WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle nuclear power

  1. The nuclear power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  3. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  4. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  5. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  6. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  7. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The percentage of electricity generated by nuclear energy in each of the 26 countries that operated nuclear power plants in 1987 is given. The current policy and programs of some of these countries is described. News concerning uranium mining, enrichment, reprocessing and waste management is also included. Data in the form of a generalized status summary for all power reactors (> 30 MWEN) prepared from the nuclear power reactor data files of ANSTO is shown

  8. Carbon Cycling with Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-11-01

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline, diesel or jet fuel are the most efficient ways of delivering energy to the transportation sector, in particular cars, ships and airplanes. Unfortunately, their use nearly unavoidably leads to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Unless an equivalent amount is removed from the air, the carbon dioxide will accumulate and significantly contribute to the man-made greenhouse effect. If fuels are made from biomass, the capture of carbon dioxide is a natural part of the cycle. Here, we discuss technical options for capturing carbon dioxide at much faster rates. We outline the basic concepts, discuss how such capture technologies could be made affordable and show how they could be integrated into a larger system approach. In the short term, the likely source of the hydrocarbon fuels is oil or gas; in the longer term, technologies that can provide energy to remove oxygen from carbon dioxide and water molecules and combine the remaining components into liquid fuels make it possible to recycle carbon between fuels and carbon dioxide in an entirely abiotic process. Here we focus on renewable and nuclear energy options for producing liquid fuels and show how air capture combined with fuel synthesis could be more economic than a transition to electric cars or hydrogen-fueled cars.

  9. Hydrogen Monitoring in Nuclear Power Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, Heini; Staub, Lukas

    2012-09-01

    Maintaining constant Hydrogen levels in Nuclear power cycles is always associated with the challenge to determine the same reliably. Grab sample analysis is complicated and costly and online instruments currently known are difficult to maintain, verify and calibrate. Although amperometry has been proven to be the most suitable measuring principle for online instruments, it has never been thoroughly investigated what electrode materials would best perform in terms of measurement drift and regeneration requirements. This paper we will cover the findings of a research program, conducted at the R and D centre of Swan Analytische Instrumente AG in Hinwil Switzerland, aimed to find ideal electrode materials and sensor design to provide the nuclear industry with an enhanced method to determine dissolved hydrogen in nuclear power cycles. (authors)

  10. Politics of nuclear power and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, R.

    2007-01-01

    -is likely to remain evolving depending on regional and global affairs. Opposition or support for nuclear technology is also likely to be a function of regional and global politics. In response to such pressures, IAEA is organizing a workshop of 140 countries to discuss proposals to guarantee countries' supply of nuclear fuel (September 19-21-, 2006; Vienna). Premise and Question: A single nuclear power plant in a country may be good for the prestige of the country, but such units are unlikely to make a major impact on the energy scene. Hence, in order for nuclear power to play a significant role, countries that decide to 'go nuclear,' would most likely want to diversify a significant fraction of their electricity generating capacity (and possibly heating and, in the future, hydrogen production) to nuclear, possibly requiring at least few and possibly many nuclear power plants. In order to proceed with the nuclear option, these countries would expect a certain level of long term assurance on the fuel supply. What is the kind of options that would satisfy the needs of these countries and at the same time addressing the non-proliferation concerns? Options: The options available to countries for their nuclear program can be categorized as follows. A. Fully indigenous program with complete development of power plants and fuel cycle. B. Fully or partly indigenous program for power plant development; while depending on international consortium for fuel supply and waste treatment. C. Rely on international consortia to build and operate all aspects of nuclear power plants (with local manpower). Others: A total of around fifty to seventy five countries are likely to be interested in nuclear power in the next fifty years. These can be divided in to the three groups (A-C) given above. It is likely that, with time, there will be some expectation to move to higher levels (C to B and B to A). Countries already in group A and those willing to start in group C do not pose an issue. It is

  11. Direct cycle type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hisato; Ibe, Hidefumi.

    1990-01-01

    In a direct cycle type nuclear power plant such as BWR type reactor, since oxygen atoms in reactor water are actuvated by neutron irradiation in the reactor core, carry over of the thus formed radioactive nitrogen atoms causes increase in the dosage in a turbine system. Since 16 N accompanies in the main steams in the chemical form of 16 NO, it can not effectively be removed in a nitrogen removing device. In view of the above, hydrogen atom concentration is reduced by adding metals having high reaction with hydrogen atoms, for example, silver ions, chromium ions, or ruthenium ions are added to reactor water. Then, equilibrium concentration of 16 NO in water is reduced by suppressing the reaction: 16 NO 2 + H → 16 NO + OH. (T.M.)

  12. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  13. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included

  14. Nuclear power performance and safety. V.5. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Performance and Safety, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Austria Centre Vienna (ACV) in Vienna, Austria, from 28 September to 2 October 1987. The objective of the Conference was to promote an exchange of worldwide information on the current trends in the performance and safety of nuclear power and its fuel cycle, and to take a forward look at the expectations and objectives for the 1990s. Policy decisions for waste management have already been taken in many countries and the 1990s should be a period of demonstration and implementation of these policies. As ilustrated by data presented from a number of countries, many years of experience in radioactive waste management have been achieved and the technology exists to implement the national plans and policies that have been developed. The establishment of criteria, the development of safety performance methodology and site investigation work are key activities essential to the successful selection, characterization and construction of geological repositories for the final disposal of radioactive waste. Considerable work has been done in these areas over the last ten years and will continue into the 1990s. However, countries that are considering geological disposal for high level waste now recognize the need for relating the technical aspects to public understanding and acceptance of the concept and decision making activities. The real challenge for the 1990s in waste disposal will be successfully to integrate technological activities within a process which responds to institutional and public concern. Volume 5 of the Proceedings comprehends the contributions on waste management in the 1990s. Decontamination and decommissioning, waste management, treatment and disposal, nuclear fuel cycle - present and future. Enrichment services and advanced reactor fuels, improvements in reactor fuel utilization and performance, spent fuel management

  15. Specification of life cycle assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Kargari, N.; Mastouri, R.

    2008-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is an environmental management tool for assessing the environmental impacts of a product of a process. life cycle assessment involves the evaluation of environmental impacts through all stages of life cycle of a product or process. In other words life cycle assessment has a c radle to grave a pproach. Some results of life cycle assessment consist of pollution prevention, energy efficient system, material conservation, economic system and sustainable development. All power generation technologies affect the environment in one way or another. The main environmental impact does not always occur during operation of power plant. The life cycle assessment of nuclear power has entailed studying the entire fuel cycle from mine to deep repository, as well as the construction, operation and demolition of the power station. Nuclear power plays an important role in electricity production for several countries. even though the use of nuclear power remains controversial. But due to the shortage of fossil fuel energy resources many countries have started to try more alternation to their sources of energy production. A life cycle assessment could detect all environmental impacts of nuclear power from extracting resources, building facilities and transporting material through the final conversion to useful energy services

  16. Energy Balance of Nuclear Power Generation. Life Cycle Analyses of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Wenisch, A.; Baumann, M.; Renner, S.

    2011-01-01

    The accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima in March 2011 triggered a debate about phasing out nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Several states are preparing to end nuclear power generation. At the same time the operational life time of many nuclear power plants is reaching its end. Governments and utilities now need to take a decision to replace old nuclear power plants or to use other energy sources. In particular the requirement of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is used as an argument for a higher share of nuclear energy. To assess the contribution of nuclear power to climate protection, the complete life cycle needs to be taken into account. Some process steps are connected to high CO2 emissions due to the energy used. While the processes before and after conventional fossil-fuel power stations can contribute up to 25% of direct GHG emission, it is up to 90 % for nuclear power (Weisser 2007). This report aims to produce information about the energy balance of nuclear energy production during its life cycle. The following key issues were examined: How will the forecasted decreasing uranium ore grades influence energy intensity and greenhouse emissions and from which ore grade on will no energy be gained anymore? In which range can nuclear energy deliver excess energy and how high are greenhouse gas emissions? Which factors including ore grade have the strongest impact on excess energy? (author)

  17. Nuclear power and the possibility of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the societal implications, potential risks and the possibility of nuclear weapons proliferation has slowed down the growth of nuclear energy. Assuming a further moderate growth of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany several fuel cycle and reactor strategies can the followed without exhausting the nuclear the resources before the year 2100. The uranium demand of various reactor strategies with LWR's FBR's and HTR's is compared for two demand cases in the FRG. While recycling of spent fuel seems necessary in any case, it is shown that the Th/U cycle can provide a realistic alternative to the U/Pu cycle. The parallel introduction of both cycles appears as the best solution, as it reduces the overall risks and leads to minimum uranium demand. The risk of nuclear proliferation does not vary considerably with the fuel cycle applied; it can, however, be reduced to acceptable levels by safeguards methods and institutional means. (orig.) [de

  18. Life cycle analysis of advanced nuclear power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoji; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as for light water reactors and fast breeder reactors, for the object of all the processes from the mining, transport and refining of fuel, electric power generation to the treatment and disposal of waste, the amount of energy input and the quantity of CO 2 emission over the life cycle were analyzed, and regarding the influence that the technical progress of nuclear power generation exerted to environment, the effect of improvement was elucidated. Attention has been paid to nuclear power generation as its CO 2 emission is least, and the effect of global warming is smallest. In order to reduce the quantity of radioactive waste generation in LWRs and the cost of fuel cycle, and to extend the operation cycle, the technical development for heightening fuel burnup is in progress. The process of investigation of the new technologies of nuclear power generation taken up in this research is described. The analysis of the energy balance of various power generation methods is discussed. In the case of pluthermal process, the improvement of energy balance ratio is dependent on uranium enrichment technology. Nuclear power generation requires much materials and energy for the construction, and emits CO 2 indirectly. The CO 2 unit emission based on the analysis of energy balance was determined for the new technologies of nuclear power generation, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  19. Nuclear and radiological safety nuclear power nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management and issued during the period of 1995-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English

  20. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  1. Electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member Countries. In the questionnaire of January 1988, countries were asked to provide data for 1986 and 1987 and most likely projections up to the year 2005. The replies to the questionnaire (or estimates for unavailable data) are presented in this Booklet. Data for 1987 are provisional for several countries. The data on electricity generation and electric capacity are presented to the year 2005, and the data on fuel cycle services to the year 2000. The Addendum contains an analysis of the present and past projections for installed nuclear capacity to 2000. It shows the total capacity of those plants connected to the grid, under construction and firmly planned to be in operation in 2000 as 282 GWe. The new projection of 300 GWe is above this estimate, indicating that some countries are considering further expansion of their nuclear capacities within this time-frame [fr

  2. Fuel cycle strategies for growth of nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushotham, D.S.C.; Balu, K.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power has been identified as an essential component to meet the growing energy demand of India. The three stage fuel cycle strategy to achieve this with the available resources envisages the use of natural uranium in PHWRs in the first stage, the plutonium-uranium/plutonium-thorium cycles in Fast reactors/Advanced HWRs in the second stage, followed by exploitation of essentially U233 in the third stage. The technologies necessary for this programme, mainly through the back-end of the fuel cycle including reprocessing, waste management and recycle of Pu have been developed accordingly, as a direct result of the closed fuel cycle policy followed by us from the very beginning. This paper addresses the considerations involved in several activities taken up in our programme, their current status and plans for the future. (author)

  3. International conference on innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear power. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A wide range of issues relevant to the innovative technologies for nuclear power cycle and nuclear power were addressed. The 7 sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) no title; (2) needs, prospects and challenges for innovation; (3) evolution of technical, social, economic and political conditions; (4) panel on challenges for the deployment of innovative technologies; (5) international programmes on innovative nuclear systems; (6) innovative nuclear systems and related R and D programmes; (7) concluding panel.

  4. 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009. Abstracts. Part 1. Session: Safety of nuclear technology; Innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycle; Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009 (29 Sep - 2 Oct, 2009, Obninsk). Problems of safety of nuclear technology are discussed, innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles are treated. Abstracts on professional education for nuclear power and industry are presented. Nuclear knowledge management are discussed

  5. The nuclear power cycle; Le cycle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East

  7. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  8. Energy analysis of nuclear power plants and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy analysis has become an increasingly feasible and practical additional method for evaluating the engineering, economic and environmental aspects of power producing systems. Energy analysis compares total direct and indirect energy investment into construction and operation of power plants with their lifetime energy output. Statically we have applied this method to nuclear power producing sytems and their fuel cycles. Results were adapted to countries with various levels of industrialization and resources. With dynamic energy analysis different scenarios have been investigated. For comparison purposes fossil fueled and solar power plants have also been analyzed. By static evaluation it has been shown that for all types of power plants the energy investment for construction is shortly after plant startup being repaid by energy output. Static analyses of nuclear and fossil fuels have indicated values of fuel concentrations below which more energy is required for their utilization than can be obtained from the plants they fuel. In a further step these global results were specifically modified to the economic situations of countries with various levels of industrialization. Also the influence of energy imports upon energy analysis has been discussed. By dynamic energy analyses the cumulative energy requirements for specific power plant construction programs have been compared with their total energy output. Investigations of this sort are extremely valuable not only for economic reasons but especially for their usefulness in showing the advantages and disadvantages of a specific power program with respect to its alternatives. Naturally the impact of these investigations on the fuel requirements is of importance especially because of the today so often cited ''valuable cumulated fossil fuel savings''

  9. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon; Yu, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seong Kun; Ji, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  10. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs in Austrian Schillings

  11. Nuclear power. Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1990-2002. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs

  12. Multimegawatt space nuclear power open-cycle MHD-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavshuk, V.A.; Panchenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics [ru

  13. 'Crud' detection and evaluation during the Embalse nuclear power plant's thermal cycle for powers of 100%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Rosales, A.H.; Mura, V.R.; Sentupery, C.; Rascon, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the 'crud' measurements performed during the Embalse nuclear power plant's thermal cycle for a power of 100% (645 MWe) under different purification conditions. The aim of this work is to optimize the four steam generators' tube plate cleaning in function of the sweeping produced by their purification. (Author)

  14. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management: Status and trends, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report was jointly prepared by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management as part of an annual overview of both global nuclear industry activities and related IAEA programmes. This year's report focuses on activities during 1992 and the status at the end of that year. The trends in the industry are projected to 2010. Special events and highlights of IAEA activities over the past year are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Closed-cycle cooling systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The long experience in the field of closed-cycle cooling systems and high technological level of turbo machines and heat exchangers concurs to believe in the industrial realizability of nuclear systems of high thermodynamic efficiency and intrinsic safety [it

  16. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G.; Axness, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H 2 SO 4 into O 2 , SO 2 , and H 2 O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O 2 from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A x Sr 1-x Co 1-y B y O 3-δ (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La x Sr 1-x Co 1-y Mn y O 3-δ (LSCM), and doped La 2 Ni 1-x M x O 4 (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H 2 SO 4 decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H 2 SO 4 decomposition step

  17. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  18. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Choi, Gyoo Hwan; Lee, Ki Bog; Park, Sang Yoon

    1993-02-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 7 of Yonggwang Unit 2. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 64 KOFA's enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U235. Among the KOFA's, 40 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 7 amounts to 367 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 14770 MWD/MTU. (Author)

  19. MHR fuel cycle options for future sustainability of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Alan; Venneri, Francesco; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Fikani, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The future sustainability of the nuclear option is not significantly tied to the level of resources. For example, current high quality uranium reserves (∼3.34x10 6 tons) are enough for more than 55 years at present consumption rates (IAEA estimate). Doubling of the present uranium ore price (∼$26/kg) could create about a tenfold increase in resources, providing more than 550 years of supply at present rates (World Nuclear Association estimate). There are also thorium reserves which are estimated to be about three times those of uranium, and would allow for a significant increase in annual consumption levels. The key to a sustainable nuclear future is really tied to the political and technical problems of long term waste disposal, and the perceived risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. Thus fuel cycle options for a sustainable nuclear future must address and solve these issues. High temperature, Gas-Cooled, Graphite Moderated, reactors (MHRs) have nuclear and operational characteristics to provide multiple fuel cycle options to solve these issues. Three fuel cycles for the MHD are described in this paper, and their capabilities for meeting a sustainable nuclear future in terms of nuclear waste minimization and destruction, and reduction of proliferation risk, are discussed. (author)

  20. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1999. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle and waste management and issued during the period of 1986-1999. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  1. Specific safety aspects of the water-steam cycle important to nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The water-steam cycle in a nuclear power plant is similar to that used in conventional power plants. Some systems and components are required for the safe nuclear power plant operation and therefore are designed according to the safety criteria, rules and regulations applied in nuclear installations. The aim of this report is to present the safety characteristics of the water-steam cycle of a nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor, as applied for the design of the nuclear power plants Angra 2 and Angra 3. (Author) [pt

  2. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra (University of California, Davis, CA); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. (University of California, Davis, CA); Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} into O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O{sub 2} from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}B{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM), and doped La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition step.

  3. The future of nuclear power determines tasks of Ukraines nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, B.Ye.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Krasnorutskij, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a brief analysis on the status and development of nuclear power in the world. The present results of physical and engineering development demonstrate that in the longer term, nuclear energy as a key macro energy source is able to secure the existence and development of mankind. Based on the demand for sustainable socioeconomic existence of Ukraine as a state, there have been determined major tasks for the development of nuclear fuel cycle of Ukraine that have to be implemented at present and in the medium term

  4. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  5. International conference on innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear power. Unedited proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power is a significant contributor to the global supply of electricity, and continues to be the major source that can provide electricity on a large scale with a comparatively minimal impact on the environment. But it is evident that, despite decades of experience with this technology, nuclear power today remains mainly in a holding position, with its future somewhat uncertain primarily due to concerns related to waste, safety and security. One of the most important factors that would influence future nuclear growth is the innovation in reactor and fuel cycle technologies to successfully maximize the benefits of nuclear power while minimizing the associated concerns. The main objectives of the Conference were to facilitate exchange of information between senior experts and policy makers from Member States and international organizations on important aspects of the development of innovative technologies for future generations of nuclear power reactors and fuel cycles; to create an understanding of the social, environmental and economic conditions that would facilitate innovative and sustainable nuclear technologies; and to identify opportunities for collaborative work between Member States and international organizations and programmes. All relevant aspects of innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear power were discussed in an open, frank and objective manner. These proceedings contain a summary of the results of the conference, invited and contributed papers, and summaries of panel discussions. No large increase in the use of nuclear energy is foreseen in the near and medium term, but is likely in the long term if developing country per-capita electricity consumption reaches that of the developed world. The nuclear sector including regulators view an increased use of nuclear energy as the solution for global sustainable energy needs considering that significant reductions in CO 2 emissions would be required. Although the current nuclear

  6. Study on economic potential of nuclear-gas combined cycle power generation in Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhiwei; Bian Zhiqiang; Yang Mengjia

    2004-01-01

    Facing the challenges of separation of electric power plant and grid, and the deregulation of Chinese electricity supplying market in near future, nuclear power plants mainly operated as based load at the present regulated market should look for new operation mode. The economics of electric generation with nuclear-natural gas combined cycle is studied based on current conditions of natural gas and nuclear power plants in China. The results indicate that the technology development of nuclear-natural gas combined cycle for power generation is of potential prospects in Chinese electric market. (authors)

  7. Nuclear steam power plant cycle performance calculations supported by power plant monitoring and results computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettes, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the real time performance calculations for the turbine cycle and reactor and steam generators of a nuclear power plant. Program accepts plant measurements and calculates performance and efficiency of each part of the cycle: reactor and steam generators, turbines, feedwater heaters, condenser, circulating water system, feed pump turbines, cooling towers. Presently, the calculations involve: 500 inputs, 2400 separate calculations, 500 steam properties subroutine calls, 200 support function accesses, 1500 output valves. The program operates in a real time system at regular intervals

  8. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 4 cycle 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Park, Sang Yoon; Yoo, Choon Sung; Ryu, Hyo Sang; Park, Jin Ha; Cho, Young Chul; Song, Jae Woong; Lee Chung Chan.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 2 of Yonggwang Unit 4. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths, and operational limits. In addition, the report contains necessary data for the startup tests and for the assurance of shutdown margin during reactor operation. The reload core consists of 48 fresh KSFAs. Among the 48 fresh KSFAs, 32 fuel assemblies contain burnable poison rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 2 amounts to 275 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 10,100 MWD/MTU. (author). 31 tabs., 92 figs., 7 refs

  9. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 3 cycle 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Song, Jae Woong; Song, Jae Seung; Park, Sang Yoon; Yoo, Choon Sung; Baek, Byung Chan; Ryu, Hyo Sang; Park, Jin Ha; Cho, Young Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 2 of Yonggwang Unit 3. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths, and operational limits. In addition, the report contains necessary data for the startup tests and for the assurance of shutdown margin during reactor operation. The reload core consists of 48 fresh Korean Standard Fuel Assemblies (KSFAs)and 129 burned KSFAs. Among the 48 fresh KSFAs, 32 fuel assemblies contain burnable poison rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 2 amounts to 276 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 10,160 MWD/MTU. 95 figs., 31 tabs., 7 refs. (Author) .new.

  10. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Park, Yong soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 7 of Ulchin Unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 56 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 4.00 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s 36 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 7 amounts to 355 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 14280 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Nuclear design report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 4 cycle 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyoon; Jung, Yil Sub; Kim, Si Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 8 of Kori unit 4. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s 48 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 8 amounts to 421 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 16950 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ha; Park, Yong Soo; Cho, Byeong Ho; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 5 of Ulchin unit it 2. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 48 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.50 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 20 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 5 amounts to 293 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 11780 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Nuclear design report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Moon, Bok Ja; Cho, Byeong Ho; Jung, Yil Sup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-04-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 13 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 44 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 16 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 13 amounts to 355 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 13240 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Song, Jae Woong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for Cycle 6 of Yonggwng Unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 4.00 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 60 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of Cycle 9 amounts to 434 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 17470 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Kim, Yong Rae; Park, Yong Soo; Cho, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 6 of Ulchin unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 64 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 32 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 6 amounts to 369 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 14850 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Oh; Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Yong Rae; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Chul; Baik, Joo Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 6 of Ulchin unit 2. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 64 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.80 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 36 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 6 amounts to 388 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 15610 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Nuclear design report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ha; Park, Yong Soo; Cho, Byeong Ho; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan

    1993-09-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 5 of Ulchin unit it 2. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 48 KOFA's enriched by nominally 3.50 w/o U 235 . Among the KOFA's, 20 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 5 amounts to 293 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 11780 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Yoon; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan

    1993-10-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 8 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA's enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U 235 . Among the KOFA's, 56 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 8 amounts to 447 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 18020 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Nuclear design report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Park, Sang Yoon; Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Sang Keun; Ahn, Dawk Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 8 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 76 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 56 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 8 amounts to 447 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 18020 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Development of the fuel-cycle costs in nuclear power stations with light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosch, R.; Moraw, G.; Musil, G.; Schneeberger, M.

    1976-01-01

    The authors investigate the fuel-cycle costs in nuclear power stations with light-water reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany in the years 1966 to 1976. They determine the effect of the price development for the individual components of the nuclear fuel cycle on the fuel-cycle costs averaged over the whole power station life. Here account is taken also of inflation rates and the change in the DM/US $ parity. In addition they give the percentage apportionment of the fuel-cycle costs. The authors show that real fuel-cycle costs for nuclear power stations with light-water reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany have risen by 11% between 1966 and 1976. This contradicts the often repeated reproach that fuel costs in nuclear power stations are rising very steeply and are no longer competitive. (orig.) [de

  1. Economic aspects of the development of nuclear power and fuel-cycle plants in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergachev, N.P.; Kruglov, A.K.; Sedov, V.M.; Shuklin, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    Different possible versions of the construction programme for nuclear power stations and fuel-cycle plants in the USSR are discussed in relation to the target level of installed electrical capacity for 1980 and the predictions for the year 2000. The likely structure of the nuclear power industry is considered and the role of nuclear power stations with fast reactors is discussed, including their effect on the natural uranium supply situation. The effect of the development of fuel-cycle plants and of the organization of the reprocessing of fuel from nuclear power stations on the rate of introduction of fast reactor stations is analysed, and the effect of the technical and economic characteristics of fuel-cycle plants on the economic indices of nuclear power is studied. (author)

  2. Spallator and APEX nuclear fuel cycle: a new option for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high-energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy-metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural-uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 to U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high-beam-current continuous-wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a self-sufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age shortage of fission-product waste

  3. Spallator and APEX nuclear fuel cycle: a new option for nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high-energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy-metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural-uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 to U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high-beam-current continuous-wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a self-sufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age shortage of fission-product waste.

  4. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustainable Development in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Important changes concerning nuclear energy are coming to the fore, such as economic competitiveness compared to other energy resources, requirement for severe measures to mitigate man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, due to the rise of energy demand in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia and to the greater public concern with respect to the nuclear safety, particularly related to spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal. Global safety culture, as well as well focused nuclear research and development programs for safer and more efficient nuclear technology manifest themselves in a stronger and effective way. Information and data on nuclear technology and safety are disseminated to the public in timely, accurate and understandable fashion. Nuclear power is an important contributor to the world's electricity needs. In 1999, it supplied roughly one sixth of global electricity. The largest regional percentage of electricity generated through nuclear power last year was in western Europe (30%). The nuclear power shares in France, Belgium and Sweden were 75%, 58% and 47%, respectively. In North America, the nuclear share was 20% for the USA and 12% for Canada. In Asia, the highest figures were 43% for the Republic of Korea and 36% for Japan. In 1998, twenty-three nations produced uranium of which, the ten biggest producers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Niger, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, USA and Uzbekistan) supplied over 90% of the world's output. In 1998, world uranium production provided only about 59% of world reactor requirements. In OECD countries, the 1998 production could only satisfy 39% of the demand. The rest of the requirements were satisfied by secondary sources including civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium. With regard to the nuclear fuel industry, an increase in fuel burnup, higher thermal rates, longer fuel cycle and the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX

  5. ALKASYS, Rankine-Cycle Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program ALKASYS is used for the creation of design concepts of multimegawatt space power systems that employ potassium Rankine power conversion cycles. 2 - Method of solution: ALKASYS calculates performance and design characteristics and mass estimates for the major subsystems composing the total power system. Design and engineering performance characteristics are determined by detailed engineering procedures rather than by empirical algorithms. Mass estimates are developed using basic design principles augmented in some cases by empirical coefficients determined from the literature. The reactor design is based on a fast spectrum, metallic-clad rod fuel element containing UN pellets. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: ALKASYS was developed primarily for the analysis of systems with electric power in the range from 1,000 to 25,000 kW(e) and full-power life from 1 to 10 years. The program should be used with caution in systems that are limited by heat flux (which might indicate need for extended surfaces on fuel elements) or criticality (which might indicate the need for other geometries or moderators)

  6. Nuclear power development on the basis of new concepts of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Orlov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Current state of nuclear power in the world has been considered and the reasons for its falling short of the great expectations relating to its vigorous development in the outgoing century are considered. Anticipated energy demand of the mankind in the next century is evaluated, suggesting that with exhausted resources of cheap fossil fuel and ecological restrictions it can be satisfied by means of a new nuclear technology meeting the requirements of large-scale power generation in terms of safety and economic indices, moreover, the technology can be elaborated in the context of achievements made in civil and military nuclear engineering. Since the developing countries are the most interested parties, it is just their initiative in the development of nuclear technology at the next stage that could provide an impetus for its actual advance. It is shown that large-scale development of nuclear power, being adequate to increase in energy demand, is possible even if solely large NPP equipped with breeders providing BR (1 are constructed). Requirements for the reactor and fuel cycle technologies are made, their major aspects being: efficient utilization of Pu accumulated and reduction of U specific consumption by at least an order of magnitude, natural inherent safety and deterministic elimination of accidents involving high radioactive releases, assurance of a balance between radiation hazard posed by radioactive wastes disposed and uranium extracted from the ground, nuclear weapons nonproliferation due to fuel reprocessing ruling out potentiality of Pu diversion, reduction of the new generation reactor costs below the costs of today's LWR. (authors)

  7. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  9. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  10. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are issued in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  11. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550 C and 750 C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in

  12. Life cycle assessment for coordination development of nuclear power and electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong; Wang Yingrong

    2010-01-01

    Energy, environment and climate change have become focus political topics. In this paper, the life cycle assessment for cooperation development of nuclear power and electric vehicle were analyzed from the view of energy efficiency and pollutant emissions. The assessment results show that the pathway of nuclear power coupled with electric vehicle is better than coal electric power coupled with electric vehicle and normal gasoline coupled with internal combustion engine powered vehicle in terms of the environmental and energy characteristics. To charge the electric vehicle, instead of water power station, can safeguard the stable operation of nuclear power station. The results could provide consulted for coordination development of nuclear power, electric vehicle and brain power electric net. (authors)

  13. Nuclear design report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Song, Jae Woong; Lee, Chong Chul; Baik, Joo Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents nuclear design calculations for cycle 14 of Kori unit 1. Information is given on fuel loading, power density distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths and operational limits. In addition, the report contains all necessary data for the startup tests including predicted values for the comparison with the measured data. The reload consists of 44 KOFA`s enriched by nominally 3.70 w/o U{sub 235}. Among the KOFA`s, 16 fuel assemblies contain gadolinia rods. The fuel assemblies in the core are arranged in a low leakage loading pattern. The cycle length of cycle 14 amounts to 366 EFPD corresponding to a cycle burnup of 13680 MWD/MTU. (Author) 8 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs. nozzle by vortex formation during mid-loop operation condition are experimentally investigated. The critical submergence is determined for various types of suction nozzle, and the measurements of velocity distribution are performed in the flow fields near the t-shaped suction nozzle. (Author) 11 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  15. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  16. Uranium requirements for advanced fuel cycles in expanding nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Tamm, H.

