosts. The adult worm is 2.5-6.0 mm long by 0.5-0.8 mm wide being a long slender cylindrical worm with oral and ventral suckers in the anterior quarter and genital pore in the posterior quarter. Scanning electron microscopy shows that there is a dense covering of tegumental spines at the anterior end which diminishes towards the posterior extremities of the worm. Development of spines was observed in juvenile and mature adult worms. In young worms 1-3 weeks post infection (wpi) spines appear as buds with a serrated edge each having 1-4 spikes per spine. As the worm ages the spines broaden and by 5 wpi the number of spikes per spine increases to an average of 8.1. The serial development of oral sucker papillae in the cercaria, metacercaria and adult worm was observed with the finding of an elongated papilla with a bifurcated tip on the cercaria becoming a shorter and thicker elongated papilla with a large central stoma on the metacercaria. In the adult worm, this papilla becomes dome-shaped with a small central stoma. For some of these papillae a cilium could be seen extended from the central stoma. Other life-cycle stages illustrated were the hatched egg with an extruded egg membrane minus an operculum and a portion of the branched sporocyst dissected from the digestive gland of the land snail Theba pisana showing a terminal birth pore. Scanning electron microscopy morphological features of the adult worm observed for the first time in a Brachylaima were the unarmed cirrus extended from the genital pore with released sperm present and the Laurer's canal opening visible in tegumental folds on the dorsal surface approximately 300 microm posterior to the genital pore.

  15. Interictal spike frequency varies with ovarian cycle stage in a rat model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, James; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Moretto, Jillian; Friedman, Daniel; LaFrancois, John J; Pearce, Patrice; Fenton, Andre A; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E

    2015-07-01

    In catamenial epilepsy, seizures exhibit a cyclic pattern that parallels the menstrual cycle. Many studies suggest that catamenial seizures are caused by fluctuations in gonadal hormones during the menstrual cycle, but this has been difficult to study in rodent models of epilepsy because the ovarian cycle in rodents, called the estrous cycle, is disrupted by severe seizures. Thus, when epilepsy is severe, estrous cycles become irregular or stop. Therefore, we modified kainic acid (KA)- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) models of epilepsy so that seizures were rare for the first months after SE, and conducted video-EEG during this time. The results showed that interictal spikes (IIS) occurred intermittently. All rats with regular 4-day estrous cycles had IIS that waxed and waned with the estrous cycle. The association between the estrous cycle and IIS was strong: if the estrous cycles became irregular transiently, IIS frequency also became irregular, and when the estrous cycle resumed its 4-day pattern, IIS frequency did also. Furthermore, when rats were ovariectomized, or males were recorded, IIS frequency did not show a 4-day pattern. Systemic administration of an estrogen receptor antagonist stopped the estrous cycle transiently, accompanied by transient irregularity of the IIS pattern. Eventually all animals developed severe, frequent seizures and at that time both the estrous cycle and the IIS became irregular. We conclude that the estrous cycle entrains IIS in the modified KA and pilocarpine SE models of epilepsy. The data suggest that the ovarian cycle influences more aspects of epilepsy than seizure susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting off-design range and performance of refrigeration cycle with two-stage centrifugal compressor and flash intercooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu; Roeyttae, Pekka; Honkatukia, Juha; Backman, Jari [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2010-09-15

    A modern refrigeration process requires constant control to provide required cooling for the user. To properly and economically accommodate this need, a wide operation range of the compressor is necessary. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the off-design operation of a cooling cycle and compressor. The refrigeration cycle equipped with a two-stage centrifugal compressor and a flash intercooler is studied. The compressor operation maps are generated with two different design codes and the operation values of the compressors are interpolated from the compressor maps in the simulation of the entire cooling cycle. Based on the previous studies of the utilised refrigeration cycle, R245fa is selected as coolant. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the control capacity of the centrifugal compressor and the performance of the cooling loop in off-design conditions. This configuration provides better and wider control over the cooling range than the traditional on-off control of displacement compressors. (author)

  17. Comparing plant life histories using elasticity analysis: the importance of life span and the number of life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, N J; Franco, M; Silvertown, J

    1995-09-01

    Recent studies have used transition matrix elasticity analysis to investigate the relative role of survival (L), growth (G) and fecundity (F) in determining the estimated rate of population increase for perennial plants. The relative importance of these three variables has then been used as a framework for comparing patterns of plant life history in a triangular parameter space. Here we analyse the ways in which the number of life-cycle stages chosen to describe a species (transition matrix dimensionality) might influence the interpretation of such comparisons. Because transition matrix elements describing survival ("stasis") and growth are not independent, the number of stages used to describe a species influences their relative contribution to the population growth rate. Reduction in the number of stages increases the apparent importance of stasis relative to growth, since each becomes broader and fewer individuals make the transition to the next stage per unit time period. Analysis of a test matrix for a hypothetical tree species divided into 4-32 life-cycle stages confirms this. If the number of stages were defined in relation to species longevity so that mean residence time in each stage were approximately constant, then the elasticity of G would reflect the importance of relative growth rate to λ. An alternative, and simpler, approach to ensure comparability of results between species may be to use the same number of stages regardless of species longevity. Published studies for both herbaceous and woody species have tended to use relatively few stages to describe life cycles (herbs: n=45, [Formula: see text]; woody plants: n=21, [Formula: see text]) and so approximate this approach. By using the same number of stages regardless of longevities, the position of species along the G-L side of the triangular parameter space largely reflects differences in longevity. The extent of variation in elasticity for L, G and F within and between species may also be

  18. Life Cycle Stage-resolved Proteomic Analysis of the Excretome/Secretome from Strongyloides ratti—Identification of Stage-specific Proteases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soblik, Hanns; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Mitreva, Makedonka; Renard, Bernhard Y.; Kirchner, Marc; Geisinger, Frank; Steen, Hanno; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of biomolecules, including proteins, are excreted and secreted from helminths and contribute to the parasite's successful establishment, survival, and reproduction in an adverse habitat. Excretory and secretory proteins (ESP) are active at the interface between parasite and host and comprise potential targets for intervention. The intestinal nematode Strongyloides spp. exhibits an exceptional developmental plasticity in its life cycle characterized by parasitic and free-living generations. We investigated ESP from infective larvae, parasitic females, and free-living stages of the rat parasite Strongyloides ratti, which is genetically very similar to the human pathogen, Strongyloides stercoralis. Proteomic analysis of ESP revealed 586 proteins, with the largest number of stage-specific ESP found in infective larvae (196), followed by parasitic females (79) and free-living stages (35). One hundred and forty proteins were identified in all studied stages, including anti-oxidative enzymes, heat shock proteins, and carbohydrate-binding proteins. The stage-selective ESP of (1) infective larvae included an astacin metalloproteinase, the L3 Nie antigen, and a fatty acid retinoid-binding protein; (2) parasitic females included a prolyl oligopeptidase (prolyl serine carboxypeptidase), small heat shock proteins, and a secreted acidic protein; (3) free-living stages included a lysozyme family member, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme, and saponin-like protein. We verified the differential expression of selected genes encoding ESP by qRT-PCR. ELISA analysis revealed the recognition of ESP by antibodies of S. ratti-infected rats. A prolyl oligopeptidase was identified as abundant parasitic female-specific ESP, and the effect of pyrrolidine-based prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors showed concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on female motility. The characterization of stage-related ESP from Strongyloides will help to further understand the interaction of

  19. Optimization of material flow in the nuclear fuel cycle using a cyclic multi-stage production-to-inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePorter, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is modelled as a cyclic, multi-stage production-to-inventory system. The objective is to meet a known deterministic demand for energy while minimizing acquisition, production, and inventory holding costs for all stages of the fuel cycle. The model allows for cyclic flow (feedback) of materials, material flow conversion factors at each stage, production lag times at each stage, and for escalating costs of uranium ore. It does not allow shortages to occur in inventories. The model is optimized by the application of the calculus of variations and specifically through recently developed theorems on the solution of functionals constrained by inequalities. The solution is a set of optimal cumulative production trajectories which define the stagewise production rates. Analysis of these production rates reveals the optimal nuclear fuel cycle costs and that inventories (stockpiles) occur in uranium fields, enriched uranium hexafluoride, and fabricated fuel assemblies. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to variation in three important parameters is performed

  20. The localization of kisspeptin and kisspeptin receptor in the canine ovary during different stages of the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielesh, M E; McGrath, B M; Scott, C J; Norman, S T; Stephen, C P

    2017-04-01

    Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide involved in the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction in many species. Recent studies have revealed kisspeptin within the ovaries of rats, Siberian hamsters and humans, indicating a local role in reproduction. However, the role of kisspeptin in the ovary is poorly understood in the bitch. This study investigated the presence and location of kisspeptin protein (KISS1) and kisspeptin receptors (KISS1R) in the canine ovary during different stages of the reproductive cycle (pre-pubertal, anoestrus and cycling) by means of immunohistochemical staining. Ovaries from 24 bitches presented at local veterinary clinics for routine ovariohysterectomy were collected and grouped based on reproductive stage (pre-pubertal, anoestrus and cycling (proestrus, oestrus and dioestrus)). The presence or absence of immunoreactive KISS1 and KISS1R was recorded without any quantification of the levels of expression within cells. Immunoreactive KISS1 was found in the oocytes during all stages of the oestrous cycle, in the granulosa cells during all stages except anoestrus and in the corpus luteum (CL) during dioestrus. KISS1 was absent in the ovaries of pre-pubescent bitches. Immunoreactive KISS1R were consistently found in the oocytes, primordial follicles, the granulosa cells and CL in cycling bitches. The finding of KISS1R in the granulosa cells is suggestive that kisspeptin and progesterone may be linked as this pattern of staining is seen in animals that show preovulatory luteinisation of follicles during oestrus, KISS1R were also observed in the ovaries of pre-pubescent and anoestrous bitches, suggesting a possible role of kisspeptin in oocyte proliferation, development and maturation of granulosa cells, and progesterone production. This study provides a starting point for the establishment of a canine model for kisspeptin regulation within the ovary. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a two-stage organic Rankine cycle for liquefied natural gas cryogenic exergy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiaodi; Guo, Cong; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Lijun; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage ORC (organic Rankine cycle) is proposed, by which low-grade heat of exhaust flue gas of a 123.5 MW gas-steam combined cycle power generating unit, as well as the cryogenic energy of LNG (liquefied natural gas) can be effectively recovered and utilized. R227ea and R116 are selected as working fluids for the system. Based on the thermodynamic mathematical models, the effects of key design parameters, including that of turbine inlet pressures, mass flow rates of working fluids and outlet steam fractions of evaporators on the system performance are investigated from the view of both thermodynamics and economics with CPP (cost per net power output) as the objective function. The results obtained the optimal inlet pressure of turbines, under which, the CPP has the minimum value. It is found that the CPP also decreases with the mass flow rate of R227ea and R116. The rate of absorbed heat in top cycle to that in bottom cycle has a positive impact on CPP, but very weak. The optimized two-stage ORC system can output net work with 1776.44 kW with the thermal efficiency of 25.64% and exergy efficiency of 31.02%. Cost per net power output is 6.3$/W, while the LNG temperature can be raised to 283.15 K. - Highlights: • Two-stage organic Rankine cycle is proposed to recover both exhaust heat of flue gas and LNG cryogenic exergy. • Flue gas from a gas-steam combined cycle power plant and LNG are employed as heat source and heat sink, respectively. • Thermodynamic and economic mathematical models are established. • Parameter optimization is studied and optimal design with the CPP of 6.3$/W is obtained. • Effects of key thermodynamic design parameters on system performance are investigated

  2. The optimum intermediate pressure of two-stages vapor compression refrigeration cycle for Air-Conditioning unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Sihombing, H. V.

    2018-03-01

    Vapor compression cycle is mainly employed as a refrigeration cycle in the Air-Conditioning (AC) unit. In order to save energy, the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the need to be improved. One of the potential solutions is to modify the system into multi-stages vapor compression cycle. The suitable intermediate pressure between the high and low pressures is one of the design issues. The present work deals with the investigation of an optimum intermediate pressure of two-stages vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Typical vapor compression cycle that is used in AC unit is taken into consideration. The used refrigerants are R134a. The governing equations have been developed for the systems. An inhouse program has been developed to solve the problem. COP, mass flow rate of the refrigerant and compressor power as a function of intermediate pressure are plotted. It was shown that there exists an optimum intermediate pressure for maximum COP. For refrigerant R134a, the proposed correlations need to be revised.

  3. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  4. Testis Morphometry and Stages of the Seminiferous Epithelium Cycle in an Epididymal Sperm-storing Neotropical Vespertilionid, Myotis levis (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, T O; Notini, A A; Talamoni, S A; Godinho, H P

    2015-10-01

    Yellowish myotis, Myotis levis, is a seasonal, epididymal sperm-storing Neotropical vespertilionid. In the dry season, males show simultaneous testis regression and sperm storage in cauda epididymis, enabling them to mate during this season. In this study, we investigated seasonal variations in body mass, diameter and height of seminiferous tubules and nuclei of Leydig cells in a population of southeastern Brazil. We also determined the frequencies of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of mature individuals of this population. Body mass and diameter of Leydig cell nuclei showed no significant differences between dry and rainy seasons and stages of annual reproductive cycle; however, all other morphometric parameters varied significantly. The relative cumulative frequency of pre-meiotic stages of the SEC (1-3) was 51%, of meiotic stage (4) was 2% and of post-meiotic stages (5-8) was 47%. We confirmed that the yellowish myotis presents seasonal sperm production as revealed by testis regression and epididymal sperm storage during the dry season. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; von der Maase, Hans; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors.METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of patients...

  6. Perceived Risk Influence on the Consumer Attitude to Private Labels in the Product’s Life Cycle Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between purchasing risk associated with private labels and consumer attitudes towards private labels in different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief literature review of the relevant constructs. The second part describes the research and summarizes its results. Descriptive research was conducted on the Croatian market relating to private labels in three different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle: liquid soap, chocolate and facial care products. The results confirm negative correlation between perceived risk and attitudes towards private labels in all analysed categories.

  7. Studies on Some Developmental Stages in the Life Cycle of Pygidiopsis genata (Looss 1907) (Trematoda:Heterophidae) from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    1he E . .. " . ’ , ;c,1. 17 No 2. 19S7. STUDIES ON _S.JME DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES IN TIE LIFE CYCLE OF PYGIDIOPSIS GENATA LOOS. 1901f ( Trematoda ...Looss 1896) ( Trematoda , Heterophyidae) with a discussion on pre- viously described forms. Acts, Parasitol. Polonlca 25: 325-38. Khalil, M. (1932...Sur une nouvelle espece du genre Pygidiopsis pfrzdoramenai. n. sp. Trematoda C R Soc Biol 100: 956- 957. -473 - Vasque-Colet, A., Africa, CM. (1938

  8. The control system of the ecological hybrid two stages refrigerating cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyklis Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression anticlockwise cycle is mostly used for refrigeration. However due to the environmental regulations, the use of classic refrigerants: F-gases is limited by international agreements. Therefore the combined compression-adsorption hybrid cycle with natural liquids: water/carbon dioxide working as the energy carriers is a promising solution. This allows to utilize the solar or waste energy for the refrigeration purpose. In this paper application of the solar collectors as the energy source for the adsorption cycle, coupled with the low temperature (LT refrigerating carbon dioxide compression cycle is shown. The control of the system is an essential issue to reduce the electric power consumption. The control of the solar heat supply and water sprayed cooling tower, for the adsorption cycle re-cooling, is presented in this paper. The designed control system and algorithm is related to the LT compression cycle, which operates according to the need of cold for the refrigeration chamber. The results of the laboratory investigations of the full system, showing the reduction of the energy consumption and maximum utilization of the solar heat for different control methods are presented.

  9. The results of the vine varieties reconversion measures in the North-Eastern Romania / Résultats de la mesure de reconversion des cépages dans le Nord-Est de la Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enia Florin-Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vine varieties reconversion measure is one of the many benefits that the Romania's integration to the European Union brings to the wine sector. This study aims to analyze the results of this measure during 2007–2015 in the Romania's North-East Region. From the Vineyard Plantation Register, the plots noble vine parcels of each department were divided into two groups: those who existed in the field in before and those converted during the period. The surface of each group was classified first, based on the color of the grapes and secondarily, based on the pair international varieties – non international varieties. The conversion affected 3 of 6 departments. In Iaşi, where the proportion of the surface of white grapes approach to 90% in 2006, the conversion was made whit white grapes (81.3% of the surface, and particularly whit 4 local varieties corresponding to the traditional assortment of the Cotnari vineyard. In Vaslui, the conversion was made particularly with white grape varieties, but below the proportion held in 2006, because the conversion was made whit a large area of rosé varieties (19.2% of the surface following the consumer demand. With the exception of Bacău, in the other two departments, the non-international and local varieties were used for the conversion.

  10. Psychosocial stages and the accessibility of autobiographical memories across the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A; Holmes, Alison

    2004-06-01

    Older adults recalled memories from each decade of life. Memories were classified in terms of the psychosocial stages to which their content corresponded. For the majority of memories it was found that age at encoding corresponded to when specific psychosocial stages would have been most likely to have occurred. In a second experiment older adults recalled memories to cues drawn from psychosocial stages and the same pattern of findings was observed. These findings demonstrate that the goals of the self play a major role in both the encoding and accessibility of autobiographical memories, and they also provide support for Erikson's psychosocial theory of development (1950, 1997).

  11. Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Sotres, F.; Miralles, I.; Canton-Castilla, Y.; Domingo, F.; Leiros, M. C.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.

    2012-04-01

    Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones I. Miralles1, F. Gil-Sotres2, Y. Cantón-Castilla3, F. Domingo1, M.C. Leirós2, C. Trasar-Cepeda4 1 Experimental Estation of Arid Zones (CSIC), E-04230 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 2 Departamento Edafología y Química Agrícola, Grupo de Evaluación de la Calidad del Suelo, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 3 University of Almería, Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, E-04230-La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 4 Departamento Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, E-15708 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Crusts (BSCs) are formed by a close association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and microfungi in varying proportions. Their habitat is within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimetres of the soil and are the predominant surface cover in arid and semiarid zones. Among the diverse functions developed by BSCs in the ecosystem (hydrology, erosion, soil properties, etc.), one of the most important is its role in nutrient cycling. Within arid and semiarid environments, BSCs have been termed 'mantles of fertility' being considered hotspots of biogeochemical inputs, fixing C, N and P above- and below-ground. However, there are differences in N and C fixation rates between BSCs types. Early successional BSCs, dominated by cyanobacterial species, fix lower quantities of C and N than mature BSCs dominated by lichens. Although the positive effects of BSCs on biogeochemical soil cycles are widely accepted, no previous studies have evaluated the activities of the enzymes involved in C, N and P cycles of BSCs and how they are affected by the successional stage of the BSC. In this work, performed in the Tabernas desert (SE Spain), we studied the hydrolase enzymes

  12. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as

  13. Hormone-Dependence of Sarin Lethality in Rats: Sex Differences and Stage of the Estrous Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    fromCharles River Laboratories (Kingston, NY) and housed under normal 12:12 h light cycle with food and water available ad libitum. OVEX females had their... Testosterone also relaxes the airway (Montano et al., 2014), which may account for the higher LD50 of sarin in males compared to OVEX females

  14. Understanding the addiction cycle: a complex biology with distinct contributions of genotype vs. sex at each stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C J; Hashimoto, J G; Roberts, M L; Sonmez, M K; Wiren, K M

    2014-10-24

    Ethanol abuse can lead to addiction, brain damage and premature death. The cycle of alcohol addiction has been described as a composite consisting of three stages: intoxication, withdrawal and craving/abstinence. There is evidence for contributions of both genotype and sex to alcoholism, but an understanding of the biological underpinnings is limited. Utilizing both sexes of genetic animal models with highly divergent alcohol withdrawal severity, Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) mice, the distinct contributions of genotype/phenotype and of sex during addiction stages on neuroadaptation were characterized. Transcriptional profiling was performed to identify expression changes as a consequence of chronic intoxication in the medial prefrontal cortex. Significant expression differences were identified on a single platform and tracked over a behaviorally relevant time course that covered each stage of alcohol addiction; i.e., after chronic intoxication, during peak withdrawal, and after a defined period of abstinence. Females were more sensitive to ethanol with higher fold expression differences. Bioinformatics showed a strong effect of sex on the data structure of expression profiles during chronic intoxication and at peak withdrawal irrespective of genetic background. However, during abstinence, differences were observed instead between the lines/phenotypes irrespective of sex. Confirmation of identified pathways showed distinct inflammatory signaling following intoxication at peak withdrawal, with a pro-inflammatory phenotype in females but overall suppression of immune signaling in males. Combined, these results suggest that each stage of the addiction cycle is influenced differentially by sex vs. genetic background and support the development of stage- and sex-specific therapies for alcohol withdrawal and the maintenance of sobriety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. In-vitro adhesion of endometrium to autologous peritoneal membranes: effect of the cycle phase and the stage of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrock, Sophie; Vander Perre, Sarah; Meuleman, Christel; Moerman, Philippe; Hill, Joseph A; D'Hooghe, Thomas M

    2002-10-01

    Endometrium can adhere to autologous peritoneum. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle phase and the presence and stage of endometriosis on in-vitro adhesion of endometrium onto autologous peritoneum. This was performed in an academic medical research centre. Sixty-seven subfertile women with a visually normal pelvis (n = 18) and with biopsy-proven endometriosis (n = 49) were included. Endometrial and peritoneal biopsies were obtained at laparoscopy during menstrual, follicular and luteal phase. Endometrium was cultured in vitro with autologous peritoneum, followed by fixation, paraffin embedding, serial sectioning, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Endometrial-peritoneal adhesion was evaluated using light microscopy. Endometrial-peritoneal adhesion was observed in approximately 80% of the adhesion assays and was not affected by the phase of the cycle, or by the presence and stage of endometriosis. The continuity of the mesothelial layer was disrupted at the attachment sites. Epithelialization was observed along the edges to integrate the endometrial implant. After adhesion, histological changes were observed within and below the implant. Endometrium obtained during menstrual, follicular or luteal phase appears to have a similar potential to implant in vitro on autologous peritoneum, and this adhesion process is not affected by the stage of endometriosis.

  16. Reaction of cows ovaries to GnRH administration in different estrus cycle stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Ciolac Șipețan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of GnRH in the luteal phase of estrous in dairy cows induces an increase of LH levels, with the modification of the growth waves of the ovarian follicles. GnRH induces ovulation or atresia of the dominant follicle and the recruitment of a new wave of follicular growth. The GnRH administration in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle induces growth waves synchronization of ovarian follicles, so that, a new wave of follicles started to grow at 5-6 days after administration. In our experiments, we administered 2ml Ovarelin (100 mcg GnRH, to three groups of cows (116 cows: in early luteal phase of the estrous cycle (days 4-5, in the middle of luteal phase (days 9-12, and late luteal phase (days 15-16. The rates of cows standing heat were 91.66% when GnRH was administered in early luteal phase, 95.22% when was administrated in the middle of luteal phase, and 73.68% in late luteal phase GnRH administration. After artificial insemination, the conception rates were 48.48% in early luteal phase, 52.5% at middle luteal phase and 46.42% in the late luteal phase of the estrous cycle.

  17. High-Throughput Chemical Screening Identifies Compounds that Inhibit Different Stages of the Phytophthora agathidicida and Phytophthora cinnamomi Life Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oomycetes in the genus Phytophthora are among the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Two important species are Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot in thousands of native and agricultural plants, and Phytophthora agathidicida, which causes kauri dieback disease in New Zealand. As is the case for other Phytophthora species, management options for these two pathogens are limited. Here, we have screened over 100 compounds for their anti-oomycete activity, as a potential first step toward identifying new control strategies. Our screening identified eight compounds that showed activity against both Phytophthora species. These included five antibiotics, two copper compounds and a quaternary ammonium cation. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory action against three stages of the Phytophthora life cycle: mycelial growth, zoospore germination, and zoospore motility. The inhibitory effects of the compounds were broadly similar between the two Phytophthora species, but their effectiveness varied widely among life cycle stages. Mycelial growth was most successfully inhibited by the antibiotics chlortetracycline and paromomycin, and the quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride. Copper chloride and copper sulfate were most effective at inhibiting zoospore germination and motility, whereas the five antibiotics showed relatively poor zoospore inhibition. Benzethonium chloride was identified as a promising antimicrobial, as it is effective across all three life cycle stages. While further testing is required to determine their efficacy and potential phytotoxicity in planta, we have provided new data on those agents that are, and those that are not, effective against P. agathidicida and P. cinnamomi. Additionally, we present here the first published protocol for producing zoospores from P. agathidicida, which will aid in the further study of this emerging pathogen.

  18. High-Throughput Chemical Screening Identifies Compounds that Inhibit Different Stages of the Phytophthora agathidicida and Phytophthora cinnamomi Life Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Scott A; Armstrong, Charlotte B; Patrick, Wayne M; Gerth, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    Oomycetes in the genus Phytophthora are among the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Two important species are Phytophthora cinnamomi , which causes root rot in thousands of native and agricultural plants, and Phytophthora agathidicida , which causes kauri dieback disease in New Zealand. As is the case for other Phytophthora species, management options for these two pathogens are limited. Here, we have screened over 100 compounds for their anti-oomycete activity, as a potential first step toward identifying new control strategies. Our screening identified eight compounds that showed activity against both Phytophthora species. These included five antibiotics, two copper compounds and a quaternary ammonium cation. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory action against three stages of the Phytophthora life cycle: mycelial growth, zoospore germination, and zoospore motility. The inhibitory effects of the compounds were broadly similar between the two Phytophthora species, but their effectiveness varied widely among life cycle stages. Mycelial growth was most successfully inhibited by the antibiotics chlortetracycline and paromomycin, and the quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride. Copper chloride and copper sulfate were most effective at inhibiting zoospore germination and motility, whereas the five antibiotics showed relatively poor zoospore inhibition. Benzethonium chloride was identified as a promising antimicrobial, as it is effective across all three life cycle stages. While further testing is required to determine their efficacy and potential phytotoxicity in planta , we have provided new data on those agents that are, and those that are not, effective against P. agathidicida and P. cinnamomi . Additionally, we present here the first published protocol for producing zoospores from P. agathidicida , which will aid in the further study of this emerging pathogen.

  19. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  20. Knocking on Industry’s Door: Needs in Product-Cost Optimization in the Early Product Life Cycle Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Walter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While theoretical concepts for product-costing methodologies have evolved over the decades, little emphasis has been placed on their integration into modern information systems. During a co-innovation workshop at SAP SE, we initiated our collaborative research with selected large-scale enterprises from the discrete manufacturing industry. Moreover, we conducted interviews with business experts to gain a sophisticated understanding of the cost-optimization process itself. As a result, we present an exemplary optimization process with an emphasis on the specific characteristics of the product development stage. Based upon this example, we identified associated deficits in information system support. No current software fulfills the enterprises’ requirements regarding cost optimization in the early stages of a product’s life cycle. Thus, the respective processes lack integration in corporate environments. Taking this on, our article compiles detailed problem identification and, moreover, suggests approaches to overcome these hurdles.

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the musculature of various life cycle stages of the cycliophoran Symbion americanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso Neves, Ricardo; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2009-01-01

    Cycliophora is a very recently described phylum of acoelomate metazoans with a complex life cycle and a phylogenetic position that has been under debate ever since its discovery in 1995. Symbion americanus, which lives attached to the mouthparts of the American lobster, Homarus americanus......, represents the second species described for the phylum. Aiming to increase the morphological knowledge about this cryptic clade, the present study describes the muscle arrangement of the feeding stage, the attached Prometheus larva with the dwarf male inside, the free living male, the Pandora larva......, and the chordoid larva of S. americanus using actin staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. 3D reconstructions of the muscular systems are presented. In the feeding stage, circular muscles compose the buccal funnel aperture. In addition, a pair of muscles runs longitudinally in the buccal funnel...

  2. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean-François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-07-24

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans.

