WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle length correlates

  1. Isthmus Dependent Atrial Flutter Cycle Length Correlates with Right Atrial Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousik Krishnan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right atrial flutter cycle length can prolong in the presence of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. We hypothesized that the cycle length of right atrial isthmus dependent flutter would correlate with right atrial cross-sectional area measurements. Methods: 60 patients who underwent ablation for electrophysiologically proven isthmus dependent right atrial flutter, who were not on Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs and had recent 2-dimensional echocardiographic data comprised the study group. Right atrial length and width were measured in the apical four chamber view. Cross-sectional area was estimated by multiplying the length and width. 35 patients had an atrial flutter rate ≥250 bpm (Normal Flutter Group and 25 patients had an atrial flutter rate < 250 bpm (Slow Flutter Group. Results: Mean atrial flutter rate was 283 bpm in the normal flutter group and 227 bpm in the slow flutter group. Mean atrial flutter cycle length was 213 ms in the Normal Flutter Group and 265 ms in the Slow Flutter Group (p<0.0001. Mean right atrial cross sectional area was 1845 mm2 in the Normal Flutter group and 2378 mm2 in the Slow Flutter Group, (p< 0.0001. Using linear regression, CSA was a significant predictor of cycle length (β =0.014 p = 0.0045. For every 1 mm2 increase in cross-sectional area, cycle length is 0.014 ms longer.Conclusion: In the absence of antiarrhythmic medications, right atrial cross sectional area enlargement correlates with atrial flutter cycle length. These findings provide further evidence that historical rate-related definitions of typical isthmus dependent right atrial are not mechanistically valid.

  2. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  3. Does the correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures rule out any significant global warming from greenhouse gases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between solar cycle lengths and Northern Hemisphere land temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse...... gases. The present analysis shows that a similar degree of correlation is obtained when testing the solar data against a couple of fictitious temperature series representing different global warming trends. Therefore, the correlation cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of a possible contribution...... to global warming from human activities, nor to rule out a sizable contribution from that source....

  4. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  5. Analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tingrong

    2008-01-01

    In Kleinrock and Kamoun's paper, the inverse relation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model is illustrated. In this paper we give the analytical correlation of routing table length index and routing path length index in hierarchical routing model.

  6. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL va...

  7. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet...

  8. A multiple length scale correlation operator for ocean data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mirouze

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean data assimilation systems can take into account time and space scale variations by representing background error covariance functions with more complex shapes than the classical Gaussian function. In particular, the construction of the correlation functions can be improved to give more flexibility. We describe a correlation operator that features high correlations within a short scale and weak correlations within a larger scale. This multiple length scale correlation operator is defined as a linear combination of Whittle–Matérn functions with different length scales. The main characteristics of the resulting correlation function are described. In particular, a focus is given on features that might be of interest to determine the parameters of the model: the Daley length scale, the normalised spectrum inflexion point and the kurtosis coefficient.The multiple length scale operator has been implemented in NEMOVAR, a variational ocean data assimilation system. A dual length scale formulation was tested in a one-year reanalysis and compared with a single length scale formulation. The results emphasise the importance of estimating with great care the factors used within the combination. They also demonstrate the potential of the dual length scale formulation, in particular through a decrease of the innovation statistics for salinity profiles. The dual length scale formulation is now operational at the Met Office.

  9. Atrial electromechanical cycle length mapping in paced canine hearts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costet, Alexandre; Bunting, Ethan; Grondin, Julien; Gambhir, Alok; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-07-01

    Atrial arrhythmias affect millions of people worldwide. Characterization and study of arrhythmias in the atria in the clinic is currently performed point by point using mapping catheters capable of generating maps of the electrical activation rate or cycle length. In this paper, we describe a new ultrasound-based mapping technique called electromechanical cycle length mapping (ECLM) capable of estimating the electromechanical activation rate, or cycle length, i.e., the rate of the mechanical activation of the myocardium which follows the electrical activation. ECLM relies on frequency analysis of the incremental strain within the atria and can be performed in a single acquisition. ECLM was validated in a canine model paced from the left atrial appendage, against pacing rates within the reported range of cycle lengths previously measured during atrial arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation. Correlation between the global estimated electromechanical cycle lengths and pacing rates was shown to be excellent (slope = 0.983, intercept = 3.91, r(2) = 0.9999). The effect of the number of cardiac cycles on the performance of ECLM was also investigated and the reproducibility of ECLM was demonstrated (error between consecutive acquisitions for all pacing rates: 6.3 ± 4.3%). These findings indicate the potential of ECLM for noninvasively characterizing atrial arrhythmias and provide feedback on the treatment planning of catheter ablation procedures in the clinic.

  10. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  11. Design LDPC Codes without Cycles of Length 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseon Kim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for constructing LDPC codes without cycles of length 4 and 6. Firstly, we design 3 submatrices with different shifting functions given by the proposed schemes, then combine them into the matrix specified by the proposed approach, and, finally, expand the matrix into a desired parity-check matrix using identity matrices and cyclic shift matrices of the identity matrices. The simulation result in AWGN channel verifies that the BER of the proposed code is close to those of Mackay's random codes and Tanner's QC codes, and the good BER performance of the proposed can remain at high code rates.