    1978-01-01

    When considering advanced fuel cycle strategies in rapidly expanding nuclear power systems, equilibrium analyses do not apply. A computer simulation that accounts for system delay times and fissile inventories has been used to study the effects of different fuel cycles and different power growth rates on uranium consumption. The results show that for a given expansion rate of installed capacity, the main factors that affect resource requirements are the fissile inventory needed to introduce the advanced fuel cycle and the conversion (or breeding) ratio. In rapidly expanding systems, the effect of fissile inventory dominates, whereas in slowly expanding systems, conversion or breeding ratio dominates. Heavy-water-moderated and -cooled reactors, with their high conversion ratios, appear to be adaptable vehicles for accommodating fuel cycles covering a wide range of initial fissile inventories. They are therefore particularly suitable for conserving uranium over a wide range of nuclear power system expansion rates

  17. Prediction and attendance of Angra 2 nuclear power plant cycle extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Amory; Ferreira Junior, Decio Brandes M.; Morgado, Mario Monteiro; Santos, Barbara Oliveira dos; Oliveira, Monica Georgia Nunes

    2007-01-01

    The Report Project Nuclear and Thermohydraulic (RPNT) of the Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2 previews extension of the cycle, using a feedback of core reactor reactivity, through the reduction of the moderator average temperature and power. In this phase, the reactor power remains almost invariable. Furthermore, the extension of cycle can be stretch after the limit of the temperature reduction has been reached, through of reactor power fall until the determined date for the end cycle and the start outage for the next cycle. The proposal of this work is to show the Power Plant results during the phase of moderator temperature reduction and to compare with the predict values obtained from reactivity balance calculation methodology used for the Reactor Physics. In general, the results of this work can collaborate for the extension behavior evaluation of the cycles of the Nuclear Power Plant 2, being used the procedure of cooling reduction average temperature, as well as, it will also collaborate for methodology qualification applied for the Reactor Physics during the reactivity balance calculation. (author)

  18. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management: Status and trends 1995. Part C of the IAEA Yearbook 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report was jointly prepared by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management as part of an annual overview of both global nuclear industry activities and related IAEA programmes. This year's report focuses on activities during 1994 and the status at the end of that year. The trends in the industry are projected to 2010. Special events and highlights of IAEA activities over the past year are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Nuclear Power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management: Status and trends 1996. Part C of the IAEA yearbook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report was jointly prepared by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management as part of an annual overview of both global nuclear industry activities and related IAEA programmes. This year's report focuses on activities during 1995 and the status at the end of that year. The trends in the industry are projected to the year 2010. Special events and highlights of IAEA activities over the past year are also presented. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Safe and effective nuclear power plant life cycle management towards decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to promote and communicate the need for a longer-term perspective among senior managers and policy or strategy makers for decisions that have the potential to affect the life cycle management of a nuclear power plant including decommissioning. The following sections provide practical guidance in the subject areas that might have the potential to have such an impact. The publication should be used as an aid to help strategic planning take place in an informed way through the proper consideration of any longer-term decisions to enforce recognition of the point that decommissioning is a part of the whole life cycle of a nuclear power plant. The guidance contained in this publication is relevant to all life cycle stages of a nuclear power plant, with particular emphasis on how these decisions have the potential to impact effective decommissioning. The intended users of this publication are: Strategic decision makers within a Utility through all the various life cycle stages; The senior representatives of the owners of a nuclear power plant. This publication is divided into two basic sections. Section 2 provides guidance on the topics considered generic inputs to plant life cycle management and Section 3 provides guidance on the topics that contribute to effective decommissioning

  1. The Application of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Power Cycle to Various Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The main reason why the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has these advantages is that the compressor operates near the critical point of CO{sub 2} (30.98 .deg. C, 7.38MPa) to reduce the compression work significantly compared to the other Brayton cycles. In this paper, various applications of supercritical CO{sub 2} power cycle to nuclear systems will be presented and summarized. The S-CO{sub 2} cycle can achieve relatively high efficiency within the mild turbine inlet temperature range (450 - 850 .deg. C) compared with other power conversion systems. The main benefit of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is the small size of the overall system and its application includes not only the next generation nuclear reactors but also conventional water-cooled reactors too. Various layouts were compared and the recompression cycle shows the best efficiency. The layout is suitable for application to advanced nuclear reactor systems. To evaluate the S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance, various countries constructed and demonstrated S-CO{sub 2} integral system test loops and similar research works are ongoing in Korea as well. However, to evaluate the commercial S-CO{sub 2} power systems, development of a large scale (> 10 MW) prototype S-CO{sub 2} system is necessary.

  2. Optimization of preventive maintenance cycle based on experimental feedback in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)

  3. Summary of nuclear power and fuel cycle data in OECD Member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member countries. Member countries were asked to provide, where available, various statistics for the previous calendar year (1982) and modified projections up to the year 2000. Tables 1 to 8 are based on the responses received and update the March 1982 issue. Tables 3 to 8 show the revised electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle supply and demand projections in OECD Member countries to the year 2000. Figure 1 illustrates the contribution of the different fuel sources to the OECD's electricity generation from 1974 to 1982. Figure 2 shows the nuclear share of electricity generation in the OECD countries for 1982 and 1985. Figure 3 gives the fuel cycle supply and demand from the Tables 5, 6 and 8 in the OECD area

  4. 18-months fuel cycle engineering and its project management of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiangang; Jiao Ping; Liu Yong; Wu Zhiming

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces aspects related to the performing of 18-months fuel cycle engineering evaluation to the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, including the assessment on proposed technical solutions, appointment to the contractors, breaking down and implementation of project, experience on the project management and risk control, and etc. And it also briefs the prompting to the localization of the long fuel cycle engineering technology and AFA 3G fuel manufacturing and design technology via adequate technology transferring of this project

  5. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  6. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  7. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies - bases of long-term provision of fuel and environmental safety of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Smelov, V.S.; Nenarokomov, E.A.; Mukhin, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    To-day nuclear power is one of the options, however, to-morrow it may become the main source of the energy, thus, providing for the stable economic development for the long time to come. The availability of the large-scale nuclear power in the foreseeable future is governed by not only the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) but also by the environmentally safe management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste conditioning and long-term storage. More emphasis is to be placed to the closing of the fuel cycle in view of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel arisings. The once-through fuel cycle that is cost effective at the moment cannot be considered to be environmentally safe even for the middle term since the substantial build-up of spent nuclear fuel containing thousands of tons Pu will require the resolution of the safe management problem in the nearest future and is absolutely unjustified in terms of moral ethics as a transfer of the responsibility to future generations. The minimization of radioactive waste arisings and its radioactivity is only feasible with the closed fuel cycle put into practice and some actinides and long-lived fission radionuclides burnt out. The key issues in providing the environmentally safe fuel cycle are efficient processes of producing fuel for NPP, radionuclide after-burning included, a long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reprocessing as well as radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the problems inherent in producing fuel for NPP with a view for the closed fuel cycle. Also discussed are options of the fuel cycle, its effectiveness and environmental safety with improvements in technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and long-lived radionuclide partitioning. (authors)

  8. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies - bases of long-term provision of fuel and environmental safety of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solonin, M I; Polyakov, A S; Zakharkin, B S; Smelov, V S; Nenarokomov, E A; Mukhin, I V [SSC, RF, A.A. Bochvar ALL-Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    To-day nuclear power is one of the options, however, to-morrow it may become the main source of the energy, thus, providing for the stable economic development for the long time to come. The availability of the large-scale nuclear power in the foreseeable future is governed by not only the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) but also by the environmentally safe management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste conditioning and long-term storage. More emphasis is to be placed to the closing of the fuel cycle in view of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel arisings. The once-through fuel cycle that is cost effective at the moment cannot be considered to be environmentally safe even for the middle term since the substantial build-up of spent nuclear fuel containing thousands of tons Pu will require the resolution of the safe management problem in the nearest future and is absolutely unjustified in terms of moral ethics as a transfer of the responsibility to future generations. The minimization of radioactive waste arisings and its radioactivity is only feasible with the closed fuel cycle put into practice and some actinides and long-lived fission radionuclides burnt out. The key issues in providing the environmentally safe fuel cycle are efficient processes of producing fuel for NPP, radionuclide after-burning included, a long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reprocessing as well as radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the problems inherent in producing fuel for NPP with a view for the closed fuel cycle. Also discussed are options of the fuel cycle, its effectiveness and environmental safety with improvements in technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and long-lived radionuclide partitioning. (authors)

  9. Impacts of nuclear fuel cycle costs on nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Naudet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel cycle costs are one of the main parameters to evaluate the competitiveness of various nuclear strategies. The historical analysis based on the French case shows the good performances yet achieved in mastering elementary costs in order to limit global fuel cycle cost escalation. Two contrasted theoretical scenarios of costs evolution in the middle and long term have been determined, based upon market analysis and technological improvements expected. They are used to calculate the global fuel cycle costs for various fuel management options and for three strategies of nuclear deployment. The results illustrate the stability of the expected fuel cycle costs over the long term, to be compared to the high incertainty prevailing for fossil fueled plants. The economic advantages of advanced technologies such as MOX fueled PWRs are underlined

  10. Feasibility study for application of mixture working fluid cycle to nuclear reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Iwao; Shiomi, Hirozo; Miyamae, Nobuhiko; Hiramatsu, Miki; Montani, Mitsuto

    1999-01-01

    There exists a large amount of unused energy in nuclear power plants. However, it consists of relatively low temperature energy, so it is difficult to generate electricity by the conventional water-steam cycle. In order to utilize such low temperature energy, we applied a mixture working fluid cycle called as the Kalina cycle to a light water nuclear reactor power plant. The Kalina cycle uses a working fluid composed of ammonia and water to create a variable temperature boiling process. We applied a saturation type Kalina cycle with single stage ammonia-water separation process as a bottoming cycle to a conventional water-steam cycle of a 1100MWe class BWR as an example case. The input heat source is the exhaust or the partial extraction of a low pressure turbine (LPT). A steady state chemical process modeling code ASPENPLUS was used for the sensitivity analyses. The maximum efficiency was calculated to be realized when using the lowest heat sink temperature, 8degC. The additional electrical output is about 95 MWe when using the exhaust of LPT and is about 127 MWe when using the partial extraction of LPT. Namely, about 4.3% of the exhaust heat for the former case and about 5.8% for the latter case can be utilized as electrical power, respectively. (author)

  11. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  12. Evaluation and optimization of a supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion cycle for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550degC and 750degC. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550degC. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550degC versus 750degC. However, the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle requires a high end operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle high end operating pressure of 7 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton cycle for different reactor coolant outlet temperatures and mass flow rates. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550degC and 850degC. Sensitivity calculations were also performed to determine the affect of reactor coolant mass flow rates for a reference reactor coolant outlet temperature of 750degC. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO 2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the

  13. COMPARISON OF S-CO2 POWER CYCLES FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Vesely

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2 is a possible cooling system for the new generations of nuclear reactors and fusion reactors. The S-CO2 power cycles have several advantages over other possible coolants such as water and helium. The advantages are the compression work, which is lower than in the case of helium, near the critical point and the S-CO2 is more compact than water and helium. The disadvantage is so called Pinch point which occurs in the regenerative heat exchanger. The pinch point can be eliminated by an arrangement of the cycle or using a mixture of CO2. This paper describes the S-CO2 power cycles for nuclear fission and fusion reactors.

  14. Life cycle analysis on carbon emissions from power generation – The nuclear energy example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor; Chou, S.K.; Su, Bin; Bauly, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper discusses about a methodology on the life cycle analysis of power generation using nuclear as an example. • The methodology encompasses generic system, input–output, and boundaries definitions. • The boundaries facilitate the use of Kaya Identity and decomposition technique to identify carbon emission streams. - Abstract: A common value of carbon emission factor, t-CO 2 /GWh, in nuclear power generation reported in the literature varies by more than a factor of 100. Such a variation suggests a margin of uncertainty and reliability. In this study, we employ a bottom-up approach to better define the system, its input and output, and boundaries. This approach offers improved granularity at the process level and consistency in the results. Based on this approach, we have developed a methodology to enable comparison of carbon emissions from nuclear power generation. The proposed methodology employs the principle of energy balance on a defined power generation system. The resulting system boundary facilitates the use of the “Kaya Identity” and the decomposition technique to identify the carbon emission streams. Using nuclear power as a case study, we obtained a carbon emission factor of 22.80 t-CO 2 /GWh, which falls to within 2.5% of the median of globally reported LCA results. We demonstrate that the resulting methodology could be used as a generic tool for life cycle analysis of carbon emissions from other power generation technologies and systems

  15. Thorium fuel for light water reactors - reducing proliferation potential of nuclear power fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, A; Radkowski, A [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    The proliferation potential of the light water reactor fuel cycle may be significantly reduced by utilization of thorium as a fertile component of the nuclear fuel. The main challenge of Th utilization is to design a core and a fuel cycle, which would be proliferation-resistant and economically feasible. This challenge is met by the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor (RTR) concept. So far the concept has been applied to a Russian design of a 1,000 MWe pressurized water reactor, known as a WWER-1000, and designated as VVERT. The following are the main results of the preliminary reference design: * The amount of Pu contained in the RTR spent fuel stockpile is reduced by 80% in comparison with a VVER of a current design. * The isotopic composition of the RTR-Pu greatly increases the probability of pre-initiation and yield degradation of a nuclear explosion. An extremely large Pu-238 content causes correspondingly large heat emission, which would complicate the design of an explosive device based on RTR-Pu. The economic incentive to reprocess and reuse the fissile component of the RTR spent fuel is decreased. The once-through cycle is economically optimal for the RTR core and cycle. To summarize all the items above: the replacement of a standard (U-based) fuel for nuclear reactors of current generation by the RTR fuel will provide an inherent barrier for nuclear weapon proliferation. This inherent barrier, in combination with existing safeguard measures and procedures is adequate to unambiguously disassociate civilian nuclear power from military nuclear power. * The RTR concept is applied to existing power plants to assure its economic feasibility. Reductions in waste disposal requirements, as well as in natural U and fabrication expenses, as compared to a standard WWER fuel, provide approximately 20% reduction in fuel cycle (authors).

  16. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  17. Electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle in OECD countries, main data 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation. Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member Countries. In the questionnaire of January 1987, countries were asked to provide historical data for 1985 and 1986 and most likely projections up to the year 2005. The replies to the questionnaire or the results of the discussions between national correspondents and the Secretariat are presented in this Booklet. The Secretariat has, in some cases, referred to IEA's electricity-related data and IAEA's nuclear plant data. Where data were still unavailable the Secretariat made estimates based on information from other sources. Data for 1986 are provisional for several countries. The data on electricity generation and electric capacity are presented to the year 2005, and the data on fuel cycle services to the year 2000. The installed nuclear capacity of the OECD countries for the year 2000 is estimated at 340 GWe, a 25 GWe reduction from the estimate in the 1986 Booklet. This reduction is mainly due to revised lower projections of electricity demand. The Addendum contains an analysis of the present and past projections for installed nuclear capacity to 2000. It shows the total capacity of those plants connected to the grid, under construction and firmly planned to be in operation in 2000 as 294 GWe. The new projection of 340 GWe is well above this estimate, indicating that some countries are still planning to expand their nuclear capacities. In only one country does it appear that planned expansion has been affected specifically by the Chernobyl accident. The electricity generation and production data for fuel cycle services refer to those facilities located within the country, and thus exclude imports. The fuel cycle requirements, however, refer to the amounts of fuel cycle materials and services necessary for national nuclear power programmes

  18. Fuel cycle of nuclear power plants and safeguards system of nuclear weapon nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Z.

    1980-10-01

    The international safeguard system of nuclear weapon nonproliferation and the IAEA safeguard system are briefly described. In Czechoslovakia, a decree was issued in 1977 governing the accounting for and control of nuclear materials. The contents of the decree are presented. Described are computer processing of accounting data, technical criteria for the safeguard system application, containment and inspection in the IAEA safeguard system. The method is shown of the control of and accounting for nuclear materials in nuclear power plants and in fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and enrichment plants. Nondestructive and destructive methods of nuclear materials analysis are discussed. Nondestructive methods used include gamma spectrometry, neutron techniques, X-ray fluores--cence techniques. (J.P.)

  19. Economic analysis of extended cycles in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez N, H.; Hernandez M, J.L.; Francois L, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The present work presents a preliminary analysis of economic type of extended cycles of operation of the Unit One in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. It is analysed an equilibrium cycle of 18 months firstly, with base to the Plan of Use of Energy of the Federal Commission of Electricity, being evaluated the cost of the energy until the end of the useful life of the plant. Later on an alternative recharge scenario is presented with base to an equilibrium cycle of 24 months, implemented to the beginning of the cycle 11, without considering transition cycles. It is added in both cycles the cost of the substitution energy, considering the unitary cost of the fuel of a dual thermoelectric power station of 350 M We and evaluating in each operation cycle, in both scenarios, the value of the substitution energy. The results show that a reduction of the days of recharge in the cycle of 24 months could make this option but favorable economically. The duration of the period of recharge rebounds in considerable grade in the cost of energy generation for concept of fuel. (Author)

  20. Securing a safer, greener, expandable nuclear fuel cycle supply chain for future power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, Georges

    2009-01-01

    After looking at what is necessary to sustainably ensure the global nuclear power plant fleet expansion, it becomes appearant that advanced reactor design should be accompanied with a greener and more flexible fuel cycle capability. The financial crisis has invaded all the front pages and our thoughts. However it has not rescheduled the growth of world population or reduced the desire of people in emerging economies to achieve a higher level of 'development'; nor has it alleviated climate change issues that demand CO2 constrained power sources. What is the outlook for nuclear power? On a worldwide basis, we have today a significant fleet of nuclear power plants, operating well, upgrading output, extending lifetime, and producing not only a safe reliable flow of electricity but a good flow of cash as well. For the countries hosting significant shares of this fleet, their nuclear power plants are increasingly precious assets, and despite the financial crisis, most of them are considering expansion of their nuclear fleets. For the others, the desire to access such a reliable and ultimately cheap source of energy will last longer than the temporary difficulties to get its financing. In short, the outlook for a massive phase of new nuclear builds remains very likely. Then comes the consequential issue of the nuclear fuel supply chain. From uranium exploration and production to back end solutions, most of the existing facilities were designed and startup decades ago. The question is therefore, does this supply chain offer the requested characteristics to sustain the nuclear power plants fleet for the long run? By requested characteristics, it is meant not only adequate capacity and improvement of quality, but also environmentally friendly new designs and processes. This paper is aimed at recalling the current situation of the supply chain, then at describing the status of major projects, and finally at identifying some gaps and issues

  1. The development of an integrated nuclear fuel-cycle industry to meet the needs of the Italian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.; Badolato, G.; Clementel, E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarizes the Italian nuclear power station programme, recently approved by the Government, and illustrates the main reasons for the programme, which are in line with those presented at the Geneva Conference in 1971, and which lead to the consideration that nuclear energy is the main source for meeting practically all new electric power requirements in Italy. The implementation of this programme involves considerable nuclear fuel-cycle services, ranging from uranium supply to waste disposal. The industrial strategy to meet these needs is discussed. Technical and economic factors affecting such strategy, both for the fuel cycle as a whole and for its individual phases, are considered. Attention is focused on problems typical of the Italian situation and on various ways of solving them. A prominent feature of the Italian situation is the lack of sizeable domestic uranium resources, which makes it even more important to try, by local industrial efforts, to cover the phases of the cycle subsequent to uranium supply, so as to increase as much as possible the fraction of added value produced inside the country. The present status of the Italian nuclear fuel-cycle industry is reviewed in detail, and its capability of supporting the nuclear programme is analysed. Future development plans are discussed, taking into account the possibility of European co-operation. While the focus is on short- and medium-term programmes, the long-term nuclear programmes are discussed, such as those based on fast breeders, and stress is laid on the need to build up as quickly as possible a strong nuclear fuel-cycle industry. (author)

  2. Quality factors in the life cycle of software oriented to safety systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inclusion of software in safety related systems for nuclear power plants, makes it necessary to include the software quality assurance concept. The software quality can be defined as the adjustment degree between the software and the specified requirements and user expectations. To guarantee a certain software quality level it is necessary to make a systematic and planned set of tasks, that constitute a software quality guaranty plan. The application of such a plan involves activities that should be performed all along the software life cycle, and that can be evaluated through the so called quality factors, due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be directly measured, but indirectly as some of it manifestations. In this work, a software life cycle model is proposed, for nuclear power plant safety related systems. A set os software quality factors is also proposed , with its corresponding classification according to the proposed model. (author) [es

  3. Reactor pressure vessel life cycle management at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Bowman, M.E.; Henry, S.A.; Pavinich, W.A.; Lapides, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Life Cycle Management (LCM) seeks to manage the aging process of important systems, structures, and components during licensed operation. The goal of Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's (BG and E) Life Cycle Management Program is to assure attainment of 40 years of operation and to preserve the option of an additional 20 years of operation for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP). Since the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) has been identified as one of the most critical components with regard to long-term operation of a nuclear power plant, BG and E initiated actions to manage life limiting or aging issues for the CCNPP RPVs. To achieve long-term operation, technical RPV issues must be effectively managed. This paper describes methods BG and E uses for managing RPV age-related degradation. (author)

  4. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

  5. In core reload design for cycle 4 of Daya Bay nuclear power station both units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongyao; Liu Xudong; Xian Chunyu; Li Dongsheng; Zhang Hong; Liu Changwen; Rui Min; Wang Yingming; Zhao Ke; Zhang Hong; Xiao Min

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles and the contents of the reload design for Daya Bay nuclear power station are briefly introduced. The in core reload design results, and the comparison between the calculated values and the measured values of both units the fourth cycle are also given. The reload design results of the two units satisfy all the economic requirements and safety criteria. The experimented results shown that the predicated values are tally good with all the measurement values

  6. Summary of nuclear power and fuel cycle data in OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member Countries. In the questionnaire of January 1986, countries were asked to provide historical data for 1984 and 1985 and most likely projections up to the year 2005. The replies to the questionnaire are presented in this Summary. Not all countries have revised or made new projections since the April 1985 issue. Too few countries were able to provide projections beyond 2000 to include data for 2005 in this year's Summary. Data for 1985 are in some cases provisional. Where no data were available the Secretariat made estimates, based on information of IEA, IAEA, the previous Brown Book, OECD/IEA Energy Statistics and other sources. The electricity generation and production data for fuel cycle services refer to those facilities located within the country, and thus exclude imports. The fuel cycle requirements, however, refer to the amounts of fuel cycle services necessary for national nuclear power programmes. The Addendum contains an analysis of the present and past projections for OECD nuclear capacity to 2000

  7. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  8. The Union view of back end fuel cycle provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    After a long political and technical discussion, the German trade unions united in the German Federation of Labor (DGB) arrived at the finding that back end fuel cycle provisions for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany, in addition to the present concept of the Government providing for a reprocessing plant, should also include studies of the alternative possibility to store spent fuel elements over long periods of time, perhaps with a possibility to recover them later. That decision is also based on a report by the Nuclear Technology Working Group of the Metal Workers Union (IG Metall) and the Public Workers Union (OeTV). (orig.) [de

  9. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  10. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  11. Web-based turbine cycle performance analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Lee, Sung Jin; Chang, Soon Heung; Choi, Seong Soo

    2000-01-01

    As an approach to improve the economical efficiency of operating nuclear power plants, a thermal performance analysis tool for steam turbine cycle has been developed. For the validation and the prediction of the signals used in thermal performance analysis, a few statistical signal processing techniques are integrated. The developed tool provides predicted performance calculation capability that is steady-state wet steam turbine cycle simulation, and measurement performance calculation capability which determines component- and cycle-level performance indexes. Web-based interface with all performance analysis is implemented, so even remote users can achieve performance analysis. Comparing to ASME PTC6 (Performance Test Code 6), the focusing point of the developed tool is historical performance analysis rather than single accurate performance test. The proposed signal processing techniques are validated using actual plant signals, and turbine cycle models are tested by benchmarking with a commercial thermal analysis tool

  12. A comparison of nuclear power systems for Brazil using plutonium and binary cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Fernandes, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power systems based on plutonium cycle and binary cycle are compared taking into account natural uranium demand and reactor combination. The systems start with PWR type reactors (U5/U8) and change to systems composed exclusively of FBR type reactors or PWR-FBR symbiotic systems. Four loading modes are considered for the PWR and two for the FBR. The FBR is either a LMFBR loaded with PU/U or a LMFBR loaded the binary way. A linear and a non-linear capacity growth and two different criteria for the FBR introduction are considered. The results show that a 100 GWe permanent system can be established in 50 years in all cases, based on 300000 t of natural uranium and in case of delay in the FBR introduction and if a thermal-fast symbiotic system is chosen, a binary cycle could be more advantageous than a plutonium cycle. (F.E.) [pt

  13. Aspects of nuclear safety at power plants and fuel cycle plants in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, N.I.; Efimov, E.; Dubovskij, B.G.; Dikarev, V.; Lyubchenko, V.; Kruglov, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the problems of organizing inspection monitoring of power plants including the development of some regulations and norms and the interaction between the USSR State Nuclear Safety Organization, scientific and designing organizations and power plants. The principles of computer use to work out advice for operational staff and warning signals and commands for the reactor control and protection system are discussed. Some attention is turned to the importance of using high-speed computers to calculate prompt reactivity values and to determine impurity concentrations in the coolant and margins to permissible operational limits. In particular, reactimeters are considered as signal generators in monitor and protection systems. Some problems of nuclear safety inspection, the issue and inculcation of some regulations and operational documents on nuclear safety, and instrumentation of plants reprocessing or processing fuel elements are presented. Methods of determining the critical parameters of technological units are described, together with the fundamental principles of fuel cycle plant nuclear safety, providing margin coefficients, accounting for deviations from the normal operational process and other problems, as well as methods of keeping the restrictions on nuclear safety requirements at fuel cycle plants. (author)

  14. Several perspectives on water-chemical cycles for nuclear power stations equipped with type VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamet, A.P.; Mamet, V.A.; Pashevich, V.I.; Nazarenko, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Water-chemical cycles for loops I and II of VVER reactors are discussed. These cycles are mixed ammonia-sodium with a variable concentration of boric acid and ammonia hydrazine with a pH factor of 9.1 +/- 0.1. New water-chemical cycles are considered for use in both existing and new nuclear power plants. Application of these new water-chemical cycles showed produce a significant improvement in operating conditions of nuclear power plants. Upon accumulation of sufficient operating experience with these cycles, it should be possible to raise the issue of revising applicable standard documentation

  15. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  16. Cooling of nuclear power stations with high temperature reactors and helium turbine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, S.; Hewing, G.