  3. Low cycle fatigue analysis of a last stage steam turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Měšťánek P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the low cycle fatigue analysis of the low pressure (LP steam turbine blade. The blade is cyclically loaded by the centrifugal force because of the repeated startups of the turbine. The goal of the research is to develop a technique to assess fatigue life of the blade and to determine the number of startups to the crack initiation. Two approaches were employed. First approach is based on the elastic finite element analysis. Fictive 'elastic' results are recalculated using Neuber's rule and the equivalent energy method. Triaxial state of stress is reduced using von Mises theory. Strain amplitude is calculated employing the cyclic deformation curve. Second approach is based on elastic-plastic FE analysis. Strain amplitude is determined directly from the FE analysis by reducing the triaxial state of strain. Fatigue life was assessed using uniaxial damage parameters. Both approaches are compared and their applicability is discussed. Factors that can influence the fatigue life are introduced. Experimental low cycle fatigue testing is shortly described.

  4. Development of a two-stage microalgae dewatering process – A life cycle assessment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan R. Soomro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically-viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission and process cost, are presented.

  5. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  6. Kinetics of element profile pattern during life cycle stage of morning-glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Tamada, M.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of seven element profiles, macroscopic elements, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Ca, as well as Al and Br, in every tissue of morning-glory (Ipomoea nil L. c.v. Murasaki), from seedling to flowering stage are presented. Barriers for the elements were formed even in the same tissue during different growing phases. Most of Na and Al remained in root tissue, showing the first barrier to the upper part of the plant. During the juvenile phase, the tissues lower than cotyledon stored the elements, especially Ca and Mg. The barrier at cotyledon did not disappear completely until seed ripening stage, except for K. Generally, late developing stem showed lower accumulation of the elements, which seemed to regulate the inflow of Mg, Ca, Cl and Br into flowering tissue. The concentrations of K, Ca, Cl and Br in leaf were kept constant in spite of twice or three times higher concentration of these elements in leaf petiole. After flowering, selective element accumulation was observed during seed development, where most of the elements were accumulated into seed wall, not in seed. Higher concentration of the elements in elder leaf, which falls into ground and will be reused as plant nutrient, might reflect the recycling system of the elements in plants. (author)

  7. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  8. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE ASPECT OF VAGINAL MUCUS IN COWS, IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE SEXUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in cow reproduction activity it is necessary to have knowledge about theparticularities of the reproduction functions at this species, the succession of thephysiological processes which lead to a more precise appreciation of the optimalinsemination moment of the cow after parturition, the normal evolution of gestation,parturition and puerperal period. Vaginal mucus in cows has the capacity tocrystallize, and the ovulation moment is recognized by the quality and intensity of thefern aspect. In the ovulation moment the value of crystallization is maximaldecreasing in the following phases of the sexual cycle, until it complete disappear inthe advanced lutheal phase. There were made smears from vaginal mucus, whichafter microscope examination have been photographed. In the estrus phase thevaginal mucus crystallized with characteristic fern aspects, which disappear invaginal mucus harvested during the metestrus, diestrus and gestation.

  9. Modeling of Thermal Cycle CI Engine with Multi-Stage Fuel Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Jamrozik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a complete thermal cycle modeling of a four-stroke diesel engine with a three-dimensional simulation program CFD - AVL Fire. The object of the simulation was the S320 Andoria engine. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of fuel dose distribution on selected parameters of the combustion process. As a result of the modeling, time spatial pressure distributions, rate of pressure increase, heat release rate and NO and soot emission were obtained for 3 injection strategies: no division, one pilot dose and one main dose and two pilot doses and one main dose. It has been found that the use of pilot doses on the one hand reduces engine hardness and lowers NO emissions and on the other hand, increases soot emissions.

  10. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus microRNAs and their expression in different life cycle stages and parasite genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, M; Prada, L; Mourglia-Ettlin, G; Dematteis, S; Camicia, F; Asurmendi, S; Rosenzvit, M

    2011-03-01

    The aetiological agent of cystic hydatid disease, the platyhelminth parasite Echinococcus granulosus, undergoes a series of metamorphic events during its complex life cycle. One of its developmental stages, the protoscolex, shows a remarkable degree of heterogeneous morphogenesis, being able to develop either into the vesicular or strobilar direction. Another level of complexity is added by the existence of genotypes or strains that differ in the range of intermediate hosts where they can develop and form fertile cysts. These features make E. granulosus an interesting model for developmental studies. Hence, we focused on the study of the regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs), one of the key mechanisms that control development in metazoans and plants and which has not been analysed in E. granulosus yet. In this study, we cloned 38 distinct miRNAs, including four candidate new miRNAs that seem to be specific to Echinococcus spp. Thirty-four cloned sequences were orthologous to miRNAs already described in other organisms and were grouped in 16 metazoan miRNA families, some of them known for their role in the development of other organisms. The expression of some of the cloned miRNAs differs according to the parasite life cycle stage analysed, showing differential developmental expression. We did not detect differences in the expression of the analysed miRNAs between protoscoleces of two parasite genotypes. This work sets the scene for the study of gene regulation mediated by miRNAs in E. granulosus and provides a new approach to study the molecules involved in its developmental plasticity and intermediate host specificity. Understanding the developmental processes of E. granulosus may help to find new strategies for the control of cystic hydatid disease, caused by the metacestode stage of the parasite. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How do mood states change in a multi-stage cycling competition? Comparing high and low performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Forzini, Fabio; Filho, Edson; DI Fronso, Selenia; Sors, Fabrizio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-03-01

    Our purpose was to investigate: (1) differences in mood states between high and low performers at the beginning and end of the Girobio 2012 cycling race, and in respect to both actual and perceived performance; (2) whether the participants' mood states predicted the actual and perceived performance. Profile of Mood States (POMS) of 72 elite cyclists were assessed the day prior to the first (T0) and last stage (T1). At the end of the race, we created two rankings, one based on the total time spent to complete the race (actual ranking) and one based on the average of self-evaluations provided at the end of each stage (perceived ranking). We compared high and low performers, considering both rankings, using a general measure of mood; i.e. the total mood disturbance. Total mood disturbance differed among high and low performers. In particular, high performers mood disturbance did not differ between T0 and T1, whereas low performing cyclists showed higher levels of mood disturbance at the end of the race. Furthermore, we found that mood disturbance at T0 did not predict either actual or perceived performance. The cyclists' mood states at the beginning of the race were not reliable predictors of performance throughout the race. High-performing cyclists maintained a more positive mood profile than their low-performing counterparts at the beginning and end of a multi-stage race.

  12. N-Desmethylclozapine, Fluoxetine, and Salmeterol Inhibit Postentry Stages of the Dengue Virus Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medigeshi, Guruprasad R; Kumar, Rinki; Dhamija, Ekta; Agrawal, Tanvi; Kar, Meenakshi

    2016-11-01

    Around 10,000 people die each year due to severe dengue disease, and two-thirds of the world population lives in a region where dengue disease is endemic. There has been remarkable progress in dengue virus vaccine development; however, there are no licensed antivirals for dengue disease, and none appear to be in clinical trials. We took the approach of repositioning approved drugs for anti-dengue virus activity by screening a library of pharmacologically active compounds. We identified N-desmethylclozapine, fluoxetine hydrochloride, and salmeterol xinafoate as dengue virus inhibitors based on reductions in the numbers of infected cells and viral titers. Dengue virus RNA levels were diminished in inhibitor-treated cells, and this effect was specific to dengue virus, as other flaviviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, or other RNA viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus, were not affected by these inhibitors. All three inhibitors specifically inhibited dengue virus replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 s) in the high-nanomolar range. Estimation of negative-strand RNA intermediates and time-of-addition experiments indicated that inhibition was occurring at a postentry stage, most probably at the initiation of viral RNA replication. Finally, we show that inhibition is most likely due to the modulation of the endolysosomal pathway and induction of autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Medigeshi et al.

  13. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D Rokitta

    Full Text Available Ocean Acidification (OA has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2 partial pressures (pCO(2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2 under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1. Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects

  14. Comparative proteomics of two life cycle stages of stable isotope-labeled Trypanosoma brucei reveals novel components of the parasite's host adaptation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butter, Falk; Bucerius, Ferdinand; Michel, Margaux; Cicova, Zdenka; Mann, Matthias; Janzen, Christian J

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei developed a sophisticated life cycle to adapt to different host environments. Although developmental differentiation of T. brucei has been the topic of intensive research for decades, the mechanisms responsible for adaptation to different host environments are not well understood. We developed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture in trypanosomes to compare the proteomes of two different life cycle stages. Quantitative comparison of 4364 protein groups identified many proteins previously not known to be stage-specifically expressed. The identification of stage-specific proteins helps to understand how parasites adapt to different hosts and provides new insights into differences in metabolism, gene regulation, and cell architecture. A DEAD-box RNA helicase, which is highly up-regulated in the bloodstream form of this parasite and which is essential for viability and proper cell cycle progression in this stage is described as an example.

  15. Hunting billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life cycle and damaging life stage in North Carolina, with notes on other billbug species abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskocil, J P; Brandenburg, R L

    2012-12-01

    In the southeastern United States, hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, adults are often observed in turfgrass, but our knowledge of their biology and ecology is limited. Field surveys and experiments were conducted to determine the species composition, life cycle, damaging life stage, and distribution of billbugs within the soil profile in turfgrass in North Carolina. Linear pitfall trapping revealed six species of billbug, with the hunting billbug making up 99.7% of all beetles collected. Data collected from turf plus soil sampling suggest that hunting billbugs have two overlapping generations per year in North Carolina and that they overwinter as both adults and larvae. Field experiments provided evidence that adult hunting billbugs are capable of damaging warm season turfgrasses.

  16. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Correa, E.; Navarro, N.; Sancho, C.; Angeles, A.

    2000-01-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  17. Life cycle assessment as decision support tool in early stage development of a new technology for wastewater resource recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater...... resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are to a large extent recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example water scarcity and use of non......-renewable phosphorus. However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. We present the environmental impact...

  18. Reconversion écologique et socialisation des retraites : pour une politique industrielle du XXIe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles L. Bourque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une analyse des scénarios possibles au Québec pour assurer la reconversion écologique du secteur des transports collectifs. La réflexion sur l'avenir des politiques industrielles doit en effet intégrer l'impact des changements climatiques et de la réduction de la disponibilité des énergies fossiles. Au Québec, le modèle de développement a toujours intégré la question de l'indépendance énergétique, et plus récemment des énergies renouvelables, à la réflexion sur le modèle de développement. L'apport de la recherche consiste à évaluer, dans une perspective globale pour l'ensemble du secteur et pour le Québec dans son ensemble, les enjeux de l'électrification du transport collectif, autant à l'intérieur des agglomérations que pour le transport entre les pôles régionaux. L'analyse des enjeux de l'électrification du transport collectif porte également sur les modes de financement possibles à l'intérieur du système de retraite au Québec, que ce soit dans le cadre actuel des politiques de placement des régimes de retraite ou encore à travers la création d'outils financiers particuliers comme cela a été fait dans d'autres pays.This article presents a coherent scenario to provide ecological transition of public transport in order to escape from the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. This transition is an important matter for industrial economics and public policy because sectoral level analysis is usually the most effective one. In Québec, the model of development has taken into account for a long time the issue of energetic independence through renewable energy and its impact on industries. This article offers a global evaluation of the costs and financing process for the transition towards electric public transport in large cities and between them. It also shows that it is possible to secure the funds through pension funds investment policy and the creation of green bonds that are

  19. Population structure and maturity stages of Fritillaria borealis (Appendicularia, Tunicata: seasonal cycle in Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Presta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFritillaria borealis is a cosmopolitan species, very frequent in sub-antarctic and antarctic waters. The objective of this paper was to analyze its size structure and maturity stages at two sites in Ushuaia Bay: a coastal site exposed to anthropogenic pressure (E1 and a reference site (E2 located in the external zone of the bay. Zooplankton was collected during the 2012 seasonal cycle. The sampling method involved the use of a 67 µm-mesh net. Appendicularians were classified in four maturity stages: I undifferentiated gonads, II testis and ovary differentiated, III expanded testis, IV discharged testis, expanded ovary. Our results showed that the highest densities of F. borealisoccurred in spring and summer at both sites; coinciding with high values of chlorophyll-a. The percentage of juveniles (I and II exhibited a spatial and temporal pattern similar to that observed for chlorophyll-a values. During spring-summer, juveniles and mature specimens (III and IV showed a greater gonadal development than those individuals found in autumn-winter. In conclusion, the mismatching in the population structure and the pattern of densities of F. borealis between coastal and external zones would suggest the existence of two sub-populations susceptible to the influence of the anthropogenic impact in the bay.

  20. An Atlas for Schistosoma mansoni Organs and Life-Cycle Stages Using Cell Type-Specific Markers and Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alexis; Williams, David L.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a tropical disease caused by trematode parasites (Schistosoma) that affects hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. Currently only a single drug (praziquantel) is available to treat this disease, highlighting the importance of developing new techniques to study Schistosoma. While molecular advances, including RNA interference and the availability of complete genome sequences for two Schistosoma species, will help to revolutionize studies of these animals, an array of tools for visualizing the consequences of experimental perturbations on tissue integrity and development needs to be made widely available. To this end, we screened a battery of commercially available stains, antibodies and fluorescently labeled lectins, many of which have not been described previously for analyzing schistosomes, for their ability to label various cell and tissue types in the cercarial stage of S. mansoni. This analysis uncovered more than 20 new markers that label most cercarial tissues, including the tegument, the musculature, the protonephridia, the secretory system and the nervous system. Using these markers we present a high-resolution visual depiction of cercarial anatomy. Examining the effectiveness of a subset of these markers in S. mansoni adults and miracidia, we demonstrate the value of these tools for labeling tissues in a variety of life-cycle stages. The methodologies described here will facilitate functional analyses aimed at understanding fundamental biological processes in these parasites. PMID:21408085

  1. Treatment of Early-Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma: Efficacy and Toxicity of 4 Versus 6 Cycles of ABVD Chemotherapy With Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fanale, Michelle A. [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Akhtari, Mani [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas (United States); Smith, Grace L.; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Milgrom, Sarah A.; Yehia, Zeinab Abou; Allen, Pamela K.; Osborne, Eleanor M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group HD11 trial validated 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) for early unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. However, practitioners often recommend 6 cycles followed by RT, especially for bulky disease. We compared patient outcomes after treatment with 4 or 6 cycles of ABVD followed by RT (IFRT and involved site RT [ISRT]). Methods and Materials: We identified 128 patients treated for early unfavorable HL (GHSG criteria) between 2000 and 2013. Clinical outcomes (overall survival [OS] and freedom from relapse [FFR]) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Toxicities were evaluated. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.0 years. Patients received 4 (70 patients, 55%) or 6 (58 patients, 45%) cycles of chemotherapy. Bulky disease was present in 22 patients (31%; 0 stage IA, 3 stage IB, 19 stage IIA) of the 4-cycle group and 42 patients (72%; 5 stage IA, 3 stage IB, 34 stage IIA) of the 6-cycle group. For patients receiving 4 and 6 cycles, the 6-year OS was 100% and 97% (P=.35), respectively, and the 6 year FFR was 100% and 98% (P=.28), respectively. More patients received 6 cycles if they were treated before 2010 (HD11 report) (P=.01) and if they had bulky disease (P<.01). Sixty-eight percent of patients received ISRT. The 6-year FFR was 99% and 100% for patients receiving ISRT and IFRT, respectively (P=.58). More patients experienced bleomycin pulmonary toxicity in the 6-cycle group (20% vs 31%, P=.16). For patients with bulky disease, the 4-year FFR was similar with receipt of 4 (100%) or 6 (98%) cycles (P=.48) and IFRT (100%) or ISRT (98%) (P=.52). There were no deaths among patients with bulky disease. Conclusions: Patients with early unfavorable HL have excellent outcomes with 4 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy followed by ISRT. Six cycles of chemotherapy does not appear superior for disease control, even for bulky disease.

  2. A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Porro, A R; Navarro-Gómez, D; Uriz, M J; Giribet, G

    2013-05-01

    Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available, massive sequencing technologies-such as the Illumina platform, which facilitate genome and transcriptome sequencing in a cost-effective manner. Here we present the first NGS (next-generation sequencing) approach to understanding the life cycle of an encrusting marine sponge. For this we sequenced libraries of three different life cycle stages of the Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans and generated de novo transcriptome assemblies. Three assemblies were based on sponge tissue of a particular life cycle stage, including non-reproductive tissue, tissue with sperm cysts and tissue with larvae. The fourth assembly pooled the data from all three stages. By aggregating data from all the different life cycle stages we obtained a higher total number of contigs, contigs with blast hit and annotated contigs than from one stage-based assemblies. In that multi-stage assembly we obtained a larger number of the developmental regulatory genes known for metazoans than in any other assembly. We also advance the differential expression of selected genes in the three life cycle stages to explore the potential of RNA-seq for improving knowledge on functional processes along the sponge life cycle. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Development of a Hepatitis B Virus Reporter System to Monitor the Early Stages of the Replication Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitsuji, Hironori; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Shiina, Ritsuko; Harada, Keisuke; Ujino, Saneyuki; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2017-02-01

    Currently, it is possible to construct recombinant forms of various viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), that carry foreign genes such as a reporter or marker protein in their genomes. These recombinant viruses usually faithfully mimic the life cycle of the original virus in infected cells and exhibit the same host range dependence. The development of a recombinant virus enables the efficient screening of inhibitors and the identification of specific host factors. However, to date the construction of recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been difficult because of various experimental limitations. The main limitation is the compact genome size of HBV, and a fairly strict genome size that does not exceed 1.3 genome sizes, that must be packaged into virions. Thus, the size of a foreign gene to be inserted should be smaller than 0.4 kb if no deletion of the genome DNA is to be performed. Therefore, to overcome this size limitation, the deletion of some HBV DNA is required. Here, we report the construction of recombinant HBV encoding a reporter gene to monitor the early stage of the HBV replication cycle by replacing part of the HBV core-coding region with the reporter gene by deleting part of the HBV pol coding region. Detection of recombinant HBV infection, monitored by the reporter activity, was highly sensitive and less expensive than detection using the currently available conventional methods to evaluate HBV infection. This system will be useful for a number of applications including high-throughput screening for the identification of anti-HBV inhibitors, host factors and virus-susceptible cells.

  4. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  5. Interim PET After Two ABVD Cycles in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Outcomes Following the Continuation of Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simontacchi, Gabriele [Radiotherapy Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Filippi, Andrea Riccardo, E-mail: andreariccardo.filippi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciammella, Patrizia [Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Advanced Technology, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Buglione, Michela [Radiation Oncology Department, University and Spedali Civili, Brescia (Italy); Saieva, Calogero [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute, Florence (Italy); Magrini, Stefano Maria [Radiation Oncology Department, University and Spedali Civili, Brescia (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Radiotherapy Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Iotti, Cinzia [Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Advanced Technology, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Botto, Barbara [Hematology Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital, Torino (Italy); Vaggelli, Luca [Nuclear Medicine Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Re, Alessandro [Hematology Unit, University and Spedali Civili, Brescia (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Hematology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: This multicenter retrospective study was designed to evaluate the prognostic role of interim fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (i-FDG-PET) in a cohort of patients affected with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated initially with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy, and to assess the role of chemotherapy continuation plus radiation therapy for i-FDG-PET-positive patients. Methods and Materials: Data from 257 patients were retrieved from 4 hematology and radiation oncology departments. Inclusion criteria were stage I to IIAB HL, “intention-to-treat” AVBD plus radiation therapy, and FDG-PET at diagnosis and after the first 2 ABVD cycles. All i-FDG-PET scans underwent blinded local review by using the Deauville 5-point scoring system; patients were stratified as negative or positive using 2 Deauville score cutoff values, ≥3 or ≥4. Results: Median follow-up time was 56 months (range: 9-163 months); 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) for the whole cohort were 97.5% and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 95.6%. After i-FDG-PET revision, 43 of 257 patients (16.7%) had a positive i-FDG-PET (Deauville scores: 3-5). Five-year PFS rates for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients were 98.1% and 83.7%, respectively, if using a Deauville score cutoff of 3, and 97.7% and 78.6%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.0001). Five-year OS for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients was 98.5% and 93.0%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 3, and 98.6% and 89.3%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.029 and P=.002). At univariate regression analysis, i-FDG-PET positivity was associated with worse OS and PFS. At multivariate analysis, performed only for PFS, i-FDG-PET positivity confirmed its negative impact (P=.002). Conclusions: i-FDG-PET is prognostic for PFS and OS in early-stage HL

  6. Interim PET After Two ABVD Cycles in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Outcomes Following the Continuation of Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simontacchi, Gabriele; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Buglione, Michela; Saieva, Calogero; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Livi, Lorenzo; Iotti, Cinzia; Botto, Barbara; Vaggelli, Luca; Re, Alessandro; Merli, Francesco; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This multicenter retrospective study was designed to evaluate the prognostic role of interim fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (i-FDG-PET) in a cohort of patients affected with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated initially with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy, and to assess the role of chemotherapy continuation plus radiation therapy for i-FDG-PET-positive patients. Methods and Materials: Data from 257 patients were retrieved from 4 hematology and radiation oncology departments. Inclusion criteria were stage I to IIAB HL, “intention-to-treat” AVBD plus radiation therapy, and FDG-PET at diagnosis and after the first 2 ABVD cycles. All i-FDG-PET scans underwent blinded local review by using the Deauville 5-point scoring system; patients were stratified as negative or positive using 2 Deauville score cutoff values, ≥3 or ≥4. Results: Median follow-up time was 56 months (range: 9-163 months); 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) for the whole cohort were 97.5% and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 95.6%. After i-FDG-PET revision, 43 of 257 patients (16.7%) had a positive i-FDG-PET (Deauville scores: 3-5). Five-year PFS rates for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients were 98.1% and 83.7%, respectively, if using a Deauville score cutoff of 3, and 97.7% and 78.6%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.0001). Five-year OS for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients was 98.5% and 93.0%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 3, and 98.6% and 89.3%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.029 and P=.002). At univariate regression analysis, i-FDG-PET positivity was associated with worse OS and PFS. At multivariate analysis, performed only for PFS, i-FDG-PET positivity confirmed its negative impact (P=.002). Conclusions: i-FDG-PET is prognostic for PFS and OS in early-stage HL

  7. Ground deformation cycles in a magma-effusive stage, and sub-Plinian and Vulcanian eruptions at Kirishima volcanoes, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, M.; Maehara, Y.; Ichihara, M.; Ohminato, T.; Kamata, R.; Oikawa, J.

    2013-09-01

    The dynamics of explosive eruptions, such as Plinian, sub-Plinian, Vulcanian, and Strombolian ones, is one of the most fascinating subjects in volcano physics. During the early period of volcanic activity at the Shinmoe-dake Volcano in 2011, various kinds of activities, such as sub-Plinian eruptions, a magma effusion, and Vulcanian eruptions, occurred sequentially. A different kind of tilt motion accompanied each activity. Here we clarify the characteristics of the tilt motions and their time sequences, presenting a new explanation of the triggering mechanism of a Vulcanian eruption. The sub-Plinian and the Vulcanian eruptions at the Shinmoe-dake Volcano were preceded by inflations at shallow depths near the summit. The inflation-deflation cycles were also recorded during the magma-effusive stage, with a typical period of 1 h, synchronized with volcanic tremors or long-period events. Almost all Vulcanian eruptions were preceded by trapezoidal inflations, whose durations systematically lengthened as time progressed, and were followed by various time sequences of tilt motions, which became increasingly more complicated throughout the frequent Vulcanian eruptions. We have found clear linearity with a constant gradient of 0.45 between the logarithm of the preceding duration versus elapsed time for each substage. These observations can be consistently explained based on the assumption that a Vulcanian eruption is induced by a catastrophic rupture of the strongest closed, solid magma frame due to magma degassing overpressure, and the degassing from magma declines exponentially with time.

  8. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  9. Une expérience singulière A Singular Experience. The Process of Reconversion of High Level Athletes in France, in Fencing and Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Javerlhiac

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Le sport est interrogé, ici, dans sa dimension probablement la plus valorisée par les médias : la reconversion des sportifs de haut niveau (SHN. Généralement, le discours est apologétique et vante la reconversion réussie des SHN les plus connus. Mais derrière les résultats glorieux et la médiatisation, se cache une face plus sombre : la précarisation d’anciens athlètes qui reste un sujet tabou. Les exemples ne manquent pourtant pas et prennent à revers bien des idées reçues sur la réussite sociale des SHN. La question de “l’après sport” s’avère pourtant souvent cruciale et difficile pour les athlètes des sports non professionnels ou moins médiatisés ou, tout simplement, pour ceux qui n’avaient rien prévu et qui ont dû stopper leur carrière de manière inopinée à la suite d’une blessure par exemple. La disqualification sociale (Paugam, 1991 est d’autant plus douloureuse à vivre que ce processus de marginalisation marque la fin d’un statut d’exception et s’accompagne de la construction d’une identité négative lorsque l’athlète éprouve des difficultés à s’insérer professionnellement. Le sport de haut niveau, qu’il soit professionnel ou non, médiatisé ou non, en raison tout à la fois de l’entre soi qui le caractérise et de l’attention qui est portée à ceux qui réussissent, ne prépare pas à résister au stigmate et la dimension ternaire de l’identité (Heinich, 1999 trouve ici un exemple “négativement” parfait.Sport is in question here, probably in its dimension most valued by the media : the reconversion of high level athletes (HLA. Generally, the speech is laudatory and praises the successful reconversion of the most famous HLA. But behind the glorious results and the media coverage lurks a darker side : the precarious situation of former athletes, which remains a taboo subject. Yet examples are not lacking and readily upset a good many commonly held notions on

  10. RNA-Seq analysis validates the use of culture-derived Trypanosoma brucei and provides new markers for mammalian and insect life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Doiron, Nicholas; Roditi, Isabel

    2018-04-02

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the parasite causing Nagana in domestic animals, is closely related to the parasites causing sleeping sickness, but does not infect humans. In addition to its importance as a pathogen, the relative ease of genetic manipulation and an innate capacity for RNAi extend its use as a model organism in cell and infection biology. During its development in its mammalian and insect (tsetse fly) hosts, T. b. brucei passes through several different life-cycle stages. There are currently four life-cycle stages that can be cultured: slender forms and stumpy forms, which are equivalent to forms found in the mammal, and early and late procyclic forms, which are equivalent to forms in the tsetse midgut. Early procyclic forms show coordinated group movement (social motility) on semi-solid surfaces, whereas late procyclic forms do not. RNA-Seq was performed on biological replicates of each life-cycle stage. These constitute the first datasets for culture-derived slender and stumpy bloodstream forms and early and late procyclic forms. Expression profiles confirmed that genes known to be stage-regulated in the animal and insect hosts were also regulated in culture. Sequence reads of 100-125 bases provided sufficient precision to uncover differential expression of closely related genes. More than 100 transcripts showed peak expression in stumpy forms, including adenylate cyclases and several components of inositol metabolism. Early and late procyclic forms showed differential expression of 73 transcripts, a number of which encoded proteins that were previously shown to be stage-regulated. Moreover, two adenylate cyclases previously shown to reduce social motility are up-regulated in late procyclic forms. This study validates the use of cultured bloodstream forms as alternatives to animal-derived parasites and yields new markers for all four stages. In addition to underpinning recent findings that early and late procyclic forms are distinct life-cycle stages

  11. The Earth Science Education Unit's Professional Development Workshop on "The Carbon Question--Cycling, Releasing, Capturing" for Teachers of Key Stages 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The revised National Curriculum for Science for key stages 3 and 4 (ages 11-16) in England provides the opportunity to develop a new coherent approach to teaching about the carbon cycle, the use of carbon as a fuel and the resulting issues. The Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU) intends to develop a new workshop to support the teaching of this…

  12. Express Control of the Mechanical Properties of High-Strength and Hard-to-Machine Materials at All Stages of the Technological Cycle of Producing Mechanical Engineering Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyunin, V. M.; Marchenkov, A. Yu.; Demidov, A. N.; Karimbekov, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that depth-sensing indentation can be used to perform express control of the mechanical properties of high-strength and hard-to-machine materials. This control can be performed at various stages of a technological cycle of processing materials and parts without preparing and testing tensile specimens, which will significantly reduce the consumption of materials, time, and labor.

  13. Immunoglobulin Concentrations and Antigen-Specific Antibody Levels in Cervicovaginal Lavages of Rhesus Macaques Are Influenced by the Stage of the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, F. Xusheng; Ma, Zhongmin; Rourke, Tracy; Srinivasan, Seema; McChesney, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    The levels of antigen-specific antibodies (Abs) and immunoglobulins in the cervical mucus of women vary with the menstrual cycle; the highest levels occur during menses, and the lowest occur during the periovulatory period. The rhesus macaque is a widely used animal model of female genital tract immunity. We sought to determine whether rhesus macaques have a cyclical pattern of changing cervicovaginal Ab and immunoglobulin levels that is similar to that of the human female. This study examined the relationship of the stages of the menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunoglobulin concentrations and Ab levels in rhesus macaques. In all seven rhesus macaques studied, the immunoglobulins G and A and some antibodies in cervicovaginal lavages varied with the stages of the menstrual cycle, and in many cases this variation reached the level of statistical significance. In a pattern similar to that of women, the highest levels of Abs and immunoglobulins occurred during menses, and the lowest levels occurred around the time of ovulation. However, the Ab and immunoglobulin levels in serum and rectal lavages did not change with the menstrual cycle stage. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the ovarian hormones that drive the menstrual cycle influence genital tract immunity in female primates. PMID:10569744

  14. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    The duration and the amount of pressure and shear must be reduced in order to minimize the risk of pressure ulcer development. Alternating low pressure air mattresses with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells have been developed to relieve pressure by sequentially inflating and deflating the air cells. Evidence about the effectiveness of this type of mattress in clinical practice is lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an alternating low pressure air mattress that has a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells with an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. A randomised controlled trial was performed in a convenience sample of 25 wards in five hospitals in Belgium. In total, 610 patients were included and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=298) or the control group (n=312). In the experimental group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. In the control group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. The outcome was defined as cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. There was no significant difference in cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV) between both groups (Exp.=5.7%, Contr.=5.8%, p=0.97). When patients developed a pressure ulcer, the median time was 5.0 days in the experimental group (IQR=3.0-8.5) and 8.0 days in the control group (IQR=3.0-8.5) (Mann-Whitney U-test=113, p=0.182). The probability to remain pressure ulcer free during the observation period in this trial did not differ significantly between the experimental group and the control group (log-rank χ(2)=0.013, df=1, p=0.911). An alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation

  15. Effect of kinetin on the course of cell cycle in successive developmental stages of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Godlewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of kinetin on the course of cell cycle in successive developmental stages of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L. were investigated. A shortening of the duration of cell cycles has been observed, particularly in initial. and final developmental stages. S phase. shortened in all stages whereas G2 phase+mitosis shortened in early but become longer in late developmental stages of filaments. Incorporation of 14C-adenine into cell nuclei increased after kinetin treatment in 4- and 8-celled filaments whereas that of 3H-phenylalanine increased in 8- and particularly 16-celled ones. This plant growth regulator stimulated also the 3H-thymidine incorporation into cells in studied developmental stages of filaments. The stimulation of radioactive phenylalanine incorporation into nucleus and cytoplasm was stronger in late G2 phase. A participation of cytokinins in the control of cell cycle in relation to process of differentiation of antheridial cells is discussed. A possibility of changes in the cytokinin content in antheridia and antheridial filament cells during their; development has been postulated.

  16. Intralimb Coordination Patterns in Absent, Mild, and Severe Stages of Diabetic Neuropathy: Looking Beyond Kinematic Analysis of Gait Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chiao Yi

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus progressively leads to impairments in stability and joint motion and might affect coordination patterns, mainly due to neuropathy. This study aims to describe changes in intralimb joint coordination in healthy individuals and patients with absent, mild and, severe stages of neuropathy.Forty-seven diabetic patients were classified into three groups of neuropathic severity by a fuzzy model: 18 without neuropathy (DIAB, 7 with mild neuropathy (MILD, and 22 with moderate to severe neuropathy (SVRE. Thirteen healthy subjects were included as controls (CTRL. Continuous relative phase (CRP was calculated at each instant of the gait cycle for each pair of lower limb joints. Analysis of Variance compared each frame of the CRP time series and its standard deviation among groups (α = 5%.For the ankle-hip CRP, the SVRE group presented increased variability at the propulsion phase and a distinct pattern at the propulsion and initial swing phases compared to the DIAB and CTRL groups. For the ankle-knee CRP, the 3 diabetic groups presented more anti-phase ratios than the CTRL group at the midstance, propulsion, and terminal swing phases, with decreased variability at the early stance phase. For the knee-hip CRP, the MILD group showed more in-phase ratio at the early stance and terminal swing phases and lower variability compared to all other groups. All diabetic groups were more in-phase at early the midstance phase (with lower variability than the control group.The low variability and coordination differences of the MILD group showed that gait coordination might be altered not only when frank evidence of neuropathy is present, but also when neuropathy is still incipient. The ankle-knee CRP at the initial swing phase showed distinct patterns for groups from all degrees of neuropathic severity and CTRLs. The ankle-hip CRP pattern distinguished the SVRE patients from other diabetic groups, particularly in the transitional phase from stance to

  17. Sorting of cells of the same size, shape, and cell cycle stage for a single cell level assay without staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomo Tetsuya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-cell level studies are being used increasingly to measure cell properties not directly observable in a cell population. High-performance data acquisition systems for such studies have, by necessity, developed in synchrony. However, improvements in sample purification techniques are also required to reveal new phenomena. Here we assessed a cell sorter as a sample-pretreatment tool for a single-cell level assay. A cell sorter is routinely used for selecting one type of cells from a heterogeneous mixture of cells using specific fluorescence labels. In this case, we wanted to select cells of exactly the same size, shape, and cell-cycle stage from a population, without using a specific fluorescence label. Results We used four light scatter parameters: the peak height and area of the forward scatter (FSheight and FSarea and side scatter (SSheight and SSarea. The rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line, a neuronal cell line, was used for all experiments. The living cells concentrated in the high FSarea and middle SSheight/SSarea fractions. Single cells without cell clumps were concentrated in the low SS and middle FS fractions, and in the higher FSheight/FSarea and SSheight/SSarea fractions. The cell populations from these viable, single-cell-rich fractions were divided into twelve subfractions based on their FSarea-SSarea profiles, for more detailed analysis. We found that SSarea was proportional to the cell volume and the FSarea correlated with cell roundness and elongation, as well as with the level of DNA in the cell. To test the method and to characterize the basic properties of the isolated single cells, sorted cells were cultured in separate wells. The cells in all subfractions survived, proliferated and differentiated normally, suggesting that there was no serious damage. The smallest, roundest, and smoothest cells had the highest viability. There was no correlation between proliferation and differentiation. NGF increases

  18. Pouvoir et vouloir se former Les Sportifs de Haut Niveau face au processus de reconversion : entre stratégies individuelles et contraintes institutionnelles, personnelles et systémiques

    OpenAIRE

    Javerlhiac , Sophie

    2010-01-01

    One of the most crucial problems which exist for the high level Sportsmen (SHN) is the reconversion. This one constitutes one particularly difficult transitional period which must be prepared. The double project (to be formed during the sporting career) constitutes one of the processes which should facilitate this transition. If there exists, a priori, a political will, reaffirmed many times by various Ministers and Secretaries of State, so that the SHN can engage in the double project, reali...

  19. Nutrition and hydration status improve with exercise training using stationary cycling during hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załuska, Alicja; Załuska, Wojciech T; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are functionally limited as a consequence of their physical, emotional, and social problems. Exercise intolerance is a major problem in chronic renal failure. Stationary cycle training during hemodialysis is recommended as safe, effective, and practical in ESRD patients treated on hemodialysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cycling exercises in 10 HD patients during 6-month period (including each of dialysis sessions) on nutrition, dialysis adequacy, and fluid parameters as measured by biochemical, and bioimpedance parameters. A significant increase in serum albumin concentration, Kt/V, and nPCR, and decrease in serum CRP have been observed after 6 months of regular stationary cycling during hemodialysis. Relative changes (pre-post HD) in extracellular water compartment and ECW/TBW ratio have significantly increased after 6 months of observation period.

  20. A Hot-Stage Atomic Force Microscope for the Measurement of Plastic Deformation in Metallic Thin Films During Thermal Cycling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shultz, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    .... The system will allow future in-situ thermal cycling experiments on microelectronic devices in a protected environment to provide insight into the role of plastic deformation in metallic thin films...

  1. Assessing the toxicity of triphenyltin to different life stages of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma through a series of life-cycle based experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianliang; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-11-30

    Toxic effects of triphenyltin (TPT) to different life stages of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma were investigated through a series of life-cycle based exposure experiments. In embryo stage, TPT exposure could elevate the heartbeat rate at Day 6-8 post-fertilization and increase the expression levels of five heart development related genes (i.e., ATPase, COX2, BMP4, GATA4 and NKX2.5). In larval stage, TPT shortened the body length at ≥10μg/L and suppressed the swimming activity of the fish larvae at Day 1 post-hatching at 50μg/L. In reproductive stage, TPT exposure resulted in a male-biased sex ratio (2μg/L) and reduced the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females (≥ 0.1μg/L), which might in turn lead to a decline in their population fitness. The reproductive stage of O. melastigma was more sensitive to TPT than other stages, while the GSI of female medaka was the most sensitive endpoint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  3. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  4. The activities of current antimalarial drugs on the life cycle stages of Plasmodium: a comparative study with human and rodent parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delves, Michael; Plouffe, David; Scheurer, Christian; Meister, Stephan; Wittlin, Sergio; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Sinden, Robert E; Leroy, Didier

    2012-02-01

    Malaria remains a disease of devastating global impact, killing more than 800,000 people every year-the vast majority being children under the age of 5. While effective therapies are available, if malaria is to be eradicated a broader range of small molecule therapeutics that are able to target the liver and the transmissible sexual stages are required. These new medicines are needed both to meet the challenge of malaria eradication and to circumvent resistance. Little is known about the wider stage-specific activities of current antimalarials that were primarily designed to alleviate symptoms of malaria in the blood stage. To overcome this critical gap, we developed assays to measure activity of antimalarials against all life stages of malaria parasites, using a diverse set of human and nonhuman parasite species, including male gamete production (exflagellation) in Plasmodium falciparum, ookinete development in P. berghei, oocyst development in P. berghei and P. falciparum, and the liver stage of P. yoelii. We then compared 50 current and experimental antimalarials in these assays. We show that endoperoxides such as OZ439, a stable synthetic molecule currently in clinical phase IIa trials, are strong inhibitors of gametocyte maturation/gamete formation and impact sporogony; lumefantrine impairs development in the vector; and NPC-1161B, a new 8-aminoquinoline, inhibits sporogony. These data enable objective comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of each chemical class at targeting each stage of the lifecycle. Noting that the activities of many compounds lie within achievable blood concentrations, these results offer an invaluable guide to decisions regarding which drugs to combine in the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. This study might reveal the potential of life-cycle-wide analyses of drugs for other pathogens with complex life cycles.

  5. Oil flooded compression cycle enhancement for two-stage heat pump in cold climate region: System design and theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • COP of proposed system improves up to 17.2% compared with vapor injection cycle. • Discharge temperature of proposed system is largely decreased. • Proposed system is beneficial for refrigerant with high compression heat. • Proposed system has potential for applications in cold climate heat pump. - Abstract: In order to improve the performance of air source heat pump in cold climate region, a combined oil flooded compression with regenerator and vapor injection cycle system is suggested in this paper, which integrates oil flooded compression with regenerator into a conventional vapor injection cycle. A mathematical model is developed and parametric studies on this cycle are conducted to evaluate the benefits of the novel system. The performances of the novel system using R410A and R32 are compared with those of vapor injection cycle system. The improvement of coefficient of performance (COP) can reach up to nearly 9% based on the same isentropic efficiency, while 17.2% based on assumption that there is a 10% rise in isentropic efficiency brought by oil flooded compression cycle. The heating capacity is reduced by 8–18% based on the same volumetric efficiency, while could be less than 10% in a practical system. The discharge temperature is largely decreased and can be below 100 °C at −40 °C T e and 50 °C T c condition for R32. The theoretical results demonstrate this novel heat pump has a high potential for improving the performance of air source heat pump in cold climate region.

  6. Comparison of "sandwich chemo-radiotherapy" and six cycles of chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with stage IIIC endometrial cancer: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Yavas, Guler; Yavas, Cagdas; Ata, Ozlem; Yılmaz, Setenay Arzu; Celik, Cetin

    2013-10-01

    To compare "sandwich chemo-radiotherapy" with six cycles of chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy with respect to tolerability and acute toxicity. Twenty-five women with surgically staged IIIC endometrial cancer were included. Treatment consisted of either three cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m²) and carboplatin (AUC 6) on a q21-day schedule followed by irradiation (45-50.4 Gy) or six cycles of the same chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Acute toxicity related to either chemotherapy or radiotherapy was evaluated. Median age was 61.5 years (range 36-83 years). Eleven patients had sandwich chemo-radiotherapy, and the other 14 patients had 6 cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Three out of the five patients who could not complete all the cycles in the sandwich chemo-radiotherapy group had pelvic and para-aortic radiotherapy. Acute radiotherapy related grade 1-2 gastrointestinal system (GIS) and genitourinary system (GUS) toxicities were observed in 72.8 and 63.6 % of patients, respectively, for sandwich group. Undesired treatment breaks in the course of radiotherapy were observed in six patients for sandwich chemo-radiotherapy and in one patient receiving six cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. All the patients who had undesired treatment breaks in the sandwich chemo-radiotherapy group had pelvic and para-aortic radiotherapy. Sandwich chemo-radiotherapy seems to be more toxic particularly for patients who had pelvic and para-aortic irradiation. Therefore, it might be more convenient to delay radiotherapy after six cycles of chemotherapy for patients with the indication of pelvic para-aortic radiotherapy.

  7. Identification of immature stages of phlebotomine sand flies using MALDI-TOF MS and mapping of mass spectra during sand fly life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halada, Petr; Hlavackova, Kristyna; Dvorak, Vit; Volf, Petr

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the species identification of sand flies at different developmental stages and map changes in their protein profiles during the course of whole life cycle. Specimens of six different species from laboratory colonies at larval and pupal stages were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profiles of larvae were stable from the L2 to L4 developmental stages and clearly distinguishable at the species level. In a validation study, 123 larvae of the six species were queried against reference database resulting in 93% correct species identification (log score values higher than 2.0). The spectra generated from sand fly pupae allow species identification as well and surprisingly, in contrast to biting midges and mosquitoes, they did not change during this developmental stage. For adults, thorax was revealed as the optimal body part for sample preparation yielding reproducible spectra regardless age and diet. Only variations were uncovered for freshly engorged females profiles of which were affected by blood signals first two days post bloodmeal. The findings demonstrate that in addition to adult species differentiation MALDI-TOF MS may also serve as a rapid and effective tool for species identification of juvenile stages of phlebotomine sand flies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Reported jealousy differs as a function of menstrual cycle stage and contraceptive pill use: a within-subjects investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, K.D.; Buunk, A.P.; Roberts, S.G.B.; Klipping, C.; Appels, N.; Zimmerman, Y.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.; Pollet, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that female jealousy is sensitive to hormonal variation and, more specifically, potentially moderated by estrogen levels. Here, we tracked self-reported jealousy using a within-subjects design, comparing jealousy when the same women were regularly cycling and using

  9. Reported jealousy differs as a function of menstrual cycle stage and contraceptive pill use : a within-subjects investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Roberts, S. Craig; Klipping, Christine; Appels, Nicole; Zimmerman, Yvette; Bennink, Herjan J. T. Coelingh; Pollet, Thomas V.

    Previous research suggests that female jealousy is sensitive to hormonal variation and, more specifically, potentially moderated by estrogen levels. Here, we tracked self-reported jealousy using a within-subjects design, comparing jealousy when the same women were regularly cycling and using

  10. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. I. Overall retardation from the stage irradiated to nuclear membrane breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-10-01

    Neuroblasts of Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer) in culture were exposed to different doses of 225, 265, or 280 nm ultraviolet radiations at 11 different stages and substages of the mitotic cycle and individually selected cells were timed to breakdown of the nuclear membrane. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different wavelengths on the different stages were based on the dose that reduced the cell progression rate to 67 percent of normal (D/sub 67/) and the slope of the regression line, i.e., the control to treated time (C/T) ratio change/erg/mm/sup 2/ at the D/sub 67/ level. Cells of the prereplication period (metaphase + anaphase + early telophase) and the S phase (middle and late telophase + interphase + very early prophase) are equally sensitive to uv and contrast sharply with the much lower sensitivity of those in the postreplication period (early and middle prophase). This can best be interpreted if chromosomal DNA is the chromophore for uv-induced mitotic retardation. Cells in the prereplication period at exposure show no wavelength effect. In the S phase all stages except middle telophase and all stages combined are significantly more sensitive to 265 and 280 nm than to 225 nm. Of the postreplication stages, early prophase is retarded significantly more by 280 than by 225 or 265 nm. The C/T ratio/erg/mm/sup 2/ is greater after exposure to 265 nm at all prereplication and replication stages, but exhibits no consistent wavelength pattern during the postreplication period. Evidence based on the orientation of the neuroblast with respect to the uv-source suggests that the chromophore for mitotic retardation does not reside within the centrosome and related structures, but may be present, at least partly, in the nucleolus.

  11. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. I. Overall retardation from the stage irradiated to nuclear membrane breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Neuroblasts of Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer) in culture were exposed to different doses of 225, 265, or 280 nm ultraviolet radiations at 11 different stages and substages of the mitotic cycle and individually selected cells were timed to breakdown of the nuclear membrane. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different wavelengths on the different stages were based on the dose that reduced the cell progression rate to 67 percent of normal (D 67 ) and the slope of the regression line, i.e., the control to treated time (C/T) ratio change/erg/mm 2 at the D 67 level. Cells of the prereplication period (metaphase + anaphase + early telophase) and the S phase (middle and late telophase + interphase + very early prophase) are equally sensitive to uv and contrast sharply with the much lower sensitivity of those in the postreplication period (early and middle prophase). This can best be interpreted if chromosomal DNA is the chromophore for uv-induced mitotic retardation. Cells in the prereplication period at exposure show no wavelength effect. In the S phase all stages except middle telophase and all stages combined are significantly more sensitive to 265 and 280 nm than to 225 nm. Of the postreplication stages, early prophase is retarded significantly more by 280 than by 225 or 265 nm. The C/T ratio/erg/mm 2 is greater after exposure to 265 nm at all prereplication and replication stages, but exhibits no consistent wavelength pattern during the postreplication period. Evidence based on the orientation of the neuroblast with respect to the uv-source suggests that the chromophore for mitotic retardation does not reside within the centrosome and related structures, but may be present, at least partly, in the nucleolus

  12. Setting the stage for debating the roles of risk assessment and life-cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinée, Jeroen B; Heijungs, Reinout; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-08-04

    Although technological and environmental benefits are important stimuli for nanotechnology development, these technologies have been contested from an environmental point of view. The steady growth of applications of engineered nanomaterials has heated up the debate on quantifying the environmental repercussions. The two main scientific methods to address these environmental repercussions are risk assessment and life-cycle assessment. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these methods, and the relation between them, have been a topic of debate in the world of traditional chemistry for over two decades. Here we review recent developments in this debate in general and for the emerging field of nanomaterials specifically. We discuss the pros and cons of four schools of thought for combining and integrating risk assessment and life-cycle assessment and conclude with a plea for action.

  13. Half-cycle slip activity of persistent slip bands at different stages of fatigue life of polycrystalline nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weidner, A.; Man, Jiří; Tirschler, W.; Klapetek, P.; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav; Skrotzki, W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 492, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 118-127 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : persistent slip band * slip activity * half-cycle deformation * atomic force microscopy * scanning electron microscopy * nickel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  14. The localization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and the cervix of dogs at different stages of the oestrous cycle and with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotimanukul, S; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to localize and evaluate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and cervix of bitches at different stages of the oestrous cycle and in bitches with pyometra. Sixty-seven nulliparous dogs, ranging in age from 1 to 13 years, were allocated amongst five groups (pro-oestrus; n = 7, oestrus; n = 10, dioestrus; n = 16, anoestrus; n = 11, pyometra; n = 23). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of progesterone concentration. The mean progesterone concentration was analysed as a parameter for validating the stage of the oestrous cycle in bitches. Tissues collected from uterine horn and cervix were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for immunohistochemical examination of TLR2. The expression of TLR2 was assessed semi-quantitatively. No pathological changes were found in the uterine samples of healthy dogs. In bitches with pyometra, the glandular epithelium expressed TLR2 more intensely than the surface epithelium. The expression of TLR2 in the glandular epithelium was also significantly higher in healthy dogs at oestrus, dioestrus and dogs with pyometra compared with anoestrous dogs (p pyometra expressed TLR2 significantly more intensely than did the stoma, whereas the expression of TLR2 during oestrus and dioestrus was absent in the stroma of cervix. This study provides the first report of immunohistochemical localization of TLR2 in the canine reproductive tract. In the present study, TLR2 was expressed in endometrial epithelium but was absent in the endometrial stroma of healthy dogs at all oestrous cycle stages. These findings suggest differential expression of TLR in endometrial cells. On the other hand, the lack of TLR2 in the stroma of healthy uteri of dogs may predispose to infection from the invading pathogens once the epithelial cells have been destroyed by the pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  16. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  17. Variants of Regenerated Fissile Materials Usage in Thermal Reactors as the First Stage of Fuel Cycle Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Tsibul'skiy, V. F.

    2017-12-01

    At present, 240 000 t of spent nuclear fuel (SF) has been accumulated in the world. Its long-term storage should meet safety conditions and requires noticeable finances, which grow every year. Obviously, this situation cannot exist for a long time; in the end, it will require a final decision. At present, several variants of solution of the problem of SF management are considered. Since most of the operating reactors and those under construction are thermal reactors, it is reasonable to assume that the structure of the nuclear power industry in the near and medium-term future will be unchanged, and it will be necessary to utilize plutonium in thermal reactors. In this study, different strategies of SF management are compared: open fuel cycle with long-term SF storage, closed fuel cycle with MOX fuel usage in thermal reactors and subsequent long-term storage of SF from MOX fuel, and closed fuel cycle in thermal reactors with heterogeneous fuel arrangement. The concept of heterogeneous fuel arrangement is considered in detail. While in the case of traditional fuel it is necessary to reprocess the whole amount of spent fuel, in the case of heterogeneous arrangement, it is possible to separate plutonium and 238U in different fuel rods. In this case, it is possible to achieve nearly complete burning of fissile isotopes of plutonium in fuel rods loaded with plutonium. These fuel rods with burned plutonium can be buried after cooling without reprocessing. They would contain just several percent of initially loaded plutonium, mainly even isotopes. Fuel rods with 238U alone should be reprocessed in the usual way.

  18. Les parcours d’insertion à l’épreuve du travail sur soi Courses of Insertion on Trial : Working on Oneself. Resuming Studies and Professional Reconversion

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Négroni

    2011-01-01

    Cet article se propose d’analyser les parcours d’étudiants “atypiques” : des adultes actifs qui, lors de la reprise des études, sont obligés de mener une reconversion professionnelle. Nous nous appuierons sur un dispositif spécifique d’une université française, le DUFA, un diplôme universitaire de formation d’adultes, dont la vocation première est de faciliter les bifurcations professionnelles grâce à des dispositifs particuliers de formation. L’objectif de l’article est de démontrer que, pou...

  19. Remote handling and automation in back end of fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.N.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Indian nuclear programme is readying for a quantum leap and it is essential that technology is available for building advanced fuel recycle plants in the back end and for sustained operation of such plants. Remote technology and automation plays a big role to achieve this goal. With the introduction of advanced fuel cycles in indigenous programme and scenario of international cooperation it is essential to be ready with indigenous technology for meeting all challenges. Work has been progressing to develop locally support technology for remote handling and automation with good success. Essential RH tools such as master slave manipulators, power manipulators and hot cell viewing systems have been developed and commercial production has been established. Customised RH requirements for back end plants have been met and the designs have proven to be worthy for hot operations over the years. In the last few years stress has been on development of equipment and technology to meet the increasing demands of higher throughput plants. Substantial progress has been achieved in the head end and reconversion laboratory systems of reprocessing plants. Similarly successful efforts have also been made for establishing Thoria processing cells and also the RH in the reconversion operations. Custom designed equipment has been developed for decommissioning of ceramic melter, used glove boxes etc. Efforts are on hand to develop automated RH equipment for material handling in underground repositories. This paper aims at bringing out the theme based on some of our own experiences and some reports from plants in operation abroad. (author)

  20. Microwave radiation effects on the different stages of Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) evolutive cycle in rice, focusing its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in grain shipped commodity, it is important to know the microwave radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of microwave radiation quarantine treatments. The current research had the aim to evaluate the microwave radiation effects on several phases of the rice weevil evolution cycle (S.oryzae), focusing its control. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for stored grains. The tests have been done in glass vials with 250 grams of whole grain (brown) rice and the irradiation was done in a 2,450 MHz commercial microwave oven, model Carousel II (potency of 800W). It was determined the exposure time needed to each phase control for the insect evolutive cycle, concluding that the immature phases (larvae and pupae), contained inside the rice, are more sensitive, requiring only 100 seconds to obtain 100% control while the egg phase requires a longer exposure (130 seconds). Referring to the grown phase, the time required to attain the lethal dose was 160 seconds. All the exposure time have been irradiated with a low potency (240 W). It also displayed that to greater quantities of rice (1.0 kg), with egg presence and forming a 2.0-centimeter layer on the microwave plate surface, it required an exposure time of 180 seconds. Therefore, in a more effective way, we can recommend these 180 seconds exposure time to the control of all phases concerning the insect evolutive cycle. (author)

  1. Microwave radiation effects on the different stages of Sitophilus oryzae (Linne, 1763) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) evolutive cycle in rice, focusing its control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: caiohaddadfranco@lnbio.cnpem.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in grain shipped commodity, it is important to know the microwave radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of microwave radiation quarantine treatments. The current research had the aim to evaluate the microwave radiation effects on several phases of the rice weevil evolution cycle (S.oryzae), focusing its control. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for stored grains. The tests have been done in glass vials with 250 grams of whole grain (brown) rice and the irradiation was done in a 2,450 MHz commercial microwave oven, model Carousel II (potency of 800W). It was determined the exposure time needed to each phase control for the insect evolutive cycle, concluding that the immature phases (larvae and pupae), contained inside the rice, are more sensitive, requiring only 100 seconds to obtain 100% control while the egg phase requires a longer exposure (130 seconds). Referring to the grown phase, the time required to attain the lethal dose was 160 seconds. All the exposure time have been irradiated with a low potency (240 W). It also displayed that to greater quantities of rice (1.0 kg), with egg presence and forming a 2.0-centimeter layer on the microwave plate surface, it required an exposure time of 180 seconds. Therefore, in a more effective way, we can recommend these 180 seconds exposure time to the control of all phases concerning the insect evolutive cycle. (author)

  2. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eNunez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins, mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC nucleus (contributing to wakefulness and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO nucleus (contributing to REM sleepAnatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  3. Nuclear techniques to evaluate the water use of field crops irrigated in different stages of their cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libardi, P.L.; Moraes, S.O.; Saad, M.A.; Jong Van Lier, Q.; Vieira, O.; Luis Tuon, R.