    1977-01-01

    On nuclear power stations with high temperature reactors and helium turbine cycles (HTR-single circuits) the residual heat from the energy conversion process in the primary and intermediate coolers is removed from cycled gas, helium. Water, which is circulated for safety reasons through a closed circuit, is used for cooling. The primary and intermediate coolers as well as other cooling equipment of the power plant are installed within the reactor building. The heat from the helium turbine cycle is removed to the environment most effectively by natural draught cooling towers. In this way a net plant efficiency of about 40% is attainable. The low quantities of residual heat thereby produced and the high (in comparison with power stations with steam turbine cycles) cooling agent pressure and cooling water reheat pressure in the circulating coolers enable an economically favourable design of the overall 'cold end' to be expected. In the so-called unit range it is possible to make do with one or two cooling towers. Known techniques and existing operating experience can be used for these dry cooling towers. After-heat removal reactor shutdown is effected by a separate, redundant cooling system with forced air dry coolers. The heat from the cooling process at such locations in the power station is removed to the environment either by a forced air dry cooling installation or by a wet cooling system. (orig.) [de

  17. Catalogue and classification of technical safety standards, rules and regulations for nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is an up-dated version of the report 'Catalogue and Classification of Technical Safety Rules for Light-water Reactors and Reprocessing Plants' edited under code No EUR 5362e, August 1975. Like the first version of the report, it constitutes a catalogue and classification of standards, rules and regulations on land-based nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The reasons for the classification system used are given and discussed

  18. Steam water cycle chemistry of liquid metal cooled innovative nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurmanov, Victor; Lemekhov, Vadim; Smykov, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    The Federal Target Program (FTP) of Russian Federation 'Nuclear Energy Technologies of the New Generation for 2010-2015 and for Perspective up to 2020' is aimed at development of advanced nuclear energy technologies on the basis of closed fuel cycle with fast reactors. There are advanced fast reactor technologies of the 4. generation with liquid metal cooled reactors. Development stages of maturity of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia includes experimental reactors BR-5/10 (1958-2002) and BOR-60 (since 1969), nuclear power plants (NPPs) with BN-350 (1972-1999), BN-600 (since 1980), BN-800 (under construction), BN-1200 (under development). Further stage of development of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia is commercialization. Lead-bismuth eutectic fast reactor technology has been proven at industrial scale for nuclear submarines in former Soviet Union. Lead based technology is currently under development and need for experimental justification. Current status and prospects of State Corporation 'Rosatom' participation in GIF activities was clarified at the 31. Meeting of Policy Group of the International Forum 'Generation-IV', Moscow, May 12-13, 2011. In June, 2010, 'Rosatom' joined the Sodium Fast Reactor Arrangement as an authorized representative of the Russian Government. It was also announced the intention of 'Rosatom' to sign the Memorandum on Lead Fast Reactor based on Russia's experience with lead-bismuth and lead cooled fast reactors. In accordance with the above FTP some innovative liquid metal cooled reactors of different design are under development in Russia. Gidropress, well known as WER designer, develops innovative lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactor SVBR-100. NIKIET develops innovative lead cooled reactor BRESTOD-300. Some other nuclear scientific centres are also involved in this activity, e.g. Research and Development Institute for Power Engineering (RDIPE). Optimum

  19. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine (HTGR-GT): dry cooled commercial power plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Boland, C.R.

    1979-11-01

    Combining the modern and proven power conversion system of the closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) with an advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) results in a power plant well suited to projected utility needs into the 21st century. The gas turbine HTGR (HTGR-GT) power plant benefits are consistent with national energy goals, and the high power conversion efficiency potential satisfies increasingly important resource conservation demands. Established technology bases for the HTGR-GT are outlined, together with the extensive design and development program necessary to commercialize the nuclear CCGT plant for utility service in the 1990s. This paper outlines the most recent design studies by General Atomic for a dry-cooled commercial plant of 800 to 1200 MW(e) power, based on both non-intercooled and intercooled cycles, and discusses various primary system aspects. Details are given of the reactor turbine system (RTS) and on integrating the major power conversion components in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel

  1. Reload safety evaluation report for kori nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Beom Jin; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, Oh Hwan; Nam, Kee Il; Um, Gil Sup; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk; Yoon, Kyung Ho

    1992-04-01

    The Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 (Kori-2) is anticipated to be refuelled with 16x16 Korean Fuel Assemblies (KOFA), which are based on the KAERI design starting from Cycle 8. This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Kori-2, Cycle 9 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types as described below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. The evaluation of Kori-2, Cycle 9 was accomplished utilizing the methodology described in 'Reload Transition Safety Report for KORI 2' (Ref. /1-1/). The reload core for Kori-2, Cycle 9 is entirely comprised of 16x16 KOFA. In the Kori-2 licensing documentation to KEPCO the reference safety evaluation was provided for the operation of a reactor core fully loaded with KOFA as well as associated proposed changes to the Kori-2 Technical Specifications. The reload for Kori-2, Cycle 9 also introduces UO 2 /Gd 2 O 3 containing fuel rods. The use of fuel rods with Gd 2 O 3 poisoning of the fuel has been approved as a part of the above mentioned licensing documentation. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 9 core design described herein. (Author)

  2. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle for nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.

  3. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  4. Scientific forum during the 46th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Topical issues: Nuclear Power - Life Cycle Management; Managing Nuclear Knowledge; Nuclear Security. Programme and synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In response to the recommendations of several Agency advisory committees, to address issues related to nuclear power life cycle management, knowledge management in the field of nuclear power, and security of radiation sources and other nuclear material the IAEA is organizing the scientific forum to be held during the General Conference. The purpose of the meeting is to sharpen awareness and understanding of the emerging concerns about the aging of nuclear power plants, maintenance and preservation of knowledge and expertise in nuclear science, technology and applications, to emphasise the significance of security and physical protection of radiation sources and other radioactive material, and to better comprehend the role of the Agency in these processes

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  6. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Baggenstoss, W.G.; Bons, R.

    1990-01-01

    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kW e and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  9. Implications of using alternate fuel cycles to meet Ontario's nuclear power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.H.K.

    1978-08-01

    The use of alternate fuel cycles to meet an assumed nuclear capacity growth rate in Ontario is examined. Two criteria are used: the ability of the alternate fuel cycles to lessen the uranium demand; and the ease of commercialization. The nuclear strategies considered assume the use of the natural uranium cycle and, starting in the year 2000, the gradual introduction of an alternate fuel cycle. The alternate fuel cycles reviewed are enriched uranium, mixed oxides, and a variety of thorium cycles. The cumulative uranium requirement to the year 2070, and the growth and size of the reprocessing and fuel fabrication industries are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analyses on nuclear capacity growth rate, recycling loss and delay time are also described. (auth)

  10. Algebraic approach for the diagnosis of turbine cycles in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyunyoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    According to plant operating staff's practical needs, authors proposed a diagnosis model to identify the performance degradation of steam turbine cycles in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The essential idea of this study is how to identify the intrinsically degraded component which causes electric loss. Authors found that there were not so many turbine cycle diagnosis applications in NPPs currently because of technical, financial, or social characteristics of the plant. So a great part of the diagnosis has been dependent on operating staff's experience and knowledge. However as economic competition becomes severe, the efficiency staffs is asking for reliable and practical advisory tools. For the solution of these shortcomings, authors proposed a simple and intuitive diagnosis concept based on the superposition rule of degradation phenomena, which can be derived by simple algebra and correlation analysis. Though the superposition rule is not so significant statistically, almost all of the performance indices under normal operation are fairly compatible with this model. Authors developed a prototype model of quantitative root-cause diagnosis and validated the background theory using the simulated data. The turbine cycle advisory system using this model was applied to Gori NPP units 3 and 4

  11. Water Chemistry Control Technology to Improve the Performance of Nuclear Power Plants for Extended Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Na, J. W.; Lee, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Ο To Develop the technology to manage the problems of AOA and radiation, corrosion as long term PWR operation. Ο To Establish the advanced water chemical operating systems. - Development of the proper water chemistry guidelines for long term PWR operation. AOA(Axial Offest Anomaly) has been reported in many PWR plants in the world, including Korea, especially in the plants of higher burn-up and longer cycle operation or power up-rate. A test loop has been designed and made by KAERI, in order to investigate and mitigate AOA problems in Korea. This project included the study of hydrodynamic simulation and the modeling about AOA. The analysis of radioactive crud was performed to investigate of NPPs primary water chemical effect on AOA and to reduce the radioactive dose rate. The high temperature measurement system was developed to on-line monitor of water chemistry in nuclear power plants. The effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate on YSZ-based pH electrode were evaluated for ensuring the accuracy of high-temperature pH measurement. The inhibition technology for fouling and SCC of SG tube was evaluated to establish the water chemistry technology of corrosion control of nuclear system. The high temperature and high pressure crevice chemistry analysis test loop was manufactured to develop the water chemistry technology of crevice chemistry control

  12. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme

  13. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme.

  14. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  15. Nuclear power publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This booklet lists 69 publications on nuclear energy available free from some of the main organisations concerned with its development and operation in the UK. Headings are: general information; the need for nuclear energy; the nuclear industry; nuclear power stations; fuel cycle; safety; waste management. (U.K.)

  16. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    However, the case of Iran raises perhaps the most critical question in this decade for strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime: How can...enrichment process can take advantage of the slight difference in atomic mass between 235U and 238U. The typical enrichment process requires about 10 lbs of...neutrons but can induce fission in all actinides , including all plutonium isotopes. Therefore, nuclear fuel for a fast reactor must have a higher

  17. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  18. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  19. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  20. International inventory of training facilities in nuclear power and its fuel cycle 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The revised inventory is arranged according to the following subject areas: nuclear power plant (NPP) engineering, nuclear safety, quality assurance, NPP operation and maintenance, NPP instrumentation and control, nuclear fuel management, nuclear materials control. Training in each subject area is classified into five groups depending on the type of organization offering the training courses. Each course is briefly described by its name or purpose, institution and location, duration, frequency, language, and content

  1. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addinall, E.; Ellington, H.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters: (the nature of nuclear power) the atomic nucleus - a potential source of energy; how nuclear reactors work; the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactivity - its nature and biological effects; (why we need nuclear power) use of energy in the non-communist world -the changing pattern since 1950; use of energy - possible future scenarios; how our future energy needs might be met; (a possible long term nuclear strategy) the history of nuclear power; a possible nuclear power strategy for the Western World; (social and environmental considerations) the hazards to workers in the nuclear power industry; the hazards to the general public (nuclear power industry; reactor operation; transport of radioactive materials; fuel reprocessing; radioactive waste disposal; genetic hazards); the threat to democratic freedom and world peace. (U.K.)

  2. A novel nuclear combined power and cooling system integrating high temperature gas-cooled reactor with ammonia–water cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Chending; Zhao, Fuqiang; Zhang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel nuclear ammonia–water power and cooling cogeneration system. • The high temperature reactor is inherently safe, with exhaust heat fully recovered. • The thermal performances are improved compared with nuclear combined cycle. • The base case attains an energy efficiency of 69.9% and exergy efficiency of 72.5%. • Energy conservation and emission reduction are achieved in this cogeneration way. - Abstract: A nuclear ammonia–water power and refrigeration cogeneration system (NAPR) has been proposed and analyzed in this paper. It consists of a closed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) topping Brayton cycle and a modified ammonia water power/refrigeration combined bottoming cycle (APR). The HTGR is an inherently safe reactor, and thus could be stable, flexible and suitable for various energy supply situation, and its exhaust heat is fully recovered by the mixture of ammonia and water in the bottoming cycle. To reduce exergy losses and enhance outputs, the ammonia concentrations of the bottoming cycle working fluid are optimized in both power and refrigeration processes. With the HTGR of 200 MW thermal capacity and 900 °C/70 bar reactor-core-outlet helium, the system achieves 88.8 MW net electrical output and 9.27 MW refrigeration capacity, and also attains an energy efficiency of 69.9% and exergy efficiency of 72.5%, which are higher by 5.3%-points and 2.6%-points as compared with the nuclear combined cycle (NCC, like a conventional gas/steam power-only combined cycle while the topping cycle is a closed HTGR Brayton cycle) with the same nuclear energy input. Compared with conventional separate power and refrigeration generation systems, the fossil fuel saving (based on CH 4 ) and CO 2 emission reduction of base-case NAPR could reach ∼9.66 × 10 4 t/y and ∼26.6 × 10 4 t/y, respectively. The system integration accomplishes the safe and high-efficiency utilization of nuclear energy by power and refrigeration

  3. Principles of provision concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants find application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Ministry of the Interior has asked the Laender on the 14th June 1977, to apply forthwith the 'principles of provision concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants' as a minimum pre-condition for waste management in licensing procedures for nuclear power stations. The 'principles' were part of a report, elaborated by a Bund/Laender working group at a undersecretary-of-state level on questions concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants. The report was favourably acknowledged during a meeting of the Federal Chancellor and the Minister-Presidents of the Laender on May 6th, 1977. The principles are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Development of a strategic plan for an international R and D project on innovative nuclear fuel cycles and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term outlook for nuclear energy should be considered in a broader perspective of future energy needs, operational safety, proliferation and environmental impacts. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Development of a Strategic Plan for an International R and D Project on Innovative Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Power Plants was convened in Vienna in October 1999 to assess the criteria, the needs for international cooperation, and to formulate a strategic plan for project integration. (author)

  5. A feasibility study on the longer cycle operation of Yonggwang nuclear power plants 3 and 4 (3 rd quarter report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee Sung Kyun; Song, Jae Woong; Ha, Young Joon; Kim, Kyu Tae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technolgoy, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    In this report, described are results of the feasibility study on applying for the 18-month cycle in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs). This report contains results of safety and economic evaluations, radiation source analysis, an effect on changing the calibration period for each component of NSSS, and review on the related regulating codes. 12 refs., 34 tabs., 28 figs. (author)

  6. Aspects of PWR nuclear power plant secondary cycle relating to reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.E.F.; Leal, M.R.L.V.; Dominguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    A safety study of the main steam system, condensate and feedwater systems and water treatment system that belong to the secondary cooling circuits of a PWR nuclear power plant is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study

  8. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... for quality assurance programs in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 50 as they apply to software development... is one of six RG revisions addressing computer software development and use in safety related systems... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in...

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  12. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 1. Nuclear fuel cycle overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-07-01

    This educational module is an overview of the nuclear-fule-cycle. The overview covers nuclear energy resources, the present and future US nuclear industry, the industry view of nuclear power, the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation program, the Union of Concerned Scientists view of the nuclear-fuel-cycle, an analysis of this viewpoint, resource requirements for a model light water reactor, and world nuclear power considerations

  13. Romanian nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    1998-01-01

    Romanian decision to introduce nuclear power was based on the evaluation of electricity demand and supply as well as a domestic resources assessment. The option was the introduction of CANDU-PHWR through a license agreement with AECL Canada. The major factors in this choice have been the need of diversifying the energy resources, the improvement the national industry and the independence of foreign suppliers. Romanian Nuclear Power Program envisaged a large national participation in Cernavoda NPP completion, in the development of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and horizontal industry, in R and D and human resources. As consequence, important support was being given to development of industries involved in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design execution standards, QA procedures and current nuclear safety requirements at international level. Unit 1 of the first Romanian nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP with a final profile 5x700 Mw e, is now in operation and its production represents 10% of all national electricity production. There were also developed all stages of FRONT END of Nuclear Fuel Cycle as well as programs for spent fuel and waste management. Industrial facilities for uranian production, U 3 O 8 concentrate, UO 2 powder and CANDU fuel bundles, as well as heavy water plant, supply the required fuel and heavy water for Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents the Romanian activities in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and waste management fields. (authors)

  14. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  15. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  16. The cycle of the nuclear fuel used in EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document briefly indicates the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, from the purchase of natural uranium to waste storage. It also indicates the main responsibilities of EDF regarding this fuel cycle (to secure supplies, to organise material transportation, to process and store used fuels and associated wastes). It presents the different associated processes: uranium extraction, purification and concentration, conversion or fluoridation, enrichment. It briefly describes the fuel assembly fabrication, and indicates the main uranium producers in the world. Other addressed steps are: the transportation of fuel assembly, fuel loading, and spent fuel management, the processing of spent fuel and radioactive wastes

  17. Report of “the 2013 international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Ensuring nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle options in consideration of the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suda, Kazunori; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2014-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held “International Forum on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security – Ensuring Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Security of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station –” on 3 and 4 December 2013, with the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, as co-hosts. In the Forum, officials from Japan, the United States, France and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. Discussion was made in two panels, entitled “Nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security measures of nuclear fuel cycle options in consideration of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station” and “Roles of safeguards and technical measures for ensuring nuclear non-proliferation for nuclear fuel cycle options”. In the first panel based on the implications of the Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on the domestic and global nuclear energy use and increased interest in the back end of nuclear fuel cycle, discussion was made on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security challenges on both fuel cycle options from the policy and institutional viewpoints whereas in the second panel the roles of safeguards and proliferation resistant nuclear technology including plutonium burning technology in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in the back end of nuclear fuel cycle were discussed. Officials and experts from Japan, IAEA, the United States, France and Republic of Korea participated in the panel and made contributions to active discussion. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording

  18. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  19. Nuclear energy: The role of innovation. Vienna, 23 June 2003. Conference on innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    First, the scope of our vision for the future of nuclear power must be global. While we often point out that nuclear power currently provides about 16% of global electricity, we note less often that some 83% of nuclear capacity is concentrated in industrialized countries. If nuclear power is to play a major role in meeting this demand for additional energy, it will require innovative approaches - both technological and otherwise - to match the needs of users not only in industrialized but also in developing countries. Secondly, innovation must be responsive to concerns that remain about nuclear power, and should be 'smart' in taking into account new developments and expected future trends. For example, innovation should ensure that new reactor and fuel cycle technologies incorporate inherent safety features, proliferation resistant characteristics, and reduced generation of waste. Consideration should be given to physical protection and other characteristics that will reduce the vulnerability of nuclear facilities and materials to theft, sabotage and terrorist acts. Awareness of needs other than electricity generation can help to make the nuclear contribution more substantial. Third, nuclear innovation efforts should be co-operative and collaborative in nature. The most important outcome of this collaboration may be, as I have already suggested, a better understanding of user needs and requirements worldwide. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was developed with precisely this objective in mind - to engender the broadest possible international collaboration, to permit the scientific and technological innovation that would ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable option for future generations. INPRO recently completed its work on defining user requirements related to economics, safety, proliferation resistance and the environment, bringing Phase 1A of the project to a close. The INPRO Steering Committee last

  20. International inventory of training facilities in nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Because the development of trained manpower is important for full use of nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency has compiled this first inventory of training facilities and programs. It is based on information submitted by Member States and received up to 31 January 1977. The inventory is arranged by country, type of training organization, and by subject

  1. Nuclear power for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croall, S.; Sempler, K.

    1978-01-01

    A 'comic strip' account of nuclear power, covering weapons and weapons proliferation, reactor accidents involving human errors, radiation hazards, radioactive waste management and the fuel cycle, fast breeder reactors and plutonium, security, public relations and sociological aspects, energy consumption patterns, energy conservation and alternative energy sources, environmental aspects and anti-nuclear activities. (U.K.)

  2. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnesale, A.

    1980-01-01

    As nuclear power expands globally, so too expands the capability for producing nuclear weapons. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was organized in 1977 for the purpose of exploring two areas: (1) ways in which nuclear energy can be made available to help meet world energy needs, and (2) means by which the attendant risk of weapons proliferation can be held to a minimum. INFCE is designed for technical and analytical study rather than negotiation. Its organizational structure and issues under consideration are discussed. Some even broader issues that emerge from consideration of the relationships between the peaceful and military use of nuclear energy are also discussed. These are different notions of the meaning of nuclear proliferation, nuclear export policy, the need of a nuclear policy to be both a domestic as well as a foreign one, and political-military measures that can help reduce incentives of countries to acquire nuclear weapons of their own

  3. Nuclear power life cycle management, managing nuclear knowledge, and nuclear security. Introductory statement to the 5th scientific forum during the 46th session of the IAEA General Conference. Vienna, 17 September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the introductory statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the 5th scientific forum organized during the 46th session of the IAEA General Conference, Vienna, 17 september 2002, on the nuclear power life cycle management, managing nuclear knowledge, and nuclear security. In the area of nuclear power life cycle management two aspects were emphasized: licence extension and facility decommissioning. Nuclear knowledge management includes ensuring the continued availability of the qualified personnel. Nuclear security must be considered for all nuclear applications, in a manner that encompasses all phases of nuclear activity - the use, storage and transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the design, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  4. Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of the UJD in regulation at nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is a complex of activities linked with production of nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors as a source of energy used for production of electricity and heat, and of activities linked with spent nuclear fuel handling. Activities linked with nuclear fuel (NF) production, known as the Front-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, include (production of nuclear fuel from uranium as the most frequently used element). After discharging spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear reactor the activities follow linked with its storage, reprocessing and disposal known as the Back-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Individual activity, which penetrates throughout the NFC, is transport of nuclear materials various forms during NF production and transport of NF and SNF. Nuclear reactors are installed in the Slovak Republic only in commercial nuclear power plants and the NFC is of the open type is imported from abroad and SNF is long-term supposed without reprocessing. The main mission of the area of NFC is supervision over: - assurance of nuclear safety throughout all NFC activities; - observance of provisions of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons during nuclear material handling; with an aim to prevent leakage of radioactive substances into environment (including deliberated danage of NFC sensitive facilities and misuse of nuclear materials to production of nuclear weapons. The UJD carries out this mission through: - assessment of safety documentation submitted by operators of nuclear installations at which nuclear material, NF and SNF is handled; - inspections concentrated on assurance of compliance of real conditions in NFC, i.e. storage and transport of NF and SNF; storage, transport and disposal of wastes from processing of SNF; with assumptions of the safety

  5. Proactive pressure relief system management of life cycle and ageing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenc, J.; Ferrar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The last major power nuclear station built in North America was built when the Altair Company introduced the first microcomputer sparking the PC frenzy. It is safe to assume that there have been a great many changes since 1977 on both accounts. As the world's aging nuclear plants continue to be challenged with maintenance and replacement issues (obsolescence), as well making improvements within their facilities, proper pressure relief system management looms as a growing concern. This problem grows more acute as new engineering best practices are promulgated across industries and regulatory standards become more rigorous with much stricter enforcements. Unlike most pieces of operating equipment in a nuclear facility, pressure relief devices demand an extra level of consideration; as they form the 'last line of defense'. Combine the on-going obsolescence issue, with today's ever increasing demands for overall plant and public safety; pressure relief safety management will require increasing 'proactive' efforts to ensure safe facilities. This paper has been written to address some global pressure relief system management issues with respect the worlds aging nuclear facilities. This paper reflects findings we have discovered while conducting engineering pressure relief system audits on various nuclear power stations. It should be noted that these finding are not atypical of similar findings in pressure relief systems in the hydrocarbon processing world. (author)

  6. Comparative of fuel cycle cost for light water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.; Dimitrijevic, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from ost general fuel cycle scheme for light water reactors this article deals with conceptual differences of BWR, PWR and WWER as well as with the influence of certain phases of fuel cycle on economic parameters of an equivalent 1000 MWe reactor using a computer program CENA /1/ and typical parameters of each reactor type. An analysis of two particular power plants 628 MWe and 440 MWe WWER by means of the same program is given in the second part of this paper taking into account the differences of in-core fuel management. This second approach is especially interesting for the economy of the power plant itself in the period of planning. (author)

  7. Nuclear power and weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, T.; Rathjens, C.W.; Ruina, J.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear weapons development and nuclear electric power is examined. A brief description of nuclear weapons design is first given. This is then followed by a discussion of various aspects of nuclear power technology and of how they affect a nuclear weapon programme. These include fuel cycles, chemical reprocessing of spent fuel, uranium enrichment, and the control of dissemination of nuclear technology. In conclusion there is a discussion of possible political and institutional controls for limiting nuclear proliferation. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    2000-01-01

    Currently nuclear power accounts for more than 25% of total electricity production in Europe (including Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) However, significant new construction is planned in Central and Eastern Europe only, apart from some in France and, possibly in Finland. Many countries in Western Europe have put nuclear construction plans on hold and several have cancelled their nuclear programs. This report looks at the history of nuclear power and its current status in both Eastern and Western Europe. It provides an outline of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, from uranium procurement to final waste disposal. Economic and environmental issues are discussed, as well as the prospect of increased East-West trade and cooperation in the new poso-cold war world. Detailed profiles are provided of all the countries in Western Europe with significant nuclear power programs, as well as profiles of major energy and nuclear companies

  9. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  10. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  11. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  12. Design Basis Provisions for New and Existing Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    India has 3-Stage Nuclear Power Program. • Various facilities under design, construction or operation. • Design Basis Knowledge Management (DBKM) is an important and challenging task. • Design Basis Knowledge contributes towards: - Safe operation of running plants; - Design and construction of new facilities; - Addresses issues related to future decommissioning activities

  13. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1975-01-01

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear power debate hinges upon three major issues: radioactive waste disposal, reactor safety and proliferation. An alternative strategy for waste disposal is advocated which involves disposing of the radwaste (immobilized in SYNROC, a titanate ceramic waste form) in deep (4 km) drill-holes widely dispersed throughout the entire country. It is demonstrated that this strategy possesses major technical (safety) advantages over centralized, mined repositories. The comparative risks associated with coal-fired power generation and with the nuclear fuel cycle have been evaluated by many scientists, who conclude that nuclear power is far less hazardous. Considerable improvements in reactor design and safety are readily attainable. The nuclear industry should be obliged to meet these higher standards. The most hopeful means of limiting proliferation lies in international agreements, possibly combined with international monitoring and control of key segments of the fuel cycle, such as reprocessing

  15. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J.