    1995-01-01

    The search for soil - water management systems that rationalize the water use of field crops should always be emphasized. The present coordinated research programme of the joint division FAO/ AEA has the objective to contribute to a better understanding of this subject by improving the use efficiency of water resources in irrigated agriculture. This project is a contribution to this programme and consisted in the identification of specified development stages of bean ( phaseolus vulgaris, L ) and corn (Zea mays, L ) crops in which plants are less sensitive to water deficit. Experiments were carried out in a tropical soil of agricultural importance in a traditional irrigation field site of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Neutron probe tensiometers were used to determine the soil water balance in different treatments. 3 tabs, 16 refs, (Author)

  4. RNA-Seq analysis during the life cycle of Cryptosporidium parvum reveals significant differential gene expression between proliferating stages in the intestine and infectious sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Christoph; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Basso, Walter U; Schmid, Marc W; Okoniewski, Michal; Smith, Nicholas C; Hässig, Michael; Deplazes, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans and animals. There are no vaccines and few drugs available to control C. parvum. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to compare gene expression in sporozoites and intracellular stages of C. parvum to identify genes likely to be important for successful completion of the parasite's life cycle and, thereby, possible targets for drugs or vaccines. We identified 3774 protein-encoding transcripts in C. parvum. Applying a stringent cut-off of eight fold for determination of differential expression, we identified 173 genes (26 coding for predicted secreted proteins) upregulated in sporozoites. On the other hand, expression of 1259 genes was upregulated in intestinal stages (merozoites/gamonts) with a gene ontology enrichment for 63 biological processes and upregulation of 117 genes in 23 metabolic pathways. There was no clear stage specificity of expression of AP2-domain containing transcription factors, although sporozoites had a relatively small repertoire of these important regulators. Our RNA-Seq analysis revealed a new calcium-dependent protein kinase, bringing the total number of known calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in C. parvum to 11. One of these, CDPK1, was expressed in all stages, strengthening the notion that it is a valid drug target. By comparing parasites grown in vivo (which produce bona fide thick-walled oocysts) and in vitro (which are arrested in sexual development prior to oocyst generation) we were able to confirm that genes encoding oocyst wall proteins are expressed in gametocytes and that the proteins are stockpiled rather than generated de novo in zygotes. RNA-Seq analysis of C. parvum revealed genes expressed in a stage-specific manner and others whose expression is required at all stages of development. The functional significance of these can now be addressed through recent advances in transgenics for C. parvum, and may lead to the identification of viable drug and vaccine

  5. Prueba del software: más que una fase en el ciclo de vida/Software testing: more than a stage in the life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Serna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La prueba de software es probablemente la parte menos comprendida del ciclo de vida del desarrollo de software. En este trabajo, mediante una propuesta metodológica de cuatro fases, se muestra por qué es difícil detectar y eliminar errores, por qué es complejo el proceso de realizar pruebas y por qué es necesario prestarle más atención.Software testing probably is the least understood part of the software testing life cycle. In this work, by means of a methodological proposal of four stages, is showed why is complex the process of carrying out the testing software, why is necessary to pay it more attention and why is so difficult to detect and delete the mistakes.

  6. Self-reports of differentiation of self and marital compatibility as related to family functioning in the third and fourth stages of the family life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E

    1989-01-01

    Using Bowen's, Olson's, and general systems frameworks, this investigator tested relationships among individual, marital, and family functioning in the stressed childrearing stages of the family life cycle. Sixty volunteer married couples completed the Level of Differentiation of Self Scale (LDSS), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES) III. A significant canonical correlation was found among differentiation of self and marital compatibility as they both relate to family functioning. Subsequent canonical correlations were significant for wives but not for husbands, indicating gender differences in relationships among perceived individual, marital, and family phenomena. The concept of adaptability as proposed by Olson's Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Functioning was not supported. A revised model is proposed.

  7. Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Roberto; Barassi, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Rossi, Alessandra; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Melzi D'Eril, Gianlodovico; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis.

  8. Stage-specific inhibition of MHC class I presentation by the Epstein-Barr virus BNLF2a protein during virus lytic cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Croft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV persists for life in infected individuals despite the presence of a strong immune response. During the lytic cycle of EBV many viral proteins are expressed, potentially allowing virally infected cells to be recognized and eliminated by CD8+ T cells. We have recently identified an immune evasion protein encoded by EBV, BNLF2a, which is expressed in early phase lytic replication and inhibits peptide- and ATP-binding functions of the transporter associated with antigen processing. Ectopic expression of BNLF2a causes decreased surface MHC class I expression and inhibits the presentation of indicator antigens to CD8+ T cells. Here we sought to examine the influence of BNLF2a when expressed naturally during EBV lytic replication. We generated a BNLF2a-deleted recombinant EBV (DeltaBNLF2a and compared the ability of DeltaBNLF2a and wild-type EBV-transformed B cell lines to be recognized by CD8+ T cell clones specific for EBV-encoded immediate early, early and late lytic antigens. Epitopes derived from immediate early and early expressed proteins were better recognized when presented by DeltaBNLF2a transformed cells compared to wild-type virus transformants. However, recognition of late antigens by CD8+ T cells remained equally poor when presented by both wild-type and DeltaBNLF2a cell targets. Analysis of BNLF2a and target protein expression kinetics showed that although BNLF2a is expressed during early phase replication, it is expressed at a time when there is an upregulation of immediate early proteins and initiation of early protein synthesis. Interestingly, BNLF2a protein expression was found to be lost by late lytic cycle yet DeltaBNLF2a-transformed cells in late stage replication downregulated surface MHC class I to a similar extent as wild-type EBV-transformed cells. These data show that BNLF2a-mediated expression is stage-specific, affecting presentation of immediate early and early proteins, and

  9. CHANGES IN MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WHO TRAIN SPORTS SWIMMING AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (IN ANNUAL TRAINING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Eider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of

  10. Four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (NSABP-B27 with concomitant trastuzumab as neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hikmat Abdel-Razeq,1,2 Salwa S Saadeh,1 Mahmoud Abu-Nasser,1 Hazem Abdulelah,1 Lina Marie,1 Murad Salam,1 Basel Al-Haj Ali,1 Mohammad Ibrahim,1 Dalia Rimawi3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan; 2School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Office of Scientific Affairs and Research, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan Background: The majority of breast cancer patients in Jordan are diagnosed at a young age and present with metastatic or locally advanced disease. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B27 (NSABP-B27 (four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide [AC] followed by four cycles of docetaxel is a standard neoadjuvant regimen in our institution. In this study, we report the efficacy of adding trastuzumab to docetaxel in this regimen for high-risk human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-positive early-stage disease. Patients and methods: Consecutive HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with this regimen were included. Treatment was given at standard doses and schedules as reported in NSABP-B27. Trastuzumab was given with docetaxel and then continued for 1 year. Results: A total of 121 patients (mean age 45.4 years were included. The majority had high-risk features including large tumor size, positive axillary lymph nodes, and grade III disease. Three patients did not complete the planned cycles of AC due to a lack of response. Eight (6.6% patients missed at least one cycle of docetaxel. Following neoadjuvant therapy, 119 patients underwent surgery, of whom 59 (49.6% patients achieved pathological complete response. The response was higher in node-negative patients (64.0 vs 45.7%; P=0.03 and in hormone receptor-negative disease patients (69.7 vs 41.9%; P=0.018. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 21.5% of the patients. The median disease-free survival (DFS for the whole group was not

  11. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca + camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca + camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (p<0.05) and epididymal sperm count (p<0.05). Total polyphenols, flavonoids levels and antioxidant activity were higher in camu camu (p<0.001) than in black maca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis.

  12. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan profiles in the canine cervix during different stages of the estrous cycle and in open- and closed-cervix pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linharattanaruksa, Pichanun; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2014-03-01

    The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson's trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra.

  13. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; KHALID, Muhammad; CHATDARONG, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  14. Processes affecting altitudinal distribution of invasive Ageratina adenophora in western Himalaya: The role of local adaptation and the importance of different life-cycle stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Datta

    Full Text Available The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya. We carried out extensive distributional surveys, established a reciprocal transplant experiment with common gardens at three elevational levels, and measured a suite of traits related to germination, growth, reproduction and phenology. Our results showed a lack of local adaptation, and we did not find any evidence for clinal differentiation in any measured trait except a rather weak signal for plant height. We found that seed germination was the crucial life-cycle transition in determining the lower range limit while winter mortality of plants shaped the upper range limit in our study area, thus explaining the hump shaped distribution pattern. Differences in trait values between gardens for most traits indicated a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Possible causes such as apomixis, seed dispersal among sites, and pre-adaptation might have confounded evolutionary processes to act upon. Our results suggest that the success and spread of Ageratina adenophora are dependent on different life history stages at different elevations that are controlled by abiotic conditions.

  15. Processes affecting altitudinal distribution of invasive Ageratina adenophora in western Himalaya: The role of local adaptation and the importance of different life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arunava; Kühn, Ingolf; Ahmad, Mustaqeem; Michalski, Stefan; Auge, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation) and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya. We carried out extensive distributional surveys, established a reciprocal transplant experiment with common gardens at three elevational levels, and measured a suite of traits related to germination, growth, reproduction and phenology. Our results showed a lack of local adaptation, and we did not find any evidence for clinal differentiation in any measured trait except a rather weak signal for plant height. We found that seed germination was the crucial life-cycle transition in determining the lower range limit while winter mortality of plants shaped the upper range limit in our study area, thus explaining the hump shaped distribution pattern. Differences in trait values between gardens for most traits indicated a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Possible causes such as apomixis, seed dispersal among sites, and pre-adaptation might have confounded evolutionary processes to act upon. Our results suggest that the success and spread of Ageratina adenophora are dependent on different life history stages at different elevations that are controlled by abiotic conditions.

  16. Report on the control of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Part 2: the reconversion of military plutonium stocks. The use of the helps given to central and eastern Europe countries and to the new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, C.

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with two different aspects of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. The first aspect concerns the reconversion of weapon grade plutonium stocks: the plutonium in excess, plutonium hazards and nuclear fuel potentialities, the US program, the Russian program, the actions of European countries (France, Germany), the intervention of other countries, the unanswered questions (political aspects, uncertainties), the solutions of the future (improvement of reactors, the helium-cooled high temperature reactor technology (gas-turbine modular helium reactor: GT-MHR), the Carlo Rubbia's project). The second aspect concerns the actions carried out by the European Union in favor of the civil nuclear facilities of central and eastern Europe: the European Union competencies through the Euratom treaty, the conclusions of the European audit office about the PHARE and TACIS nuclear programs, the status of committed actions, the coming planned actions, and the critical analysis of the policy adopted so far. (J.S.)

  17. Report on the control of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. Part 2: the reconversion of military plutonium stocks. The use of the helps given to central and eastern Europe countries and to the new independent states; Rapport sur le controle de la surete et de la securite des installations nucleaires. Deuxieme partie: la reconversion des stocks de plutonium militaire. L'utilisation des aides accordees aux pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et aux nouveaux etats independants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C

    2002-07-01

    This report deals with two different aspects of the safety and security of nuclear facilities. The first aspect concerns the reconversion of weapon grade plutonium stocks: the plutonium in excess, plutonium hazards and nuclear fuel potentialities, the US program, the Russian program, the actions of European countries (France, Germany), the intervention of other countries, the unanswered questions (political aspects, uncertainties), the solutions of the future (improvement of reactors, the helium-cooled high temperature reactor technology (gas-turbine modular helium reactor: GT-MHR), the Carlo Rubbia's project). The second aspect concerns the actions carried out by the European Union in favor of the civil nuclear facilities of central and eastern Europe: the European Union competencies through the Euratom treaty, the conclusions of the European audit office about the PHARE and TACIS nuclear programs, the status of committed actions, the coming planned actions, and the critical analysis of the policy adopted so far. (J.S.)

  18. Preliminary study of factors affecting the superovulatory response of high producing dairy cows superstimulated regardless of the stage of estrous cycle in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted as a first time commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows using multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET technology in Egypt. We studied factors affecting the superovulatory response (SR in superovulated cows and effects of propylene glycol (PG on embryo quality. Daily milk production at flushing had significantly negative effects on SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. In addition, Brown Swiss cows had better SR than Holstein cows. Moreover, cows having more than 3 parities yielded better response, compared to cows in the first three parities. However, factors such as body weight at flushing, body condition score (BCS at flushing and days in milk (DIM at flushing did not have any association with SR in cows. In addition, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR (Right CL number, P < 0.05; Left CL number, P < 0.05, total embryos per flush (P < 0.05, first grade embryos per flush (P < 0.01 and tended to improve transferable embryos (P = 0.13 and second grade embryos per flush (P = 0.11. However, it tended to increase the number of degenerated embryos per flush (0.06. In conclusion, commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows regardless of stage of estrous cycle by MOET proved successful under Egyptian conditions. Milk yield was negatively associated with SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. Moreover, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR and embryo yields.

  19. Cycling of Redox-Sensitive Trace Elements in the Lower Mississippi River Delta as a Function of River Stage and Sediment Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeyan, K.; Breaux, A.; Kim, J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Cable, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Telfeyan, K.1, Johannesson, K.H.1, Breaux, A.M.2,1, Kim, J.3, Kolker, A.S.2,1, Cable, J.E.31 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA 2 Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Cocoderie, LA, USA 3 Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA The Mississippi River drains 40% of the continental United States and discharges 0.1 Pg sediment and an average of 18,400 m3 s-1 water annually to the Gulf of Mexico1. The flow of groundwater through the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) to the Gulf, however, has been largely understudied and is typically overlooked in MRD biogeochemical studies. Previous work demonstrated that sand-rich paleochannels that maintain a hydrologic connection to the Mississippi River could transport riverine water to the MRD2. We present data from biogeochemical surveys at 2 sites in the lower MRD to explore the effects of river-derived submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of MRD wetlands. Lac des Allemands is a fresh water lake and Myrtle Grove is a brackish canal with variable salinities. Both are surrounded by extensive wetlands. Over the course of a year, surface water, shallow pore water, and deeper groundwaters were sampled to understand the cycling of redox-sensitive trace elements (Fe, Mn, V, As) and the potential supply from groundwater to surface water bodies. Major ion chemistry suggests that both Lac des Allemands and Myrtle Grove Canal receive river-derived terrestrial water at their heads, the flux of which varies as a function of river stage. However, the lateral flow through adjacent wetlands is altered as a function of sediment heterogeneity. Evidence for sulfate reduction exists in the near-surface sediment and at depth where a continuous vertical organic matter layer exists. In sand-rich layers, iron reduction buffers redox conditions, and V varies inversely with dissolved Fe. Concentrations of V and As are much greater in near

  20. Multicenter Phase II Study Evaluating Two Cycles of Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Cetuximab as Induction Regimen Prior to Surgery in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with NSCLC Stage IB-IIIA (INN06-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hilbe

    Full Text Available Different strategies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage NSCLC have already been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a chemoimmunotherapy when limited to two cycles.Between 01/2007 and 03/2010 41 patients with primarily resectable NSCLC stage IB to IIIA were included. Treatment consisted of two cycles cisplatin (40 mg/m2 d1+2 and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 d1 q3 weeks, accompanied by the administration of cetuximab (400 mg/m2 d1, then 250 mg weekly. The primary endpoint was radiological response according to RECIST.40 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 39 for response. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were: neutropenia 25%, leucopenia 11%, febrile neutropenia 6%, nausea 8% and rash 8%. 20 patients achieved a partial response, 17 a stable disease, 2 were not evaluable. 37 patients (95% underwent surgery and in three of them a complete pathological response was achieved. At a median follow-up of 44.2 months, 41% of the patients had died, median progression-free survival was 22.5 months.Two cycles of cisplatin/ docetaxel/ cetuximab showed promising efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of early-stage NSCLC and rapid operation was possible in 95% of patients. Toxicities were manageable and as expected.EU Clinical Trials Register; Eudract-Nr: 2006-004639-31.

  1. Neuronal glucose metabolism is impaired while astrocytic TCA cycling is unaffected at symptomatic stages in the hSOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tesfaye W; Borges, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Although alterations in energy metabolism are known in ALS, the specific mechanisms leading to energy deficit are not understood. We measured metabolite levels derived from injected [1- 13 C]glucose and [1,2- 13 C]acetate (i.p.) in cerebral cortex and spinal cord extracts of wild type and hSOD1 G93A mice at onset and mid disease stages using high-pressure liquid chromatography, 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of spinal and cortical CNS total lactate, [3- 13 C]lactate, total alanine and [3- 13 C]alanine, but not cortical glucose and [1- 13 C]glucose, were reduced mostly at mid stage indicating impaired glycolysis. The [1- 13 C]glucose-derived [4- 13 C]glutamate, [4- 13 C]glutamine and [2- 13 C]GABA amounts were diminished at mid stage in cortex and both time points in spinal cord, suggesting decreased [3- 13 C]pyruvate entry into the TCA cycle. Lack of changes in [1,2- 13 C]acetate-derived [4,5- 13 C]glutamate, [4,5- 13 C]glutamine and [1,2- 13 C]GABA levels indicate unchanged astrocytic 13 C-acetate metabolism. Reduced levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine in CNS suggest compensatory breakdown to refill TCA cycle intermediate levels. Unlabelled, [2- 13 C] and [4- 13 C]GABA concentrations were decreased in spinal cord indicating that impaired glucose metabolism contributes to hyperexcitability and supporting the use of treatments which increase GABA amounts. In conclusion, CNS glucose metabolism is compromised, while astrocytic TCA cycling appears to be normal in the hSOD1 G93A mouse model at symptomatic disease stages.

  2. Effect of beta-mercaptoethanol or epidermal growth factor supplementation on in vitro maturation of canine oocytes collected from dogs with different stages of the estrus cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Oh, Hyun Ju; Jang, Goo; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Kyu Seung; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2004-09-01

    Supplementation of beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium was shown to improve embryo development and quality in several species. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was also shown to improve IVM of human oocyte and embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The effect of these two compounds were suggested to be mediated through the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) which is known to play an important role in protecting the cell or embryos from oxidative damage. Thus, it is suggested that supplementation of canine IVM medium with beta-ME or EGF may be of benefit due to its positive role in IVM of various mammalian oocytes and embryo development, including cattle, pigs, rodents and humans. This study investigates the effect of ovarian estrus stage on canine oocyte quality and supplementation of medium with beta-ME or EGF on IVM of canine oocytes. As results, a significantly higher percentage of oocytes progressed to metaphase II (MII) stage in 50 or 100 microM of beta-ME supplemented oocytes collected from the follicular stage. The maturation rate to metaphase I (MI) stage was also significantly higher in oocytes collected from follicular stage and cultured with 25 or 100 microM compared to other experimental groups. After IVM culture, oocytes recovered from dogs with the follicular stage and matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 20 ng/ml EGF yielded better oocyte maturation to MII phase compared to other groups. Taken together, supplementation of beta-ME (50 or 100 microM) or EGF (20 ng/ml) improved IVM of canine oocytes to MII stage.

  3. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  4. Variability in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, and xanthine oxidase responses to endotoxin challenge in heifers: Effect of estrous cycle stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of host response to some disease agents differs between sexes and this dimorphism has been attributed to the immunomodulating effects of steroid hormones. Our objective was to determine in heifers whether the phase of estrous cycle affected immune response mediators after endotoxin cha...

  5. Transcriptome analyses reveal differential gene expression patterns between the life-cycle stages of Emiliania Huxleyi (haptophyta) and reflect specialization to different ecological niches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokitta, S.D.; Nooijer, L.J. de; Trimborn, S.; de Vargas, C.; Rost, B.; John, U.

    2011-01-01

    Coccolithophores, especially the abundant, cosmopolitan species Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. P. Mohler, are one of the main driving forces of the oceanic carbonate pump and contribute significantly to global carbon cycling, due to their ability to calcify. A recent study

  6. Techno-environmental assessment of the green biorefinery concept: Combining process simulation and life cycle assessment at an early design stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Vega, Giovanna Croxatto

    2018-01-01

    The Green biorefinery (GBR) is a biorefinery concept that converts fresh biomass into value-added products. The present study combines a Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of different GBR configurations...

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and economical evaluation of two 310-80 K pre-cooling stage configurations for helium refrigeration and liquefaction cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z. G.; Zhuang, M.; Jiang, Q. F.; Y Zhang, Q.; Feng, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    In 310-80 K pre-cooling stage, the temperature of the HP helium stream reduces to about 80 K where nearly 73% of the enthalpy drop from room temperature to 4.5 K occurs. Apart from the most common liquid nitrogen pre-cooling, another 310-80 K pre-cooling configuration with turbine is employed in some helium cryoplants. In this paper, thermodynamic and economical performance of these two kinds of 310-80 K pre-cooling stage configurations has been studied at different operating conditions taking discharge pressure, isentropic efficiency of turbines and liquefaction rate as independent parameters. The exergy efficiency, total UA of heat exchangers and operating cost of two configurations are computed. This work will provide a reference for choosing 310-80 K pre-cooling stage configuration during design.

  8. Primary structure and localization of a conserved immunogenic Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein (GLURP) expressed in both the preerythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the vertebrate life cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, M B; Dziegiel, M; Høgh, B

    1991-01-01

    A gene coding for a 220-kDa glutamate rich protein (GLURP), an exoantigen of Plasmodium falciparum, was isolated and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence contains 2 repeat regions. The sequence of one of these was shown to be conserved among geographically dispe...... dispersed isolates, and a fusion protein containing that sequence was able to stimulate B- and T-cells. Antibodies against GLURP stained erythrocytic stages of the parasite as well as the hepatic stage as detected by electron microscopy....

  9. Interferometric measurements of dry mass content in nuclei and cytoplasm in the life cycle of antheridial filaments cells of Chara vulgaris L. in their successive developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kuran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric measurements of the nucleus and cytoplasm dry mass during interphase in the successive stages of development of antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris demonstrated that the dry mass and surface area of cell nuclei double in size in each of the successive generations of the filaments, whereas neither the surface nor the dry mass of the cytoplasm increase in such proportion in the same period. In the successive stages of development of the antheridial filaments the dry mass and surface area of the nuclei and cytoplasm gradually diminish.

  10. Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.W.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Renne, P.; Hanan, B.B.; Murchey, B.; Snow, C.A.; Zoglman, Schuman M.M.; Beaman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Coast Range ophiolite of California is one of the most extensive ophiolite terranes in North America, extending over 700 km from the northernmost Sacramento Valley to the southern Transverse Ranges in central California. This ophiolite, and other ophiolite remnants with similar mid-Jurassic ages, represent a major but short-lived episode of oceanic crust formation that affected much of western North America. The history of this ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of western North America during the Mesozoic, and a range of conflicting interpretations have arisen. Current petrologic, geochemical, stratigraphic, and radiometric age data all favor the interpretation that the Coast Range ophiolite formed to a large extent by rapid extension in the forearc region of a nascent subduction zone. Closer inspection of these data, however, along with detailed studies of field relationships at several locales, show that formation of the ophiolite was more complex, and requires several stages of formation. Our work shows that exposures of the Coast Range ophiolite preserve evidence for four stages of magmatic development. The first three stages represent formation of the ophiolite above a nascent subduction zone. Rocks associated with the first stage include ophiolite layered gabbros, a sheeted complex, and volcanic rocks vith arc tholeiitic or (roore rarely) low-K calc-alkaline affinities. The second stage is characterized by intrusive wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complexes, intrusive gabbros, Cr-rich diorites, and volcanic rocks with high-Ca boninitic or tholeiitic ankaramite affinities. The third stage includes diorite and quartz diorite plutons, felsic dike and sill complexes, and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The first three stages of ophiolite formation were terminated by the intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt dikes, and the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt or ocean-island basalt volcanic suites. We interpret this final magmatic event (MORB

  11. STRATEGY FOR MAINTAINING AND RECOVERY OF WORKING ABILITY OF BUILDING AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINERY WITH DUE ACCOUNT OF CHANGES IN OUTPUT PARAMETERS AT STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Мaksimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a strategy for maintaining and recovery of machinery working ability with due account of changes in technical and economic indicators (TEI in the process of its operation. Productivity, working cost of machine hour, operating efficiency ratio, inter-shift operating efficiency,  and other TEI are changing in the process of machine operation. While operating building and road-building machinery it is possible to obtain maximum effect only with the help of complex interacting events at stages of life cycle of a concrete machine and with due account of TEI dynamics in the process of its usage. 

  12. Les parcours d’insertion à l’épreuve du travail sur soi Courses of Insertion on Trial : Working on Oneself. Resuming Studies and Professional Reconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Négroni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’analyser les parcours d’étudiants “atypiques” : des adultes actifs qui, lors de la reprise des études, sont obligés de mener une reconversion professionnelle. Nous nous appuierons sur un dispositif spécifique d’une université française, le DUFA, un diplôme universitaire de formation d’adultes, dont la vocation première est de faciliter les bifurcations professionnelles grâce à des dispositifs particuliers de formation. L’objectif de l’article est de démontrer que, pour ces étudiants, contrairement à ce que bien des responsables de ces dispositifs affirment, le principal écueil de l’insertion est souvent, de manière étonnante, de nature subjective : aussi longtemps qu’un travail de “latence identitaire” n’est pas achevé, la motivation fait souvent défaut et l’insertion, même lorsqu’elle a lieu, s’avère instable. Après quelques éléments de cadrage statistique, nous étudierons en détail, à l’aide des techniques qualitatives (entretiens et récits de vie approfondis, différentes logiques et attentes des acteurs concernant la formation dont nous rendrons compte à travers une typologie, mais surtout les différentes facettes du “travail de soi sur soi” effectué par ces étudiants.This article proposes analysing the “atypical” routes of students: active adults who, in resuming studies, are obliged to go through a professional reconversion. We will be concentrate on a specific programme of a French university, the DUFA, a university degree in adult education, whose primary vocation is to facilitate professional bifurcations thanks to particular training programmes. The article’s goal is to show that for these students, as opposed to what many persons in charge of these institutions affirm, the principal pitfall of such insertion is often astonishing and of subjective nature: as a long as a work of “identity latency” is not passed, is not achieved, the

  13. Thrips developmental stage-specific transcriptome response to tomato spotted wilt virus during the virus infection cycle in Frankliniella occidentalis, the primary vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E; Rotenberg, Dorith

    2017-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a circulative-propagative manner. Little is known about thrips vector response to TSWV during the infection process from larval acquisition to adult inoculation of plants. Whole-body transcriptome response to virus infection was determined for first-instar larval, pre-pupal and adult thrips using RNA-Seq. TSWV responsive genes were identified using preliminary sequence of a draft genome of F. occidentalis as a reference and three developmental-stage transcriptomes were assembled. Processes and functions associated with host defense, insect cuticle structure and development, metabolism and transport were perturbed by TSWV infection as inferred by ontologies of responsive genes. The repertoire of genes responsive to TSWV varied between developmental stages, possibly reflecting the link between thrips development and the virus dissemination route in the vector. This study provides the foundation for exploration of tissue-specific expression in response to TSWV and functional analysis of thrips gene function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  15. How Search in Science Impacts on the Value of Inventions at Early and Late Stages in the R&D cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    The literatures on innovation and organizational learning have identified search in prior science and technology as critical inputs to industrial R&D. Efforts to distinguish the contributions - separately and combined - of these two search orientations are scarce, and quantitative estimates offer...... contradictory results. The contributions to R&D from science are particularly elusive. To achieve some transparency on these issues we study R&D in biotech drug discovery, where the role of science is pervasive and structured into a recurrent sequence of inventions required to build a drug candidate....... The patents filed on these inventions offer, through their citations to prior art, a fine-grained view of the role of science along the R&D cycle. Applying a unique text-mining algorithm we categorize a set of 1,058 patens from Scandinavian drug discovery firms into six types of drug-related inventions. Tests...

  16. Combined cycle simulator with gas turbine and steam turbine with one vaporization stage; Simulador de ciclo combinado con turbina de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle Cardenas, B.; Lugo Leyte, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Depto de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Toledo Velazquez, Miguel; Tolentino Eslava, G. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, ESIME-IPN-COFFA, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the thermal analysis of a combined cycle with gas and steam turbines with one vaporization stage. The analysis is performed through a computer program, which allows the simulation of cycles with different operational conditions, obtaining this way a series of results that permits to know the way these cycles behave in effecting temperature and pressure changes; besides of being an excellent tool in thermodynamics for the user. The simulators were performed in Borland C++ and Builder C++ Versions 4.5 and 2.0 respectively, creating in this way a friendly ambient for the user. This tool offers the opportunity to all its users the ability to simulate combined cycles in a fast and easy way in order to obtain a wider understanding of its thermodynamic behavior. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra el analisis termico de un ciclo combinado con turbinas de gas y de vapor con un nivel de vaporizacion. El analisis se realiza a traves de un programa de computo, el cual permite simular los ciclos con diferentes condiciones de operacion, obteniendo con esto una serie de resultados que permiten conocer la forma en que trabajan estos ciclos al realizar cambios en temperaturas y presiones; ademas de que es una excelente herramienta para el usuario en termodinamica. Los simuladores fueron realizados en Borland C++ y Builder C++ Versiones 4.5 y 2.0 respectivamente, creandose asi un ambiente amigable para el usuario. Esta herramienta brinda la oportunidad a todos los usuarios de poder simular ciclos combinados de una manera rapida y sencilla con el fin de obtener una comprension mas amplia de su comportamiento termodinamico.