    1958-01-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author) [fr

  16. Advanced cycle efficiency: Generating 40% more power from the nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Leung, Laurence

    2010-09-15

    The introduction of supercritical water (SCW) nuclear power plants (NPPs) would improve the overall plant efficiency significantly compared to currently deployed systems. This improvement is attributed to the increase in plant operating conditions. In addition, the implementation of the reheat-channel option into the CANDU SCW NPPs would further enhance the efficiency. Overall, the combination of higher operating conditions and reheat-channel option would lead to overall plant efficiency of about 50% for the CANDU SCW NPPs, compared to 33--35% for currently deployed systems. This represents a whopping 40% improvement in efficiency.

  17. Legal and technical problems in the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, F.R.; Driscoll, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power generation like all other industrial activities results in the production of wastes, the principal difference between radioactive wastes and other wastes being that it is at present impossible to dispose of significant quantities of the former in the environment. However, the possibility of their disposal without having to control them remains a long-term objective and numerous countries are pursuing detailed scientific research on the subject. In the meantime storage and control in a manner appropriate to their nature and aimed at preventing all accidental dispersal to the environment is the only solution. (NEA) [fr

  18. The nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nuclear power option has been mentioned as an alternative for Ghana but the issue of waste management worries both policy makers and the public. In this paper, the nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for electric power generation has been extensively reviewed. Different ...

  19. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the developing power reactors of various types, including some aspects of their nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L; Panasenkov, A.; Tolpygo, V.; Hake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of power reactors on thermal and fast neutrons with 1000-1500 MW unit electric capacity as well as in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. It notes the positive experience of the International scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physical studies on the critical assembly and its contribution to the elaboration of power reactors. The report contains basic conclusions from the development forecast for nuclear power of the CMEA member countries up to 1990 including forecasting methodology; role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio); relation between the beginning of mass commissioning of nuclear power plants with fast reactors and the integral demand for nuclear fuel; scale of required capacities of fuel cycle services; time dependence of fuel cycle on nuclear fuel requirements. It examines the problems and lists the results of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the field of fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular questions of co-operation of the CMEA member countries to secure radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analyzed. The report notes the role of international economic associations - ''Interatomenergo'' and ''Interatominstrument'' - in the accelerated development of nuclear power on the basis of cooperation and specialization in the manufacture of equipment for nuclear power

  20. Nuclear power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Experience, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Hofburg Conference Center, Vienna, Austria, from 13 to 17 September 1982. Almost 1200 participants and observers from 63 countries and 20 organizations attended the conference. The 239 papers presented were grouped under the following seven main topics: planning and development of nuclear power programmes; technical and economic experience of nuclear power production; the nuclear fuel cycle; nuclear safety experience; advanced systems; international safeguards; international co-operation. The proceedings are published in six volumes. The sixth volume contains a complete Contents of Volume 1 to 5, a List of Participants, Authors and Transliteration Indexes, a Subject Index and an Index of Papers by Number

  1. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  3. Nuclear power industry, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The intent of this publication is to provide a single volume of resource material that offers a timely, comprehensive view of the nuclear option. Chapter 1 discusses the development of commercial nuclear power from a historical perspective, reviewing the factors and events that have and will influence its progress. Chapters 2 through 5 discuss in detail the nuclear powerplant and its supporting fuel cycle, including various aspects of each element from fuel supply to waste management. Additional dimension is brought to the discussion by Chapters 6 and 7, which cover the Federal regulation of nuclear power and the nuclear export industry. This vast body of thoroughly documented information offers the reader a useful tool in evaluating the record and potential of nuclear energy in the United States

  4. Social awareness on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    In the present we surveyed public opinion regarding the nuclear fuel cycle to find out about the social awareness about nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear facilities. The study revealed that people's image of nuclear power is more familiar than the image of the nuclear fuel cycle. People tend to display more recognition and concern towards nuclear power and reprocessing plants than towards other facilities. Comparatively speaking, they tend to perceive radioactive waste disposal facilities and nuclear power plants as being highly more dangerous than reprocessing plants. It is found also that with the exception of nuclear power plants don't know very much whether nuclear fuel cycle facilities are in operation in Japan or not. The results suggests that 1) the relatively mild image of the nuclear fuel cycle is the result of the interactive effect of the highly dangerous image of nuclear power plants and the less dangerous image of reprocessing plants; and 2) that the image of a given plant (nuclear power plant, reprocessing plant, radioactive waste disposal facility) is influenced by the fact of whether the name of the plant suggests the presence of danger or not. (author)

  5. Potentialities of the molten salt reactor concept for a sustainable nuclear power production based on thorium cycle in epithermal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttin, Alexis

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a significant nuclear contribution to world energy needs, the problem of present nuclear waste management pose the sustainability of the PWR fuel cycle back into question. Studies on storage and incineration of these wastes should therefore go hand in hand with studies on innovative systems dedicated to a durable nuclear energy production, as reliable, clean and safe as possible. We are here interested in the concept of molten salt reactor, whose fuel is liquid. This particularity allows an online pyrochemical reprocessing which gives the possibility to overcome some neutronic limits. In the late sixties, the MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor) project of a graphite-moderated fluoride molten salt reactor proved thus that breeding is attainable with thorium in a thermal spectrum, provided that the online reprocessing is appropriate. By means of simulation tools developed around the Monte Carlo code MCNP, we first re-evaluate the performance of a reference system, which is inspired by the MSBR project. The complete study of the pre-equilibrium transient of this 2,500 MWth reactor, started with 232 Th/ 233 U fuel, allows us to validate our reference choices. The obtained equilibrium shows an important reduction of inventories and induced radio-toxicities in comparison with the other possible fuel cycles. The online reprocessing is efficient enough to make the system breed, with a doubling time of about thirty years at equilibrium. From the reference system, we then test different options in terms of neutron economy, transmutation and control of reactivity. We find that the online reprocessing brings most of its flexibility to this system, which is particularly well adapted to power generation with thorium. The study of transition scenarios to this fuel cycle quantifies the limits of a possible deployment from the present French power stock, and finally shows that a rational management of the available plutonium would be necessary in any case. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  10. LDC nuclear power: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweedale, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Argentina's 31-year-old nuclear research and power program makes it a Third World leader and the preeminent Latin American country. Easily accessible uranium fuels the heavy water reactor, Atucha I, which provides 10% of the country's electric power. Atucha II and III are under construction. Several domestic and international factors combined to make Argentina's program succeed, but achieving fuel-cycle independence and the capacity to divert fissionable material to military uses is a cause for some concern. 60 references

  11. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  13. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  16. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  18. International nuclear power status 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  19. International nuclear power status 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  20. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  1. Steps to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The recent increase in oil prices will undoubtedly cause the pace at which nuclear power is introduced in developing countries to quicken in the next decade, with many new countries beginning to plan nuclear power programmes. The guidebook is intended for senior government officials, policy makers, economic and power planners, educationalists and economists. It assumes that the reader has relatively little knowledge of nuclear power systems or of nuclear physics but does have a general technical or management background. Nuclear power is described functionally from the point of view of an alternative energy source in power system expansion. The guidebook is based on an idealized approach. Variations on it are naturally possible and will doubtless be necessary in view of the different organizational structures that already exist in different countries. In particular, some countries may prefer an approach with a stronger involvement of their Atomic Energy Commission or Authority, for which this guidebook has foreseen mainly a regulatory and licensing role. It is intended to update this booklet as more experience becomes available. Supplementary guidebooks will be prepared on certain major topics, such as contracting for fuel supply and fuel cycle requirements, which the present book does not go into very deeply

  2. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    fulfill its mission that is to contribute in improving the quality of life of the Brazilian people. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps involved in the production and use of fuel for nuclear reactors. The Laboratories of Chemistry and Environmental Diagnosis Center, CQMA, support the demand of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Program providing chemical characterization of uranium compounds and other related materials. In this period the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) concentrated efforts on improving equipment and systems to enable the IEA-R1 research reactor to operate at higher power, increasing the capacity of radioisotopes production, samples irradiation, tests and experiments. (author)

  3. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    to contribute in improving the quality of life of the Brazilian people. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps involved in the production and use of fuel for nuclear reactors. The Laboratories of Chemistry and Environmental Diagnosis Center, CQMA, support the demand of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Program providing chemical characterization of uranium compounds and other related materials. In this period the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) concentrated efforts on improving equipment and systems to enable the IEA-R1 research reactor to operate at higher power, increasing the capacity of radioisotopes production, samples irradiation, tests and experiments. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  5. Ecological problems of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, N S; Demin, V F; Kuz' min, I I; Stepanchikov, V I [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

    1978-10-01

    Modern power sources including nuclear one are characterized. Basic information on radiation protection of man and biosphere is presented. Problems of radiation effect of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises on population and environment are discussed. Comparative evaluation of nuclear and thermal power effect on biosphere is made. It is shown that nuclear power is the safest power source at the present development state. The conclusion is drawn that the use of nuclear energy controlled and limited by scientifically founded norms does not present radiation hazard for population and environment.

  6. Nuclear power in western society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1977-01-01

    The degree to which problems of public acceptance have contributed to the slowdown in progress of nuclear power in Western European countries and the USA is discussed. Some of the effects on the nuclear power industry, i.e. the electrical utilities, the power station suppliers, and the fuel cycle contractors are described. The problem of the lack of public acceptance is examined by consideration of four areas: the position of the employee working in nuclear installations, opposition from the local community, the question of terrorism and its impact on nuclear policy, and finally, what is felt to constitute the greatest anxiety concerning nuclear power, that of proliferation. (U.K.)

  7. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  8. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  9. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Yong Rae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the reactor core being fully composed of KOFA as described in this report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Yong Rae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk

    1993-11-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the reactor core being fully composed of KOFA as described in this report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Reload safety evaluation report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Um, Kil Sup; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Ki Hang; Sung, Kang Sik

    1993-09-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, cycle 8 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 8 core and results are described in the report. (Author) 1 ref., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Reload safety evaluation report for yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Choi, Gyoo Hwan; Lee, Ki Bog; Park, Sang Yoon

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for YGN-2, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which would potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core design described herein. (Author)

  13. Reload safety evaluation report for yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kwon, Tae Je; Park, Sang Yoon; Sung, Kang Sik; Kim, Ki Hang; Yim, Jeong Sik; Kim, Du Ill; Choi, Han Rim; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1992-06-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as discribed below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  14. Reload safety evaluation report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Chul; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Ki Hang; Suh, Jung Min; Um, Kil Sup; Ban, Chang Hwan; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, Cycle 9 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 9 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Gon; Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Oh Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Du Ill; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1994-07-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin-2, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the core being composed of various fuel types as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in the report. (Author) 1 ref., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Kim, Oh Hwan; Choi, Han Rim; Yoon, Han Young; Ku, Dong Uk; Suh, Jung Min; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for UCN-2, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Reload safety evaluation report for ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Hong Jin; Kim, Il Kon; Oh, Dong Seok; Yoon, Han Yong; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Dong Uk; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Kyun

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin-2, Cycle 4 and demonstrates that the core being composed of various fuel types as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 4 core and results are described in the report. (Author)

  18. Reload safety evaluation report for Kori nuclear power unit 1, cycle 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Oh Hwan; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1994-05-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-1, Cycle 14 and demonstrate that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 14 core design described herein. (Author) 1 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Reload safety evaluation report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Moon, Bok Ja; Cho, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Oh Hwan; Chang, Doo Soo; Yoon, Han Young; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-1, Cycle 13 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types applied in this evaluation will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 13 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  20. Reload safety evaluation report for kori nuclear power plant unit 4, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Jung, Yil Sup; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, Ki Hang; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-4, Cycle 8 and demonstrate that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licening bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 8 core design described herein. (Author)

  1. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kim, Yong Rae; Son, Sang Rin; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Hong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Dong Uk

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, Cycle 5 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types applied in this evaluation will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 5 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  2. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  3. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing

  4. Evaluation of fuel fabrication and the back end of the fuel cycle for light-water- and heavy-water-cooled nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.L.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-06-01

    The classification of water-cooled nuclear reactors offers a number of fuel cycles that present inherently low risk of weapons proliferation while making power available to the international community. Eight fuel cycles in light water reactor (LWR), heavy water reactor (HWR), and the spectral shift controlled reactor (SSCR) systems have been proposed to promote these objectives in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) program. Each was examined in an effort to provide technical and economic data to INFCE on fuel fabrication, refabrication, and reprocessing for an initial comparison of alternate cycles. The fuel cycles include three once-through cycles that require only fresh fuel fabrication, shipping, and spent fuel storage; four cycles that utilize denatured uranium--thorium and require all recycle operations; and one cycle that considers the LWR--HWR tandem operation requiring refabrication but no reprocessing.

  5. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle operations: The French approach to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.; De Franco, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de l'Aube Disposal Facility (Centre de Stockage de l'Aube) is designed to receive a wide variety of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as the industry, hospitals and armed forces. Such a variety of wastes incur highly different risks which must be grasped in the safety analysis of the Centre. This article attempts to show how a number of safety analysis tools are used to meet the highly varied needs of the waste producers and guarantee safe disposal. They involve functional analysis, risk analysis and safety calculations. The paper shows that the most important acceptance criteria for the first containment barrier, namely the waste package, are containment, durability, activity limitation and biological shielding. And a method is proposed to determine some of these criteria from safety scenarios (scenarios of accidents in operation, intrusion in the post-institutional control phase). Over the years, however, the waste producers have asked the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) to accept new types of waste not initially anticipated in the design criteria, and the safety analysis must imagine new scenarios and develop new acceptance criteria. The paper gives the example of sealed sources, closure heads of NPP vessels, racks for fuel elements, contaminated manipulators, irradiating waste, etc, which incur specific risks. In fact, some of this waste represent a source of unusual irradiation, a risk of further contamination in an accidental situation, or simply increase the likelihood of occurrence of certain scenarios, such as retrieval in the post-institutional control phase. The safety analysis must adapt and imagine specific scenarios to judge the acceptability of such waste, and must identify the acceptance criteria commensurate with the risks. The paper offers examples of research, some of it still under way at ANDRA. (author)

  7. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  8. World nuclear power and its fuel cycle after Three Mile Island: a guide for marketing and strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This work forecasts installed nuclear capacity through the year 2000. It discusses fuel-cycle capacity and compares it with predicted requirements.Research and development, nonproliferation, the anti-nuclear movement and its leaders, economics and a number of other topics are considered

  9. Nuclear power. Volume 1. Nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN is intended to be used as a working reference book for management, engineers and designers, and as a graduate-level text for engineering students. The book is designed to combine theory with practical nuclear power engineering and design experience, and to give the reader an up-to-date view of the status of nuclear power and a basic understanding of how nuclear power plants function. Volume 1 contains the following chapters; (1) nuclear reactor theory; (2) nuclear reactor design; (3) types of nuclear power plants; (4) licensing requirements; (5) shielding and personnel exposure; (6) containment and structural design; (7) main steam and turbine cycles; (8) plant electrical system; (9) plant instrumentation and control systems; (10) radioactive waste disposal (waste management) and (11) conclusion

  10. Modeling of Turbine Cycles Using a Neuro-Fuzzy Based Approach to Predict Turbine-Generator Output for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea-Kuang Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the very complex sets of component systems, interrelated thermodynamic processes and seasonal change in operating conditions, it is relatively difficult to find an accurate model for turbine cycle of nuclear power plants (NPPs. This paper deals with the modeling of turbine cycles to predict turbine-generator output using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for Unit 1 of the Kuosheng NPP in Taiwan. Plant operation data obtained from Kuosheng NPP between 2006 and 2011 were verified using a linear regression model with a 95% confidence interval. The key parameters of turbine cycle, including turbine throttle pressure, condenser backpressure, feedwater flow rate and final feedwater temperature are selected as inputs for the ANFIS based turbine cycle model. In addition, a thermodynamic turbine cycle model was developed using the commercial software PEPSE® to compare the performance of the ANFIS based turbine cycle model. The results show that the proposed ANFIS based turbine cycle model is capable of accurately estimating turbine-generator output and providing more reliable results than the PEPSE® based turbine cycle models. Moreover, test results show that the ANFIS performed better than the artificial neural network (ANN, which has also being tried to model the turbine cycle. The effectiveness of the proposed neuro-fuzzy based turbine cycle model was demonstrated using the actual operating data of Kuosheng NPP. Furthermore, the results also provide an alternative approach to evaluate the thermal performance of nuclear power plants.

  11. Validation of a new version of software for monitoring the core of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde Unit 2, at the end of Cycle 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, G.; Calleros, G.; Mata, F.

    2009-10-01

    This work shows the differences observed in thermal limits established in the technical specifications of operation, among the new software, installed at the end of Cycle 10 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, and the old software that was installed from the beginning of the cycle. The methodology allowed to validate the new software during the coast down stage, before finishing the cycle, for what could be used as tool during the shutdown of Unit 2 at the end of Cycle 10. (Author)

  12. Nuclear power. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Lay language brings an understanding of nuclear technology and nuclear politics to the non-specialist reader. The author notes that there has been little change in the technology during the four decades of the nuclear age, but mankind has still to learn how to live with it. Part One explains how reactors work, identifies different reactor types, and describes the fuel cycle. Part two follows research developments during the pre-Manhatten Project days, the war effort, and the decision to pursue commercial nuclear power. He traces the development of policies to secure fission materials and international efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons grade material and the safe handling of radioactive wastes on a global as well as national scale. There are four appendices, including an annotated reference to other publications. 9 figures.

  13. New principles for nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants- only a link in the chain of the fuel cycle's technical capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    A short survey is presented on the present situation of the uranium market. The export-import policies of the countries mining uranium, in particular those of the USA, could have an impeding effect on the nuclear energy programme.

  14. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the ''front end'' and ''back end'' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of the Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  15. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the 'front end' and 'back end' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of The Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  16. Impacts on human health from the coal and nuclear fuel cycles and other technologies associated with electric power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Major public health impacts of electric power generation and transmission associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and with coal use are evaluated. Only existing technology is evaluated. The only health effects of concern are those leading to definable human disease and injury. Health effects are scaled to a nominal 1000 Megawatt (electric) plant fueled by either option. Comparison of the total health effects to the general public gives: nuclear, 0.03 to 0.05 major health effects per 1000 MWe per year; coal, 0.7 to 3.7 per 1000 MWe per year. Thus for the general public the health risks from the coal cycle are about 50 times greater than for the nuclear cycle. Health effects to workers in the industry are currently quite high. For the nuclear cycle, 4.6 to 5.1 major health impacts per 1000 MWe per year; for coal, 6.5 to 10.9. The two-fold greater risk for the coal cycle is primarily due to high injury rates in coal miners. There is no evidence that electrical transmission contributes any health effects to the general public, except for episodes where broken power lines come in contact with people. For power line workers, the risk is estimated at 0.1 serious injury per 1000 MWe per year

  17. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, Andrey V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  18. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Andrey V.; Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  19. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Single Channel Trip System for the Dungeness B AGRs in the United Kingdom has enabled Nuclear Electric to enhance the performance of each of the twin reactors progressively towards the design figure of 660MW. The unique self-testing dynamic nature of the microprocessor-based ISAT system was one of the key factors in satisfying the UK Regulator that the system met the demanding requirements of the Dungeness B application, and current operational and maintenance experience is very encouraging. Systems based on the ISAT principle have application in reactor protection systems throughout the world. (Author)

  20. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  1. Analysis of shutdown and aftercooling cycles of the A-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, V.; Vopatril, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept is described of the emergency shut-down and after-cooling of the A-1 reactor based on the elimination of pressure shock and minimization of thermal shock. After-cooling is effected by all circulators which had not been defective before shut-down. During shut-down the pumps run at reduced speed. A diesel generator is used as a self-contained power supply. The after-cooling is classified into three types depending on the machinery power consumption, i.e., normal, emergency and super-emergency. The selection of the power supply and the after-cooling conditions proceeds automatically. A mathematical model is described of A-1 reactor behaviour during different accidents requiring the shut-down and after-cooling. Computer programmes are briefly indicated for the analysis of transients in the primary coolant circuit (ZVJE-73-23, SHOCK A-1), for the analysis of transients resulting from a neutron power controller failure or from a circulator failure (HAZARD), for the analysis of after-cooling processes (DENDEL), and programme SAULIS as an auxiliary programme for processing the results and for the print-out of the DENDEL programme. Steady-state parameters before the failure were found as initial conditions for the calculation of transients. The mathematical model was solved using a system of three computer programmes linked by interprogramme communication. The analysis is described of the cooperation of reactor safety circuits and of the automatic equipment for the reduction of thermal shock in the primary coolant circuit, as is the analysis of reactor accidents related to reactor control and to the safety circuits. Theoretical results are compared with experimental values obtained during the experimental A-1 reactor shut-down and after-cooling. The accuracy of the calculated value for the cooling gas temperature at the central and marginal channel outputs is -10 to +15% during the first 30 s of after-cooling. (J.P.)

  2. Results of an analysis of in-core measurements during the first core cycle of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehre, G.

    1982-01-01

    First results of an analysis of flux and temperature values obtained from the in-core system in the third unit of the Greifswald nuclear power plant during the first core cycle are presented. The analysis has been performed with the aid of the computer code INCA. Possibilities and limits of this code are shown. (author)

  3. Thermal stability of chloroform in the steam condensate cycle of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, Louis; Gilbert, Roland; Ouellet, Lorenzo

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of samples taken at the Gentilly 2 (Quebec) CANDU-PHW (CANadian Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) plant after chlorination and demineralization revealed the presence of all four trihalomethanes (THMs) (CHCl 3 , CHBrCl 2 , CHBr 2 Cl and CHBr 3 ) and other unidentified halogenated volatile compounds. Among the THMs, chloroform was the major contaminant. A study of its thermal stability in water at different temperatures confirmed the degradation of the CHCl 3 molecule according to the equation CHCl 3 + H2O → CO + 3 HCl. The reaction follows first order kinetics and has an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol. The estimated half-life is six seconds at 260 deg C, the maximum temperature of the steam condensate cycle

  4. Benefits and hazards of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1979-09-01

    Compilation of a seminar at the KFA Juelich on topical problems of nuclear power. Subjects: Energy demand, its expected development and possibilities of coverage; physical fundamentals and technical realisation of power generation by nuclear fission; fuel cycle problems and solutions; effects of radioactive radiation; safety of nuclear power plants and the nuclear hazard as compared with other hazards. (orig./RW) [de

  5. International nuclear power status 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a nuclear-hydrogen power system using H2/O2 direct combustion product as a working substance in the bottom cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.Z.; Yu, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    A combined thermodynamic cycle using nuclear and hydrogen energy as heat sources was investigated in this paper. The cycle is composed of top cycle using HTGR as energy source and helium as working medium and a bottom cycle with H 2 /O 2 direct combustion product as working substance. hydrogen and oxygen are thermochemically by splitting of water produced through a part of nuclear heat recovered from the top cycle. They may be delivered to the O 2 /H 2 users or used as fuels for the high temperature bottom Rankine steam cycle. The combined cycle not only uses the new energy sources instead of conventional fossil fuels but it possess the advantages of both helium and steam cycle. It has a high thermal efficiency, large unit capacity, many-sided usage and less pollution. It may represent a new type of combined cycles for future energy conversion and power generation. Using computer diagram, a variety of schemes were calculated and analyzed. The influence of some main parameters upon the cycle performance were also studied

  7. Nuclear power proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical and ethical aspects are blended inextricably. Nuclear hardware costs have everywhere soared far beyond inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in programme completion arising from problems of reactor and fuel cycle. Meanwhile, partly as a result of this cost escalation, there is widespread and growing doubt as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall - but particularly nuclear - energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels which might reassure both concerned publics and the energy industries themselves. This paper appraises some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power. (author)

  8. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle covers the procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, its recovery and recycling after use and the safe storage of all wastes generated through these operations. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well documented safety record accumulated over the past 40 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This report constitutes an up-to-date analysis of the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on the available experience in OECD countries. It addresses the technical aspects of fuel cycle operations, provides information on operating practices and looks ahead to future activities

  9. Waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present lecture deals with energy needs and nuclear power, the importance of waste and its relative place in the fuel cycle, the games of controversies over nuclear waste in the strategies of energy and finally with missions and functions of the IAEA for privileging the rational approach and facilitating the transfer of technology. (RW)

  10. ORIGEN2.1 Cycle Specific Calculation of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant Decay Heat and Core Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, J.; Grgic, D.; Konjarek, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents ORIGEN2.1 computer code calculation of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant core for Cycle 24. The isotopic inventory, core activity and decay heat are calculated in one run for the entire core using explicit depletion and decay of each fuel assembly. Separate pre-ori application which was developed is utilized to prepare corresponding ORIGEN2.1 inputs. This application uses information on core loading pattern to determine fuel assembly specific depletion history using 3D burnup which is obtained from related PARCS computer code calculation. That way both detailed single assembly calculations as well as whole core inventory calculations are possible. Because of the immense output of the ORIGEN2.1, another application called post-ori is used to retrieve and plot any calculated property on the basis of nuclide, element, summary isotope or group of elements for activation products, actinides and fission products segments. As one additional possibility, with the post-ori application it is able to calculate radiotoxicity from calculated ORIGEN2.1 inventory. The results which are obtained using the calculation model of ORIGEN2.1 computer code are successfully compared against corresponding ORIGEN-S computer code results.(author).