  17. The HOX-like gene Cnox2-Pc is expressed at the anterior region in all life cycle stages of the jellyfish Podocoryne carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda-Nakagawa, L M; Gröer, H; Aerne, B L; Schmid, V

    2000-03-01

    The marine jellyfish Podocoryne carnea (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) has a metagenic life cycle consisting of a larva, a colonial polyp and a free-swimming jellyfish (medusa). To study the function of HOX genes in primitive diploblastic animals we screened a library of P. carnea cDNA using PCR primers derived from the most conserved regions in helix 1 and helix 3 of the homeobox. A novel gene, Cnox2-Pc, has been isolated and characterized. Cnox2-Pc is a HOX cluster-like gene, and its homeodomain shows similarity to the Deformed subfamily of HOM-C/HOX genes. In situ hybridization revealed that Cnox2-Pc is expressed in the anterior region of the larva, the polyp head, and the most apical ectoderm of the differentiating bud during medusa development. In adult medusa expression is restricted to the gastrovascular entoderm. The results suggest that Cnox2-Pc is involved in establishment of an anterior-posterior axis during development in primitive metazoans.

  18. Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 (Trematoda: Strigeidae) from New Zealand: linking and characterising life cycle stages with morphology and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Presswell, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 are reported from New Zealand for the first time, and their life cycles are resolved using molecular sequence data (28S and ITS rDNA regions and mitochondrial COI). The metacercaria of Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' ex Gobiomorphus cotidianus and its cercaria ex Potamopyrgus antipodarum are described in detail. Its adult, found in Anas platyrhynchos and Phalacrocorax punctatus, is identified by molecular sequence data. Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' uses a different species of snail host, exhibits consistent differences in the genetic markers examined and its single described adult differs from known species so as to be considered distinct, but its formal description awaits additional adult specimens. Australapatemon niewiadomski n. sp. is described from Anas platyrhynchos. It is distinguished morphologically by the absence of a ringnapf and its overall smaller size compared to most other Australapatemon spp. except Au. magnacetabulum and Au. minor, which are smaller in nearly all features than the new species. Au. niewiadomski n. sp. metacercaria and its intermediate host (Barbronia weberi) are identified via matching of molecular sequence data. The status of Apatemon and Australapatemon as distinct genera is confirmed based on their respective monophyly, and genetic divergence between them is comparable to other well-established genera in the Strigeidae. The diagnosis of Australapatemon is emended. Life history data, accurate patterns of host specialisation and distribution, alongside concurrent molecular and morphological evidence would be useful for an integrative taxonomical approach towards the elucidation of species diversity in this group.

  19. A biomarker record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic: investigating sources of organic matter and carbon cycling during marine isotope stages 1–3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Holland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic paleoenvironmental archives serve as sensitive recorders of past climate change. Lake El'gygytgyn (Far East Russian Arctic is a high-latitude crater impact lake that contains a continuous sediment record influenced by neither glaciation nor glacial erosion since the time of impact 3.58 Ma ago. Prior research on sediments collected from Lake El'gygytgyn suggest times of permanent ice cover and anoxia corresponding to global glacial intervals, during which the sediments are laminated and are characterized by the co-occurrence of high total organic carbon, microscopic magnetite grains that show etching and dissolution, and negative excursions in bulk sediment organic matter carbon isotope (δ13C values. Here we investigate the abundance and carbon isotopic composition of lipid biomarkers recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn sediments spanning marine isotope stages 1–3 to identify key sources of organic matter (OM to lake sediments, to establish which OM sources drive the negative δ13C excursion exhibited by bulk sediment OM, and to explore if there are molecular and isotopic signatures of anoxia in the lake during glaciation. We find that during marine isotope stages 1–3, direct evidence for water column anoxia is lacking. A ~4‰ negative excursion in bulk sediment δ13C values during the Local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM is accompanied by more protracted, higher magnitude negative excursions in n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol δ13C values that begin 20 kyr in advance of the LLGM. In contrast, n-alkanes and the C30 n-alkanoic acid do not exhibit a negative δ13C excursion at this time. Our results indicate that the C24, C26 and C28 n-alkanoic acids do not derive entirely from terrestrial OM sources, while the C30 n-alkanoic acid at Lake El'gygytgyn is a robust indicator of terrestrial OM contributions. Overall, our results strongly support the presence of a nutrient-poor water column, which is mostly isolated from atmospheric carbon dioxide

  20. [A modified method of isolation of "tight" 70S ribosomes from Escherichia coli highly active at different stages of the elongation cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhno, V I; Peshin, N N; Semenkov, Iu P; Kirillov, S V

    1988-01-01

    The functional activity of the wide-spread "tight" 70S ribosomes is usually equal to 55-80%. We show here that the inactive fraction of this type of ribosomes is virtually blocked by residual endogenous RNA's. These RNA's are shown to be removable by introducing an additional stage in the isolation procedure including: 1. short heating (15 min, 37 degrees C) of "tight" 70S under dissociation conditions, i. e. in a buffer containing 3 mM MgCl2 and 200 mM NH4Cl; 2. washing off endogenous RNA's on a sucrose density gradient in the same buffer; 3. final selection of purified "tight" 70S on the sucrose gradient containing 5 mM MgCl2 and 50 mM NH4Cl. "Tight" 70S ribosomes isolated by such a procedure are 90-100% active with respect to tRNA binding (including the factor-dependent one), peptide bond synthesis and translocation.

  1. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  2. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  3. The effects of kisspeptin agonist canine KP-10 and kisspeptin antagonist p271 on plasma LH concentrations during different stages of the estrous cycle and anestrus in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers-Wolthers, C H J; de Gier, J; Rutten, V P M G; van Kooten, P J S; Leegwater, P A J; Schaefers-Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S

    2016-07-15

    Kisspeptin (KP) plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via the release of GnRH. As normal KP signaling is essential for reproductive function, it could be an interesting new target for therapeutic interventions, e.g., nonsurgical contraception in dogs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of KP-10 administration on plasma LH concentration in different stages of the reproductive cycle and to investigate the suitability of p271 as KP antagonist in the bitch. Two groups of six adult Beagle bitches were used. In one group, plasma LH concentration was determined before (40 and 0 minutes) and 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after the intravenous administration of 0.5-μg/kg body weight (BW) canine KP-10. In the other group, the bitches received a continuous intravenous infusion with p271 (50 μg/kg BW/h) for 3 hours, and 0.5-μg/kg BW canine KP-10 was administered intravenously 2 hours after the start of the p271 infusion. Their plasma LH concentration was determined before (-40 and 0 minutes) and 30, 60, 90, 120, 130, 140, 160, and 180 minutes after the start of the p271 infusion. In both groups, the experiments were performed during the follicular phase, the first and second half of the luteal phase, and during anestrus. Canine KP-10 induced an increase of plasma LH concentration during all estrous cycle stages and anestrus. There was no difference in LH response between the two groups. The lowest LH response was seen during the follicular phase and the highest response during anestrus. The area under the curve (AUC) for LH and LH increment in the follicular phase were lower than those in anestrus. The AUC LH and LH increment in the first half of the luteal phase were lower than those in the second half of the luteal phase and anestrus. The AUC LH and LH increment in the second half of the luteal phase were not different from those in anestrus. Continuous administration of the antagonist p271 did not alter

  4. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Determinacion de Uranio en Muestras Procedentes del Desmantelamiento de Instalaciones de la Primera Parte del Cielo del Combustible Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Correa, E.; Navarro, N.; Sancho, C. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Angeles, A.

    2000-07-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  5. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  6. Participation des agriculteurs à la conception d’un projet de reconversion à l’irrigation localisée dans le périmètre du Tadla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Hadioui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Les périmètres de grande hydraulique au Maroc utilisent pour l’essentiel l’irrigation gravitaire ou l’aspersion. Dans ces périmètres, plusieurs projets pilotes de reconversion collective à l’irrigation localisée sont en cours. Nous avons mené une étude sur la participation des agriculteurs à la conception d’un projet pilote dans le périmètre du Tadla. Le projet ne prévoyait pas initialement de gérer l’aménagement de l’irrigation localisée au niveau des parcelles, mais cet aspect a été inclus par la suite. Les associations d’usagers de l’eau ont été redynamisées, avec notamment la nomination de chefs de bloc, qui doivent jouer le rôle d’intermédiaires entre les agriculteurs et le conseil d’administration. De nombreuses réunions d’information et de coordination ont été organisées. Ces différentes initiatives ont permis une bonne qualité de dialogue entre une minorité d’agriculteurs et les acteurs de développement en charge du projet. Cependant, une majorité d’agriculteurs n’ont pas ou peu participé aux réunions et aux visites de formation sur l’irrigation localisée, et ce, pour trois principales raisons : 1 une majorité des exploitations enquêtées sont gérées par plusieurs héritiers qui exploitent de façon indépendante des lots séparés, mais utilisent la même borne et ainsi sont peu visibles pour l’administration ; 2 l’absence de définition initiale d’une méthode explicite pour s’assurer d’une large participation ; et 3 le rôle limité qu’a joué les associations d’irrigants dans la circulation de l’information. Malgré ces limites, l’expérience a aussi été un lieu important d’apprentissage pour l’ensemble des acteurs, avec une amélioration progressive des conditions et résultats de la participation des agriculteurs.

  7. Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive General email updates Enter email Submit Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is the hormonal process ... Preventing problems with your menstrual cycle View more Menstrual Cycle resources Related information Endometriosis Infertility Polycystic ovary ...

  8. Ciclo biológico de Argas miniatus em laboratório: estágio adulto Life cycle of Argas (Persicargas miniatus in the laboratory: adult stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarrisson Azevedo Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros do ciclo biológico de Argas (Persicargas miniatus, fase adulta, foram estudados em condições controladas (27±1°C e 80±10% UR e em condições ambientais não controladas (ambiente de laboratório nas estações chuvosa e seca. Nessas condições, os machos se originaram preferencialmente de N2 e as fêmeas de N3. As fêmeas realizaram até 18 posturas (em condições controladas, enquanto que as fêmeas mantidas nas estações chuvosa e seca realizaram até 9 e 12 posturas, respectivamente. O número total de ovos foi 1350 (em condições controladas, 443 ovos na estação chuvosa e 894 ovos na estação seca. Em jejum, os carrapatos machos sobreviveram por 165 dias (condições controladas e 135 dias em ambiente de laboratório; as fêmeas sobreviveram por 300 dias em condições controladas e 240 dias no ambiente de laboratório. Nas condições ambientais não controladas, os parâmetros biológicos do estágio adulto de Argas (Persicargas miniatus sofreram alterações negativas, principalmente durante a estação chuvosa.The life cycle of Argas (Persicargas miniatus in adult stage was studied in controlled conditions (27±1°C and 80±10% RH and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions (room conditions during wet and dry season. Males originated preferentially from N2 and females from N3. Females in controlled conditions laid eggs up to 18 times, while females in uncontrolled room conditions, during wet and dry seasons, laid eggs 9 to 12 times, respectively. In controlled conditions, females laid 1350 eggs, whereas in uncontrolled conditions females laid 443 eggs during the wet season and 894 eggs during the dry season. Male ticks survived without feeding for 165 days in controlled conditions and 135 days in uncontrolled conditions, while females survived for 300 days in controlled conditions and 240 days in uncontrolled conditions. In ambient conditions, biological parameters of Argas (Persicargas miniatus

  9. Caracterización bromatológica de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray en dos etapas de su ciclo fisiológico Bromatological characterization of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A.Gray in two stages of its physiological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanka Lezcano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar bromatológicamente algunos componentes esenciales del valor nutritivo de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. Grayen dos etapas del ciclo fisiológico (30 y 60 días, en los períodos lluvioso (PLL y poco lluvioso (PPLL. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con seis tratamientos derivados de la relación entre las fracciones comestibles (hojas, tallos tiernos y hojas más tallos tiernos y los momentos del ciclo fisiológico de la planta. Los indicadores medidos fueron: la materia seca (MS, la proteína bruta (PB, la fibra bruta (FB, el calcio (Ca, el magnesio (Mg y la ceniza. Para el análisis de varianza se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15.0 para Windows. El follaje de tithonia presentó variaciones en su calidad nutritiva. A los 30 días se encontraron los mejores valores de PB (29,79% y 28,69%, Mg (0,094% y 0,210% y ceniza (16,32% y 20,59% para el PLL y el PPLL, respectivamente, con resultados similares entre las fracciones comestibles para las dos etapas del ciclo fisiológico, en los dos períodos evaluados. El contenido de FB en los tallos tiernos a los 60 días fue el más representativo en ambos períodos (5,29 y 5,27%, respectivamente. Integralmente, la fracción hoja más tallo tierno alcanzó los mejores valores de los indicadores medidos para ser utilizada en la alimentación animal.The objective of the study was to characterize bromatologically some essential components of the nutritional value of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray in two stages of the physiological cycle (30 and 60 days, during the rainy (RS and dry seasons (DS. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments derived from the relationship between the edible fractions (leaves, fresh stems and leaves plus fresh stems and the moments of the plant physiological cycle. The indicators measured were: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, calcium (Ca

  10. The seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Timothy; Evans, Gareth; de Graaf, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The seminiferous cycle of the rhinoceros was investigated for the first time using testicular tissue from captive white (Ceratotherium simum, n=2) and black (Diceros bicornis, n=1) rhinoceroses. Stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle were characterised using the tubular morphology method and relative frequencies of each stage determined. This method allowed for the identification of eight stages of cellular associations characteristic of the seminiferous cycle in white and black rhinoceroses. The eight stages of the seminiferous cycle observed closely approximated the stages previously described for the domestic horse (Equus caballus). Premeiotic (stages I-III), meiotic (stage IV) and postmeiotic (stages V-VIII) represented 44.8%, 5.3% and 49.9% of the seminiferous cycle respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  12. Predicting the Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1844. Visual and photographic observations of sunspots have been made by both amateurs and professionals over the last 400 years. These observations provide key statistical information about the sunspot cycle that do allow for predictions of future activity. However, sunspots and the sunspot cycle are magnetic in nature. For the last 100 years these magnetic measurements have been acquired and used exclusively by professional astronomers to gain new information about the nature of the solar activity cycle. Recently, magnetic dynamo models have evolved to the stage where they can assimilate past data and provide predictions. With the advent of the Internet and open data policies, amateurs now have equal access to the same data used by professionals and equal opportunities to contribute (but, alas, without pay). This talk will describe some of the more useful prediction techniques and reveal what they say about the intensity of the upcoming sunspot cycle.

  13. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  14. An integrated life cycle inventory for demolition processes in the context of life cycle sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Hu, Mingming; van Roekel, Eric

    2012-01-01

    According to the Life Cycle Assessment in Building and Construction: State-of-the-Art Report (2003), the dismantling and demolition stage of the building life cycle is only sometimes included in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) when doing Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). The reason that it is less...... inventoried in a traditional LCA maybe because this stage is expected to have a negligible environmental impact comparing to other stages in the life cycle of the buildings. When doing a life cycle sustainability assessment considering not only environmental but also economic and social impacts, the impacts...

  15. The LifeCycle model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Løvbjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive search heuristics are known to be valuable in approximating solutions to hard search problems. However, these techniques are problem dependent. Inspired by the idea of life cycle stages found in nature, we introduce a hybrid approach called the LifeCycle model that simultaneously applies...

  16. Research on the stages of macrocycle of motive qualities of bicyclists 12-13 years on the type of build in the period of becoming of ovarian-menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudnikova M.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Motive qualities of young sportswomen are considered in the period of becoming specific biological cycle. In researches took part 45 young bicyclists in age of 12-15 years. It is rotined that under act of the physical loadings the type of build influences on the period of becoming ovarian-menstrual cycle. It is marked that the minimum indexes of motive qualities for girls were observed in becoming of genesial function of womanish organism. It is set that application of specific tests in the select type of sport allowed to define the level of preparedness and becoming ovarian-menstrual cycle.

  17. Reconversion(s territoriale(s sur l’avenue de Kurtuluş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilia Martin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Le quartier de Kurtuluş à Istanbul, héritier de l’ancien village de Tatavla, se forme et se développe jusqu’au milieu du XXe siècle. A partir des années 1950, le départ des minoritaires rum, jusque là quasi majoritaires, et l’arrivée des migrants anatoliens provoquent des ruptures démographiques considérables. Ces mobilités suscitent une diversité de modes territoriaux et produisent de nouvelles centralités, observables aussi par le bais du commerce et récemment à travers les stratégies mémorielles qui réédifient le passé rum du quartier. Enfin, ces territorialités participent à la recomposition du quartier et seront analysées à l’échelle d’une avenue phare, l’avenue de Kurtuluş.The neighborhood of Kurtuluş, heritage of the ancient village of Tatavla, was formed and developed till the mid of the 20th century. From 1950, along with the departure of the Rum minorities, which were considered till that time as quasi majorities, and with the arrival of Anatolian migrants, considerable demographical ruptures were provoked. Thoses mobilities create a diversity of territorial modes and give birth to new centralities, seen also throughout the commerce and recently from within the memorial strategies which rebuild the rum past of the neighborhood. Finally, those territorialities participate to the recomposition of the neigborhood and will be analysed through the scale of a headlight avenue, the avenue of Kurtuluş.

  18. Life Cycle Collection Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle collection management is a way of taking a long-term approach to the responsible stewardship of the British Library's collections and is one of the Library's strategic strands. It defines the different stages in a collection item's existence over time. These stages range from selection and acquisitions processing, cataloguing and press marking, through to preventive conservation, storage and retrieval. Life cycle collection management seeks to identify the costs of each stage in order to show the economic interdependencies between the phases over time. It thereby aims to demonstrate the long-term consequences of what the library takes into its collections, by making explicit the financial and other implications of decisions made at the beginning of the life cycle for the next 100 plus years. This paper describes the work over the past year at the British Library on this complex and complicated subject. It presents the emerging findings and suggests how it can be used for practical reasons (by individual curators and selectors and for economic, governance and political purposes. The paper describes the next steps in the project, for example, on a predictive data model. The British Library is seeking to benchmark itself against comparable organisations in this area. It intends to work with others on specific comparison for example, of life cycle costing of electronic and paper journals, as a prelude to eliding digital and 'traditional' formats.

  19. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  20. Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M.; Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region

  1. Measurement of DNA double-strand breaks in CHO cells at various stages of the cell cycle using pulsed field gel electrophoresis: calibration by means of 125I decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.E.; Cicilioni, O.; Metzger, L.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed to calibrate a recently developed pulsed field gel electrophoresis assay, the asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE), for the measurement of double-strand breaks (dsb) in the DNA of mammalian cells. Calibration was carried out by means of 125 I decay accumulation, under conditions preventing repair, based on the observation that each 125 I decay in the DNA produces approximately one dsb. Results suggest that that observed fluctuations in the fraction of DNA activity released (FAR) per Gy throughout the cycle reflect cell-cycle-associated differences in the physicochemical properties of the DNA molecules that alter their electrophoretic mobility, rather than variations in the induction of dsb per Gy, i.e. the sensitivity of the assay fluctuates throughout the cycle. (author)

  2. Aspects of the fast reactors fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The fuel cycle for fast reactors, is analysed, regarding the technical aspects of the developing of the reprocessing stages and the fuel fabrication. The environmental impact of LMFBRs and the waste management of this cycle are studied. The economic aspects of the fuel cycle, are studied too. Some coments about the Brazilian fast reactors programs are done. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Reproduction in laboratory of the morphology distribution and orientation of hydrides in different stages fuel cycle; Reproduccion en laboratorio de la morfologia, distribucion y orientacion de hidruros en distintas etapas del ciclo de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Rengel, M. A.; Gomez, F. J.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the experimental techniques employed to reproduce in the laboratory the distribution, morphology and orientation of the hydrides during the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle are reported. A cathodic charging technique was employed to produce ZIRLO cladding samples with an homogeneous distribution of hydrides and concentrations of 150, 250, 500, 1200 and 2000 ppm of hydrogen. The treatments developed to produce radial hydride reorientation, hydride blisters and a peripheral rim of hydrides are described.

  4. Analysis of Cell Cycle Switches in Drosophila Oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongyu; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The study of Drosophila oogenesis provides invaluable information about signaling pathway regulation and cell cycle programming. During Drosophila oogenesis, a string of egg chambers in each ovariole progressively develops toward maturity. Egg chamber development consists of 14 stages. From stage 1 to stage 6 (mitotic cycle), main-body follicle cells undergo mitotic divisions. From stage 7 to stage 10a (endocycle), follicle cells cease mitosis but continue three rounds of endoreduplication. From stage 10b to stage 13 (gene amplification), instead of whole genome duplication, follicle cells selectively amplify specific genomic regions, mostly for chorion production. So far, Drosophila oogenesis is one of the most well studied model systems used to understand cell cycle switches, which furthers our knowledge about cell cycle control machinery and sheds new light on potential cancer treatments. Here, we give a brief summary of cell cycle switches, the associated signaling pathways and factors, and the detailed experimental procedures used to study the cell cycle switches.

  5. Food restriction-induced changes in motivation differ with stages of the estrous cycle and are closely linked to RFamide-related peptide-3 but not kisspeptin in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Noah A; Russo, Kim A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Andrews, Ryan J; Kim, Veronica J; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Schneider, Jill E

    2017-06-15

    We tested the hypothesis that the effects of food restriction on behavioral motivation are mediated by one or both of the RFamide peptides, RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) and kisspeptin (Kp) in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Female hamsters fed ad libitum and given a choice between food and adult male hamsters are highly motivated to visit males instead of food on all four days of the estrous cycle, but after 8days of mild food restriction (75% of ad libitum intake) they shift their preference toward food every day of the estrous cycle until the day of estrus, when they shift their preference back toward the males. In support of a role for RFRP-3 in these behavioral changes, the preference for food and the activation of RFRP-3-immunoreactive (Ir) cells in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) showed the same estrous cycle pattern in food-restricted females, but no association was observed between behavior and the activation of Kp cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus or preoptic area. Next, we tested the hypothesis that food-restriction-induced activation of RFRP-3-Ir cells is modulated by high levels of ovarian steroids at the time of estrus. In support of this idea, on nonestrous days, mild food restriction increased activation of RFRP-3-Ir cells, but failed to do so on the day of estrus even though this level of food restriction did not significantly decrease circulating concentrations of estradiol or progesterone. Furthermore, in ovariectomized females, food-restriction-induced increases in activation of RFRP-3-Ir cells were blocked by systemic treatment with progesterone alone, estradiol plus progesterone, but not estradiol alone. Central infusion with RFRP-3 in ad libitum-fed females significantly decreased sexual motivation and produced significant increases in 90-minute food hoarding, in support of the hypothesis that elevated central levels of RFRP-3 are sufficient to create the shift in behavioral motivation in females fed ad libitum

  6. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. II. Changes in progression rate and cell sequence between the stage irradiated and nuclear membrane breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Portions of embryos of the grasshopper, Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer), were cultured in hanging drops under quartz cover slips. Immediately after exposure to 225, 265, or 280 nm radiation, microscope observations at 38 0 C were begun. The morphologically identified stage and the time after treatment of selected neuroblasts were recorded at short-time intervals until prometaphase was reached. Mitotic retardation induced by irradiation of prereplication stages (metaphase, anaphase, or early telophase) or S phase (middle or late telophase, interphase, or very early prophase) is greatest in postreplication stages (early, middle, and late prophase) and absent or minimal in stages morphologically identified as parts of S phase. Ultraviolet irradiation superimposes on the normal diversity of progression rates an additional variation factor, so that cells do not necessarily reach prometaphase in the order of their sequence at the time of treatment. This suggests the need for caution in ascribing particular radiosensitivities to substages of limited duration on the basis of the order in which they attain a subsequent stage

  7. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  8. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexi...

  9. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  10. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  11. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  12. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  13. Cycle 7 outage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadeken, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    The scheduled 58-day refueling outage in preparation for the seventh operating cycle of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was successfully completed three days ahead of schedule. The planning and execution of the outage was greatly aided by Project/2 automated scheduling capabilities. For example, the use of ''maintenance windows'' and resource loading capabilities was particularly effective. The value of the planning process was demonstrated by the smooth transition into the outage phase after an early shutdown and set the stage for our best outage to date

  14. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  15. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  17. A study on domino effect in nuclear fuel cycle facilities; Um estudo sobre o efeito domino em instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzolan, Jean-Claude

    2006-07-01

    Accidents caused by domino effect are among the most severe accidents in the chemical and process industry. Although the destructive potential of these accidental scenarios is widely known, little attention has been paid to this problem in the technical literature and a complete methodology for quantitative assessment of domino accidents contribution to industrial risk is still lacking. The present study proposed a systematic procedure for the quantitative assessment of the risk caused by domino effect in chemical plants that are part of nuclear fuel cycle plants. This work is based on recent advances in the modeling of fire and explosion damage to process equipment due to different escalation vectors (heat radiation, overpressure and fragment projection). Available data from literature and specific vulnerability models derived for several categories of process equipment had been used in the present work. The proposed procedure is applied to a typical storage area of a reconversion plant situated in a complex that shelters other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The top-events and escalation vectors are identified, their consequences estimated and credible domino scenarios selected on the basis of their frequencies. (author)

  18. Life cycle assessment of asphalt pavement maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at developing a life cycle assessment (LCA) model to quantify the impact of pavement preservation on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction stage contains material, manufacture, transportation and plac...

  19. Cell cycle stage-specific differential expression of topoisomerase I in tobacco BY-2 cells and its ectopic overexpression and knockdown unravels its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Badri Nath; Mudgil, Yashwanti; John, Riffat; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Tripathy, Manas Kumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K; Kaul, Tanushri

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerases catalyze the inter-conversion of different topological forms of DNA. Cell cycle coupled differential accumulation of topoisomerase I (Topo I) revealed biphasic expression maximum at S-phase and M/G1-phase of cultured synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. This suggested its active role in resolving topological constrains during DNA replication (S-phase) and chromosome decondensation (M/G1 phase). Immuno-localization revealed high concentrations of Topo I in nucleolus. Propidium iodide staining and Br-UTP incorporation patterns revealed direct correlation between immunofluorescence intensity and rRNA transcription activity within nucleolus. Immuno-stained chromosomes during metaphase and anaphase suggested possible role of Topo I in resolving topological constrains during mitotic chromosome condensation. Inhibitor studies showed that in comparison to Topo I, Topo II was essential in resolving topological constrains during chromosome condensation. Probably, Topo II substituted Topo I functioning to certain extent during chromosome condensation, but not vice-versa. Transgenic Topo I tobacco lines revealed morphological abnormalities and highlighted its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  1. Feeding Relationship between Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797 Early Life-Cycle Stages and Their Prey in the Western Iberian Upwelling System: Correlation of Reciprocal Lipid and Fatty Acid Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Lourenço

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the influence of the Western Iberian upwelling system, the Iberian Atlantic coast holds important hatcheries and recruitment areas for Octopus vulgaris. Recently identified as an octopus hatchery, the Ría de Vigo harbors an important mesozooplankton community that supports O. vulgaris paralarvae during the first days of their planktonic stage. This study represents a preliminary approach to determine the nutritional link between wild O. vulgaris hatchlings, paralarvae and their zooplankton prey in the Ría de Vigo, by analyzing their lipid class content and fatty acid profiles. The results show that octopus hatchlings are richer in structural lipids as phospholipids and cholesterol, while the zooplankton is richer in reserve lipids like triacylglycerol and waxes. Zooplankton samples are also particularly rich in C18:1n9 and 22:6n3 (DHA, that seem to be successfully incorporated by O. vulgaris paralarvae thus resulting in a distinct fatty acid profile to that of the hatchlings. On the other hand, content in C20:4n6 (ARA is maintained high through development, even though the zooplankton is apparently poorer in this essential fatty acid, confirming its importance for the development of O. vulgaris paralarvae. The content in monounsaturated fatty acids, particularly C18:1n7, and the DHA: EPA ratio are suggested as trophic markers of the diet of O. vulgaris paralarvae.

  2. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Artiklens formål er at diskutere oplevede kvaliteter og adfærdsaspekter af mobilitet med udgangspunkt i spørgsmålet om cykling i byer og relationen mellem design og adfærd. Artiklen tager afsæt i et studie forløb der involverede studerende fra Urban Design, Industriel Design Arkitektskolen Aarhus...... og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  3. Safe cycling!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  4. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nonproliferation characteristics of advanced fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiatives and safeguards methods and systems. Alternative cycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products

  6. Your Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the ... tool is based on a sample 28-day menstrual cycle, but every woman is different in how ...

  7. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    of the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes...... of possibilities which can be introduced in the design stage compared to the other life cycle stages of the product system. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies......Today's industry is being forced to consider the environmental performance of its products concurrently with traditional requirements such as quality, price or functional performance. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique has been identified as a powerful tool to calculate environmental impacts...

  8. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  9. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  10. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Robert Stowers [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  11. A high-temperature air-water heat pump. Stage 2: improved thermodynamic cycle with vapor injection, 24-hours-test runs, use of an auxiliary booster compressor, thermo-economical analysis; Pompe a chaleur air-eau a haute temperature. Phase 2: Concept ameliore du cycle a injection, essais journaliers et avec booster et analyse thermo-economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, M.; Marechal, F.; Guex, S.; Schiffmann, J.; Favrat, D.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of the second phase of a project that investigated a new concept for air-water heat pumps that operate under the extreme conditions (ambient air at -12 {sup o}C, hot water at 65 {sup o}C) and that are intended for retrofit applications. This report presents the results of tests made on a new type of compressor. Configuration improvements to the intermediate injection and economiser heat-exchanger are described. Figures are quoted on the coefficient of performance of the test configuration. A second approach that was tested that featured a booster compressor mounted in the suction line of the main compressor, is described and the results of tests are presented. The second part of the report presents a thermo-economic analysis that was made to compare proposed concepts for monovalent heat pumps with optimised electric immersion heaters for peak loads. The results obtained for varying optimisation criteria are presented and the net heat prices for the one-stage, injection and booster variants are quoted.

  12. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  13. Staging Rankine Cycles Using Ammonia for OTEC Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    Recent focus on renewable power production has renewed interest in looking into ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Early studies in OTEC applicability indicate that the island of Hawaii offers a potential market for a nominal 40-MWe system. a 40-MWe system represents a large leap in the current state of OTEC technology. Lockheed Martin Inc. is currently pursuing a more realistic goal of developing a 10-MWe system under U.S. Navy funding (Lockheed 2009). It is essential that the potential risks associated with the first-of-its-kind plant should be minimized for the project's success. Every means for reducing costs must also be pursued without increasing risks. With this in mind, the potential for increasing return on the investment is assessed both in terms of effective use of the seawater resource and of reducing equipment costs.

  14. Exfoliative vaginal cytology: a diagnostic tool for sexual cycle stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LMNP), a sexually transmitted disease (STD) of unknown aetiology leads to a partial or complete loss of the external genitalia structure. In order to identify the responsible pathogen, sixty-three baboons were temporarily chemically immobilised ...

  15. Education, premise for a workforce reconversion trough a Professional Reinvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jornea Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of resources, made in the 1980-1990 years from Hunedoara County the most industrialized county of Romania. Hunedoara is today one of the most affected by unemployment, poverty and crime. Today Hunedoara is a county that decreased with 140,000 inhabitants in the last 20 years and 75,000 jobs lost, all of these bearing the seal of deindustrialization. An accurate professional framework, could allow the attracting of investors. A first step should be a study of the age and socio professional structure of the population of Hunedoara County, could permit in the next years on focusing to the education of undergraduate and graduate level workforce in the area.

  16. Education, premise for a workforce reconversion trough a Professional Reinvention

    OpenAIRE

    Jornea Eugenia; Lupu-Dima Lucian; Edelhauser Eduard

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of resources, made in the 1980-1990 years from Hunedoara County the most industrialized county of Romania. Hunedoara is today one of the most affected by unemployment, poverty and crime. Today Hunedoara is a county that decreased with 140,000 inhabitants in the last 20 years and 75,000 jobs lost, all of these bearing the seal of deindustrialization. An accurate professional framework, could allow the attracting of investors. A first step should be a study of the age and socio pr...

  17. Project reconversion Service Hospital Radiation Oncology Clinics-Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarneti, A.; Levaggi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Health Sector operates within the framework of Social Policy and it is therefore one of the ways of distribution of public benefit, like Housing, Education and Social Security. While public spending on health has grown in recent years, its distribution has been uneven and the sector faces funding and management problems. The Service Hospital Radiation Oncology has reduced its health care liavility , lack technological development and unsufficient human resources and training. Aim: developing an inclusive reform bill Service Hospital Radiation Oncology .Material and Methods: This project tends to form a network institutional, introducing concepts of evidence-based medicine, risk models, cost analysis, coding systems, system implementation of quality management (ISO-9000 Standards). Proposes redefining radiotherapy centers and their potential participation in training resource development goals humanos.Promueve scientific research of national interest. Separate strictly administrative function, management and teaching. The project takes into account the characteristics of demand, the need to order it and organize around her, institutional network system and within the Hospital das Clinicas own related services related to Service Hospital Radiation Oncology , Encourages freedom of choice, and confers greater equity in care. The project would managed by the Hospital Clínicas. Conclusions: We believe this proposal identifies problems and opportunities, Service Hospital Radiation Oncology proposes the development of institutional network under one management model

  18. PROPUESTA DE CREACION DE UN FONDO DE RECONVERSION PRODUCTIVA REGIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Patiño

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza el proceso histórico y estructural de conformación de la economía regional, mostrando el origen de su especialización como productor de materias primas y alimentos para los centros metropolitanos, con poco valor agregado y actividades de pequeña escala, aglutinadas en un gran conjunto de microempresas y minifundios, donde se concentra buena parte de su población económicamente activa. Se analiza también la evolución de los modelos económicos recientes, contenidos en los últimos planes de desarrollo y en los cuales no se proponen salidas consistentes a los desequilibrios manifiestos en esta parte del territorio colombiano. Se evalúan igualmente los efectos sociales de estos desequilibrios, expresados en altas tasas de desempleo, subempleo, informalidad, pobreza y exclusión, lo que explica en buena medida la vinculación masiva de los pequeños productores del campo nariñense a la producción de cultivos ilícitos y en fenómenos de desestabilización institucional, violencia, destrucción del tejido social, entre otros aspectos. Por eso se plantea y justifica, como alternativa, la creación de un fondo de reconversión productiva, tal como lo señala la CEPAL en la literatura reciente, o como lo sustenta Sergio Boisier en sus artículos sobre teoría del desarrollo regional. Al final se plantea cómo a través de un proyecto de ley se podría legitimar esta alternativa, para enfrentar la crisis de nuestra región. El documento fue sustentado ante la Sociedad de Economistas de Nariño, cuyos miembros comparten plenamente el sentido de la propuesta.

  19. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  20. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle; Transparence associee au cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  1. Progesterone and ovulation across stages of the transition to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen A; Ferrell, Rebecca; Brindle, Eleanor; Trumble, Benjamin; Shofer, Jane; Holman, Darryl J; Weinstein, Maxine

    2009-01-01

    Detailed characterization of progesterone and ovulation across the menopausal transition provides insight into conception risk and mechanisms of reproductive aging. Participants (n = 108, aged 25-58 y) collected daily urine specimens for 6-month intervals in each of 5 consecutive years. Specimens were assayed for pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estrone glucuronide (E1G). Reproductive stage was determined using cycle length variance. A hierarchical algorithm was used to identify ovulation. Linear mixed-effects models estimated (1) the frequency and day of ovulation by age and stage; (2) differences in FSH, LH, and E1G levels between ovulatory (O) and anovulatory (AO) cycles; and (3) total PDG levels and PDG levels in O cycles by age and stage. The probability of AO cycles increased across the perimenopause (P 60%), but one quarter of cycles longer than 60 days were O. Average day of ovulation was later in the late perimenopause (mean [SD] cycle day, 27 [25] d) compared with the premenopause. FSH and LH levels were higher and E1G levels were lower in AO than O cycles (P < 0.0001 for each). Total PDG decreased in the late perimenopause, but 95th percentile PDG in O cycles declined steadily across the transition. Exposure to the risk of conception in women experiencing cycles long enough to classify them as late perimenopausal is far from negligible. Reproductive stage is more informative than age about PDG levels and the likelihood of anovulation.

  2. The chromosome cycle of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA undergoes replication, condensation-decondensation and segregation, sequentially, in some fixed order. Other conditions, like sister-chromatid cohesion (SCC), may span several chromosomal events. One set of these chromosomal transactions within a single cell cycle constitutes the “chromosome cycle”. For many years it was generally assumed that the prokaryotic chromosome cycle follows major phases of the eukaryotic one: -replication-condensation-segregation-(cell division)-decondensation-, with SCC of unspecified length. Eventually it became evident that, in contrast to the strictly consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes, all stages of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle run concurrently. Thus, prokaryotes practice “progressive” chromosome segregation separated from replication by a brief SCC, and all three transactions move along the chromosome at the same fast rate. In other words, in addition to replication forks, there are “segregation forks” in prokaryotic chromosomes. Moreover, the bulk of prokaryotic DNA outside the replication-segregation transition stays compacted. I consider possible origins of this concurrent replication-segregation and outline the “nucleoid administration” system that organizes the dynamic part of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle. PMID:23962352

  3. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  4. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  5. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  6. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Pizzol, Massimo; Achten, Wouter M J

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The main aim of the study is to assess the environmental and economic impacts of the lodging sector located in the Himalayan region of Nepal, from a life cycle perspective. The assessment should support decision making in technology and material selection for minimal environmental...... and economic burden in future construction projects. Methods The study consists of the life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in three building types: traditional, semi-modern and modern. The life cycle stages under analysis include raw material acquisition, manufacturing, construction, use....... Both primary and secondary data were used in the life cycle inventory. Results and discussion The modern building has the highest global warming potential (kg CO2-eq) as well as higher costs over 50 years of building lifespan. The results show that the use stage is responsible for the largest share...

  14. Degradation characteristics of CFRP by heat cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, N.J; Hasegawa, S.

    1986-02-01

    Fatigue tests on CFRP were performed in order to evaluate the durability of composite materials in thermal environments. The role of flexural strength was most pronounced in the case of thermal cycling fatigue under creep stress. The maximum degradation was found when the high temperature side of the heat cycle fatigue showed three different behaviors depending on the combination of stress and temperature range; (1) a pronounced degradation in the early stage; (2) a gradual degradation; and (3) slight degradation in the early stage.

  15. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Innovation and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Festré, Agnès

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this chapter is to assess the originality of Schumpeter's theory of business cycles. The first section outlines the distinctive features of Schumpeter's approach to business cycles and economic dynamics. Section two looks at the mechanisms constituting the cycle in Schumpeter's two major contributions on this subject, the Theory of Economic Development (1911) and Business Cycles (1939).

  17. The fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the fuel cycle is presented. The following fuel cycle steps are described: (1) Front of the fuel cycle (Mining and milling; Treatment; Refining, conversion and enrichment; Fuel fabrication); (2) Use of fuel in nuclear reactors; (3) Back end of the fuel cycle (Interim storage of spent fuel; spent fuel reprocessing; Final disposal of spent fuel)

  18. Mouse estrous cycle identification tool and images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Byers

    Full Text Available The efficiency of producing timed pregnant or pseudopregnant mice can be increased by identifying those in proestrus or estrus. Visual observation of the vagina is the quickest method, requires no special equipment, and is best used when only proestrus or estrus stages need to be identified. Strain to strain differences, especially in coat color can make it difficult to determine the stage of the estrous cycle accurately by visual observation. Presented here are a series of images of the vaginal opening at each stage of the estrous cycle for 3 mouse strains of different coat colors: black (C57BL/6J, agouti (CByB6F1/J and albino (BALB/cByJ. When all 4 stages (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus need to be identified, vaginal cytology is regarded as the most accurate method. An identification tool is presented to aid the user in determining the stage of estrous when using vaginal cytology. These images and descriptions are an excellent resource for learning how to determine the stage of the estrous cycle by visual observation or vaginal cytology.

  19. Prospects for Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Hallenstein, C.

    1988-05-01

    A review of recent overseas developments in the nuclear industry by The Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy suggests that there are market prospects in all stages of the fuel cycle. Australia could secure those markets through aggressive marketing and competitive prices. This report gives a profile of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear fuel cycle technologies, and describes the prospects of Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. It concludes that the nuclear fuel cycle industry has the potential to earn around $10 billion per year in export income. It recommend that the Federal Government: (1) re-examines its position on the Slayter recommendation (1984) that Australia should develop new uranium mines and further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and (2) gives it's in-principle agreement to the Northern Territory to seek expressions of interest from the nuclear industry for the establishment of an integrated nuclear fuel cycle industry in the Northern Territory

  20. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Gupta

    2017-04-22

    Apr 22, 2017 ... to facilitate the early germline development at all stages, and an increase in the somatic PI3K activity during the early stages ... [Gupta S and Ray K 2017 Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages in Drosophila testis. .... adults, a considerably late stage in the life cycle of Drosoph-.

  1. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  2. Mechanisms of stage-transcending protection following immunization of mice with late liver stage-arresting genetically attenuated malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K Sack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasite infection, continues to be one of the leading causes of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Development of an effective vaccine has been encumbered by the complex life cycle of the parasite that has distinct pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of infection in the mammalian host. Historically, malaria vaccine development efforts have targeted each stage in isolation. An ideal vaccine, however, would target multiple life cycle stages with multiple arms of the immune system and be capable of eliminating initial infection in the liver, the subsequent blood stage infection, and would prevent further parasite transmission. We have previously shown that immunization of mice with Plasmodium yoelii genetically attenuated parasites (GAP that arrest late in liver stage development elicits stage-transcending protection against both a sporozoite challenge and a direct blood stage challenge. Here, we show that this immunization strategy engenders both T- and B-cell responses that are essential for stage-transcending protection, but the relative importance of each is determined by the host genetic background. Furthermore, potent anti-blood stage antibodies elicited after GAP immunization rely heavily on FC-mediated functions including complement fixation and FC receptor binding. These protective antibodies recognize the merozoite surface but do not appear to recognize the immunodominant merozoite surface protein-1. The antigen(s targeted by stage-transcending immunity are present in both the late liver stages and blood stage parasites. The data clearly show that GAP-engendered protective immune responses can target shared antigens of pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasite life cycle stages. As such, this model constitutes a powerful tool to identify novel, protective and stage-transcending T and B cell targets for incorporation into a multi-stage subunit vaccine.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment - Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied...... environmental impacts in imported goods and showing interesting trade-offs between dense urban living and the greater purchasing power of wealthy urbanites. LCAs of human settlements also face difficult challenges; the long use stage (often decades) introduces high uncertainty regarding the end-of-life stage...

  4. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  5. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  6. Critical review of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, N.

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is considered as an alternative to the in-depth disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in particular, on the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. The majority of conclusions is the result of the common work of the Karlsruhe FZK and the Commissariat on nuclear energy of France (CEA)

  7. Organizational Life Cycles and Shifting Criteria of Effectiveness: Some Preliminary Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. Quinn; Kim Cameron

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationships between stage of development in organizational life cycles and organizational effectiveness. We begin the paper by reviewing nine models of organizational life cycles that have been proposed in the literature. Each of these models identifies certain characteristics that typify organizations in different stages of development. A summary model of life cycle stages is derived that integrates each of these nine models. Next, a framework of organizational eff...

  8. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  9. Staging of cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mohr (P.); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); A. Hauschild (Axel); A. Buzaid (A.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cutaneous melanoma is a continuously evolving system. The identification of increasingly more accurate prognostic factors has led to major changes in melanoma staging over the years, and the current system described in this review

  10. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  11. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating...... the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...

  12. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  13. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  14. A hybrid multi-effect distillation and adsorption cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple hybrid desalination system of a Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) and an adsorption (AD) cycle operating at sub-atmospheric pressures and temperatures. By hybridizing the conventional MED with an AD cycle, there is a symbiotic enhancement of performances of both cycles. The performance enhancement is attributed to (i) the cascade of adsorbent\\'s regeneration temperature and this extended the usage of thermal energy emanating from the brine heater and (ii) the vapor extraction from the last MED stage by AD cycle which provides the effect of lowering saturation temperatures of all MED stages to the extent of 5°C, resulting in scavenging of heat leaks into the MED stages from the ambient. The combined effects of the hybrid cycles increase the water production capacity of the desalination plant by nearly twofolds.In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid cycle by simulating an 8-stage MED cycle which is coupled to an adsorption cycle for direct vapor extraction from the last MED stage. The sorption properties of silica gel is utilized (acting as a mechanical vapor compressor) to reduce the saturation temperatures of MED stages. The modeling utilizes the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of the adsorbent. +. adsorbate (silica-gel. +. water) pair along with the governing equations of mass, energy and concentration. For a 8-stage MED and AD cycles operating at assorted temperatures of 65-90°C, the results show that the water production rate increases from 60% to twofolds when compared to the MED alone. The performance ratio (PR) and gain output ratio (GOR) also improve significantly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    of the marine nitrogen cycle and its influence on atmospheric CO 2 , in: The Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate, edited by: Follows, M., and Oguz, T., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 97-148, 2004. ISBN 1402020864. Citation Naqvi, Syed. 2006. "Marine nitrogen cycle...]. cycle> All text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. Please see the Encyclopedia of Earth's website for Terms of Use information. Supported...

  16. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision...

  17. Cycling To Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  18. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  19. Regulation of the cell cycle by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of cell proliferation is extremely complex; deregulation results in neoplastic transformation. In eukaryotes, proliferation of cells is finely regulated through the cell cycle. Studies have shown that the cell cycle is regulated by s series of enzymes known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The activities of CDKs are controlled by their association with regulatory subunits, cyclins; the expression of cyclins and the activation of the different cyclin-CDK complexes are required for the cell to cycle. Thus, the cell cycle is regulated by activating and inhibiting phosphorylation of the CDK subunits and this program has internal check points at different stages of the cell cycle. When cells are exposed to external insults such as DNA damaging agents, negative regulation of the cell cycle occurs; arrest in either G1 or G2 stage is induced to prevent the cells from prematurely entering into the next stage before DNA is repaired. Recently, a potent inhibitor of CDKs, which inhibits the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma susceptibility (Rb) gene product by cyclin A-CDK2, cyclin E-CDK2, cyclin D1-CDK4, and cyclin D2-CDK4 complexes has been identified. This protein named WAF1, Sdi1, Cip1, or p21 (a protein of Mr 21,000) contains a p53-binding site in its promoter and studies have reported that the expression of WAF1 was directly regulated by p53; cells with loss of p53 activity due to mutational alteration were unable to induce WAF1. This chapter will be focused on the mechanisms of the cell cycle including inhibitors of CDKs, and the induction of WAF1 by irradiation through a pathway independent of p53 will be also described. (author)

  20. Regulation of the cell cycle by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    The molecular mechanism of cell proliferation is extremely complex; deregulation results in neoplastic transformation. In eukaryotes, proliferation of cells is finely regulated through the cell cycle. Studies have shown that the cell cycle is regulated by s series of enzymes known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The activities of CDKs are controlled by their association with regulatory subunits, cyclins; the expression of cyclins and the activation of the different cyclin-CDK complexes are required for the cell to cycle. Thus, the cell cycle is regulated by activating and inhibiting phosphorylation of the CDK subunits and this program has internal check points at different stages of the cell cycle. When cells are exposed to external insults such as DNA damaging agents, negative regulation of the cell cycle occurs; arrest in either G1 or G2 stage is induced to prevent the cells from prematurely entering into the next stage before DNA is repaired. Recently, a potent inhibitor of CDKs, which inhibits the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma susceptibility (Rb) gene product by cyclin A-CDK2, cyclin E-CDK2, cyclin D1-CDK4, and cyclin D2-CDK4 complexes has been identified. This protein named WAF1, Sdi1, Cip1, or p21 (a protein of Mr 21,000) contains a p53-binding site in its promoter and studies have reported that the expression of WAF1 was directly regulated by p53; cells with loss of p53 activity due to mutational alteration were unable to induce WAF1. This chapter will be focused on the mechanisms of the cell cycle including inhibitors of CDKs, and the induction of WAF1 by irradiation through a pathway independent of p53 will be also described. (author)

  1. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Staging for vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Maheshwari, Amita; Srivastava, Astha

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer comprising about 3% of all gynecologic cancers. Primary vaginal cancer should be carefully assigned as spread from cervix, vulva, and other metastatic tumors to vagina can occur. Although vaginal cancer traditionally occurs in older postmenopausal women, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is increasing in younger women. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the most common histopathologic type followed by adenocarcinoma. With decreasing use of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, non-diethylstilbestrol-associated cancers are described. The Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging of vaginal cancer (2009) follows the same rules as cervical cancer; it is clinically staged and allows the use of routine investigative modalities for staging. Although FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, the imaging findings may not be used to change or reassign the stage. TNM staging is the pathologic staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and information available from examination of the resected specimen, including pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, may be used for staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  4. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  6. Influence of Menstrual Cycle on Maximal Aerobic Power of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the exercise response to various stages of the menstrual cycle in young female African adults. Fifteen volunteer, sedentary young female adults with a regular 28-day menstrual cycle and no history of premenstrual syndrome or abnormality participated in this study. A repeated ...

  7. Petri Net Modeling of Computer Virus Life Cycle | Ikekonwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented. The intention of ...

  8. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the ecological scarcity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After it is done, the inventory will be interpreted to the environmental impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Two LCIA methods identified were “midpoint and endpoint” approaches. The ecological scarcity (ecopoints) is an LCIA method using “midpoint” approach. From the analysis to both life cycle stages, analysis ...

  9. HIV LIFE CYCLE AND POTENTIAl TARGETS FOR DRUG ACTIVITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TABLE Ill. STAGES IN THE HIV UFE CYCLE THAT ARE TARGETS FOR CURRENTLY AVAIlABLE ANTIRETROVIRAlS. Fig. 7. Life cycle ofHIVand targets for ontiretrovirol theropy. (Reproduced with permission from: 5Miller, The Clinician's Guide to. Antiretroviral Resistance, 2007.) JULY 2002. Budding: immature virus.

  10. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented.

  11. Environmental challenges of anthropogenic metals flows and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voet, Ester; Salminen, Reijo; Eckelman, Matthew

    This report from the UNEP-hosted International Resource Panel, Environmental Risk and Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Flows and Cycles, gives a clear picture of the potential environmental impacts of metals at different stages of the life-cycle while linking with other areas of resource use...

  12. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  13. Analytical chemistry challenges at the back end of fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panja, S.; Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the various nuclear fuel cycle activities, spent fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste management play key role for adaptation of closed fuel cycle option and success of three stage Indian nuclear power programme. Reprocessing mainly aims to recover fissile and fertile component from spent fuel using well known PUREX/THOREX processes. Waste management deals with all the activities which are essential for safe management of radioactive wastes that get generated during entire nuclear fuel cycle operation

  14. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  15. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Moms Need Blog News & Media News Videos Mission stories Ambassadors Spotlights Tools & Resources Frequently asked media questions ... can be born. This stage can last as short as 20 minutes or as long as several ...

  16. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  17. Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat esophageal cancer. A plastic ...

  18. Stages of Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  19. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat penile cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  20. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous...

  1. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  2. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  3. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  4. Performance assessment of simple and modified cycle turboshaft gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigations encompassing comparative assessment of gas turbine cycle options. More specifically, investigation was carried out of technical performance of turboshaft engine cycles based on existing simple cycle (SC and its projected modified cycles for civil helicopter application. Technically, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and power output are of paramount importance to the overall performance of gas turbine engines. In course of carrying out this research, turbomatch software established at Cranfield University based on gas turbine theory was applied to conduct simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool helicopter turboshaft engine model with free power turbine. Similarly, some modified gas turbine cycle configurations incorporating unconventional components, such as engine cycle with low pressure compressor (LPC zero-staged, recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated (ICR engine cycle, were also simulated. In doing so, design point (DP and off-design point (OD performances of the engine models were established. The percentage changes in performance parameters of the modified cycle engines over the simple cycle were evaluated and it was found that to a large extent, the modified engine cycles with unconventional components exhibit better performances in terms of thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption than the traditional simple cycle engine. This research made use of public domain open source references.

  5. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  6. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Choi, Jin-Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei (Korea); Yonsei University Health System, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Young Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yonsei (Korea); Lee, Yoon-Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yonsei (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  7. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  8. Measuring Business Cycle Time

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  9. Variety in intracellular diffusion during the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selhuber-Unkel, C.; Yde, P.; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces Pombe using optical tweezers. The cell cycle was divided into interphase and mitotic cell division, and the mitotic cell division was further subdivided in its stages. During all stages of the cell cycle, the granules predominantly underwent subdiffusive motion, characterized by an exponent......During the cell cycle, the organization of the cytoskeletal network undergoes dramatic changes. In order to reveal possible changes of the viscoelastic properties in the intracellular space during the cell cycle we investigated the diffusion of endogenous lipid granules within the fission yeast...... a that is also linked to the viscoelastic moduli of the cytoplasm. The exponent a was significantly smaller during interphase than during any stage of the mitotic cell division, signifying that the cytoplasm was more elastic during interphase than during division. We found no significant differences...

  10. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning...

  11. Life Cycle Assessment On Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yong

    1998-04-01

    This book deals with history of life cycle assessment, methodology of life cycle assessment, software system and database, simplification, application of life cycle assessment, life cycle design, calculation of cost of life cycle, application of public policy over life cycle, prospect in Europe, materials in life cycle assessment, application of life cycle assessment in business, system analysis, assessment of value as a state of influence valuation, application of LCA for management situation of solidity waste and view for the future.

  12. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  13. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  14. A Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ming; Stevens, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-Stage Maturity Model for Long-Term IT Outsourcing Relationship Success, a theoretical stages-of-growth model, explains long-term success in IT outsourcing relationships. Research showed the IT outsourcing relationship life cycle consists of four distinct, sequential stages: contract, transition, support, and partnership. The model was…

  15. Firm Life Cycle, Book-Tax Differences and Earnings Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to show if the life cycle explains the relation between the Book-Tax Differences (BTDs and earnings persistence, as well as to inform on the future gains and their relation with the BTDs. Therefore, univariate tests were applied to verify the differences between the mean BTDS, life cycle stages and regression coefficient for the Earnings Before Income Tax (EBIT. The study focused on Brazilian publicly traded companies between 2009 and 2013. The results indicated that the control of earnings persistence was related with the stages of the life cycle. The information relevance of the life cycle and the Book-Tax Differences for earnings persistence is registered. In conclusion, the firm life cycle should be included in the analysis of the relation between the BTDs and earnings persistence. The evidence registered here is crucial to identify the quality of the earnings and incorporate them into earnings valuation models.

  16. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000500.htm End-stage kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term ( ...

  17. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  18. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  19. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  20. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  1. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  2. The Oxygen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swant, Gary D.

    Produced for primary grades, this booklet provides study of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle in nature. Line drawings, a minimum amount of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. The booklet is designed to be used as reading material, a coloring book, or for dramatic arts with students acting out parts of the cycle. This work was…

  3. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  4. The carbon cycle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  5. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  7. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  8. Stage efficiency in the analysis of thermochemical water decomposition processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, W. L.; Funk, J. E.; Carty, R. H.; Soliman, M. A.; Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure for analyzing thermochemical water-splitting processes using the figure of merit is expanded to include individual stage efficiencies and loss coefficients. The use of these quantities to establish the thermodynamic insufficiencies of each stage is shown. A number of processes are used to illustrate these concepts and procedures and to demonstrate the facility with which process steps contributing most to the cycle efficiency are found. The procedure allows attention to be directed to those steps of the process where the greatest increase in total cycle efficiency can be obtained.