  11. Facts about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument concerning the introduction and the further expansion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has been existing for several years in differing intensities and most different forms. The arguments and theses of the discussion deal with the various aspects of the reciprocity between nuclear energy and environment. This is the key-note for the scientists to treat the relevant problems and questions in the discussion about nuclear energy. The controversy in which often emotional theses are stated instead of reasonably deliberating the pros and contras includes civil initiatives, societies, and environment protection organisations on the one hand and authorities, producers, and operators of nuclear-technical plants on the other. And the scale of the different opinions reaches from real agreement to deep condemnation of a technology which represents an option to meet the energy need in the future. In this situation, this book is an attempt to de-emotionalize the whole discussion. Most of the authors of the articles come from research centres and have been working on the problems they deal with for years. The spectrum of the topics includes the energy-political coherences of nuclear energy, the technical fundaments of the individual reactor types, safety and security of nuclear-technical plants the fuel cycle, especially the waste management in nuclear power plants, environmental aspects of energy generation in general and nuclear energy in special, the question of Plutonium and the presentation of alternative energy sources including nuclear fusion. The arrangement of these topics is meant to help to clarify the complex coherences of nuclear energy and to help those interested in problems of energy policy to make their own personal decisions. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  15. Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki

    2012-01-01

    Economics is one of the essential criteria to be considered for the future deployment of the nuclear power. With regard to the competitive power market, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is somewhat highly competitive with those from the other electricity generations, averaging lower in cost than fossil fuels, wind, or solar. However, a closer look at the nuclear power production brings an insight that the cost varies within a wide range, highly depending on a nuclear fuel cycle option. The option of nuclear fuel cycle is a key determinant in the economics, and therefrom, a comprehensive comparison among the proposed fuel cycle options necessitates an economic analysis for thirteen promising options based on the material flow analysis obtained by an equilibrium model as specified in the first article (Modeling and System Analysis of Different Fuel Cycle Options for Nuclear Power Sustainability (I): Uranium Consumption and Waste Generation). The objective of the article is to provide a systematic cost comparison among these nuclear fuel cycles. The generation cost (GC) generally consists of a capital cost, an operation and maintenance cost (O and M cost), a fuel cycle cost (FCC), and a decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) cost. FCC includes a frontend cost and a back-end cost, as well as costs associated with fuel recycling in the cases of semi-closed and closed cycle options. As a part of GC, the economic analysis on FCC mainly focuses on the cost differences among fuel cycle options considered and therefore efficiently avoids the large uncertainties of the Generation-IV reactor capital costs and the advanced reprocessing costs. However, the GC provides a more comprehensive result covering all the associated costs, and therefrom, both GC and FCC have been analyzed, respectively. As a widely applied tool, the levelized cost (mills/KWh) proves to be a fundamental calculation principle in the energy and power industry, which is particularly

  16. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  17. The debate on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The need for nuclear power is pointed out. The Study Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycles of the American Physical Society has studied the problem of waste disposal in detail and has found that geological emplacement leads to safe waste disposal. The relation between nuclear power and weapons proliferation is discussed. The problem of preventing proliferation is primarily a political problem, and the availability of nuclear power will contribute little to the potential for proliferation. However, to further reduce this contribution, it may be desirable to keep fast-breeder reactors under international control and to use only converters for national reactors. The desirable converter is one which has a high conversion ratio, probably one using the thorium cycle, 233 U, and heavy water as the moderator. The nuclear debate in the United States of America is discussed. Work on physical and technical safeguards in the USA against diversion of fissile materials is mentioned. (author)

  18. International symposium on technologies for the management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle activities. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This document includes 79 extended synopses of presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: radioactive waste management policies and technologies; geological disposal of radioactive wastes; spent nuclear fuel management; economic and social aspects of nuclear fuel cycle. Every paper has been indexed separately Refs, figs, tabs

  19. International symposium on technologies for the management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle activities. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This document includes 79 extended synopses of presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: radioactive waste management policies and technologies; geological disposal of radioactive wastes; spent nuclear fuel management; economic and social aspects of nuclear fuel cycle. Every paper has been indexed separately

  20. Power program and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1990-01-01

    Main points of the USSR power program and the role of nuclear power in fuel and power complex of the country are considered. Data on dynamics of economic indices of electric power generation at nuclear power plants during 1980-1988 and forecasts till 2000 are presented. It is shown that real cost of 1 kW/h of electric power is equal to 1.3-1.8 cop., and total reduced cost is equal to 1.8-2.4 cop

  1. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  2. Hybrid nuclear cycles for nuclear fission sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fission can play and must play an important role in paving the road to Energy Sustainability. Nuclear Fission does not produce CO 2 emissions, and it is already exploited at commercial level with the current NPP (Nuclear Power Plants). Most of them are based on LWR reactors, which have a very good safety record. It must be noted, however, that all LWR (including the advanced or evolutionary ones) have some drawbacks, particularly their very poor efficiency in exploiting the natural resources of nuclear fuels. In this paper, an analysis is presented on how to maximize the energy actually generated from the potential contents of fission natural resources. The role of fertile-to-fissile breeding is highlighted, as well as the need of attaining a very high safety performance in the reactors and other installations of the fuel cycle. The proposal presented in this paper is to use advanced and evolutionary LWR as energy producing reactors, and to use subcritical fast assemblies as breeders. The main result would be to increase by two orders of magnitude the percentage of energy effectively exploited from fission natural resources, while keeping a very high level of safety standards in the full fuel cycle. Breeders would not be intended for energy production, so that safety standards could rely on very low values of the thermal magnitudes, so allowing for very large safety margins for emergency cooling. Similarly, subcriticality would offer a very large margin for not to reach prompt criticality in any event. The main drawback of this proposal is that a sizeable fraction of the energy generated in the cycle (about 1/3, maybe a little more) would not be useful for the thermodynamic cycle to produce electricity. Besides that, a fraction of the generated electricity, between 5 and 10 %, would have to be recirculated to feed the accelerator activating the neutron source. Even so, the overall result would be very positive, because more than 50 % of the natural

  3. Impacts on human health from the coal and nuclear fuel cycles and other technologies associated with electric power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-07-01

    The report evaluates major public health impacts of electric power generation and transmission associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and with coal use. Only existing technology is evaluated. For the nuclear cycle, effects of future use of fuel reprocessing and long-term radioactive waste disposal are briefly considered. The health effects of concern are those leading to definable human disease and injury. Health effects are scaled to numbers of persons and activities associated with a nominal 1000-megawatt electric plant fueled by either option. Comparison of the total health effects to the general public shows that the health risks from the coal cycle are about 50 times greater than for the nuclear cycle (coal, 0.7-3.7 major health effects per 1000 MWe per year; nuclear, 0.03-0.05 per 1000 MWe per year). For workers, these rates are higher. No evidence is found that electrical transmission contributes any health effects to the general public, except when broken power lines come in contact with people

  4. Technical feasibility of the electrode ionization process for the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    In thermal cycles of PWRs nuclear power plants with once-through steam generators as the CAREM-25, makeup water of very high purity is required to minimizing the induction of corrosion phenomena, fundamentally in the steam generators and other thermal cycle components. The makeup water treatment systems include several stages, of which the demineralization is the purification stage. The required makeup water purity is obtained in this stage. Historically, ultrapure water systems were based completely on ion exchange technology. Now, the electrode ionization process (EDI) has replaced the ion exchange technology used traditionally in the demineralization stage. Continuous demineralization in an EDI stack consists of three coupled processes: ion exchange, continuous ion removal by transport through the ion exchange resin and membranes into the concentrate stream, continuous regeneration by hydrogen and hydroxyl ions derived from the water splitting reaction and driven by the applied direct current. EDI process allows to obtain ultrapure water, with practically no use of chemical reagents and with technologies of continuous process. The objective of this work is the analysis of the electrode ionization process (EDI) for its implementation in the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant. The obtained results allow to assure the technical feasibility of implementation of the electrode ionization process, EDI, in the makeup water treatment system of the thermal cycle of this Argentinean nuclear power plant. (author)

  5. International nuclear power status 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au)

  6. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear power revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grear, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues - high capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear wastes and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry - that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power.

  8. Economic analysis of extended cycles in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Analisis economico de ciclos de extendidos en la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez N, H.; Hernandez M, J.L.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hermilo@correo.unam.mx

    2004-07-01

    The present work presents a preliminary analysis of economic type of extended cycles of operation of the Unit One in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. It is analysed an equilibrium cycle of 18 months firstly, with base to the Plan of Use of Energy of the Federal Commission of Electricity, being evaluated the cost of the energy until the end of the useful life of the plant. Later on an alternative recharge scenario is presented with base to an equilibrium cycle of 24 months, implemented to the beginning of the cycle 11, without considering transition cycles. It is added in both cycles the cost of the substitution energy, considering the unitary cost of the fuel of a dual thermoelectric power station of 350 M We and evaluating in each operation cycle, in both scenarios, the value of the substitution energy. The results show that a reduction of the days of recharge in the cycle of 24 months could make this option but favorable economically. The duration of the period of recharge rebounds in considerable grade in the cost of energy generation for concept of fuel. (Author)

  9. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  10. Conceptual study of nuclear power generation facilities life-cycle support versatile engineering database. Procedure of development and consideration of fundamental functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hidetoshi

    2009-05-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) stands out the activity of the knowledge management of nuclear safety and the movement to introduce the idea of the life cycle management into the quality control of maintenance of the nuclear power generation facilities to assure the knowledge preservation and to succeed the technology of facilities. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has such activities as the knowledge preservation of research and development, and related information. The facilities' performance reliability can be easily checked with the technology of data processing in the general industry and the results of the knowledge repository, transmitting technology and knowledge management by referring to the information and knowledge if the information and knowledge at each step of the life-cycle of facilities can be built. This report shows the strategy of the construction of the engineering database to support the life cycle of facilities and the basic function of the management system. (author)

  11. Optimization in the scale of nuclear power generation and the economy of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    1983-01-01

    In the not too distant future, the economy of nuclear power will have to be restudied. Various conditions and circumstances supporting this economy of nuclear power tend to change, such as the decrease in power demand and supply, the diversification in base load supply sources, etc. The fragility in the economic advantage of nuclear power may thus be revealed. In the above connection, on the basis of the future outlook of the scale of nuclear power generation, that is, the further reduction of the current nuclear power program, and of the corresponding supply and demand of nuclear fuel cycle quantities, the aspect of the economic advantage of nuclear power was examined, for the purpose of optimizing the future scale of nuclear power generation (the downward revision of the scale, the establishment of the schedule of nuclear fuel cycle the stagnation of power demand and nuclear power generation costs). (Mori, K.)

  12. An extended conventional fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarangella, M. J. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, 109 Ramsey Place, Lynchburg, VA 24502 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and a thermal output of about 500 MW; it is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array. The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for a four-year cycle based on its presumed attractiveness to potential customers. This option is a once-through fuel cycle in which the entire core is discharged and replaced after four years. In addition, a conventional fuel utilization strategy, employing a periodic partial reload and shuffle, was developed as an alternative to the four-year once-through fuel cycle. This study, which was performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, is a typical multi-cycle projection analysis of the type performed by most fuel management organizations such as fuel vendors and utilities. In the industry, the results of such projections are used by the financial arms of these organizations to assist in making long-term decisions. In the case of the B and W mPower reactor, this analysis demonstrates flexibility for customers who consider the once-through fuel cycle unacceptable from a fuel utilization standpoint. As expected, when compared to the once-through concept, reloads of the B and W mPower reactor will achieve higher batch average discharge exposure, will have adequate shut-down margin, and will have a relatively flat hot excess reactivity trend at the expense of slightly increased peaking. (authors)

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios at CGNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Zhou; Nie, Li Hong; Mao, Guo Ping; Hao, Si Xiong; Shen, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1994, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. (CGNPC) now owns two power stations GNPS and LNPS Phase I, with approximate 4000 MWe of installed capacity. With plant upgrades, advanced fuel management has been introduced into the two plants to improve the plant economical behavior with the high burnup fuel implemented. For the purpose of sustainable development, some preliminary studies on nuclear fuel cycle, especially on the back-end, have been carried out at CGNPC. According to the nuclear power development plan of China, the timing for operation and the capacity of the reprocessing facility are studied based on the amount of the spent fuel forecast in the future. Furthermore, scenarios of the fuel cycles in the future in China with the next generation of nuclear power were considered. Based on the international experiences on the spent fuel management, several options of spent fuel reprocessing strategies are investigated in detail, for example, MOX fuel recycling in light water reactor, especially in the current reactors of CGNPC, spent fuel intermediated storage, etc. All the investigations help us to draw an overall scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to find a suitable road-map to achieve the sustainable development of nuclear power. (authors)

  14. Nuclear power - a reliable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and Research - Department of Research has implemented a national Research and Development program taking into consideration the following: - the requirements of the European Union on research as a factor of development of the knowledge-based society; - the commitments to the assimilation and enforcement of the recommendations of the European Union on nuclear power prompted by the negotiations of the sections 'Science and Research' and ' Energy' of the aquis communautaire; - the major lines of interest in Romania in the nuclear power field established by National Framework Program of Cooperation with IAEA, signed on April 2001; - the short and medium term nuclear options of the Romanian Government; - the objectives of the National Nuclear Plan. The major elements of the nuclear research and development program MENER (Environment, Energy, Resources) supported by the Department of Research of the Ministry of Education and Research are the following: - reactor physics and nuclear fuel management; - operation safety of the Power Unit 1 of Cernavoda Nuclear Electric Power Station; - improved nuclear technological solutions at the Cernavoda NPP; - development of technologies for nuclear fuel cycle; - operation safety of the other nuclear plants in Romania; - assessment of nuclear risks and estimation of the radiological impact on the environment; - behavior of materials under the reactor service conditions and environmental conditions; - design of nuclear systems and equipment for the nuclear power stations and nuclear facilities; - radiological safety; - application of nuclear techniques and technologies in industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of social life. Research to develop high performance methods and equipment for monitoring nuclear impact on environment are conducted to endorse the measures for radiation protection. Also mentioned are the research on implementing a new type of nuclear fuel cycle in CANDU reactors as well as

  15. Nuclear power prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    A survey of the nuclear power needs of the less-developed countries and a study of the technology and economics of small and medium scale power reactors are envisioned by the General Conference. Agency makes its services available to Member States to assist them for their future nuclear power plans, and in particular in studying the technical and economic aspects of their power programs. The Agency also undertakes general studies on the economics of nuclear power, including the collection and analysis of cost data, in order to assist Member States in comparing and forecasting nuclear power costs in relation to their specific situations

  16. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  17. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  18. Hybrid combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veszely, K.

    2002-01-01

    In case of re-powering the existing pressurised water nuclear power plants by the proposed HCCPP solution, we can increase the electricity output and efficiency significantly. If we convert a traditional nuclear power plant unit to a HCCPP solution, we can achieve a 3.2-5.5 times increase in electricity output and the achievable gross efficiency falls between 46.8-52% and above, depending on the applied solution. These figures emphasise that we should rethink our power plant technologies and we have to explore a great variety of HCCPP solutions. This may give a new direction in the development of nuclear reactors and power plants as well.(author)

  19. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-04-01

    The actualized version (April 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear facilities, and radiation protection.

  20. Nuclear power status 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives statistical information on nuclear power plants status in the world in 1999, including the number of reactors in operation or under construction, the electricity supplied by nuclear power reactors and the respective percentage of electricity produced by nuclear energy in 1999, and the total operating experience to 31 December 1999, by country

  1. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  2. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Datafile: [nuclear power in] Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Japan is third after the USA and France in terms of the Western World's installed nuclear capacity, but it has by far the largest forward programme. Great effort is also being put into the fuel cycle and advanced reactors. There is close co-operation between the government, utilities and manufacturers, but Japan has not sought to export reactors. The government has responded to the growing public opposition to nuclear power with a massive increase in its budget for public relations. Details of the nuclear power programme are given. (author)

  4. Comparative of fuel cycle cost for light water nuclear power plants; Uporedna analiza cene gorivnog ciklusa lakovodne nuklearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A; Dimitrijevic, Z [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1978-07-01

    Starting from ost general fuel cycle scheme for light water reactors this article deals with conceptual differences of BWR, PWR and WWER as well as with the influence of certain phases of fuel cycle on economic parameters of an equivalent 1000 MWe reactor using a computer program CENA /1/ and typical parameters of each reactor type. An analysis of two particular power plants 628 MWe and 440 MWe WWER by means of the same program is given in the second part of this paper taking into account the differences of in-core fuel management. This second approach is especially interesting for the economy of the power plant itself in the period of planning. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in the main countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Japan, FRG, United Kingdom, France and Canada are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in some countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Denmarmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Spain and India are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  7. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

  8. The nuclear fuel cycle versus the carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power provides approximately 17% of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of ∼0.5 gigatonnes (Gt) of C/yr. This is a modest reduction as compared with global emissions of carbon, ∼7 Gt C/yr. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant and timely impact on carbon emissions, carbon-free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total production of energy by factors of three to ten by 2050. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/yr, depending on the type of carbon-based energy source that is displaced. This three-fold increase utilizing present nuclear technologies would result in 25,000 metric tonnes (t) of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) per year, containing over 200 t of plutonium. This is compared to a present global inventory of approximately 280,000 t of SNF and >1,700 t of Pu. A nuclear weapon can be fashioned from as little as 5 kg of 239 Pu. However, there is considerable technological flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different types of reactor (such as, thermal and fast neutron reactors). The neutron energy spectrum has a significant effect on the fission product yield, and the consumption of long-lived actinides, by fission, is best achieved by fast neutrons. Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the high-level nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of materials used to immobilize different radionuclides. As an example, a 232 Th-based fuel cycle can be used to breed fissile 233 U with minimum production of Pu. In this paper, I will contrast the production of excess carbon in the form of CO 2 from fossil fuels with

  9. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S.

    2014-01-01

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerron, Gordon; Berkhout, Frans

    1990-01-01

    The environmental effects of nuclear power discussed in this paper are specifically the effects of radiation on human populations, either directly or through the food chain. Controlling the environmental effects of nuclear power has two dimensions, waste management and safety. Regulatory controls aim to keep the risk of death due to man-made radiation down to what is thought to be an acceptable level; the background to the establishing of such levels is examined. The scale of the nuclear industry is outlined. In industrial countries with nuclear power, with the possible exception of the USA and USSR which have extensive nuclear weapons programmes, most radioactive wastes arise in the civil nuclear fuel cycle; medical, research and industrial users of nuclear materials produce the rest. The extreme variety of materials included in radioactive wastes is highlighted. Approaches to the management of different kinds of radioactive waste are discussed; the particular problems associated with reactor decommissioning are considered. The enormous potential harm of serious accidents at nuclear power plants through a release of large quantities of radionuclides into the environment has been a dominant influence in the design of reactors. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl underline the need for careful examination of management issues as well as design and operational failures. Finally, the catastrophic effects of a full scale nuclear war are briefly considered within the context of nuclear proliferation and international security. (UK)

  11. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  12. Principle and methodology of nuclear power plant site selection. Application to radiocobalt cycle in the Rhone river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.

    1987-01-01

    In a first bibliographic part, after some generalities on radioactivity and nuclear power, general principles of radiation protection and national and international regulations are presented. The methodology of the radioecological study involved in site selection is developed. In a second more experimental part, the processing of radiocobalt gamma radioactivity measurement in water, fishes, plants and Rhone river sediments demonstrates the influence of age and geographical situation of the nuclear power stations located along the river. A laboratory experiment of cobalt 60 transfer from chironomes larvae to carp is carried out. Comparison with the results of other laboratory experiments makes it possible to propose an experimental model of cobalt transfer within a fresh water ecosystem; radioactivity levels calculated for various compartments seem to be consistent with the Rhone river levels [fr

  13. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  14. Nuclear safeguards control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedege, R.; Braatz, U.; Heger, H.

    1976-01-01

    The execution of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has initiated a third phase in the efforts taken to ensure peace by limiting the number of atomic powers. In this phase it is important, above all, to turn into workable systems the conditions imposed upon technology by the different provisions of the Verification Agreement of the NPT. This is achieved mainly by elaborating annexes to the Agreement specifically geared to certain model plants, typical representatives selected for LWR power stations being the plants at Garigliano, Italy (BWR), and Stade, Federal Republic of Germany (PWR). The surveillance measures taken to prevent any diversion of special nuclear material for purposes of nuclear weapons manufacture must be effective in achieving their specific objective and must not impede the circumspect management of operations of the plants concerned. A VDEW working party has studied the technical details of the planned surveillance measures in nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany and now presents a concept of material balancing by units which meets the conditions imposed by the inspection authority and could also be accepted by the operators of nuclear power stations. The concept provides for uninterrupted control of the material balance areas of the nuclear power stations concerned, allows continuous control of the whole nuclear fuel cycle, is based exclusively on existing methods and facilities, and can be implemented at low cost. (orig.) [de

  15. A Framework for Evaluation of Safety and Generation Effect of Investment Considering Life Cycle Management in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Kim, Joon Hyun; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2006-01-01

    Along with the increasing pressure to enhance generation availability with low cost or investment, regulatory organization has been focused on the enhancement of safety in performance-based and risk informed regulation framework. Considering this, the most cost-beneficial solution should be found among the short-term and long-term investment plans. The objective of this research is to propose a generalized framework to evaluate safety and generation effect of investment plan for equipment in nuclear power plants

  16. Nuclear power plant types and the management of plutonium and minor actinides - in search of fuel cycle flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Transuranics management concerns all NPP types, because of the specifications for sustainable development. Multiple recycling is mandatory. Neutronic abundance can be obtained in fast spectrum, or by adding external neutrons or (temporarily) with additional 235 U. The LWRs can control the plutonium inventory and significantly reduce the amount of transuranics transferred to the geological repository, thanks to the use of innovative nuclear fuel in a limited part of the NPP fleet. HTR adapted to transuranics burning can help. In the future, in addition to the liquid metal FBR, a strategy based on a gas cooled technological line and advanced fuel opens a second path towards fast spectra. Strategies for defining the optimal mix of reactor types in the nuclear fleet at a given time and demonstrating the fuel cycle flexibility are under study. (author)

  17. Nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors and prospects for a resumption in growth of nuclear power in the United States over the next decade. The focus of analysis on the likelihood that current efforts in the United States to develop improved and safer nuclear power reactors will provide a sound technical basis for improved acceptance of nuclear power, and contribute to a social/political climate more conducive to a resumption of nuclear power growth. The acceptability of nuclear power and advanced reactors to five social/political sectors in the U.S. is examined. Three sectors highly relevant to the prospects for a restart of nuclear power plant construction are the financial sector involved in financing nuclear power plant construction, the federal nuclear regulatory sector, and the national political sector. For this analysis, the general public are divided into two groups: those who are knowledgeable about and involved in nuclear power issues, the involved public, and the much larger body of the general public that is relatively uninvolved in the controversy over nuclear power

  18. Independent assessment of forseeable problems in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the U. S. nuclear fuel cycle business including investment requirements; nuclear power growth projection; reliability of uranium supply; enrichment facilities; plutonium recycle; safeguards; and insurance

  19. Nuclear power and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power, which presently accounts for approximately 20% of global electricity generation is still beset with environmental problems. Such problems are found throughout the fuel cycle - from mining and milling to processing, to plant operation and finally to waste disposal. While projected radioactive releases for normal operation is extremely low, much of the environmental risk comes from the potential for accidents. A list of the most significant nuclear accidents that occurred between 1966 and 1999 is given. On the other hand nuclear power offers great environmental benefits particularly when compared to other energy sources: all along the fuel cycle comparatively very few wastes are produced. In a world becoming more and more aware of environmental problems, it seems that there is no definitive conclusion about nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  20. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant; Analisis de la fase de impacto ambiental en el ciclo de vida de una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-07-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  1. Nuclear power flies high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power in aircraft, rockets and satellites is discussed. No nuclear-powered rockets or aircraft have ever flown, but ground tests were successful. Nuclear reactors are used in the Soviet Cosmos serles of satellites, but only one American satellite, the SNAP-10A, contained a reactor. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators, many of which use plutonium 238, have powered more than 20 satellites launched into deep space by the U.S.A

  2. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data

  3. Nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arthur W. Murphy in the introductory chapter cites the issues, pro and con, concerning nuclear power. In assessing the present stance, he first looks back to the last American Assembly on nuclear power, held October 1957 and notes its accomplishments. He summarizes the six papers of this book, which focus on nuclear power to the end of this century. Chapter I, Safety Aspects of Nuclear Energy, by David Bodansky and Fred Schmidt, deals with the technical aspects of reactor safety as well as waste storage and plutonium diversion. Chapter 2, The Economics of Electric Power Generation--1975-2000, by R. Michael Murray, Jr., focuses specifically on coal-fired and nuclear plants. Chapter 3, How Can We Get the Nuclear Job Done, by Fritz Heimann, identifies actions that must take place to develop nuclear power in the U.S. and who should build the reprocessing plants. Chapter 4, by Arthur Murphy, Nuclear Power Plant Regulation, discusses the USNRC operation and the Price-Anderson Act specifically. Chapter 5, Nuclear Exports and Nonproliferation Strategy, by John G. Palfrey, treats the international aspects of the problem with primary emphasis upon the situation of the U.S. as an exporter of technology. Chapter 6, by George Kistiakowsky, Nuclear Power: How Much Is Too Much, expresses doubt about the nuclear effort, at least in the short run

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel supply is viewed as a buyer's market of assured medium-term stability. Even on a long-term basis, no shortage is envisaged for all conceivable expansion schedules. The conversion and enrichment facilities developed since the mid-seventies have done much to stabilize the market, owing to the fact that one-sided political decisions by the USA can be counteracted efficiently. In view of the uncertainties concerning realistic nuclear waste management strategies, thermal recycling and mixed oxide fuel elements might increase their market share in the future. Capacities are being planned accordingly. (orig.) [de

  5. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  6. Nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea

  7. Role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of world nuclear installations, the operating experiences of power reactors, and estimates of future nuclear growth leads to the conclusion that nuclear power's share of world electric power supply will grow slowly, but steadily during this decade. This growth will lead advanced countries to use the commercial breeder by the end of the century. Nuclear power is economically viable for most industrialized and many developing countries if public acceptance problems can be resolved. A restructuring of operational safety and regulations must occur first, as well as a resolution of the safeguards and technology transfer issue. 7 figures, 7 tables

  8. Nuclear power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association reports that Asia is the only region in the world where electricity generating capacity and specifically nuclear power is growing significantly. In East and South Asia, there are over 109 nuclear power reactors in operation, 18 under construction and plans to build about a further 100. The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, Japan, South Korea and India. As a member of the SE Asian community, Australia cannot afford to ignore the existence and growth of nuclear power generation on its door step, even if it has not, up to now, needed to utilise this power source

  9. Nuclear power in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, C S [Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Choong-Nam (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea.

  10. Report on the fuel cycle centre for spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report takes into account the contents of the safety report which was presented on March 31st, 1977 to the Social Minister of Lower Saxony by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Wiederaufbereitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH, Hanover, together with the application for a licence for the construction and operation of a fuel cycle centre. However, the report is not to be seen as the brief description of the facility, as it is required according to section 3, sub-section 3 of the AtVfV (Nuclear Installations Ordinance). It is more introductory information. Statements and drafts are preliminary; they have neither been decided on nor have they been licensed. However, the report gives a survey of the present state-of-the-art and of planning activities concerning the nuclear fuel cycle centre, while paying special attention to data relevant to the site. The government of Lower Saxony has proposed as a preliminary site on Febr. 22nd, 1977 an area near Gorleben in the rural district of Luechow-Dannenberg. The Federal government has adopted this proposal on July 5th, 1977. (orig.) [de

  11. The future of nuclear power in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in Mexico shows interesting aspects: the nuclear power is the source of energy that can supply large proportions of energy, that the country needs; the Kw/h of nuclear power is the most economic energy; the installation of 20 nucleoelectric plants will grant future jobs, the associated nuclear industry can be nationally integrated in the natural uranium cycle. (author)

  12. Interim report on nuclear power in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    An exhaustive report is presented on the implications of nuclear electric generation for Ontario's energy future. Such aspects as electrical demand and power planning, the CANDU fuel cycle, the nuclear debate, health, environmental and safety concerns, economics, social impacts and the status of the nuclear industry, uranium resources, ethical and political issues, nuclear weapons proliferation and plant security, and the regulation of nuclear power are dealt with in detail. (E.C.B.)

  13. Dictionary of nuclear power. January 2013 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    The actualized version (January 2013) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  14. Development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The discussion on the development of nuclear power took place on 28 September 1960 in Vienna. In his opening remarks, Director General Cole referred to the widespread opinion that 'the prospect of cheap electricity derived from nuclear energy offers the most exciting prospect for improving the lot of mankind of all of the opportunities for uses of atomic energy'. He then introduced the four speakers and the moderator of the discussion, Mr. H. de Laboulaye, IAEA Deputy Director General for Technical Operations. n the first part of the discussion the experts addressed themselves in turn to four topics put forward by the moderator. These were: the present technical status of nuclear power, the present costs of nuclear power, prospects for future reductions in the cost of nuclear power, and applications of nuclear power in less-developed areas

  15. The future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corak, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Energy production and use will contribute to global warming through greenhouse gas emissions in the next 50 years. Although nuclear power is faced with a lot of problems to be accepted by the public, it is still a significant option for the world to meet future needs without emitting carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other atmospheric pollutants. In 2002, nuclear power provided approximately 17% of world energy consumption. There is belief that worldwide electricity consumption will increase in the next few years, especially in the developing countries followed by economic growth and social progress. Official forecasts shows that there will be a mere increase of 5% in nuclear electricity worldwide by 2020. There are also predictions that electricity use may increase at 75%. These predictions require a necessity for construction of new nuclear power plants. There are only a few realistic options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation: Increase efficiency in electricity generation and use; Expand use of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermal; Capture carbon dioxide emissions at fossil-fuelled electric generating plants and permanently sequester the carbon; Increase use of nuclear power. In spite of the advantages that nuclear power has, it is faced with stagnation and decline today. Nuclear power is faced with four critical problems that must be successfully defeat for the large expansion of nuclear power to succeed. Those problems are cost, safety, waste and proliferation. Disapproval of nuclear power is strengthened by accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island in 1979, at Chernobyl in 1986 and by accidents at fuel cycle facilities in Japan, Russia and in the United States of America. There is also great concern about the safety and security of transportation of nuclear materials and the security of nuclear facilities from terrorist attack. The paper will provide summarized review regarding cost, safety, waste and

  16. Nuclear power debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A recent resurgence of interest in Australia in the nuclear power option has been largely attributed to growing concerns over climate change. But what are the real pros and cons of nuclear power? Have advances in technology solved the sector's key challenges? Do the economics stack up for Australia where there is so much coal, gas and renewable resources? Is the greenhouse footprint' of nuclear power low enough to justify its use? During May and June, the AIE hosted a series of Branch events on nuclear power across Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. In the interest of balance, and at risk of being a little bit repetitive, here we draw together four items that resulted from these events and that reflect the opposing views on nuclear power in Australia. Nuclear Power for Australia: Irrelevant or Inevitable? - a summary of the presentations to the symposium held by Sydney Branch on 8 June 2005. Nuclear Reactors Waste the Planet - text from the flyer distributed by The Greens at their protest gathering outside the symposium venue on 8 June 2005. The Case For Nuclear Power - an edited transcript of Ian Hore-Lacy's presentation to Adelaide Branch on 19 May 2005 and to Perth Branch on 28 June 2005. The Case Against Nuclear Power - an article submitted to Energy News by Robin Chappie subsequent to Mr Hore-Lacy's presentation to Perth Branch

  17. Nuclear power in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the general energy situation (including nuclear power); the nuclear fuel cycle; the history of nuclear power in the third world; economic considerations; environmental considerations (including general environmental effects of power generation; radiation; normal fuel cycle operation; nuclear waste management; accidents; sabotage; health and safety regulations); political considerations (nuclear weapons proliferation; technology transfer; energy independence and national prestige); the suppliers (mainly USA, France, West Germany, Canada, UK, USSR); Sub-Saharan Africa; the Arab World and Israel; Central Asia; South and East Asia; Latin America; conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1980-08-01

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  19. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background (scope of paper is a consideration of the radioactive by-products that arise from normal operation of nuclear power generating facilities; how regulated and their relative significance); legislation and regulation; the fuel cycle - fuel fabrication; use (of the fuel in the reactor; wastes from a typical CEGB Magnox power station); reprocessing (wastes from reprocessing); other wastes; disposal (including sea disposal). (U.K.)

  20. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  1. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2009-01-01

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants

  2. Commercialization of nuclear fuel cycle business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Japan depends on foreign countries almost for establishing nuclear fuel cycle. Accordingly, uranium enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is important for securing energy. By these means, the stable supply of enriched uranium, the rise of utilization efficiency of uranium and making nuclear power into home-produced energy can be realized. Also this contributes to the protection of earth resources and the preservation of environment. Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. operates four business commercially in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, aiming at the completion of nuclear fuel cycle by the technologies developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the introduction of technologies from foreign countries. The conditions of location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the course of the location in Rokkasho are described. In the site of about 740 hectares area, uranium enrichment, burying of low level radioactive waste, fuel reprocessing and high level waste control have been carried out, and three businesses except reprocessing already began the operation. The state of operation of these businesses is reported. Hereafter, efforts will be exerted to the securing of safety through trouble-free operation and cost reduction. (K.I.)

  3. Nuclear power status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document gives general statistical information (by country) about electricity produced by nuclear power plants in the world in 1998, and in a table the number of nuclear reactors in operation, under construction, nuclear electricity supplied in 1998, and total operating experience as of 31 December 1998

  4. The potential of fission nuclear power in resolving global climate change under the constraints of nuclear fuel resources and once-through fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Vladimir; Pevec, Dubravko; Matijevic, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear fission is receiving new attention as a developed source of carbon-free energy. A much larger number of nuclear reactors would be needed for a major impact on carbon emission. The crucial question is whether it can be done without increasing the risk of nuclear proliferation. Specifically, can a larger nuclear share in world energy production, well above the present 6%, be achieved in the next few decades without adding the proliferation-sensitive technologies of reprocessing spent fuel and recycling plutonium to the problems of the unavoidable use of enrichment technology? The answer depends on the available uranium resources. We first looked for the maximum possible nuclear build-up in the 2025-2065 period under the constraints of the estimated uranium resources and the use of once-through nuclear fuel technology. Our results show that nuclear energy without reprocessing could reduce carbon emission by 39.6% of the total reduction needed to bring the WEO 2009 Reference Scenario prediction of total GHG emissions in 2065 to the level of the WEO 450 Scenario limiting global temperature increase to 2 deg. C. The less demanding strategy of the nuclear replacement of all non-CCS coal power plants retiring during the 2025-2065 period would reduce emission by 26.1%.

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. Balakovo nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A key means of improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants is through effective training of plant personnel. The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the training at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant, and the important role that international cooperation programs have played in that progress

  7. Nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moynet, G.

    1987-01-01

    The economical comparison of nuclear power plants with coal-fired plants in some countries or areas are analyzed. It is not difficult to show that nuclear power will have a significant and expanding role to play in providing economic electricity in the coming decades. (Liu)

  8. Nuclear power: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wyk, A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of nuclear power in warfare is viewed from the point of use usefullness, essentiality and demolition. The effects of a H-bomb explosion are discussed as well as the use of nuclear power in warfare, with a Christian ethical background

  9. Consideration of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, I.

    1982-01-01

    Mr. Smart notes that the optimistic promise of nuclear energy for developing countries has not been met, but feels that nuclear power can still provide a growing share of energy during the transition from oil dependence. He observes that cost-benefit analyses vary for each country, but good planning and management can give nuclear power a positive future for those developing countries which can establish a need for it; have access to the economic, technological, and human resources necessary to develop and operate it; and can make nuclear power compatible with the social, economic, and cultural structure. 11 references

  10. Nuclear power in crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Andrew.; Pepper, David.

    1987-01-01

    Six themes run through this book: nuclear decision making and democratic accountability, nuclear bias and a narrow-based energy policy, scientific discredit and popular expertise, fusing science with social values, managerial competence and the geography of nuclear power. These are covered in thirteen chapters (all indexed separately) grouped into four parts -the political and planning context, nuclear waste, risk and impact - the social dimension and the future of nuclear power. It considers aspects in France, the United States and the United Kingdom with particular references to the Sizewell-B inquiry and the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (UK)

  11. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  12. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  13. Perspective of nuclear fuel cycle for sustainable nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Bonne, A.; Kagramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power, on a life-cycle basis, emits about the same level of carbon per unit of electricity generated as wind and solar power. Long-term energy demand and supply analysis projects that global nuclear capacities will expand substantially, i.e. from 350 GW today to more than 1,500 GW by 2050. Uranium supply, spent fuel and waste management, and a non-proliferation nuclear fuel cycle are essential factors for sustainable nuclear power growth. An analysis of the uranium supply up to 2050 indicates that there is no real shortage of potential uranium available if based on the IIASA/WEC scenario on medium nuclear energy growth, although its market price may become more volatile. With regard to spent fuel and waste management, the short term prediction foresees that the amount of spent fuel will increase from the present 145,000 tHM to more than 260,000 tHM in 2015. The IPCC scenarios predicted that the spent fuel quantities accumulated by 2050 will vary between 525 000 tHM and 3 210 000 tHM. Even according to the lowest scenario, it is estimated that spent fuel quantity in 2050 will be double the amount accumulated by 2015. Thus, waste minimization in the nuclear fuel cycle is a central tenet of sustainability. The proliferation risk focusing on separated plutonium and resistant technologies is reviewed. Finally, the IAEA Project INPRO is briefly introduced. (author)

  14. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  15. Nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolny, M.

    1980-01-01

    The development and uses of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia and other countries are briefly outlined. In the first stage, the Czechoslovak nuclear programme was oriented to the WWER 440 type reactor while the second stage of the nuclear power plant construction is oriented to the WWER 10O0 type reactor. It is envisaged that 12 WWER 440 type reactors and four to five WWER 1000 type reactors will be commissioned till 1990. (J.P.)

  16. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  17. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  18. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftergood, S.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space

  19. Nuclear power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given of a recent international conference convened by the IAEA to consider the technical and economic experience acquired by the nuclear industry during the past 30 years. Quotations are given from a number of contributors. Most authors shared the opinion that nuclear power should play a major role in meeting future energy needs and it was considered that the conference had contributed to make nuclear power more viable. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear Power in Countries with Limited Electrical Grid Capacities: The Case of Armenia. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication addresses issues relating to nuclear power deployment faced by countries with electrical grids of limited capacity and stability. In particular, technology issues and related institutional measures as well as some technical and economic options for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste applicable in these circumstances are addressed. It aims to assist States implementing a nuclear power programme in the development of a comprehensive approach to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste that is technically sound, environmentally responsible, economically feasible and acceptable to all stakeholders. Armenia was selected as a case study and the data obtained from the studies performed led to general recommendations which could be applicable to some other countries with similar economies and grid characteristics

  1. Governance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.; Carnesale, A.; Zigman, P.; DeRosa, F.

    1981-01-01

    Utility decisions on whether to invest in nuclear power plants are complicated by uncertainties over future power demand, regulatory changes, public perceptions of nuclear power, and capital costs. A review of the issues and obstacles confronting nuclear power also covers the factors affecting national policies, focusing on three institutional questions: regulating the industry, regulating the regulators, and regulatory procedures. The specific recommendations made to improve safety, cost, and public acceptance will still not eliminate uncertainties unless the suggested fundamental changes are made. 29 references

  2. Nuclear power: An evolving scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    relevance to the future viability of nuclear power: safety performance; nuclear security; prevention of nuclear weapons proliferation; innovation - encouraging the development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies. In conclusion, it is pointed out that the current 'holding period' for nuclear power in Europe will soon come to an end. In the near future, Europe will be faced with important energy decisions. With an increasing number of nuclear power plants reaching their original design lifetimes, Europe will have to decide how to replace its retiring nuclear power plants

  3. A Study on the Functional Elements of Configuration Management throughout the Life Cycle of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.

    2013-01-01

    Configuration Management (CM) is a technical and management process for maintaining consistency and traceability of any performance, functional and physical attributes of SSCs (Structures, Systems, or Components) with its requirements, design, and operational information. SSCs are the elements which make up a 'facility.' A structure is an element that provides support or enclosure. A system is a collection of components assembled to perform a specific facility function(s). A component is an active or passive item of equipment such as a pump, valve, relay, or an element of a large array such as pipe segments, elbows or reducers. For applying CM to nuclear industry, it is necessary to investigate and define the functional elements comprising CM. The elements can be used in planning and executing CM. Appropriate application of CM elements enables a user to plan and implement a CM program for SSCs of NPP. Although each element is separated, its implementation should not be performed in isolation because the CM elements should be balanced, consistent, and tracked. The degree of CM elements' application varies over the life cycle of NPP. The degree of rigor and techniques used in implementing CM is commensurate with type of NPP and its application environment as defined by the CM program requirements. For the consideration, it is necessary to make a CM STANDARD, and HANDBOOK or GUIDELINE for enabling more effective planning and implementing CM in nuclear industry

  4. Nuclear power under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    The German citizen faces the complex problem of nuclear power industry with slight feeling of uncertainty. The topics in question can only be briefly dealt with in this context, e.g.: 1. Only nuclear energy can compensate the energy shortage. 2. Coal and nuclear energy. 3. Keeping the risk small. 4. Safety test series. 5. Status and tendencies of nuclear energy planning in the East and West. (GL) [de

  5. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  6. World warms to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.

    1989-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and global warming is a major environmental issue. The nuclear industry has taken this opportunity to promote itself as providing clean energy without implication in either the greenhouse effect or acid rain. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear power does have its own environment concerns. Two questions are posed -does nuclear power contribute to carbon dioxide emissions and can nuclear power provide a realistic long-term solution to global warming? Although nuclear power stations do not emit carbon dioxide, emissions occur during the manufacture of reactor components, the operation of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially, during the mining and processing of the uranium ore. It is estimated that the supply of high grade ores will last only 23 years, beyond that the carbon dioxide emitted during the processing is estimated to be as great as the carbon dioxide emitted from an coal-fired reactor. Fast breeder reactors are dismissed as unable to provide an answer, so it is concluded that nuclear technology has only a very limited role to play in countering global warming.(UK)

  7. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide Nuclear Power (WNP) is a companion volume to Update. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government. Facts about the status of nuclear activities abroad should be available to those who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. It consists of two types of information, tabular and narrative. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data. In general, complete U.S. information will be found in Update

  8. Nuclear power statistics 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1986-06-01

    In this report an attempt is made to collect literature data on nuclear power production and to present it on graphical form. Data is given not only for 1985, but for a number of years so that the trends in the development of nuclear power can be seen. The global capacity of nuclear power plants in operation and those in operation, under construction, or on order is considered. Further the average capacity factor for nuclear plants of a specific type and for various geographical areas is given. The contribution of nuclear power to the total electricity production is considered for a number of countries and areas. Finally, the accumulated years of commercial operation for the various reactor types up to the end of 1985 is presented. (author)

  9. Strategy of nuclear power in Korea, non-nuclear-weapon state and peaceful use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Takao

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear power plant started at Kori in Korea in April, 1978. Korea has carried out development of nuclear power as a national policy. The present capacity of nuclear power plants takes the sixes place in the world. It supplies 42% total power generation. The present state of nuclear power plant, nuclear fuel cycle facility, strategy of domestic production of nuclear power generation, development of next generation reactor and SMART, strategy of export in corporation with industry, government and research organization, export of nuclear power generation in Japan, nuclear power improvement project with Japan, Korea and Asia, development of nuclear power system with nuclear diffusion resistance, Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor System, radioactive waste management and construction of joint management and treatment system of spent fuel in Asia are stated. (S.Y.)

  10. Development of System Engineering Technology for Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hodong; Choi, Iljae

    2013-04-01

    The development of efficient process for spent fuel and establishment of system engineering technology to demonstrate the process are required to develop nuclear energy continuously. The demonstration of pyroprocess technology which is proliferation resistance nuclear fuel cycle technology can reduce spent fuel and recycle effectively. Through this, people's trust and support on nuclear power would be obtained. Deriving the optimum nuclear fuel cycle alternative would contribute to establish a policy on back-end nuclear fuel cycle in the future, and developing the nuclear transparency-related technology would contribute to establish amendments of the ROK-U. S. Atomic Energy Agreement scheduled in 2014

  11. Nuclear power: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 206 power reactors with a gross power of 181,941 MWe and a net power of 172,699 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2004, one nuclear power plant was commissioned in Russia (Kalinin 3), two (Kmelnitzki 2 and Rowno 4) in Ukraine. Five nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2004. As announced in 2000, the Chapelcross 1 to Chapelcross 4 plants in Britain were shut down for economic reasons. In Lithuania, the Ignalina 1 unit was disconnected from the power grid, as had been demanded by the EU Commission within the framework of the negotiations about the country's accession to the EU. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.5 GW. In late 2004, four nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (2). 150 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25), which is sixteen more than the year before as a consequence of the accession of new countries. They had an aggregate gross power of 137,943 MWe and a net power of 131,267 MWe, generating approx. 983 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2003, thus again contributing some 32% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in Lithuania (80%), followed by 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 56% in Belgium, and 46% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-04-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.

  13. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  14. Nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    India has now nine years of experience with her in nuclear power generation. The system has been acclaimed on various grounds by the authority concerned with its organization in the country. The present paper intends to examine critically the claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal power which is asserted often by the spokesmen for the former. Information about the cost of nuclear power that is available to researchers in India is very meagre. Whatever appears in official publications is hardly adequate for working out reasonable estimates for scrutiny. One is therefore left to depend on the public statements made by dignitaries from time to time to form an idea about the economics of nuclear power. Due to gaps in information we are constrained to rely on the foreign literature and make careful guesses about possible costs applicable to India

  15. LDC nuclear power: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.

    1982-01-01

    Brazil has been expanding its nuclear power since 1975, following the Bonn-Brasilia sales agreement and the 1974 denial of US enriched uranium, in an effort to develop an energy mix that will reduce dependence and vulnerability to a single energy source or supplier. An overview of the nuclear program goes on to describe domestic non-nuclear alternatives, none of which has an adequate base. The country's need for transfers of capital, technology, and raw materials raises questions about the advisability of an aggressive nuclear program in pursuit of great power status. 33 references

  16. Nuclear power - the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hann, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is asserted by the author that nuclear power is the only available resource - indeed the only solution to an ever-increasing demand for energy in the United Kingdom over the next 50-100 years. It must be the cornerstone of a practical integrated energy policy, covering that sort of time-scale. In fact, it is going to be a strategic necessity. In this paper the background to establishing a policy is sketched. An explanation is given of what the nuclear industry is doing so as to ensure that the nuclear option is very definitely retained as a result of the 1994 Review of nuclear power in the UK. (author)

  17. Nuclear power: the future reassessed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (UK). Environmental Risk Assessment Unit (ERAU)

    1991-02-01

    In recommending that consent be given for the construction of a further Pressurized Water Reactor at Hinkley Point in Somerset, UK, the Inspector at the Public Inquiry underlined two major benefits: (i) the contribution an additional large nuclear plant would make to the strategic objective of diversity of supply, and (ii) the environmental benefits of nuclear power compared to many alternative forms of electricity generation. The major environmental advantages of nuclear power over fossil fuel combustion arise both because of the small amounts of fuel required - 1/18,000 compared to coal - thus minimizing transport needs and land use, and because of the virtual absence of atmospheric emissions from nuclear stations. Nuclear reactors emit no acid gases and the nuclear fuel cycle gives rise to only small amounts of carbon dioxide. An expansion of the nuclear option is often opposed on three grounds; the need to dispose of radioactive waste; the danger of the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the risk of a large scale accident. However all these doubts can be answered and the arguments supporting nuclear safety are summarized. It is argued that the contribution to primary energy demand in Europe could be doubled or trebled by 2020 with considerable benefits in overall safety environmental impacts at no extra cost. (author).

  18. Nuclear power: the future reassessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.

    1991-01-01

    In recommending that consent be given for the construction of a further Pressurized Water Reactor at Hinkley Point in Somerset, UK, the Inspector at the Public Inquiry underlined two major benefits: (i) the contribution an additional large nuclear plant would make to the strategic objective of diversity of supply, and (ii) the environmental benefits of nuclear power compared to many alternative forms of electricity generation. The major environmental advantages of nuclear power over fossil fuel combustion arise both because of the small amounts of fuel required - 1/18,000 compared to coal - thus minimizing transport needs and land use, and because of the virtual absence of atmospheric emissions from nuclear stations. Nuclear reactors emit no acid gases and the nuclear fuel cycle gives rise to only small amounts of carbon dioxide. An expansion of the nuclear option is often opposed on three grounds; the need to dispose of radioactive waste; the danger of the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the risk of a large scale accident. However all these doubts can be answered and the arguments supporting nuclear safety are summarized. It is argued that the contribution to primary energy demand in Europe could be doubled or trebled by 2020 with considerable benefits in overall safety environmental impacts at no extra cost. (author)

  19. Experience in the chemistry field from the operating cycle of Grohnde and Philippsburg II nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, G.; Ruehle, W.

    1987-01-01

    Experience from the primary section of the plants in relation to the activity pattern of corrosion products, indicates primarily that cobalt-free materials have been used throughout in Philippsburg II nuclear power station, which was no longer economically possible at Grohnde because of the advanced stages of manufacture and installation. Consequently, the activity concentration for Co-60 in Philippsburg was lower from the outset than at a comparable time at Grohnde. The second part of the paper discusses experience from the secondary section of the plants, based on the AVT (all volatile treatment) method of operation and its effect on the deposits in the steam generators. The chemical control is described and a comparison is made between the sampling points at Grohnde and Philippsburg II. (orig.) [de

  20. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2

  1. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

  2. The nuclear power development policy of Taipower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Taipower began its nuclear power epoch in 1978 when the first unit of its First Nuclear Power Station was synchronized to the system on November 1977. At present, Taipower has six units installed in three nuclear power plants, totalling 5144 MW in operation. These units are the mainstay of the 16,600 MW system and have played a significant role in the energy supply of Taiwan. This paper will firstly give a brief overview of Taipower's system, then introduce Taipower's nuclear power policies within the frame of issues on nuclear power economy, nuclear fuel cycle management, nuclear safety and environmental concerns, radioactive waste management, public communications and personnel training. At last, this paper will present the prospect for future nuclear power development in Taiwan with reference to the above discussion. (author)

  3. Nuclear power and public opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The diversity of factors involved in nuclear power development and the complexity of public attitudes towards this source of energy have raised the nuclear debate to a topic of national significance in all the OECD countries with nuclear programmes and even in some countries which have not embarked on the nuclear course. This study examines the different experiences of seventeen member countries and underlines basic approaches and practices aimed at winning greater public acceptance for nuclear power. The first part of the study is a country-by-country presentation of public acceptance activities and the role of the various public or private bodies involved. There is also a description of the background energy situation and the place of nuclear power, the evolution of the nuclear debate and a review of present public and political attitudes to nuclear energy. In the second part, some of the notable factors which determine public attitudes to, and perception of, nuclear energy have been assembled. The study points, in particular, to a number of general principles which require continuous implementation, not least because they contribute to placing nuclear energy in its proper context for the public. Vigorous government leadership in making energy choices, long term efforts in energy education, and open information policies can go a long way towards resolving many doubts about nuclear energy in the public mind. But, perhaps, above all, it is the continuing demonstration of the safe and efficient industrial operation of plants in the nuclear fuel cycle which will have the strongest influence on public opinion. In addition to these basic principles, the study calls attention to some of the most successful means of improving communication between the authorities and the public, notably at the local level. The contribution to the decision-making process of public participation is also evaluated in the light of recent national experiences.

  4. Nuclear power and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The diversity of factors involved in nuclear power development and the complexity of public attitudes towards this source of energy have raised the nuclear debate to a topic of national significance in all the OECD countries with nuclear programmes and even in some countries which have not embarked on the nuclear course. This study examines the different experiences of seventeen member countries and underlines basic approaches and practices aimed at winning greater public acceptance for nuclear power. The first part of the study is a country-by-country presentation of public acceptance activities and the role of the various public or private bodies involved. There is also a description of the background energy situation and the place of nuclear power, the evolution of the nuclear debate and a review of present public and political attitudes to nuclear energy. In the second part, some of the notable factors which determine public attitudes to, and perception of, nuclear energy have been assembled. The study points, in particular, to a number of general principles which require continuous implementation, not least because they contribute to placing nuclear energy in its proper context for the public. Vigorous government leadership in making energy choices, long term efforts in energy education, and open information policies can go a long way towards resolving many doubts about nuclear energy in the public mind. But, perhaps, above all, it is the continuing demonstration of the safe and efficient industrial operation of plants in the nuclear fuel cycle which will have the strongest influence on public opinion. In addition to these basic principles, the study calls attention to some of the most successful means of improving communication between the authorities and the public, notably at the local level. The contribution to the decision-making process of public participation is also evaluated in the light of recent national experiences

  5. Nuclear fuel cycles : description, demand and supply estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadallah, A.A.; Abou Zahra, A.A.; Hammad, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with various nuclear fuel cycles description as well as the world demand and supply estimates of materials and services. Estimates of world nuclear fuel cycle requirements: nuclear fuel, heavy water and other fuel cycle services as well as the availability and production capabilities of these requirements, are discussed for several reactor fuel cycle strategies, different operating and under construction fuel cycle facilities in some industrialized and developed countries are surveyed. Various uncertainties and bottlenecks which are recently facing the development of some fuel cycle components are also discussed, as well as various proposals concerning fuel cycle back-end concepts. finally, the nuclear fuel cycles activities in some developing countries are reviewed with emphasis on the egyptian plans to introduce nuclear power in the country. 11 fig., 16 tab

  6. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. A feasibility study on the longer cycle operation of Yonggwang nuclear power plants 3 and 4 NSSS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Young Joon; Choi, Hae Yoon; Chang, Young Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    A feasible study on the NSSS design safety assessment is performed for a longer cycle operation of Yonggang units 3 and 4. The analysis of the drift errors increased and setting point changed for safety related instrument channels due to the longer refueling interval was done to assess the impact on the operational safety performance and availability of the plant if the refueling interval was extended. In the result of LOCA analysis, even though the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) is slightly increased due to Pin/Box ratio decrease, the PCT has enough margin and, therefore, it was proven to be acceptable. From the perspective of return-to-power and the pre-trip fuel performance during the transient operation, an impact on the results of an SLB accident analysis were assessed. The overall trend of the longer refueling operation of 18 months is similar to the standard refuel operation of 12 months. The possibility of the return to power during SLB accident condition was estimated, the detailed analysis of the reactor core using the 3-dimensional model methodology is required to confirm the fuel integrity. 11 refs.(Author) .new.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials

  10. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Katumi; Sato, Akira; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Kumano, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation for commercial use in Japan has passed 35 years since beginning of operation in the Tokai Nuclear Power Station in 1966, and has 51 machines of reactor and about 44.92 MW of total output of equipment scale in the 21st century. However, an environment around nuclear energy becomes severer at present, and then so many subjects to be overcome are remained such as increased unreliability of the public on nuclear energy at a chance of critical accident of the JCO uranium processing facility, delay of pull-thermal plan, requirement for power generation cost down against liberalization of electric power, highly aging countermeasure of power plant begun its operation as its Genesis, and so on. Under such conditions, in order that nuclear power generation in Japan survives as one of basic electric source in future, it is necessary not only to pursue safety and reliability of the plant reliable to the public, but also to intend to upgrade its operation and maintenance by positively adopting good examples on operational management method on abroad and to endeavor further upgrading of application ratio of equipments and reduction of generation cost. Here were outlined on operation conditions of nuclear power stations in Japan, and introduced on upgrading of their operational management and maintenance management. (G.K.)