  9. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  11. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  12. LIFE CYCLE OF A WINE BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Paziuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the life cycle of the wine brand, the development of ways to improve its effectiveness at different stages of the life cycle. Being scientifically informed of the existence of the life cycle of the brand allows modern enterprises to enhance their competitive position in the market and take advantage of the acquired differences in order to attract more attention from consumers. Methods. The study is based on scientific methods of research of economic phenomena: the dialectic, abstract logical (in the exercise of theoretical generalizations to the definition of the concept of «life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand, a scientific abstraction, comparison and ordering (the study of factors influencing the life cycle of the perpetrator of the brand and the factors influencing a choice of products for consumers, statistical and problem-chronological (the study of the requirements of the brand in a changing consumer preferences, logical generalization (in determining the social and ethical functions guilty brand. Results. The stages of the life cycle of the wine brand, which take into account its characteristics and form its social and ethical functions. Describing the requirements for the wine brand in the changing tastes and preferences of consumers. Specification of wine promotion of the brand in an increasingly competitive environment. Preconditions have been set for a new wine brand. The practical significance. The brand always increases the value of the product and its entry into new markets, as well as reduces the time to attract consumers. Possibility to ensure the growth of the brand in a declining market; building market share in a highly competitive environment; marketing innovative products in order to create a new sales strategy. After all, to gain and maintain the popularity of a certain product, one must personalize it with giving associations and a way to provide it with distinctive features. Only

  13. The Life Cycle of Engineered Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gálvez, David; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vílchez, Alejandro; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The first years in the twenty-first century have meant the inclusion of nanotechnology in most industrial sectors, from very specific sensors to construction materials. The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential risks for workers, consumers and the environment. In a comprehensive risk assessment or life cycle assessment, a life cycle schema is the starting point necessary to build up the exposure scenarios and study the processes and mechanisms driving to safety concerns. This book chapter describes the processes that usually occur at all the stages of the life cycle of the nano-enabled product, from the nanomaterial synthesis to the end-of-life of the products. Furthermore, release studies reported in literature related to these processes are briefly discussed.

  14. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available methodology. This study develops the life cycle inventories for bagasse power production in South Africa. The life cycle inventory can help to evaluate the environmental impacts of the cogeneration throughout the life cycle. The data for this inventory stage...

  15. The Effect of Histamine on the Rat Oestrous Cycle | Anuka | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of histamine (80-120mg) to adult Wistar rats was found to induce irregular cycles and, at times, persistent oestrous cycle when administered at different stages of the cycle. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg), a H2-receptor antagonist, administered intraperitoneally (ip) produced a transient ...

  16. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ηCQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  17. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  18. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept....

  19. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  20. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  1. Interconnection of the Degree of Risk and Life Cycle of the “Green Construction” Investment Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lepehova Natalia; Shoshinov Vitaly

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses interconnection of the degree of risk and the life cycle of the “green building” investment projects, which is structured according to the life cycle. Main stages of the implementation of investment and construction project were considered, interconnection of the project life cycle and the level of project risk were presented in the form of graphical model, proposed a mathematical model of the risk calculation at different stages of the project life cycle, which is a fun...

  2. Transcriptional landscape of the human cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Chen, Sujun; Wang, Su; Soares, Fraser; Fischer, Martin; Meng, Feilong; Du, Zhou; Lin, Charles; Meyer, Clifford; DeCaprio, James A; Brown, Myles; Liu, X Shirley; He, Housheng Hansen

    2017-03-28

    Steady-state gene expression across the cell cycle has been studied extensively. However, transcriptional gene regulation and the dynamics of histone modification at different cell-cycle stages are largely unknown. By applying a combination of global nuclear run-on sequencing (GRO-seq), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and histone-modification Chip sequencing (ChIP-seq), we depicted a comprehensive transcriptional landscape at the G0/G1, G1/S, and M phases of breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Importantly, GRO-seq and RNA-seq analysis identified different cell-cycle-regulated genes, suggesting a lag between transcription and steady-state expression during the cell cycle. Interestingly, we identified genes actively transcribed at early M phase that are longer in length and have low expression and are accompanied by a global increase in active histone 3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me2) and histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) modifications. In addition, we identified 2,440 cell-cycle-regulated enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) that are strongly associated with differential active transcription but not with stable expression levels across the cell cycle. Motif analysis of dynamic eRNAs predicted Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a key regulator of G1/S transition, and this identification was validated experimentally. Taken together, our combined analysis characterized the transcriptional and histone-modification profile of the human cell cycle and identified dynamic transcriptional signatures across the cell cycle.

  3. The staging area concept for item control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant

  4. An experimental investigation on MEDAD hybrid desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-04-02

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle called "MEDAD" desalination which is a hybrid of the conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an adsorption cycle (AD). The combined cycles allow some of MED stages to operate below ambient temperature, as low as 5. °C in contrast to the conventional MED. The MEDAD cycle results in a quantum increase of distillate production at the same top-brine condition. Being lower than the ambient temperature for the bottom stages of hybrid cycle, ambient energy can now be scavenged by the MED processes whilst the AD cycle is powered by low temperature waste heat from exhaust or renewable sources. In this paper, we present the experiments of a 3-stage MED and MEDAD plants. These plants have been tested at assorted heat source temperatures from 15. °C to 70. °C and with portable water as a feed. All system states are monitored including the distillate production and power consumption and the measured results are expressed in terms of performance ratio (PR). It is observed that the synergetic matching of MEDAD cycle led to a quantum increase in distillate production, up to 2.5 to 3 folds vis-a-vis to a conventional MED of the same rating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Product Life Cycle Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walaszek, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... This phase of work was undertaken to: (1) provide guidelines, technical support, and planning approaches for researchers that result in realistic life cycle plans for products emerging from the RSM...

  6. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  7. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  8. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  9. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    Strong institutional constraints and better-informed voters may lead re-election seeking incumbents to shift the use of political business cycle mechanisms away from monetary and fiscal policy towards other policy domains that are more easily manipulable, targetable, and timeable. We investigate...... teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...... periods and partly reverse this during politically safer points in the electoral cycle. Cycles are mediated by issue salience: heightened attention to German public schooling after the notorious PISA-2000 tests further strengthens the manipulation of new teacher hiring for electoral purposes....

  10. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  11. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  12. The global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  13. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  14. Towards a Life Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, O.; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for an operational quantitative screening-level assessment of alternatives, that is life-cycle based and able to serve both Life cycle Assessment (LCA and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). This presentation therefore aims to develop and illustrate a new approach called “Life...... Cycle Based Chemical Alternative Assessment (LCAA)” that will quantify exposure and life cycle impacts consistently and efficiently over the main life cycle stages. The new LCAA approach is illustrated though a proof-of-concept case study of alternative plasticizers in vinyl flooring. The proposed LCAA...... ingredient in the product, first-order inter-compartmental transfer fractions and a matrix approach to determine Product Intake Fractions, and c) toxicity-related outcomes are compared with other life cycle impacts to evaluate the relevance of different impact categories for different consumer product...

  15. Solar Cycle Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  16. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  17. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  18. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  19. Potato life-cycle : from genes to promoters to cis-acting elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trindade, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Potato plants undergo several developmental stages during their life-cycle, including stolon formation, tuber initiation, tuber growth, dormancy and sprouting. Most of these stages are continuous processes, meaning that different developmental stages can occur simultaneously in one

  20. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  1. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? ... Guide to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or ...

  2. The Effect of Cycling Intensity on Cycling Economy During Seated and Standing Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkesteijn, Marco; Jobson, Simon; Hopker, James; Passfield, Louis

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that cycling in a standing position reduces cycling economy compared with seated cycling. It is unknown whether the cycling intensity moderates the reduction in cycling economy while standing. The aim was to determine whether the negative effect of standing on cycling economy would be decreased at a higher intensity. Ten cyclists cycled in 8 different conditions. Each condition was either at an intensity of 50% or 70% of maximal aerobic power at a gradient of 4% or 8% and in the seated or standing cycling position. Cycling economy and muscle activation level of 8 leg muscles were recorded. There was an interaction between cycling intensity and position for cycling economy (P = .03), the overall activation of the leg muscles (P = .02), and the activation of the lower leg muscles (P = .05). The interaction showed decreased cycling economy when standing compared with seated cycling, but the difference was reduced at higher intensity. The overall activation of the leg muscles and the lower leg muscles, respectively, increased and decreased, but the differences between standing and seated cycling were reduced at higher intensity. Cycling economy was lower during standing cycling than seated cycling, but the difference in economy diminishes when cycling intensity increases. Activation of the lower leg muscles did not explain the lower cycling economy while standing. The increased overall activation, therefore, suggests that increased activation of the upper leg muscles explains part of the lower cycling economy while standing.

  3. Teachers' Use of Experiential Learning Stages in Agricultural Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning in agricultural laboratories has been a foundational component of secondary agricultural education. While inclusion of the four stages of the experiential learning cycle can enhance student learning in laboratory settings to help students reach various goals related to scientific literacy and higher-level thinking,…

  4. The bioenergetics of World Class Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Craig, N P; Hawley, J A

    2000-12-01

    Professional cycle racing is one of the most demanding of all sports combining extremes of exercise duration, intensity and frequency. Riders are required to perform on a variety of surfaces (track, road, cross-country, mountain), terrains (level, uphill and downhill) and race situations (criterions, sprints, time trials, mass-start road races) in events ranging in duration from 10 s to 3 wk stage races covering 200 m to 4,000 km. Furthermore, professional road cyclists typically have approximately 100 race d/yr. Because of the diversity of cycle races, there are vastly different physiological demands associated with the various events. Until recently there was little information on the demands of professional cycling during training or competition. However, with the advent of reliable, valid bicycle crank dynanometers, it is now possible to quantify real-time power output, cadence and speed during a variety of track and road cycling races. This article provides novel data on the physiological demands of professional and world-class amateur cyclists and characterises some of the physiological attributes necessary for success in cycling at the élite level.

  5. A hybrid mammalian cell cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Noël

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid modeling provides an effective solution to cope with multiple time scales dynamics in systems biology. Among the applications of this method, one of the most important is the cell cycle regulation. The machinery of the cell cycle, leading to cell division and proliferation, combines slow growth, spatio-temporal re-organisation of the cell, and rapid changes of regulatory proteins concentrations induced by post-translational modifications. The advancement through the cell cycle comprises a well defined sequence of stages, separated by checkpoint transitions. The combination of continuous and discrete changes justifies hybrid modelling approaches to cell cycle dynamics. We present a piecewise-smooth version of a mammalian cell cycle model, obtained by hybridization from a smooth biochemical model. The approximate hybridization scheme, leading to simplified reaction rates and binary event location functions, is based on learning from a training set of trajectories of the smooth model. We discuss several learning strategies for the parameters of the hybrid model.

  6. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  7. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  8. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  9. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo [Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Isegawa, Naohisa [Laboratory Animal Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shirasawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: sirasawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G{sub 1} phase preferred to proliferate during S/G{sub 2} phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G{sub 1} phase than in cells infected during S/G{sub 2} phase. - Highlights: • SINV infection was able to alter the cell cycle progression of infected cancer cells. • SINV infection can affect the expression of cell cycle regulators. • SINV infection exhibited a preference for the timing of viral replication among the cell cycle phases.

  10. Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek to advance a political ecology more sensitive to non-human actions, these same accounts often do not address the robust account of non-human agency in the historical record. Evidence is presented regarding water’s agency amongst late 19th and early 20th century architects of key water management norms in the United States. This evidence troubles accounts of the hydrosocial cycle that critique the US experience and suggests new directions for rethinking the role of historical and institutional norms in water policy.

  11. Sensitivity study on nitrogen Brayton cycle coupled with a small ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of UCFR are constant neutron flux and power density. They move their positions every moment at constant speed along with axial position of fuel rod for 60 years. Simultaneously with the development of the reactors, a new power conversion system has been considered. To solve existing issues of vigorous sodium-water reaction in SFR with steam power cycle, many researchers suggested a closed Brayton cycle as an alternative technique for SFR power conversion system. Many inactive gases are selected as a working fluid in Brayton power cycle, mainly supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ). However, S-CO 2 still has potential for reaction with sodium. CO 2 -sodium reaction produces solid product, which has possibility to have an auto ignition reaction around 600 .deg. C. Thus, instead of S-CO 2 , CEA in France has developed nitrogen power cycle for ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration). In addition to inactive characteristic of nitrogen with sodium, its thermal and physical similarity with air enables to easily adopt to existing air Brayton cycle technology. In this study, for an optimized power conversion system for UCFR, a nitrogen Brayton cycle was analyzed in thermodynamic aspect. Based on subchannel analysis data of UCFR-100, a parametric study for thermal performance of nitrogen Brayton cycle was achieved. The system maximum pressure significantly affects to the overall efficiency of cycle, while other parameters show little effects. Little differences of the overall efficiencies for all cases between three stages (BOC, MOC, EOC) indicate that the power cycle of UCFR-100 maintains its performance during the operation

  12. Quarterly U.S. unemployment: cycles, seasons and asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Franses, Philip Hans

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents three stylized facts for the quarterly unemployment rate in the United States. Firstly, unemployment is asymmetric over the business cycle, i.e. it rises sharply in recessions and it falls slowly in expansions. Secondly, its seasonal fluctuations are not constant across the two business cycle stages in the sense that there is less seasonality in recession periods. Thirdly, the effect of shocks to the unemployment rate in expansions seem transitory, while this ...

  13. How can a life cycle inventory parametric model streamline life cycle assessment in the wooden pallet sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Di Felice, Francesco; Ren, Jingzheng

    2014-01-01

    ; these correlations can be used to improve the design of new wooden pallets.The conceptual scheme for defining the model is based on ISO14040-44 standards. First of all, the product system was defined identifying the life cycle of a generic wood pallet, as well as its life cycle stages. A list of independent......, as the information required for fulfilling the LCI are standard information about the features of the wooden pallet and its manufacturing process. The contribution analysis on the reference product revealed that the most contributing life cycle stages are wood and nails extraction and manufacturing (positive value......This study discusses the use of parameterization within the life cycle inventory (LCI) in the wooden pallet sector, in order to test the effectiveness of LCI parametric models to calculate the environmental impacts of similar products. Starting from a single case study, the objectives of this paper...

  14. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  15. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  16. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  17. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  18. Implementation of thorium fuel cycle in Indian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, P.D.; Srivenkatesan, R.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure long term availability of nuclear energy in a sustainable manner, taking cognisance of its resource position, India has followed a closed fuel cycle option and chalked out a three-stage nuclear power programme based on uranium and thorium. The three stages of this programme comprise: - Natural uranium fuelled Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors - Fast Breeder Reactors utilising plutonium based fuel - Advanced nuclear power systems for utilization of thorium The technology for the first stage has already reached a level of maturity, and a commercial fast breeder reactor programme, comprising of the second stage, is due to start soon with the construction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Pbr). A large amount of research and development is going on for utilizing thorium. In this respect, an Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (A HWR) is being designed in India. The R and D work on thorium fuel cycle is discussed

  19. Planning and management of logistic cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kudashkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are considering planning and managing of logistic cycle, its impact on the content of the main processes that comprise the cycle to implement the order for the supply of material resources for industrial consumption, as well as its practical use, effectiveness, and prospects.This research paper is made on the basis of the information, received from textbooks and scientific literature of domestic and foreign authors, as well as from other sources. The main methods, used in this work are as follows: method of system analysis, method of the theory of operations’ research, prognostics. Application of these methods allows forecasting material flows, creating the integrated management systems and controlling their movements, developing systems of logistic service, to optimize supply stock and solve a number of other tasks.A logistic approach to form a modern system of logistics will save time, reduce costs for the purchase of material resources, their delivery and storage.In modern conditions of the market economy, the considered time parameters of the logistic chain are essential for manufacturing enterprises because their records significantly increase the efficiency of the logistical system.Logistics is equipped with a special complex of economic and mathematical models, the main feature of which is the adaptability, i.e. ability to solve complex optimization problems in the operational mode and in the process of the management of material flows. The primary role of these models in a market economy is to identify quickly points of compromise.Dynamics to functional cycles gives the necessity to align resource needs «input» and «output». «Input» functional cycle is an order that specifies requirements for a product or service. Logistical system, which is able to complete fully the order of any size, as a rule, needs in the «combined» functional cycles, including different transactions and operations at different stages. The «output» of

  20. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive due to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Although the uranium ore as well as the separative work requirements are usually lower for any thorium-based fuel cycle in comparison to present uranium-plutonium fuel cycles of thermal water reactors, interest by nuclear industry has hitherto been marginal. Fast increasing uranium prices, public reluctance against widespread Pu-recycling and expected retardations for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, it could be learned in the meantime that problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, but particularly with a remote refabrication of 233 U are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu-recycling. This may not only be due to psychological constraints but be based upon technological as well as economical facts, which have been mostly neglected up till now. In order to diversify from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems to be worthwhile to greatly intensify efforts in the future for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGR's are particularly promising for economic application. However, further R and D activites should not be solely focussed on this reactor type alone. Light and heavy-water moderated reactors, as well as even fast breeders later on, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art of Th/ 233 U-recycling technology and the efforts still necessary to demonstrate this technology all the way through to its industrial application

  1. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  2. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  3. Cycling injuries and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Noora K; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S; Kataja, J Matti; Kröger, Heikki P J; Lüthje, Peter M J

    2018-03-03

    Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of ≥ 1.2 g/L was measured in nearly 90% of all alcohol-related cases. A positive BAC result was more common among males than females (p < 0.001), and head injuries were more common among cyclists where alcohol was involved (AI) (60%) than among sober cyclists (29%) (p < 0.001). Two thirds (64%) of the cyclists with AI were not wearing a bicycle helmet. The figure for serious injuries (MAIS ≥ 3) was similar in both groups. Intoxication with an alcohol level of more than 1.5 g/L and the age of 15 to 24 years were found to be risk factors for head injuries. The mean cost of treatment was higher among sober cyclists than among cyclists with AI (€2143 vs. €1629), whereas in respect of the cost of work absence, the situation was the opposite (€1348 vs. €1770, respectively). Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve

  4. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  5. The principles of cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, James; Gospodarowicz, Mary; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The anatomic disease extent or tumour stage of a cancer at diagnosis as a determinant of prognosis is discussed. The importance of cancer stage in individual patient prognosis and determination of treatment is reviewed as well as its value in research and cancer control activities. The conflict between the need for stability of cancer stage definitions over time and the need to evolve with advances in medicine are examined. The e cancer elearning modules on Cancer Stage are introduced.

  6. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Consuelo, E-mail: csanchez@ind.uned.es [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain); Perlado, Manuel [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER.

  7. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  8. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  9. Entrepreneurship and the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koellinger, Philipp D.; Thurik, A. Roy

    2012-01-01

    We find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972 to 2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment cycle. We

  10. without intersecting short cycles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. (3, 1)*-Choosability of graphs of nonnegative characteristic without intersecting short cycles. Haihui Zhang. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 2 May 2016 pp 159-165 ...

  11. Educational Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    teacher employment patterns at the state level in Germany and find strong evidence of cycling mechanisms, in the form of electioneering and honeymooning. Against a backdrop of a continuously shrinking total teachers' pool, German state-level incumbents accelerate the hiring of new teachers during election...

  12. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The grammaticalization of the demonstratives this, that and thus are investigated with respect to their functions as degree adverbs using empirical data from dictionaries and historical and modern corpora. It is first argued that thus participates in the CP cycle. With respect to this and that, e...

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  14. Fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  15. Re-Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-01-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version…

  16. The Science of Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Zoe; Daniels, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Children are engaged by finding out about science in the real world (Harlen, 2010). Many children will be cyclists or will have seen or heard about the success of British cyclists in the Olympics and the Tour de France. This makes cycling a good hook to draw children into learning science. It is also a good cross-curricular topic, with strong…

  17. Big Data and Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanillos, Gustavo; Zaltz Austwick, Martin; Ettema, Dick; De Kruijf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Big Data has begun to create significant impacts in urban and transport planning. This paper covers the explosion in data-driven research on cycling, most of which has occurred in the last ten years. We review the techniques, objectives and findings of a growing number of studies we have classified

  18. Cycling in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Progression through the cell cycle is mediated by the sequential activation of a number of cyclins that form active kinase complexes when bound to one of several cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). In GI, these kinases phosphorylate, amongst others, the retinoblastoma protein, which, when

  19. Skills, sunspots and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper explores the ability of a class of one-sector,multi-input models to generate indeterminate equilibrium paths, andendogenous cycles, without relying on factors' hoarding. The modelpresents a novel theoretical economic mechanism that supportssunspot-driven expansions without requiring up...

  20. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  1. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  2. Thermomechanical and hygroelastic properties of an epoxy system under humid and cold-warm cycling conditions

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the hygrothermal aging of an anhydride-cured epoxy under temperature and hygrometry conditions simulating those experienced by an aircraft in wet tropical or subtropical regions. Gravimetric and dimensional measurements were performed and they indicate that there are three stages in this aging process: the first one, corresponding to the early cycles can be called the "induction stage". The second stage of about 1000 cycles duration, could be named the "swelling stage", during which the volume increase is almost equal to the volume of the (liquid) water absorbed. Both the first and second stages are accompanied by modifications of the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature. During the third ("equilibrium") stage, up to 3000 cycles, there is no significant change in the physical properties despite the continuous increase of water uptake. This can be explained by the fact that only physically sorbed water can influence physical properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A nuclear glutathione cycle within the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Vivancos, Pedro; Wolff, Tonja; Markovic, Jelena; Pallardó, Federico V; Foyer, Christine H

    2010-10-15

    The complex antioxidant network of plant and animal cells has the thiol tripeptide GSH at its centre to buffer ROS (reactive oxygen species) and facilitate cellular redox signalling which controls growth, development and defence. GSH is found in nearly every compartment of the cell, including the nucleus. Transport between the different intracellular compartments is pivotal to the regulation of cell proliferation. GSH co-localizes with nuclear DNA at the early stages of proliferation in plant and animal cells. Moreover, GSH recruitment and sequestration in the nucleus during the G1- and S-phases of the cell cycle has a profound impact on cellular redox homoeostasis and on gene expression. For example, the abundance of transcripts encoding stress and defence proteins is decreased when GSH is sequestered in the nucleus. The functions of GSHn (nuclear GSH) are considered in the present review in the context of whole-cell redox homoeostasis and signalling, as well as potential mechanisms for GSH transport into the nucleus. We also discuss the possible role of GSHn as a regulator of nuclear proteins such as histones and PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] that control genetic and epigenetic events. In this way, a high level of GSH in the nucleus may not only have an immediate effect on gene expression patterns, but also contribute to how cells retain a memory of the cellular redox environment that is transferred through generations.

  4. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  5. The global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  6. Science on stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera

    2017-04-01

    Pictures and diaries of the legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew aboard the Endurance (1914/16) have become the starting point to learn about Natural Science, Earth Science and Climate Change. Students, 12 years old, were involved in hands on activities, took part to a network project, used interactive virtual labs, talked to university researchers on Skype and became the writers of a play. The theater was the place to act the story of Shackleton's expedition, to "stage" some scientific experiments and to tell to the audience about ice cores, climate change, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters, geography and English in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano", the association "Scienza Under 18", researchers of the "Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center of Ohio State University" and of "M. Zucchelli Station" based in Antarctica. In our opinion drama activities improve both verbal and non-verbal communication skills and soft skills such as teamwork, responsibility and commitment. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates and to interact with university researchers offer real tasks. The project aims to develop a relevant skill for the students: to become awareness citizens in a changing word.

  7. Science on stage

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing of a SOFC system for distributed power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, Carlo; Del Borghi, Adriana; Costamagna, Paola; Gallo, Michela; Brignole, Emma; Girdinio, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of 230 kW SOFC system from a life cycle perspective. • LCA–LCC toolbox developed to compare SOFC and MGT. • Eight sustainability indicators are identified as drivers for decision making. • Investment cost is a bottle-neck for SOFC systems. • SOFC systems show environmental–economic benefits for household applications. - Abstract: Through the combination of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) in a dedicated toolbox, the aim of this paper is to evaluate both potential environmental impacts and potential costs of the operation of a 230 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. LCA and LCC methodologies have been here applied for a comparison with a conventional technology, i.e. Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) for distributed power generation applications. A contribution analysis for the SOFC system fuelled with natural gas, reveals that the fuel supply is responsible of a relevant share of the environmental impact. The same system, fed with biogas, shows environmental benefits on global and regional impact categories, depending on the power energy mix used during the digestion process. For both SOFC and MGT systems, the life cycle hotspots are identifiable in the operation stage for the global warming category, and in the fuel supply stage for all the remaining impact categories. The LCA–LCC comparison between SOFC and MGT systems, based on a toolbox embedding a set of 8 sustainability indicators for decision making, shows that the SOFC system presents environmental and economic benefits in a life cycle perspective, particularly for household application. However, cost results to be the most sensitive bottle-neck for benchmarking with traditional energy systems. Therefore, the SOFC system is preferable to the conventional MGT technology when the sustainability of investment cost is demonstrated, whilst a wide advantage in environmental performance along the life cycle has been proved

  9. A transgenic Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain that expresses GFP-luciferase throughout the parasite life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ashley M; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Camargo, Nelly; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Kennedy, Mark; Lindner, Scott E; Miller, Jessica L; Hume, Jen C C; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2012-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the pathogenic agent of the most lethal of human malarias. Transgenic P. falciparum parasites expressing luciferase have been created to study drug interventions of both asexual and sexual blood stages but luciferase-expressing mosquito stage and liver stage parasites have not been created which has prevented the easy quantification of mosquito stage development (e.g. for transmission blocking interventions) and liver stage development (for interventions that prevent infection). To overcome this obstacle, we have created a transgenic P. falciparum NF54 parasite that expresses a GFP-luciferase transgene throughout the life cycle. Luciferase expression is robust and measurable at all life cycle stages, including midgut oocyst, salivary gland sporozoites and liver stages, where in vivo development is easily measurable using humanized mouse infections in conjunction with an in vivo imaging system. This parasite reporter strain will accelerate testing of interventions against pre-erythrocytic life cycle stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parametric studies on different gas turbine cycles for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie; Gu Yihua

    2005-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with turbine cycle is considered as one of the leading candidates for future nuclear power plants. In this paper, the various types of HTGR gas turbine cycles are concluded as three typical cycles of direct cycle, closed indirect cycle and open indirect cycle. Furthermore they are theoretically converted to three Brayton cycles of helium, nitrogen and air. Those three types of Brayton cycles are thermodynamically analyzed and optimized. The results show that the variety of gas affects the cycle pressure ratio more significantly than other cycle parameters, however, the optimized cycle efficiencies of the three Brayton cycles are almost the same. In addition, the turbomachines which are required for the three optimized Brayton cycles are aerodynamically analyzed and compared and their fundamental characteristics are obtained. Helium turbocompressor has lower stage pressure ratio and more stage number than those for nitrogen and air machines, while helium and nitrogen turbocompressors have shorter blade length than that for air machine

  11. Life cycle assessment of mobile phone housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-xin; Wang, Ru-song; Fu, Hao; Liu, Jing-ru

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of the mobile phone housing in Motorola(China) Electronics Ltd. was carried out, in which materials flows and environmental emissions based on a basic production scheme were analyzed and assessed. In the manufacturing stage, such primary processes as polycarbonate molding and surface painting are included, whereas different surface finishing technologies like normal painting, electroplate, IMD and VDM etc. were assessed. The results showed that housing decoration plays a significant role within the housing life cycle. The most significant environmental impact from housing production is the photochemical ozone formation potential. Environmental impacts of different decoration techniques varied widely, for example, the electroplating technique is more environmentally friendly than VDM. VDM consumes much more energy and raw material. In addition, the results of two alternative scenarios of dematerialization showed that material flow analysis and assessment is very important and valuable in selecting an environmentally friendly process.

  12. Advanced fuel cycles for WWER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, Y. M.; Pavlovichev, A. M.; Pavlov, V. I.; Spirkin, E. I.; Styrin, Y. A.; Kosourov, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Main stages of Russian uranium fuel development regarding improvement of safety and economics of fuel load operation are presented. Intervals of possible changes in fuel cycle duration have been demonstrated for the use of current and perspective fuel. Examples of equilibrium fuel load patterns have been demonstrated and main core neutronics parameters have been presented. Problems on the use of axial blankets with reduced enrichment in WWER-1000 fuel assemblies are considered. Some results are presented regarding core neutronic characteristics of WWER-1000 at the use of regenerated uranium and uranium-plutonium fuel. Examples of equilibrium fuel cycles for the core partially loaded with MOX fuel from weapon-grade plutonium are also considered (Authors)

  13. Mosquito Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flies short time after emerging and after its body parts have hardened. The first three stages occur in water, but the adult is an active flying insect. Only the female mosquito bites and feeds on the blood of humans or other animals. After she obtains a blood ...

  14. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...