  11. Development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin

  12. Development of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin

  13. Nuclear power without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.; Klein, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study leading experts summarize the work of a working group meeting during several years, and they represent the state of the art of the international discussion about the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The technical basis of proliferation, the relations between energy policy and nuclear energy, as well as the development of the non-proliferation system up to the present are thoroughly studied. Special attention is paid to the further development of the instruments of the non-proliferation policy, and approaches and ways to improving the control of the fuel cycle, e.g. by means of multinational methods or by improving the control requirements are analyzed. Also the field of positive inducements and negative sanctions to prevent the proliferation as well as the question of ensured supply are elucidated in detail. A further section then analyzes the functions of the international organizations active in this field and the nuclear policy of the most important western industrial nations, the RGW-states and the threshold countries of the Third World. This volume pays special attention to the nuclear policy of the Federal Republic of Germany and to the possibilities and necessities of a further development of the non-proliferation policy. (orig.) [de

  14. 600 MW nuclear power database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ruiding; Chen Guorong; Chen Xianfeng; Zhang Yishu

    1996-01-01

    600 MW Nuclear power database, based on ORACLE 6.0, consists of three parts, i.e. nuclear power plant database, nuclear power position database and nuclear power equipment database. In the database, there are a great deal of technique data and picture of nuclear power, provided by engineering designing units and individual. The database can give help to the designers of nuclear power

  15. The nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, R.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear generating industry is highly competitive. The installations have an average age of fifteen years and are half way through their expected life. Nuclear power accounts for 70% of the profits of the French generating company, EDF. Nuclear generation has a minimal effect on the atmosphere and France has a level of CO 2 emissions, thought to be the main cause of the greenhouse effect, half that of Europe as a whole. The air in France is purer than in neighbouring countries, mainly because 75% of all electrical power is generated in nuclear plants and 15% in hydroelectric stations. The operations and maintenance of French nuclear power plants in the service and distribution companies out of a total of 100 000 employees in all, 90 % of whom are based in mainland France. (authors)

  16. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  17. Without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The arguments put forward by the SPD point to the following: Backing out of nuclear power is a must, because of the awful quality of the hazards involved; because there can be no real separation guaranteed between civil and military utilisation of nuclear energy; for reasons of international responsibility; because we must not pass the buck on to the next generation; because social compatibility must be achieved; because the story of the 'cheap' nuclear generation of electricity is a fairy tale; because nuclear power pushes back coal as an energy source; because current ecological conditions call for abandonment of nuclear power, and economic arguments do not really contradict them. A reform of our energy system has to fulfill four requirements: Conserve energy; reduce and avoid environmental pollution; use renewable energy sources as the main sources; leave to the next generation the chance of choosing their own way of life. (HSCH) [de

  18. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.; Tasker, A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about a fifth of both Britain's and the world's electricity. It is the largest single source of electricity in Western Europe; in France three quarters of electricity is generated by nuclear power stations. This booklet is about the safety of those plants. It approaches the subject by outlining the basic principles and approaches behind nuclear safety, describing the protective barriers and safety systems that are designed to prevent the escape of radioactive material, and summarising the regulations that govern the construction and operation of nuclear power stations. The aim is to provide a general understanding of the subject by explaining the general principles of the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor and setting out the UKAEA strategy for nuclear safety, the objective being always to minimize risk. (author)

  19. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  20. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Nuclear Power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Duk-Sang

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Korea's nuclear power program has been promoted by step-by-step approach; the first stage was 1970's when it depended on the foreign contractors' technology and the second was 1980's when it accumulated lots of technology and experience by jointly implementing the project. Lastly in the third stage in 1990's, Korea successfully achieved the nuclear power technological self-reliance and developed its standard nuclear power plant, so-called Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR 1000). Following the development of OPR 1000, Korea has continued to upgrade the design, known as the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400) and APR+. Korea is one of the countries which continuously developed the nuclear power plant projects during the last 30 years while the other advanced countries ceased the project, and therefore, significant reduction of project cost and construction schedule were possible which benefits from the repetition of construction project. And now, its nuclear industry infrastructure possesses the strong competitiveness in this field.The electricity produced from the nuclear power is 150,958 MWh in 2008, which covers approximately 36% of the total electricity demand in Korea, while the installed capacity of nuclear power is 17,716 MW which is 24% of the total installed capacity. We are currently operating 20 units of nuclear power plants in Korea, and also are constructing 8 additional units (9,600 MW). Korea's nuclear power plants have displayed their excellent operating performance; the average plant capacity factor was 93.4% in 2008, which are about 15% higher than the world average of 77.8%. Moreover, the number of unplanned trips per unit was only 0.35 in 2008, which is the world top class performance. Also currently we are operating four CANDU nuclear units in Korea which are the same reactor type and capacity as the Cernavoda Units. They have been showing the excellent operating performance, of which capacity in 2008 is 92.8%. All the Korean

  2. The future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Present conditions and future prospects for the nuclear power industry in the United States are discussed. The presentation includes a review of trends in electrical production, the safety of coal as compared to nuclear generating plants, the dangers of radiation, the economics of nuclear power, the high cost of nuclear power in the United States, and the public fear of nuclear power. 20 refs

  3. Nuclear power newsletter Vol. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This newsletter presents information on the following topics: 7th meeting of the INPRO Steering Committee; Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management; Improving Human Performance, Quality and Technical Infrastructure; Co-ordination of International Collaboration for the Development of Innovative Nuclear Technology; Technology Developments and Applications for Advanced Reactors; 1st European Nuclear Assembly

  4. Safety and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-01-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear power training courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The training of technical manpower for nuclear power projects in developing countries is now a significant part of the IAEA Technical Assistance Programme. Two basic courses are the cornerstones of the Agency's training programme for nuclear power: a course in planning and implementation, and a course in construction and operation management. These two courses are independent of each other. They are designed to train personnel for two distinct phases of project implementation. The nuclear power project training programme has proven to be successful. A considerable number of highly qualified professionals from developing countries have been given the opportunity to learn through direct contact with experts who have had first-hand experience. It is recognized that the courses are not a substitute for on-the-job training, but their purpose is achieved if they have resulted in the transfer of practical, reliable information and have helped developing countries to prepare themselves for the planning, construction and operation management of nuclear power stations

  6. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  7. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  8. Nuclear power in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Z.H.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan started its nuclear power program by installing a 137 M We Canadian Deuterium Reactor (Candu) at Karachi in 1971 which became operational in 1972. The post-contract technical support for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) was withdrawn by Canada in 196 as a consequence of Indian nuclear device test in 1974. In spite of various difficulties PAEC resolved to continue to operate KANUPP and started a process for the indigenous fabrication of spare parts and nuclear fuel. The first fuel bundle fabricated in Pakistan was loaded in the core in 1980. Since then KANUPP has been operating on the indigenously fabricated fuel. The plant computer systems and the most critical instrumentation and Control system were also replaced with up-to date technology. In 2002 KANUPP completed its original design life of 30 year. A program for the life extension of the plant had already been started. The second nuclear power plant of 300 M We pressurized water reactor purchased from China was installed in Chashma in 1997, which started commercial operations in 2001. Another unit of 300 M We will be installed at Chashma in near future. These nuclear power plants have been operating under IAEA safeguards agreements. PAEC through the long-term performance of the two power plants has demonstrated its competence to safely and successfully operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Pakistan foresees an increasingly important and significant share of nuclear power in the energy sector. The Government has recently allocated a share of 8000 MWe for nuclear energy in the total energy scenario of Pakistan by the year 2025. (author)

  9. Nuclear energy technology: theory and practice of commercial nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews Nuclear Energy Technology: Theory and Practice of Commercial Nuclear Power by Ronald Allen Knief, whose contents include an overview of the basic concepts of reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle; the basics of nuclear physics; reactor theory; heat removal; economics; current concerns at the front and back ends of the fuel cycle; design descriptions of domestic and foreign reactor systems; reactor safety and safeguards; Three Mile Island; and a brief overview of the basic concepts of nuclear fusion. Both magnetic and inertial confinement techniques are clearly outlined. Also reviews Nuclear Fuel Management by Harry W. Graves, Jr., consisting of introductory subjects (e.g. front end of fuel cycle); core physics methodology required for fuel depletion calculations; power capability evaluation (analyzes physical parameters that limit potential core power density); and fuel management topics (economics, loading arrangements and core operation strategies)

  10. The Korean nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Tong

    1996-01-01

    Although the world nuclear power industry may appear to be in decline, continued nuclear power demand in Korea indicates future opportunities for growth and prosperity in this country. Korea has one of the world's most vigorous nuclear power programs. Korea has been an active promoter of nuclear power generation since 1978, when the country introduced nuclear power as a source of electricity. Korea now takes pride in the outstanding performance of its nuclear power plants, and has established a grand nuclear power scheme. This paper is aimed at introducing the nuclear power program of Korea, including technological development, international cooperation, and CANDU status in Korea. (author). 2 tabs

  11. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  12. [Nuclear News -- Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The topics discussed in this section are: (1) NU(Northeast Utilities) receives largest court fine levied for false records. (2) ComEd nuclear fleet has best-ever performance. (3) Perry and Beaver Valley now run by First Energy Nuclear. (4) Slight reactor power increases may save dollars; (5) Nuclear plants shares to change hands. (6) Y2K nonsafety-related work scheduled for completion. (7) New NRC plan for reviewing plant license transfers with foreign ownership.

  13. Nuclear power and acceptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speelman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 a workshop was held organized by the IAEA and the Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose was to investigate under which circumstances a large-scale extension of nuclear power can be accepted. Besides the important technical information, the care for the environment determined the atmosphere during the workshop. The opinion dominated that nuclear power can contribute in tackling the environment problems, but that the social and political climate this almost makes impossible. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  14. Discounting and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the practice of discounting and its applicability to nuclear power, and the choice of discount rates. Opportunity cost of capital; risk; social time preference; intergenerational equity; non-monetary aspects; and discounting and nuclear energy; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear power and leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    1991-03-01

    This booklet describes the nature of leukaemia, disease incidence in the UK and the possible causes. Epidemiological studies observing rates of leukaemia near nuclear power stations in the UK and other parts of the world are discussed. Possible causes of leukaemia excesses near nuclear establishments include radioactive discharges into the environment, paternal radiation exposure and viral causes. (UK)

  16. No to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kim Beazley has again stated a Labor Government would not pursue nuclear power because the economics 'simply don't stack up'. 'We have significant gas, coal and renewable energy reserves and do not have a solution for the disposal of low-level nuclear waste, let alone waste from nuclear power stations.' The Opposition Leader said developing nuclear power now would have ramifications for Australia's security. 'Such a move could result in our regional neighbours fearing we will use it militarily.' Instead, Labor would focus on the practical measures that 'deliver economic and environmental stability while protecting our national security'. Mr Beazley's comments on nuclear power came in the same week as Prime Minister John Howard declined the request of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for uranium exports, although seemingly not ruling out a policy change at some stage. The Prime Ministers held talks in New Delhi over whether Australia would sell uranium to India without it signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. An agreement reached during a visit by US President George W. Bush gives India access to long-denied nuclear technology and guaranteed fuel in exchange for allowing international inspection of some civilian nuclear facilities. Copyright (2006) Crown Content Pty Ltd

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  18. Progress by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creamer, A.

    1980-01-01

    United States scientist Petr Beckmann predicts that there will eventually be nuclear power stations in the Transvaal in South Africa. This will take place for two reasons: to decrease pollution problems and to ensure economic advancement. He also refers to the the toxicity of nuclear wastes and coal wastes

  19. Ukrainian Nuclear Society International Conference 'Strategy of the nuclear power development: The choice of Ukraine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskij, I.N.; Trofimenko, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at the International Conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'Strategy of the nuclear power development'. The following problems are considered: present situation with the nuclear power and its safety; nuclear fuel cycle development; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; reactors' decommissioning issues; modernization of the NPP with WWER reactors; future reactors; economics of nuclear power; safety culture; legal and regulatory framework, state nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power industry; staff training

  20. Nuclear power newsletter Vol. 2, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The main topics in the newsletter are: International Ministerial Conference 'Nuclear Power for the 21st Century 'NPP operating performance and life cycle management; improving human performance quality and technical infrastructure; and technology development and applications for advanced reactors

  1. World status - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power are not so much anti-nuclear public opinion, but more the decrease of electricity consumption growth rate and the high cost of building reactors. Because of these factors, forecasts of world nuclear capacity have had to be reduced considerably over the last three years. The performance of reactors is considered. The CANDU reactor remains the world's best performer and overall tends to out-perform larger reactors. The nuclear plant due to come on line in 1984 are listed by country; this shows that nuclear capacity will increase substantially over a short period. At a time of stagnant demand this will make nuclear energy an important factor in the world energy balance. Nuclear power stations in operation and under construction in 1983 are listed and major developments in commercial nuclear power in 1983 are taken country by country. In most, the report is the same; national reactor ordering cut back because the expected increase in energy demand has not happened. Also the cost-benefit of nuclear over other forms of energy is no longer as favourable. The export opportunities have also declined as many of the less developed countries are unable to afford reactors. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    A report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat and presented to the seventh session of the Agency's General Conference says that information on nuclear power costs is now rapidly moving from the domain of uncertain estimates to that of tested factual data. As more and more nuclear power stations are being built and put into operation, more information on the actual costs incurred is becoming available. This is the fourth report on nuclear power costs to be submitted to the IAEA General Conference. The report last year gave cost information on 38 nuclear power projects, 17 of which have already gone into operation. Certain significant changes in the data given last year are included-in the present report; besides, information is given on seven new plants. The report is divided into two parts, the first on recent developments and current trends in nuclear power costs and the second on the use of the cost data for economic comparisons. Both stress the fact that the margin of uncertainty in the basic data has lately been drastically reduced. At the same time, it is pointed out, some degree of uncertainty is inherent in the assumptions made in arriving at over-all generating cost figures, especially when - as is usually the case - a nuclear plant is part of an integrated power system

  3. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  4. Nuclear power for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croall, S.; Sempler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Witty, critically, and with expert knowledge, 'Atomic power for beginners' describes the development of nuclear power for military purposes and its 'peaceful uses' against the will of the population. Atomic power, the civil baby of the bomb is not only a danger to our lives - it is enemy to all life as all hard technologies are on which economic systems preoccupied with growth put their hopes. Therefore, 'Atomic power for beginners' does not stop at nuclear engineering but proceeds to investigate its consequences, nationally and with a view to the Third World. And since the consequences are so fatal and it is not enough to say no to nuclear power, it gives some thoughts to a better future - with soft technology and alternative production. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  5. Nuclear power and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlouhy, Z; Vojtech, O [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-01-01

    The concepts are described of the fuel cycle and gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive wastes. Sources are discussed of exposure of Czechoslovak population, such as cosmic radiation, natural radionuclide radiation in the soil, water and air, /sup 40/K contained in the human body, medical diagnosis and therapy, radionuclide applications in industries and agriculture, nuclear power plants. The methods are described of high-level radioactive wastes processing, disposal and transport.

  6. Nuclear power for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Dastidar, P.

    1989-09-01

    The evolution of nuclear power has established this energy source as a viable mature technology, producing at comparative costs more than 16% of the electricity generated world-wide. After outlining the current status of nuclear power, extreme future scenarios are presented, corresponding respectively to maximum penetration limited by technical-economic characteristics, and nuclear phase-out at medium term. The situation is complex and country specific. The relative perception of the importance of different factors and the compensation of advantages vs. disadvantages, or risk vs. benefits, has predominant influence. In order to proceed with an objective and realistic estimate of the future role of nuclear power worldwide, the fundamental factors indicated below pro nuclear power and against are assessed, including expected trends regarding their evolution: Nuclear safety risk; reduction to levels of high improbability but not zero risk. Reliable source of energy; improvements towards uniform standards of excellence. Economic competitiveness vs. alternatives; stabilization and possible reduction of costs. Financing needs and constraints; availability according to requirements. Environmental effects; comparative analysis with alternatives. Public and political acceptance; emphasis on reason and facts over emotions. Conservation of fossil energy resources; gradual deterioration but no dramatic crisis. Energy supply assurance; continuing concerns. Infrastructure requirements and availability; improvements in many countries due to overall development. Non-proliferation in military uses; separation of issues from nuclear power. IAEA forecasts to the year 2005 are based on current projects, national plans and policies and on prevailing trends. Nuclear electricity generation is expected to reach about 18% of total worldwide electricity generation, with 500 to 580 GW(e) installed capacity. On a longer term, to 2030, a stabilized role and place among available viable

  7. Financing of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, P.

    1975-01-01

    Fuels account for only a modest share of the cost of nuclear energy: approximatively one-fourth whereas the capital financing charges exceed one-half. But it is necessary to take account of the combined effect of the magnitude of the needs in coming years and of the resulting acceleration due to the coming on stream of increasingly numerous nuclear power plants and to take account of the characteristics of the fuel cycle which is especially long because of technical requirements and the necessity to establish safety stocks [fr

  8. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  9. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  10. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.; Derian, J.C.; Donsimoni, M.P.; Treitel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Present trends in nuclear reactor costs are interpreted as the economic result of a fundamental debate regarding the social acceptability of nuclear power. Rising capital costs for nuclear power plants are evaluated through statistical analysis of time-related factors, characteristics of licensing and construction costs, physical characteristics of reactors, and geographic and site-related factors. Conclusions are drawn regarding the impact of social acceptability on reactor costs, engineering estimates of future costs, and the possibility of increased potential relative competitiveness for coal-fueled plants. 7 references. (U.S.)

  11. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  12. The reality of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.

    1979-01-01

    The following matters are discussed in relation to the nuclear power programmes in USA and elsewhere: siting of nuclear power plants in relation to a major geological fault; public attitudes to nuclear power; plutonium, radioactive wastes and transfrontier contamination; radiation and other hazards; economics of nuclear power; uranium supply; fast breeder reactors; insurance of nuclear facilities; diversion of nuclear materials and weapons proliferation; possibility of manufacture of nuclear weapons by developing countries; possibility of accidents on nuclear power plants in developing countries; radiation hazards from use of uranium ore tailings; sociological alternative to use of nuclear power. (U.K.)

  13. Quantitative and radiological assessment of PYRO-SFR closed fuel cycle against direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Minhaj; Lee, Suhong; Cheong, Jaehak; Whang, Jooho [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Calculations have been made to estimate the generation of SNF including Plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MAs) from PWR and PHWR NPPs by using the IAEA code Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) for the period of 2016, 2030 as 12 more NPPs will be added by the year 2029. In order to find the optimize option for SNF management through sustainable use of nuclear energy system and reduce the associated radiological risk, 4 scenarios to burnout the Pu and MAs are analyzed. Estimation for the amount of SNF including major radionuclides has made for the year of 2016, 2030, 2089 and 2109 with an approximate amount of 148,19.65MT, 248,34.6 MT, 41572.23 MT and 61272.24 MT of SNF will be generated respectively. Radioactivity and radiotoxicity is calculated in order to access the radiological risk in terms of ingestion. Four Transmutation strategies is predicted to make Korean NPPs sustainable by incorporating KALIMER-600 (Burner) reactor in Korean nuclear fleet with an approximate transmutation rate of 99.77%, 96.57%, 95.34% and 97.58% for MA only (scenario-1), (MA & Pu) scenario-2, scenario-3 (MA only till the year 2125) and scenario-4 MA & Pu till the year 2148) respectively.

  14. Nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, K.

    1994-01-01

    The technical, economic and political prospects of nuclear power are described with regard to ecological aspects. The consensus talks, which failed in spite of the fact that they were stripped of emotional elements and in spite of major concessions on the part of the power industry, are discussed with a view to the political and social conditions. (orig.) [de

  15. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  16. Future nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, D.S.; Nasreddine, M.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  17. Physics and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, N E

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors

  18. Thermodynamics of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.

    1983-01-01

    The conversion of nuclear energy to useful work follows essentially the same course as the conversion of thermal energy from fossil fuel to work. The thermal energy released in the reactor core is first transferred to the primary coolant which then generally transfers its heat to a secondary fluid. The secondary fluid serves as the working fluid in a heat engine. In this chapter the authors briefly examine the thermodynamic principles governing the operation of such engines, the major thermodynamic cycles used, and their application to nuclear power plants

  19. Thermodynamics of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of nuclear energy to useful work follows essentially the same course as the conversion of thermal energy from fossil fuel to work. The thermal energy released in the reactor core is first transferred to the primary coolant which then generally transfers its heat to a secondary fluid. The secondary fluid serves as the working fluid in a heat engine. The author briefly examines the thermodynamic principles governing the operation of such engines, the major thermodynamic cycles used, and their application to nuclear power plants. (Auth.)

  20. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  1. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  2. Nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  3. Nuclear power: Financing big projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, G.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early seventies, the Dresdner Bank AG has been intensively engaged in financing nuclear power plants, e.g., the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently down because of legal technicaltities. The bank has also been involved in other large-scale projects in the energy sector and, in addition, has conceptually accompanied the stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as enrichment, fuel element fabrication, and reprocessing. However, for political reasons it has not been possible to carry out these projects and finance them in the Federal Republic. With appropriate modifications, these financial models can also be transferred to international projects; after all, the enrichment sector has always been characterized by trilateral ventures. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  5. Nuclear power in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, J [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-07-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations.

  6. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  7. Benefits and risks of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.

    1977-03-01

    Discussion, in a popular form, of issues of interest for an unemotional information of the public on problems of nuclear power: 1) Energy consumption, its assumed growth, and possible ways of supply; 2) the physical fundamental and technical realisation of power generation by nuclear fission; 3) problems of the fuel cycle and possible solutions; 4) the effects of radioactive radiation; 5) the safety of nuclear power plants and the risks of nuclear power as compared to other technical and natural risks. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. The costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestenhaug, O.; Sauar, T.O.; Nielsen, P.O.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made by Scandpower A/S of the costs of nuclear power in Sweden. It is based on the known costs of existing Swedish nuclear power plants and forecasts of the expected costs of the Swedish nuclear power programme. special emphasis has been put on the fuel cycle costs and future costs of spent fuel processing, waste disposal and decommissioning. Costs are calculated in 1978 Swedish crowns, using the retail price index. An actual interest rate of 4% is used, with depreciation period of 25 years and a plant lifetime of 30 years. Power production costs are estimated to be about 7.7 oere/kWh in 1978, rising to 10.5 oere/kWh in 2000. The cost is distributed with one third each to capital costs, operating costs and fuel costs, the last rising to 40% of the total at the end of the century. The main single factor in future costs is the price of uranium. If desired, Sweden can probably be self-sufficient in uranium in 2000 at a lower cost than assumed here. National research costs which, in Scandpower's opinion, can be debited to the commercial nuclear power programme are about 0.3 oere/kWh. (JIW)

  10. Nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people's republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  11. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  12. Nuclear power indices and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet, L.L.; Fizher, D.; Nechaev, A.

    1987-01-01

    Problems discussed at the IAEA International Conference on nuclear power indices and safety held in Vienna from 28 September to 2 October, 1987 are considered. Representatives from 40 countries and 12 international organizations participated in the conference. It is marked that by the end of this century nuclear power plant capacities in developing countries will increase by more than twice. In developed countries increase of installed capacity by 65 % is forecasted. It is stressed that competently constructed and operated NPPs will be successfully competing with coal-fueled power plants in the majority of the world regions. Much attention was paid to reports on measures taken after Chernobyl' accident and its radiation effects on people helth. It is shown that parallel with fundamental theoretical studies on NPP safety as a complex engineering system much attention is paid to some problems of designing and operation of such facilities. Fuel cycle problems, radioactive waste and spent fuel storage and disposal in particular, are considered

  13. Abuse of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J [UKAEA

    1976-09-01

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view.

  14. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  15. Nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that since the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, over 70 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's 112 member states have adopted two conventions to enhance international cooperation by providing timely notification of an accident and emergency assistance. The Agency and other international organizations also developed programs to improve nuclear power plant safety and minimize dangers from radioactive contamination. Despite meaningful improvements, some of the measures have limitations, and serious nuclear safety problems remain in the design and operation of the older, Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. The Agency's ability to select reactors under its operational safety review program is limited. Also, information on the extent and seriousness of safety-related incidents at reactors in foreign countries is not publicly available. No agreements exist among nuclear power countries to make compliance with an nuclear safety standards or principles mandatory. Currently, adherence to international safety standards or principles is voluntary and nonbinding. Some states support the concept of mandatory compliance, but others, including the United States, believe that mandatory compliance infringes on national sovereignty and that the responsibility for nuclear reactor safety remains with each nation

  16. Nuclear power's burdened future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1987-01-01

    Although governments of the world's leading nations are reiterating their faith in nuclear power, Chernobyl has brought into focus the public's overwhelming feeling that the current generation of nuclear technology is simple not working. Despite the drastic slowdown, however, the global nuclear enterprise is large. As of mid-1986, the world had 366 nuclear power plants in operation, with a generating capacity of 255,670 MW. These facilities generate about 15% of the world's electricity, ranging from 65% in France to 31% in West Germany, 23% in Japan, 16% in the United States, 10% in the Soviet Union, and non in most developing nations. Nuclear development is clearly dominated by the most economically powerful and technologically advanced nations. The United States, France, the Soviet Union, Japan, and West Germany has 72% of the world's generating capacity and set the international nuclear pace. The reasons for scaling back nuclear programs are almost as diverse as the countries themselves. High costs, slowing electricity demand growth, technical problems, mismanagement, and political opposition have all had an effect. Yet these various factors actually form a complex web of inter-related problems. For example, rising costs usually represent some combination of technical problems and mismanagement, and political opposition often occurs because of safety concerns or rising costs. 13 references

  17. Nuclear power: Europa report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Last year, 2003, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union (EU-15) nuclear power plants have been operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries (incl. Turkey) nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 208 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 031 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 180 263 MWe were in operation at the end of 2003. No unit reached first criticality in 2003 or was connected to the grid. The unit Calder Hall 1 to Calder Hall 4 have been permanently shut down in Great Britain due to economical reasons and an earlier decision. In Germany the NPP Stade was closed. The utility E.ON has decided to shut down the plant due to the efforts of the liberalisation of the electricity markets. Last year, 8 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (3), Slovakia (2 - suspended), and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. The Finnish parliament approved plans for the construction of the country's fifth nuclear power reactor by a majority of 107 votes to 92. The consortium led by Framatome ANP was awarded the contract to build the new nuclear power plant (EPR, 1 600 MW) in Olkiluoto. In eight countries of the European Union 136 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 127 708 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 121 709 MWe. Net electricity production in 2003 in the EU amounts to approx. 905 TWh gross, which means a share of about 33 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 80% in Lithuania, 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 57% in Belgium, and 46% in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal, and Austria. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear power. Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Last year, 2001, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 216 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 802 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 212 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Volgodonsk-1 in Russia went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Volgodonsk-1 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) nd 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich NPP field an application to decommission and dismantle the plant; this plant was only 13 months in operation and has been shut down since 1988 for legal reasons. Last year, 10 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), the Czech Republic (1) and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. In eight countries of the European Union 143 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 758 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 601 MWe. Net electricity production in 2001 in the EU amounts to approx. 880.3 TWh gross, which means a share of 33,1 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. The reach 75.6% in France, 74.2% in Lithuania, 58.2% in Belgium, 53.2% in the Slovak Republic, and 47.4% in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal, and Austria. On May 24th, 2002 the Finnish Parliament voted for the decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant in the country. This launches the next stage in the nuclear power plant project. The electric output of the plant unit will be 1000-1600 MW

  19. Preventative maintenance cycle of contact switches for nuclear power plants based on lifetime assessment and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    An approach to determine the preventive maintenance cycle was proposed in consideration of the lifetime, optimal cost and economy. Two parameters Weibull distribution was used to calculate the lifetime of contact switch. The block replacement model and age replacement model were built with the objective of optimal cost, and the preventive replacement cycle was accounted. Eight proposals for preventive replacement cycle were given. Economy model was applied to assess those proposals and the optimal proposal was confirmed. (authors)

  20. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Nuclear Power after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, B.

    2011-01-01

    On 11 March 2011 Japan suffered an earthquake of very high magnitude, followed by a tsunami that left thousands dead in the Sendai region, the main consequence of which was a major nuclear disaster at the Fukushima power station. The accident ranked at the highest level of severity on the international scale of nuclear events, making it the biggest since Chernobyl in 1986. It is still impossible to gauge the precise scope of the consequences of the disaster, but it has clearly given rise to the most intense renewed debates on the nuclear issue. Futuribles echoes this in the 'Forum' feature of this summer issue which is entirely devoted to energy questions. Bernard Bigot, chief executive officer of the technological research organization CEA, looks back on the Fukushima disaster and what it changes (or does not change) so far as the use of nuclear power is concerned, particularly in France. After recalling the lessons of earlier nuclear disasters, which led to the development of the third generation of power stations, he reminds us of the currently uncontested need to free ourselves from dependence on fossil fuels, which admittedly involves increased use of renewables, but can scarcely be envisaged without nuclear power. Lastly, where the Fukushima disaster is concerned, Bernard Bigot shows how it was, in his view, predominantly the product of a management error, from which lessons must be drawn to improve the safety conditions of existing or projected power stations and enable the staff responsible to deliver the right response as quickly as possible when an accident occurs. In this context and given France's high level of dependence on nuclear power, the level of use of this energy source ought not to be reduced on account of the events of March 2011. (author)

  2. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  3. Reviewing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Colin

    1990-01-01

    The UK government has proposed a review of the prospects for nuclear power as the Sizewell B pressurized water reactor project nears completion in 1994. However, a delay in the completion of Sizewell B or a change of government could put off the review for some years beyond the mid 1990s. Anticipating, though, that such a review will eventually take place, issues which it should consider are addressed. Three broad categories of possible benefit claimed for nuclear power are examined. These are that nuclear power contributes to the security of energy supply, that it provides protection against long run fossil fuel price increases and that it is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Arguments are presented which cost doubt over the reality of these benefits. Even if these benefits could be demonstrated, they would have to be set against the financial, health and accident costs attendant on nuclear power. It is concluded that the case may be made that nuclear power imposes net costs on society that are not justified by the net benefits conferred. Some comments are made on how a government review, if and when it takes place, should be conducted. (UK)

  4. Radioactive Waste Generation in Pyro-SFR Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fanxing; Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2011-01-01

    Which nuclear fuel cycle option to deploy is of great importance in the sustainability of nuclear power. SFR fuel cycle employing pyroprocessing (named as Pyro- SFR Cycle) is one promising fuel cycle option in the near future. Radioactive waste generation is a key criterion in nuclear fuel cycle system analysis, which considerably affects the future development of nuclear power. High population with small territory is one special characteristic of ROK, which makes the waste management pretty important. In this study, particularly the amount of waste generation with regard to the promising advanced fuel cycle option was evaluated, because the difficulty of deploying an underground repository for HLW disposal requires a longer time especially in ROK

  5. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Juchau, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

  6. Development of Czechoslovak nuclear power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajci, T.

    1986-01-01

    The research project ''Development of the Czechoslovak nuclear power complex'' was undertaken by several Czechoslovak institutions and was coordinated by the Research Institute of the Fuel and Power Complex in Bratislava. Involved in the project was a staff of 170 people. 274 reports were pulished and the cost approached 70 mill. Czechoslovak crowns. The results are characterized of all six partial tasks. Basic information was prepared for the forecast of the solution of fuel and power problems in Czechoslovakia up to the year 2000 and their prospects up to the year 2020. Program MORNAP was written for the development of nuclear power, which models the operation of a power generation and transmission system with a selectable number of nuclear power plants. Another partial task related to the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants with respect to long-term provision and management of nuclear fuel. Nuclear safety was split into three problem groups, viz.: system safety of nuclear power plant operation; radiation problems of nuclear power plant safety; quality assurance of nuclear power plant components. The two remaining tasks were devoted to nuclear power engineering and to civil engineering. (Z.M.). 3 tabs., 1 refs

  7. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.

    1978-01-01

    The contents of the book are: introduction; (part 1, the economy of nuclear power) nuclear power and the growth of state corporatism, ownership and control - the power of the multi-nationals, economic and political goals - profit or control, trade union policy and nuclear power; (part 2, nuclear power and employment) nuclear power and workers' health and safety, employment and trade union rights, jobs, energy and industrial strategy, the alternative energy option; (part 3, political strategies) the anti-nuclear movement, trade unions and nuclear power; further reading; UK organisations. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear power and other energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison is made between nuclear power plants, gas-fuelled thermal power plants and oil-fired thermal power plants with respect to health factors, economy, environment and resource exploitation, with special reference to the choice of power source to supplement Norwegian hydroelectric power. Resource considerations point clearly to nuclear power, but, while nuclear power has an overall economic advantage, the present economic situation makes its heavy capital investment a disadvantage. It is maintained that nuclear power represents a smaller environmental threat than oil or gas power. Finally, statistics are given showing that nuclear power involves smaller fatality risks for the population than many other hazards accepted without question. (JIW)

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle simulation system (VISTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (VISTA) is a simulation system which estimates long term nuclear fuel cycle material and service requirements as well as the material arising from the operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors. The VISTA model needs isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel in order to make estimations of the material arisings from the nuclear reactor operation. For this purpose, in accordance with the requirements of the VISTA code, a new module called Calculating Actinide Inventory (CAIN) was developed. CAIN is a simple fuel depletion model which requires a small number of input parameters and gives results in a very short time. VISTA has been used internally by the IAEA for the estimation of: spent fuel discharge from the reactors worldwide, Pu accumulation in the discharged spent fuel, minor actinides (MA) accumulation in the spent fuel, and in the high level waste (HLW) since its development. The IAEA decided to disseminate the VISTA tool to Member States using internet capabilities in 2003. The improvement and expansion of the simulation code and the development of the internet version was started in 2004. A website was developed to introduce the simulation system to the visitors providing a simple nuclear material flow calculation tool. This website has been made available to Member States in 2005. The development work for the full internet version is expected to be fully available to the interested parties from IAEA Member States in 2007 on its website. This publication is the accompanying text which gives details of the modelling and an example scenario

  10. Environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Aimed at the general public this leaflet, one of a series prepared by AEA Technology, on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, seeks to put the case for generating electricity to meet United Kingdom and world demand using nuclear power. It examines the environmental problems linked to the use of fossil-fuels in power stations and other uses, such as the Greenhouse Effect. Problems associated with excess carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed, such as acid rain, the effects of deforestation and lead in petrol. The role of renewable energy sources is mentioned briefly. The leaflet also seeks to reassure on issues such as nuclear waste managements and the likelihood and effects of nuclear accidents. (UK)

  11. Thai Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namwong, Ratanachai

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  12. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles activities in IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawada, H.P.; Ganguly, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Of late several developments in reprocessing areas along with advances in fuel design and robotics have led to immense interest in partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The R and D efforts in the P and T area are being paid increased attention as potential answers to ever-growing issues threatening sustainability, environmental protection and non-proliferation. Any fuel cycle studies that integrate partitioning and transmutation are also known as ''advanced fuel cycles'' (AFC), that could incinerate plutonium and minor actinide (MA) elements (namely Am, Np, Cm, etc.) which are the main contributors to long-term radiotoxicity. The R and D efforts in developing these innovative fuel cycles as well as reactors are being co-ordinated by international initiatives such as Innovative Nuclear Power Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GENP). For these advanced nuclear fuel cycle schemes to take shape, the development of liquid-metal-cooled reactor fuel cycles would be the most essential step for implementation of P and T. Some member states are also evaluating other concepts involving the use of thorium fuel cycle or inert-matrix fuel or coated particle fuel. Advanced fuel cycle involving novel partitioning methods such as pyrochemical separation methods to recover the transuranic elements are being developed by some member states which would form a critical stage of P and T. However, methods that can achieve a very high reduction (>99.5%) of MA and long-lived fission products in the waste streams after partitioning must be achieved to realize the goal of an improved protection of the environment. In addition, the development of MA-based fuel is also an essential and crucial step for transmutation of these transuranic elements. The presentation intends to describe progress of the IAEA activities encompassing the following subject-areas: minimization of

  13. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  14. Pulsed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant. This power plant consists of: 1.) a cavity; 2.) a detonatable nuclear device in a central region of the cavity; 3.) a working fluid inside of the cavity; 4.) a method to denote a nuclear device inside of the cavity; 5.) a mechanical projection from an interior wall of the cavity for recoiling to absorb a shock wave produced by the detonation of the nuclear device and thereby protecting the cavity from damage. A plurality of segments defines a shell within the cavity and a plurality of shock absorbers, each connecting a corresponding segment to a corresponding location on the wall of the cavity. Each of these shock absorbers regulate the recoil action of the segments; and 6.) means for permitting controlled extraction of a quantity of hot gases from the cavity produced by the vaporization of the working fluid upon detonation of the nuclear device. A method of generating power is also described. This method consists of: 1.) introducing a quantity of water in an underground cavity; 2.) heating the water in the cavity to form saturated steam; 3.) detonating a nuclear device at a central location inside the cavity; 4.) recoiling plate-like elements inside the cavity away from the central location in a mechanically regulated and controlled manner to absorb a shock wave produced by the nuclear device detonation and thereby protect the underground cavity against damage; 5.) extracting a quantity of superheated steam produced by the detonation of the nuclear device; and 6.) Converting the energy in the extracted superheated steam into electrical power

  15. Misunderstanding nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1981-01-01

    The inaugural lecture of Sir Francis Tombs as newly installed President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, on the reasons for the widely differing perceptions of opposing factions in the nuclear debate, is reviewed with extensive quotations. The lecturer pointed out that development of nuclear power as an energy source requires the consent of the majority and the uncommitted must be persuaded to spend the time necessary to understand the issues and to evaluate the arguments in an objective way. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.

    1990-01-01

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  17. Nuclear power: Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Last year, 1999, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In eight of the fifteen member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. A total of 218 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 181,120 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 171,802 MWe were in operation. Two units, i.e. Civaux 2 in France and Mochovce-2 in Slovakia went critical for the first time and started commercial operation after having been connected to the grid. Three further units in France, Chooz 1 and 2 and Civaux 1, started commercial operation in 1999 after the completion of technical measures in the primary circuit. Last year, 13 plants were under construction in Romania, Russia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, that is only in East European countries. In eight countries of the European Union 146 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 129.772 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 123.668 MWe. Net electricity production in 1999 in the EU amounts to approx. 840.2 TWh, which means a share of 35 per cent of the total production. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 75 per cent in France, 73 per cent in Lithuania, 58 per cent in Belgium and 47 per cent in Bulgaria, Sweden and Slovakia. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal and Austria. (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear power: Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Last year, 2000, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In eight of the fifteen member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. A total of 218 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 172 259 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 642 MWe were in operation (31.12.2000; 215 plants, 180 067 MWe (gross), 172 259 MWe (net)). One unit, i.e. Temelin in the Czech Republic went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Temelin adds about 981 MWe (gross) and 912 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. Three units, Hinkley Point A1 and A2 in United Kingdom, and Chernobyl 3 in the Ukraine have been shut down during the year 2000. This means a loss of 1534 MWe gross capacity and 1420 MWe net capacity. Last year, 12 plants (31.12.2000: 11 plants) were under construction in Romania, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and the Ukraine, that is only in east european countries. In eight countries of the European Union 146 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 129 188 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 123 061 MWe (31.12.2000: 144 plants, 128 613 MWe (gross), 122 627 MWe (net)). Net electricity production in 2000 in the EU amounts to approx. 818.8 TWh, which means a share of 35 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. The reach 76 per cent in France, 74 per cent in Lithuania, 57 per cent in Belgium and 47 per cent in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides an noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e. g. Italy, Portugal and Austria. (orig.) [de

  19. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  20. Nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, the organization concerned with worldwide nuclear safety has produced two international conventions to provide (1) prompt notification of nuclear accidents and (2) procedures to facilitate mutual assistance during an emergency. IAEA has also expanded operational safety review team missions, enhanced information exchange on operational safety events at nuclear power plants, and planned a review of its nuclear safety standards to ensure that they include the lessons learned from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. However, there appears to be a nearly unanimous belief among IAEA members that may attempt to impose international safety standards verified by an international inspection program would infringe on national sovereignty. Although several Western European countries have proposed establishing binding safety standards and inspections, no specific plant have been made; IAEA's member states are unlikely to adopt such standards and an inspection program

  1. Nuclear power and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2006-01-01

    During the 30s and 40s of the last century atomic physicists discovered the fission of uranium nuclei bombarded by neutrons and realized the first self-sustaining controlled fission chain reaction, which ushered in the atomic age. After 50 years of electricity production, in 2003 nuclear power plants were generating 16% of the total electricity in the world. Of these, thermal neutron reactors make up over 99%. For the large scale production of nuclear power, say up to hundreds of GWe, it is very important to speed up the development and deployment of fast breeder reactors to avoid the future lack of uranium resources. (authors)

  2. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  3. Nuclear power safety economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legasov, V.A.; Demin, V.F.; Shevelev, Ya.V.

    1984-01-01

    The existing conceptual and methodical basis for the decision-making process insuring safety of the nuclear power and other (industrial and non-industrial) human activities is critically analyzed. Necessity of development a generalized economic safety analysis method (GESAM) is shown. Its purpose is justifying safety measures. Problems of GESAM development are considered including the problem of costing human risk. A number of suggestions on solving them are given. Using the discounting procedure in the assessment of risk or detriment caused by harmful impact on human health is substantiated. Examples of analyzing some safety systems in the nuclear power and other spheres of human activity are given

  4. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  5. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the end of February 1980, the two-years work on the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was finished in Vienna with a plenary meeting. INFCE is likely to have been a unique event in the history of international meetings: It was ni diplomatic negotiation meeting, but a techno-analytical investigation in which the participants tenaciously shuggled for many of the formulations. Starting point had been a meeting initiated by President Carter in Washington in Oct. 1979 after the World Economy Summit Meeting in London. The results of the investigation are presented here in a brief and popular form. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes, which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford site have caused ecological perturbations, and, if so, to determine the source, nature and magnitude of such disturbances

  7. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. This paper focuses on terrestrial and aquatic radioecology of waste management areas and biotic transport parameters

  8. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  9. Nuclear power and modern society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treatise consisting of the following sections: Development of modern society (Origin of modern society; Industrial society; The year 1968; Post-industrial society; Worldwide civic society); Historic breaks in the development of the stationary power sector (Stationary thermal power; Historic breaks in the development of nuclear power); Czech nuclear power engineering in the globalization era (Major causes of success of Czech nuclear power engineering; Future of Czech nuclear power engineering). (P.A.)

  10. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear power: Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the annual growthrate of 2,5% in the need for energy and the present coal, oil, gas and uranium reserves, it is expected that there will be an energy deficiency early in the twentieth century. Coal-fired power stations have the disadvantage of pollution and a high water consumption. The use of nuclear power in South Africa is backed-up by its uranium reserves

  12. Nuclear power - international and national dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Ya.

    1994-01-01

    A strong internationalization of nuclear problems is observed recently. International links have acted as a powerful force for improvement of safety standards and plant performance. The prospects for nuclear industry, its safety and excellent operation, its acceptance and tolerance from society in general will strongly influence the future of nuclear power generation in Bulgaria. The most important problems of Bulgarian nuclear energy are: implementation of safety upgrading program; building and operating new nuclear units; developing infrastructure which will permit safe and reliable operation of the existing units and solve the fuel cycle problems in a reliable and acceptable by the society manner. (I.P.)

  13. The nuclear fuel cycle. Light and darkness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.

    1977-01-01

    In the next few decades the world consumption of energy is going to increase, and it is imperative to turn to nuclear energy in order to avoid exhausting the reserves of oil too rapidly. Nuclear energy is already a fact of life and from 1985 onwards its contribution will be appreciable, since installed capacity will be about 400GW(e) (representing an annual energy generation higher than that of Saudi Arabia at present). For the various sectors of the fuel cycle this means considerable volumes of work. But the paradox is that the fuel-cycle industry has misgivings. Why. Because a certain amount of over-investment in electricity, followed by economic stagnation, has reduced orders for nuclear power plants. The change-over from conventional to nuclear electric power calls for an increased financial effort in the transition period. The technical risks are low but the economic ones can be reduced only by planning for the nuclear system as a whole. The technicians have let themselves be caught up in the false discussion of zero risk instead of stressing the comparison of the risks and benefits of the various lines of energy production and the various branches of industry. Utilization of nuclear energy raises international problems, especially in connection with non-proliferation. France has already defined its stand on this issue. Today it is proposing a new uranium-enrichment technique which combines economic promise with safeguards for non-proliferation. Solutions can be found to all these problems, but cannot be fully effective without wide international collaboration with due regard for the interests and dignity of the different States. (author)

  14. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moden, R.; O'Brien, B.; Sanders, L.; Steinberg, H.

    1985-01-01

    Projections of uranium requirements (both yellowcake and enrichment services) and spent fuel discharges are presented, corresponding to the nuclear power plant capacity projections presented in ''Commercial Nuclear Power 1984: Prospects for the United States and the World'' (DOE/EIA-0438(85)) and the ''Annual Energy Outlook 1984:'' (DOE/EIA-0383(84)). Domestic projections are provided through the year 2020, with foreign projections through 2000. The domestic projections through 1995 are consistent with the integrated energy forecasts in the ''Annual Energy Outlook 1984.'' Projections of capacity beyond 1995 are not part of an integrated energy foreccast; the methodology for their development is explained in ''Commercial Nuclear Power 1984.'' A range of estimates is provided in order to capture the uncertainty inherent in such forward projections. The methodology and assumptions are also stated. A glossary is provided. Two appendixes present additional material. This report is of particular interest to analysts involved in long-term planning for the disposition of radioactive waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycle. 14 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Clean nuclear power (2. part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocherolles, R.

    1998-01-01

    The 450 nuclear power plants which produce 24% of world electricity do not generate greenhouse gas effects, but 8,000 tonnes per year of irradiated, radioactive fuel. The first article which was published in the July-August 1997 issue of this journal, described the composition and management of these fuels. This article wish to show the advantage of 'advanced re-processing', which would separate fission products from actinides, in order to incinerate them separately in dedicated fuels and reactors, which, from an ecological point of view, seems more efficient than burying them underground in deep, geological layers. To rid the planet of waste which is continuing to build up, the first step is to build 'incinerators' which will eliminate fission products by slow neutron assisted neutronic capture, and actinides by fast neutron assisted fission. Various projects have been set up, in particular, in Los Alamos, Japan and the CERN. The Carlo Rubbia hybrid machine operating on the well-known thorium cycle is the most advanced project. An incinerator connected up to standard PWR reactor produces no actinide, and reduces the existing stock of plutonium. However, the proper solution, obviously, is to no longer produce waste along with power; second generation nuclear fission will do this. The CERN team bas studied a clean reactor, producing practically no actinides, or fission products, more or less. Thus, the solution to the problem of waste is at hand, and nuclear power will be cleaner that all other types of power. The world market opening up to clean nuclear power is about 1,300 Gigawatts, or 1,300 plants of 1,000 Megawatts. Remarkable progress is taking place under our very eyes; soon we will have clean power in sufficient quantities, at a lower cost than that of other forms of power. (authors)

  16. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  17. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  18. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  19. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of safety of nuclear power with special reference to Indian nuclear power programme are discussed. India must develop technology to protect herself from the adverse economic impact arising out of the restrictive regime which is being created through globalization of safety and environmental issues. Though the studies done and experience gained so far have shown that the PHWR system adopted by India has a number of superior safety features, research work is needed in the field of operation and maintenance of reactors and also in the field of reactor life extension through delaying of ageing effects. Public relations work must be pursued to convince the public at large of the safety of nuclear power programme. The new reactor designs in the second stage of evolution are based on either further improvement of existing well-proven designs or adoptions of more innovative ideas based on physical principles to ensure a higher level of safety. The development of Indian nuclear power programme is characterised by a balanced approach in the matter of assuring safety. Safety enforcement is not just looked upon as a pure administrative matter, but experts with independent minds are also involved in safety related matters. (M.G.B.)

  20. Nuclear Power in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  1. Captivated by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaageson, P.; Kjellstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish decision to discontinue nuclear power production is discussed. The basis of the referendum is presented. A number of cases where the decision to stop production in the year 2010 is counteracted, are described. The political and technical steps to facilitate the settlement are presented. (GB)

  2. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  3. Aspect of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi Oskoei, R.; Raeis Hosseiny, N.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, unless patterns change dramatically, energy production and use will contribute to global warming through large-scale greenhouse gas emissions-hundreds of billions of tonnes of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Nuclear power would be one option for reducing carbon emissions. At present, however, this is unlikely: nuclear power faces stagnation and decline. We decided to study the future of nuclear power because we believe this technology , despite the changes it faces, is an important option for the world to meet future energy needs without emitting carbon dioxide and other atmospheric pollutants. Other options include increased efficiency, renewable and sequestration. We believe that all options should be preserved as nations develop strategies at provide energy while meeting important environmental challenges. The nuclear power option will only be exercised, however if the technology demonstrates better economics, improved safety, successful waste management, and low proliferation risk, and if public policies place a significant value on electricity production that does not produce carbon dioxide

  4. Safe nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Nearly 22 percent of the electricity generated in the United States already comes from nuclear power plants, but no new plants have been ordered since 1978. This paper reports that the problems that stand in the way of further development have to do with complexity and perceived risk. Licensing, construction management, and waste disposal are complex matters, and the possibility of accident has alienated a significant portion of the public. But a national poll conducted by Bruskin/Goldring at the beginning of February shows that opposition to nuclear energy is softening. Sixty percent of the American people support (strongly or moderately) the use of nuclear power, and 18 percent moderately oppose it. Only 15 percent remain obstinately opposed. Perhaps they are not aware of recent advances in reactor technology

  5. An introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work;second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity;and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US. 34 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-01

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  8. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-01

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.

    2009-06-01

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  10. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  11. Nuclear power newsletter Vol. 1, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The newsletter provides information on: Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management; Improving Human Performance, Quality and Technical Infrastructure Co-ordination of International Collaboration for the Development of Innovative Nuclear Technology; Technology Developments and Applications for Advanced Reactors

  12. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  13. Nuclear-powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed acquisition of nuclear-powered submarines by the Canadian Armed Forces raises a number of legitimate concerns, including that of their potential impact on the environment. The use of nuclear reactors as the propulsion units in these submarines merits special consideration. Radioactivity, as an environmental pollutant, has unique qualities and engenders particular fears among the general population. The effects of nuclear submarines on the environment fall into two distinct categories: those deriving from normal operations of the submarine (the chief concern of this paper), and those deriving from a reactor accident. An enormous body of data must exist to support the safe operation of nuclear submarines; however, little information on this aspect of the proposed submarine program has been made available to the Canadian public. (5 refs.)

  14. Can nuclear power compete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The competitiveness of electricity generation from new nuclear plant with that from fossil-fired plant depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are the future costs of fossil fuels and the required rate of return on capital. Nuclear power is generally expected to remain competitive for baseload generation in OECD countries except in regions with direct access to cheap fossil fuels, based on the economic criteria and price expectations prevailing in the different countries. The situation in the United Kingdom will be clearer later in 1993 when comparisons prepared for the Government's Nuclear Review are published, but on the basis of the information available new nuclear plants should be competitive with the other technical options available for deployment around the year 2000. (author)

  15. LDC nuclear power: Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The US created the need for nuclear power in the Phillipines and then provided the means to fill it, but the 20-year nuclear program was reversed in 1976 because of public opposition to heavy-handed government policies. The situation illustrates the overriding importance of foreign influence and political judgment. Despite substantial investments in the training of Filipino nuclear scientists and technicians, nuclear energy continues to be viewed as an alien technology by the people. Even the protracted debate over the first reactor has been dominated by US experts and advisers because the traditional transnational cooperation was extended beyond government to nongovernmental citizen organizations when Filipno protestors sought help from US groups. 120 references

  16. Recent situation of the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshiba, Shizuo

    1982-01-01

    In Japan, the development of nuclear power as principal petroleum substitute is actively pursued. Nuclear power generation now accounts for about 17 % of the total power generation in Japan. The business related to nuclear fuel cycle should be established by private enterprises. The basic policy in the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle is the stabilized supply of natural uranium, raise in domestic production of enriched uranium, dFomestic fuel reprocessing in principle, positive plutonium utilization, and so on. After explaining this basic policy, the present situation and problems in the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle are described: securing of uranium resources, securing of enriched uranium, reprocessing of used fuel, utilization of plutonium, management of radioactive wastes. (Mori, K.)

  17. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  18. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, B.F.

    1977-01-01

    The economics of electricity supply and production in the FRG is to see on the background of the unique European interconnected grid system which makes very significant contributions to the availability of standby energy and peak load power. On this basis and the existing high voltage grid system, we can build large nuclear generating units and realise the favorable cost aspects per installed KW and reduced standby power. An example of calculating the overall electricity generating costs based on the present worth method is explained. From the figures shown, the sensitivity of the generating costs with respect to the different cost components can be derived. It is apparent from the example used, that the major advantage of nuclear power stations compared with fossil fired stations lies in the relatively small percentage fraction contributed by the fuel costs to the electricity generating costs. (orig.) [de

  19. Is nuclear power competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the competitiveness of electricity from new coal and nuclear plants with oil and natural gas in common markets concludes that, with few exceptions throughout the country, overall levelized nuclear generating cost could be lower than coal generating costs by more than 40%. The study shows a wider margin of economic superiority for nuclear than has been seen in other recent studies. Capital and fuel costs are the major determinants of relative nuclear and coal economics. The only substantial difference in the input assumptions has related to a shorter lead time for both coal and nuclear units, which reduces capital costs. The study gives substance to the charge that delaying tactics by intervenors and an unstable licensing environment drove up lifetime costs of both coal and nuclear plants. This caused an increase in electric rates and affected the entire economy. The study shows that nuclear power is competitive when large baseload capacity is required. 14 figures

  20. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, L.F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Mr. Reichle feels that the economic advantages of pursuing nuclear power should prompt Congress and the administration to seek ways of eliminating undue delays and enabling industry to proceed with the design, construction, and management of nuclear plants and facilities. Abundant, low-cost energy, which can only be supplied by coal and nuclear, is vital to growth in our gross national product, he states. While conservation efforts are commendable, we must have more energy if we are to maintain our standard of living. Current energy resources projections into the next century indicate an energy gap of 42 quads with a 3 percent growth and 72 quads with a 4 percent growth. Comparisons of fuel prices, plant capital investment, and electric generation costs are developed for both coal and nuclear energy; these show that nuclear energy has a clear advantage economically as long as light water reactors are supplemented by breeder reactor development and the nuclear industry can demonstrate that these reactors are safe, reliable, and compatible with the environment. Mr. Reichle says excessive regulation and legal challenges combined with public apathy toward developing nuclear energy are delaying decisions and actions that should be taken now