  15. Life cycle reliability assessment of new products—A Bayesian model updating approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Li, Yanfeng; Zuo, Ming J.; Xie, Min

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing pace and continuously evolving reliability requirements of new products have made life cycle reliability assessment of new products an imperative yet difficult work. While much work has been done to separately estimate reliability of new products in specific stages, a gap exists in carrying out life cycle reliability assessment throughout all life cycle stages. We present a Bayesian model updating approach (BMUA) for life cycle reliability assessment of new products. Novel features of this approach are the development of Bayesian information toolkits by separately including “reliability improvement factor” and “information fusion factor”, which allow the integration of subjective information in a specific life cycle stage and the transition of integrated information between adjacent life cycle stages. They lead to the unique characteristics of the BMUA in which information generated throughout life cycle stages are integrated coherently. To illustrate the approach, an application to the life cycle reliability assessment of a newly developed Gantry Machining Center is shown

  16. Three-stage linear, split-Stirling cryocooler for 1 to 2K magnetic cold stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsworth, R.C.

    1993-08-01

    A long-life, linear, high efficiency 8K split Stirling cycle cryocooler was designed, built, and tested. The refrigerator is designed for cooling a 50 mW, 1.5K magnetic cold stage. Dual opposed piston compressors are driven by moving-coil linear motors. The three stage expander, although not completed, is also driven by a linear motor and is designed to produce 1 SW at 60K, 4W at 16K, and 1.2W at 8K. The cold regenerator employs a parallel gap construction for high efficiency. The key technology areas addressed include warm and cold flexible suspension bearings and a new cold regenerator geometry for high efficiency at 8K

  17. Publication Life Cycle at CERN Document Server

    CERN Multimedia

    Witowski, Sebastian; Costa, Flavio; Gabancho, Esteban; Marian, Ludmila; Tzovanakis, Harris

    2017-01-01

    This presentation guides listeners through all the stages of publication life cycle at CERN Document Server, from the ingestion using one of the various tools, through curation and processing, until the data is ready to be exported to other systems. It describes different tools that we are using to curate the incoming publications as well as to further improve the existing data on CDS. The second part of the talk goes through various challenges we have faced in the past and how we are going to overcome them in the new version of CDS.

  18. Cycling and erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Šibli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For many years medical studies have implicated bicycle riding is causing erectile dysfunction (ED in association with higher perineal pressure. This review focuses upon epidemiological studies assesing the impact of cycling on ED, pathogenesis of ED in cyclists  as well as on research considering changes of perineal pressure, hemodynamics, and nerve conduction when cycling. Investigestors were also interested in different saddle sizes, materials and geometry and also in the impact of saddle and riders position on changes to the perineum. Research on female cyclists is very limited but indicates similar genitourinary disorders as in male cyclists. We also review  research on preventative and therapeutic options regarding bicycle riding and ED.

  19. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  20. Carbon cycle makeover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    In 1845, the French chemist and mining engineer Jacques-Joseph Ebelman figured out why Earth's atmosphere contains oxygen (1). Oxygen is produced by plants during photosynthesis, but almost all of this oxygen is used again in respiration. Ebelman reasoned that small amounts of organic matter rema...... geochemical cycle. But Earth is an old planet, and oxygen levels have changed through time (2). On page 540 of this issue, Schrag et al. (3) challenge the most commonly used geochemical approach to assess long-term changes in the coupled oxygen and carbon cycles....... remaining in sediments after respiration leave a residual of oxygen in the atmosphere. The source of oxygen to the atmosphere represented by organic matter burial is balanced by oxygen sinks associated with rock weathering and chemical reaction with volcanic gases. This is the long-term carbon and oxygen...

  1. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products...... or to support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved...... in decision-making processes, the necessity for a straightforward but comprehensive presentation of LCSA results is becoming strategically important. The implementation of the dashboard of sustainability proposed in this article offers a possible solution. An outstanding characteristic of the dashboard...

  2. Chromatin association of UHRF1 during the cell cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Gashgari, Bothayna

    2017-05-01

    Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING Finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a nuclear protein that associates with chromatin. Regardless of the various functions of UHRF1 in the cell, one of its more important functions is its role in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns by the recruitment of DNMT1. Studies on UHRF1 based on this function have revealed the importance of UHRF1 during the cell cycle. Moreover, based on different studies various factors were described to be involved in the regulation of UHRF1 with different functionalities that can control its binding affinity to different targets on chromatin. These factors are regulated differently in a cell cycle specific manner. In light of this, we propose that UHRF1 has different binding behaviors during the cell cycle in regard to its association with chromatin. In this project, we first analyzed the binding behavior of endogenous UHRF1 from different unsynchronized cell systems in pull-down assays with peptides and oligonucleotides. Moreover, to analyze UHRF1 binding behavior during the cell cycle, we used two different approaches. First we sorted Jurkat and HT1080 cells based on their cell cycle stage using FACS analysis. Additionally, we synchronized HeLa cells to different stages of the cell cycle by chemical treatments, and used extracts from cellsorting and cell synchronization experiments for pull-down assays. We observed that UHRF1 in different cell systems has different preferences in regard to its binding to H3 unmodified and H3K9me3. Moreover, we detected that UHRF1, in general, displays different patterns between different stages of cell cycle; however, we cannot draw a final model for UHRF1 binding pattern during cell cycle.

  3. Assessing Cycling Participation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and evaluating cycling programs at a national or state level requires accurate measures of cycling participation. However, recent reports of cycling participation have produced very different estimates. This paper examines the reported rates of cycling in five recent population surveys of cycling. Three surveys (one national and two from Sydney asking respondents when they last rode a bicycle generated cycling participation (cycled in the past year estimates of 29.7%, 34.1% and 28.9%. Two other national surveys which asked participants to recall (unprompted any physical activity done for exercise, recreation or sport in the previous 12 months, estimated cycling in the past year as 11.1% and 6.5%. While unprompted recall of cycling as a type of physical activity generates lower estimates of cycling participation than specific recall questions, both assessment approaches produced similar patterns of cycling by age and sex with both approaches indicating fewer women and older adults cycling. The different question styles most likely explain the substantial discrepancies between the estimates of cycling participation. Some differences are to be expected due to sampling variability, question differences, and regional variation in cycling.

  4. Liver Stage specific response among Endemic Populations: Diet & Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Dalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective anti-malarial vaccine has been a challenge for long. Various factors including complex life cycle of parasite and lack of knowledge of stage specific critical antigens are some of the reasons. Moreover, inadequate understanding of the immune responses vis-à-vis sterile protection induced naturally by Plasmodia infection has further compounded the problem. It has been shown that people living in endemic areas take years to develop protective immunity to blood stage infection. But hardly anyone believes that immunity to liver-stage infection could be developed. Various experimental model studies using attenuated parasite suggest that liver stage immunity might exist among endemic populations. This could be induced because of the attenuation of parasite in liver by various compounds present in the diet of endemic populations.

  5. HCl removal using cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycled carbide slag from calcium looping cycles is used to remove HCl. • The optimum temperature for HCl removal of cycled carbide slag is 700 °C. • The presence of CO 2 restrains HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • CO 2 capture conditions have important effects on HCl removal of cycled carbide slag. • HCl removal capacity of carbide slag drops with cycle number rising from 1 to 50. - Abstract: The carbide slag is an industrial waste from chlor-alkali plants, which can be used to capture CO 2 in the calcium looping cycles, i.e. carbonation/calcination cycles. In this work, the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping cycles for CO 2 capture was proposed to remove HCl in the flue gas from the biomass-fired and RDFs-fired boilers. The effects of chlorination temperature, HCl concentration, particle size, presence of CO 2 , presence of O 2 , cycle number and CO 2 capture conditions in calcium looping cycles on the HCl removal behavior of the carbide slag experienced carbonation/calcination cycles were investigated in a triple fixed-bed reactor. The chlorination product of the cycled carbide slag from the calcium looping after absorbing HCl is not CaCl 2 but CaClOH. The optimum temperature for HCl removal of the cycled carbide slag from the carbonation/calcination cycles is 700 °C. The chlorination conversion of the cycled carbide slag increases with increasing the HCl concentration. The cycled carbide slag with larger particle size exhibits a lower chlorination conversion. The presence of CO 2 decreases the chlorination conversions of the cycled carbide slag and the presence of O 2 has a trifling impact. The chlorination conversion of the carbide slag experienced 1 carbonation/calcination cycle is higher than that of the uncycled calcined sorbent. As the number of carbonation/calcination cycles increases from 1 to 50, the chlorination conversion of carbide slag drops gradually. The high calcination temperature and high CO 2

  6. Stirling cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  7. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  8. International Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  9. Studies on the life cycle and morphometrics of honeybees, Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of the honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii, was studied in mangrove area by monitoring the developmental stages and morphology of the castes. It was observed that the fate of the eggs were predetermined at the onset leading to drones, queens or workers. It was also established that the three different castes ...

  10. A 9 K conical Stirling-cycle cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrtle, K.; Winter, C.; Gygax, S.

    1982-01-01

    A low power closed cycle Stirling refrigerator with a conical glass-fibre reinforced epoxy displacer/regenerator and an external compressor is described. The single stage device has demonstrated cooling to 9 K directly from room temperature and may be used for cooling SQUID systems. (author)

  11. The models of the life cycle of a computer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina-Carmen Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study on the patterns of the life cycle of a computer system. There are analyzed the advantages of each pattern and presented the graphic schemes that point out each stage and step in the evolution of a computer system. In the end the classifications of the methods of projecting the computer systems are discussed.

  12. Role of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during senescence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Programmed cell death is an integral part of normal plant development including leaf senescence. This study investigated the response of some component of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, chlorophylls.a & b, protein content, and membrane leakage during the developmental stages of Phaseolus cotyledons from imbibition till ...

  13. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennington, D.W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T.; Rebitzer, G.

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  16. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  17. J-2X Upper Stage Engine: Hardware and Testing 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Mission: Common upper stage engine for Ares I and Ares V. Challenge: Use proven technology from Saturn X-33, RS-68 to develop the highest Isp GG cycle engine in history for 2 missions in record time . Key Features: LOX/LH2 GG cycle, series turbines (2), HIP-bonded MCC, pneumatic ball-sector valves, on-board engine controller, tube-wall regen nozzle/large passively-cooled nozzle extension, TEG boost/cooling . Development Philosophy: proven hardware, aggressive schedule, early risk reduction, requirements-driven.

  18. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  19. How well can business cycle accounting account for business cycles?

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2012-01-01

    The business cycle accounting method introduced by Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) is a useful tool to decompose business cycle fluctuations into their contributing factors. However, the model estimated by the maximum likelihood method cannot replicate business cycle moments computed from data. Moment-based estimation might be an attractive alternative if the purpose of the research is to study business cycle properties such as volatility, persistence and cross-correlation of variables inst...

  20. New pieces for the malaria liver stage puzzle: where will they fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria M; Rodriguez, Ana

    2008-02-14

    Malaria starts with the infection of the liver by Plasmodium parasites. Although extensive analysis of Plasmodium has revealed the expression patterns of this parasite in every stage of its life cycle, the liver stage remained unexplored. Recently, Tarun et al. have published the first complete transcriptome and proteome analysis of this intriguing parasite stage, providing a list of potential candidate target genes for antimalarial vaccines and drugs.

  1. Economic Growth and the Evolution of Material Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Wei Qiang; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between material cycles and economic growth is essential for relieving environmental pressures associated with material extraction, production, and consumption. We developed an integrated analytical framework of dematerialization analysis incorporating both material...... flow and stock indicators. A four-quadrant diagram is designed to classify different stages of dematerialization based on the elasticity of material flow/stock to economic output or well-being. We then conducted a case study on the long-term evolution of aluminum cycle in the U.S., and found...... that different material flow and stock indicators decoupled from gross domestic product (GDP) growth in a clear sequential pattern. Flows closer to the beginning of the aluminum cycle (e.g., primary aluminum production) decoupled from GDP earlier than flows closer to the final consumption stage (e...

  2. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  3. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating...... the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...

  4. Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    "Supercontinent cycles" or "Wilson cycles" is the idea that before Pangaea there were a series of supercontinents that each formed and then broke apart and separated before colliding again, re-aggregating, and suturing into a new supercontinent in a continuing sequence. I suggest that "supercontinent cycles" are artificial constructs, like planetary orbit epicycles, attempts to describe geological phenomena within the framework of problematic paradigms, namely, planetesimal Earth formation and plate tectonics' mantle convection. The so-called 'standard model of solar system formation' is problematic as it would lead to insufficiently massive planetary cores and necessitates additional ad hoc hypotheses such as the 'frost line' between Mars and Jupiter to explain planetary differences and whole-planet melting to explain core formation from essentially undifferentiated matter. The assumption of mantle convection is crucial for plate tectonics, not only for seafloor spreading, but also for continental movement; continent masses are assumed to ride atop convection cells. In plate tectonics, plate collisions are thought to be the sole mechanism for fold-mountain formation. Indeed, the occurrence of mountain chains characterized by folding which significantly predate the breakup of Pangaea is the primary basis for assuming the existence of supercontinent cycles with their respective periods of ancient mountain-forming plate collisions. Mantle convection is physically impossible. Rayleigh Number justification has been misapplied. The mantle bottom is too dense to float to the surface by thermal expansion. Sometimes attempts are made to obviate the 'bottom heavy' prohibition by adopting the tacit assumption that the mantle behaves as an ideal gas with no viscous losses, i.e., 'adiabatic'. But the mantle is a solid that does not behave as an ideal gas as evidenced by earthquakes occurring at depths as great as 660 km. Absent mantle convection, plate tectonics is not valid

  5. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provisionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard” hierarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  6. Specification of life cycle assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Kargari, N.; Mastouri, R.

    2008-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is an environmental management tool for assessing the environmental impacts of a product of a process. life cycle assessment involves the evaluation of environmental impacts through all stages of life cycle of a product or process. In other words life cycle assessment has a c radle to grave a pproach. Some results of life cycle assessment consist of pollution prevention, energy efficient system, material conservation, economic system and sustainable development. All power generation technologies affect the environment in one way or another. The main environmental impact does not always occur during operation of power plant. The life cycle assessment of nuclear power has entailed studying the entire fuel cycle from mine to deep repository, as well as the construction, operation and demolition of the power station. Nuclear power plays an important role in electricity production for several countries. even though the use of nuclear power remains controversial. But due to the shortage of fossil fuel energy resources many countries have started to try more alternation to their sources of energy production. A life cycle assessment could detect all environmental impacts of nuclear power from extracting resources, building facilities and transporting material through the final conversion to useful energy services

  7. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  8. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  9. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  10. On the Importance of Cycle Minimum in Sunspot Cycle Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the minima between sunspot cycles are found to provide important information for predicting the amplitude and timing of the following cycle. For example, the time of the occurrence of sunspot minimum sets the length of the previous cycle, which is correlated by the amplitude-period effect to the amplitude of the next cycle, with cycles of shorter (longer) than average length usually being followed by cycles of larger (smaller) than average size (true for 16 of 21 sunspot cycles). Likewise, the size of the minimum at cycle onset is correlated with the size of the cycle's maximum amplitude, with cycles of larger (smaller) than average size minima usually being associated with larger (smaller) than average size maxima (true for 16 of 22 sunspot cycles). Also, it was found that the size of the previous cycle's minimum and maximum relates to the size of the following cycle's minimum and maximum with an even-odd cycle number dependency. The latter effect suggests that cycle 23 will have a minimum and maximum amplitude probably larger than average in size (in particular, minimum smoothed sunspot number Rm = 12.3 +/- 7.5 and maximum smoothed sunspot number RM = 198.8 +/- 36.5, at the 95-percent level of confidence), further suggesting (by the Waldmeier effect) that it will have a faster than average rise to maximum (fast-rising cycles have ascent durations of about 41 +/- 7 months). Thus, if, as expected, onset for cycle 23 will be December 1996 +/- 3 months, based on smoothed sunspot number, then the length of cycle 22 will be about 123 +/- 3 months, inferring that it is a short-period cycle and that cycle 23 maximum amplitude probably will be larger than average in size (from the amplitude-period effect), having an RM of about 133 +/- 39 (based on the usual +/- 30 percent spread that has been seen between observed and predicted values), with maximum amplitude occurrence likely sometime between July 1999 and October 2000.

  11. Elementary cycles of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolce Donatello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.

  12. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  13. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  14. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  15. Kondratieff's Long-Wave Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Craig S.

    1985-01-01

    The legendary Soviet economist's classic work, "Long-Wave Cycle," has been republished. Admirers believe that it explains how the world's economy works. According to Kondratieff, the world economy follows cycles lasting from 48 to 55 years. His cycle theory is discussed. (Author/RM)

  16. Entrepreneurship and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe find new empirical regularities in the business cycle in a cross-country panel of 22 OECD countries for the period 1972-2007; entrepreneurship Granger-causes the cycles of the world economy. Furthermore, the entrepreneurial cycle is positively affected by the national unemployment

  17. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Qin; Ming, Teng Xiao; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf

    2010-01-01

    Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV) stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as “oocyte factor.” The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation. PMID:21234179

  18. Contribution of Heavy Water Board in nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Contributed Paper IT-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    The three stage Indian nuclear power programme envisages use of closed nuclear fuel cycle and thorium utilization as its mainstay for long term energy security on sustainable basis. India is committed to realize this objective through the development and deployment of frontier technologies pertaining to all aspects of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Comprehensive indigenous capabilities have been developed in all aspects of nuclear power and associated fuel cycles. Heavy Water Board (HWB), with its abiding objective of fulfilling demand of heavy water for India's flourishing nuclear power program, is one of the frontrunner in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology. HWB is now engaged in wide spectrum of activities in various facets of fuel cycle covering all the three stages of Indian Nuclear Power Programme. HWB is contributing to Nuclear Fuel Cycle through large scale production and sustained supply of key input materials including heavy water, solvents for nuclear hydrometallurgy, 10 B enriched boron etc

  19. Revisiting the human seminiferous epithelium cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihi, F; Gomes, M L M; Carvalho, F A R; Reis, A B; Martello, R; Melo, R C N; Almeida, F R C L; Chiarini-Garcia, H

    2017-06-01

    Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man. Morphological characterization of germ cells in human has been done decades ago with the use of conventional histological methods (formaldehyde-based fixative -Zenker-formal- and paraffin embedding). These early studies proposed a classification of the SEC in six stages. However, the use of stages as baseline for morphofunctional evaluations of testicular parenchyma has been difficult because of incomplete morphological identification of germ cells and their random distribution in the human SEC. Testicular tissue from adult and elderly donors with normal spermatogenesis according to Levin's, Johnsen's and Bergmann's scores were used to evaluate germ cell morphology and validate their distribution and frequency in stages throughout human spermatogenesis. Testicular tissue from patients diagnosed with congenital bilateral agenesis of vas deferens (n = 3 adults) or prostate cancer (n = 3 elderly) were fixed in glutaraldehyde and embedded in araldite epoxy resin. Morphological analyses were performed by both light and transmission electron microscopy. HRLM method enabled a reliable morphological identification of all germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids) based on high-resolution aspects of euchromatin, heterochromatin and nucleolus. Moreover, acrosomal development of spermatids was clearly revealed. Altogether, our data redefined the limits of each stage leading to a more reliable determination of the SEC in man. Occasionally, germ cells can be

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of fuels. More information related to radioactive waste and to the transport and storage of spent fuel is included in the current awareness publication, Radioactive Waste Management. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NFC on nuclear fuel back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  1. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  2. The sunspot cycle revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The set of sunspot numbers observed since the invention of the telescope is one of the most studied time series in astronomy and yet it is also one of the most complex. Fourteen frequencies are found in the yearly mean sunspot numbers from 1700 to 2011using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and prewhitening. All of the frequencies corresponding to shorter term periods can be matched with simple algebraic combinations of the frequency of the main 11-year period and the frequencies of the longer term periods in the periodogram. This is exactly what can be expected from amplitude and phase modulation of an 11.12-year periodicity by longer term variations. Similar, though not identical, results are obtained after correcting the sunspot number series as proposed by Svalgaard. On looking separately at the amplitude and phase modulation a clear relationship is found between the two modulations although this relationship has broken down for the last four solar cycles. The phase modulation implies that there is a definite underlying period for the solar cycle. Such a clock mechanism does seem to be a possibility in models of the solar dynamo incorporating a conveyor-belt-like meridional circulation between high polar latitudes and the equator.

  3. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  4. Coming Full Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Lindsey; Carll-White, Allison; Harrell, James

    2017-04-01

    This article illustrates a collaborative, full cycle diagnostic postoccupancy evaluation (POE) conducted in an emergency department (ED) to demonstrate methods of planning a POE, conducting research to capture meaningful data, and applying outcomes through the use of a design charrette. POEs often end with the reporting of findings rather than suggesting how this knowledge feeds forward. A design charrette presents an opportunity to engage with POE evidence and integrate research into practice. Planning for the POE resulted in a multiphased, multimethodological study. Data collection and analysis utilized objective and subjective measures yielding both qualitative and quantitative data. The design charrette then served as an interactive method to assist design practitioners in both understanding and applying the research findings in the redesign of the entry/triage sequence of the ED. POE findings revealed four key issues impacting the ED experience. These include workflow, communication, privacy and confidentiality, and safety and security. In analyzing the use of the charrette to link POE findings to design application, it was determined that the charrette should include an all-inclusive, collaborative process, easily interpreted evidence, active participant engagement, and feasible outcomes grounded in research. Taking the POE process full cycle is a critical component in bridging the gap between research and its application to design. The charrette process offers a positive mark of completion to the POE and helps participants gain sensitivity to the importance of evidence-based decision-making.

  5. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josenei G., E-mail: joseneigodoi@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (ENU/IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation.

  6. Control system to a Rankine cycle with a Tesla turbine using arduino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Josenei G.; Guimaraes, Lamartine F.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat in energy. This cycle occurs in steady state, in other words the cycle is a closed loop circuit with continuous feedback, which guarantees the reuse process one energy transformed in the various stages of the cycle. This cycle is used to drive a turbine type TESLA designed for the system. The objective of this work is to create the control and automation of this cycle using an micro-controlled system with Arduino that will hold the collection of sensors and the system will act to maintain the balance of the cycle causing it to behave continuously and with less interference from human operation for maintenance. Data will be collected and further processed, where it will display all the sensors and the situation of the actuators involved. Using Arduino system ensures the stability and reliability with a low cost of implementation

  7. Analysis of changes in paper cutting forces during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij

    2013-01-01

    Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.

  8. Investigation into life-cycle costing as a comparative analysis approach of energy systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokheseng, B

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available selection based on a simple payback period. Due to life-cycle stages, often the real costs of the project or equipment, either to the decision maker or the cost bearer, are not reflected by the upfront capital costs. In this paper, the life-cycle costing...

  9. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  10. Ammonia-water Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Ma Changwen; Wu Shaorong

    1997-01-01

    On characteristics of heating source and cooling source in nuclear heating reactor cooperation, the authors advance a new kind of power cycle in which a multicomponent mixture as the work fluid, ammonia-water Rankine cycle, describe its running principle, and compare it with steam Rankine cycle in the same situation. The result is that: the new kind of power cycle, ammonia-water Rankine cycle has higher electricity efficiency; it suits for the situation of heating source and cooling source which offered by nuclear heating reactor cooperation. For low temperature heating source, it maybe has a widely application

  11. Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Xavier; Crosson, Sean; Matroule, Jean-Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, T. P.; Linkov, I.

    Despite concerns regarding environmental fate and toxicology, engineered nanostructured material manufacturing is expanding at an increasingly rapid pace. In particular, the unique properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have made them attractive in many areas, including high-tech power applications such as experimental batteries, fuel cells or electrical wiring. The intensity of research interest in SWCNT has raised questions regarding the life cycle environmental impact of nanotechnologies, including assessment of: worker and consumer safety, greenhouse gas emissions, toxicological risks associated with production or product emissions and the disposition of nanoproducts at end of life. However, development of appropriate nanotechnology assessment tools has lagged progress in the nanotechnologies themselves. In particular, current approaches to life cycle assessment (LCA) — originally developed for application in mature manufacturing industries such as automobiles and chemicals — suffer from several shortcomings that make applicability to nanotechnologies problematic. Among these are uncertainties related to the variability of material properties, toxicity and risk, technology performance in the use phase, nanomaterial degradation and change during the product life cycle and the impact assessment stage of LCA. This chapter expounds upon the unique challenges presented by nanomaterials in general, specifies sources of uncertainty and variability in LCA of SWCNT for use in electric and hybrid vehicle batteries and makes recommendations for modeling and decision-making using LCA in a multi-criteria decision analysis framework under conditions of high uncertainty.1

  14. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila

    2008-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several similarit......Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...... stage in the product life cycle. Another very important difference among the proposals is their position towards the use of generic data. Several of the proposals argue that social impacts are connected to the conduct of the company leading to the conclusion that each individual company in the product......, in this context it is important to remember that the quality of site specific data is very dependent on the auditing approach and therefore not necessarily of high accuracy and that generic data might be designed to take into account the location, sector, size and maybe ownership of a company and thereby in some...

  15. Krebs Cycle Wordsearch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2001-04-01

    This puzzle embeds 46 names, terms, abbreviations, and acronyms about the citric acid (Krebs) cycle in a 14- x 17-letter matrix. A descriptive narrative beside it describes important features of the pathway. All the terms a student needs to find are embedded there with the first letter followed by underlined blanks to be completed. Therefore, the students usually must find the terms to know how to spell them, correctly fill in the blanks in the narrative with the terms, and then find and highlight the terms in the letter matrix. When all are found, the 24 unused letters complete a sentence that describes a major feature of this central pathway. The puzzle may be used as homework, an extra-credit project, or a group project in the classroom in any course where basic metabolism is learned. It disguises as fun the hard work needed to learn the names of the intermediates, enzymes, and cofactors.

  16. The planning cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William

    2005-01-01

    Information technology planning can be described as a continuous cyclical process composed of three phases whose primary purpose is optimum allocation of scarce resources. In the assessment phase, planners assess user needs, environmental factors, business objectives, and IT infrastructure needs to develop IT projects that address needs in each of these areas. A major goal of this phase is to develop a broad IT inventory. The prioritization phase seeks to ensure optimum allocation of scarce resources by prioritizing ITprojects based on: Costs--total life cycle costs. Benefits--both quantitative and non-quantitative, including support for the organization's strategic business objectives. Risks--subjective assessments of technological and non-technological risks. Implementation requirements--time and personnel requirements to implement the system. The scheduling phase incorporates sequencing considerations, personnel availability, and budgetary constraints to produce an IT plan in which project priorities are adjusted to meet organizational realities.

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium mining (applied processes, formation of Yellow Cake), conversion into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) for enrichment purposes, enrichment (physical methods and plants), nuclear fuel fabrication (description of a fuel assembly), physical, chemical and radiological evolution of the nuclear fuel in the reactor, spent fuel warehousing, spent fuel processing (dissolution, methods of liquid/liquid extraction, output products), effluents and by-products, recycling of valuable materials (URE, MOX, RNR and others), waste containment for the different waste types regarding their radioactivity level and lifetime (vitrification, shell compacting, cementation, and other processes). The author also presents the French policy and choices regarding spent fuel processing and waste management

  18. The Pyrogenic Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Saiz, Gustavo; Wurster, Christopher M.; McBeath, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC; includes soot, char, black carbon, and biochar) is produced by the incomplete combustion of organic matter accompanying biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption. PyC is pervasive in the environment, distributed throughout the atmosphere as well as soils, sediments, and water in both the marine and terrestrial environment. The physicochemical characteristics of PyC are complex and highly variable, dependent on the organic precursor and the conditions of formation. A component of PyC is highly recalcitrant and persists in the environment for millennia. However, it is now clear that a significant proportion of PyC undergoes transformation, translocation, and remineralization by a range of biotic and abiotic processes on comparatively short timescales. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the production, stocks, and fluxes of PyC as well as the physical and chemical processes through which it interacts as a dynamic component of the global carbon cycle.

  19. Variable cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.P.; Sprunger, E.V.

    1980-09-16

    A variable cycle turboshaft engine includes a remote fan system and respective high and low pressure systems for selectively driving the fan system in such a manner as to provide VTOL takeoff capability and minimum specific fuel consumption (SFC) at cruise and loiter conditions. For takeoff the fan system is primarily driven by the relatively large low pressure system whose combustor receives the motive fluid from a core bypass duct and, for cruise and loiter conditions, the fan system is driven by both a relatively small high pressure core and the low pressure system with its combustor inoperative. A mixer is disposed downstream of the high pressure system for mixing the relatively cold air from the bypass duct and the relatively hot air from the core prior to its flow to the low pressure turbine.

  20. HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL) [de