  12. Telomere Length Correlates with Life Span of Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Fick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric DNA repeats are lost as normal somatic cells replicate. When telomeres reach a critically short length, a DNA damage signal is initiated, inducing cell senescence. Some studies have indicated that telomere length correlates with mortality, suggesting that telomere length contributes to human life span; however, other studies report no correlation, and thus the issue remains controversial. Domestic dogs show parallels in telomere biology to humans, with similar telomere length, telomere attrition, and absence of somatic cell telomerase activity. Using this model, we find that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a strong predictor of average life span among 15 different breeds (p < 0.0001, consistent with telomeres playing a role in life span determination. Dogs lose telomeric DNA ∼10-fold faster than humans, which is similar to the ratio of average life spans between these species. Breeds with shorter mean telomere lengths show an increased probability of death from cardiovascular disease, which was previously correlated with short telomere length in humans.

  13. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tao; Liu, Di; Li, Zhiheng

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs) and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs) plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected) sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantl...

  14. Solar cycle length hypothesis appears to support the IPCC on global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    lengths with the "corrected" temperature anomalies is substantially better than with the historical anomalies. Therefore our findings support a total reversal of the common assumption that a verification of the solar hypothesis would challenge the IPCC assessment of man-made global warming.......Since the discovery of a striking correlation between 1-2-2-2-1 filtered solar cycle lengths and the 11-year running average of Northern Hemisphere land air temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global...... warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The "solar hypothesis" claims that solar activity causes a significant component of the global mean temperature to vary in phase opposite to the filtered solar cycle lengths. In an earlier paper we have demonstrated that for data covering...

  15. Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine in the term parturient. W.M Wan Rahiza, A.R Raha, A Muhd, M.N Nadia, M Muhammad, Z Azmil, I Azarinah, M.Z Jaafar ...

  16. DNA length evaluation using cyanine dye and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masafumi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tsuruoka, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    To develop a high-performance method for measuring the length of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments, the capability of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was examined. To omit troublesome and time-consuming labeling operations such as PCR with fluorescently labeled mononucleotides or primers, intercalation of dimeric cyanine dye YOYO-1 iodide (YOYO) to dsDNA was utilized as a simple labeling method. Various lengths of dsDNA fragments were prepared and mixed with YOYO prior to FCS, and the dependence of the diffusion time of a dsDNA-YOYO complex on the length of dsDNA fragment and the dsDNA/YOYO ratio was investigated. It was successfully demonstrated that the dsDNA length can be measured using YOYO and FCS, and the calibration curve was developed taking into account the rewinding and expansion of the dsDNA fragment caused by YOYO intercalation.

  17. Ovarian dynamics and estrous cycle length in the donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Duran, Maricruz; Zarco, Luis; Boeta, Ana Myriam

    2017-11-01

    Nine jennies were monitored daily by ultrasonography during three complete ovarian cycles in order to evaluate if the timing of luteolysis and the growth pattern of the ovulatory follicle (OVF) before, during and after luteolysis are related to the length of the interovulatory interval (IOI). Blood samples for progesterone determination were obtained daily during one of the cycles of each jenny. The cycles were classified according to the length of the IOI into three groups: Short IOI (21.2 ± 0.3 d, n = 10), medium IOI (23.9 ± 0.4 d, n = 7), and long IOI (26.2 ± 0.3 d, n = 10). Neither the time of luteolysis onset nor the time of luteolysis completion were significantly different between groups. The length of the IOI was mainly determined by the duration of the follicular phase, as the intervals from luteolysis onset to ovulation and from luteolysis completion to ovulation were directly correlated with the length of the IOI (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 respectively). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the length of the IOI was negatively correlated with the size of the OVF at day 13 (p < 0.01), with its growth rate from day 13 to day 15 (p < 0.05) and with its growth rate from day 15 to day 18 (p < 0.01), and positively correlated with the final diameter of the OVF (p < 0.01). The correlation between the observed IOIs and those predicted by the multiple regression equation was highly significant (r = 0.91, p < 0.001), but the predictive ability of a simplified equation using only the diameter of the OVF at day 18 was almost as good (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Estrus signs lasted longer and were more intense as the length of the IOI increased, and this was associated with a longer period of low progesterone concentrations during the follicular phase of jennies with longer cycles. It is concluded that the length of the luteal phase in jennies is relatively constant, and that most of the variation in the length of the IOI is

  18. Radial correlation length across magnetic islands: Simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marina, F.; Estrada, T.; Blanco, E.; García, L.

    2017-07-01

    The turbulence radial correlation length Lr of density fluctuations is studied across magnetic islands both numerically and experimentally. The numerical study has been carried out by a resistive MHD code (called FAR). It shows asymmetric Lr profiles when measured across magnetic islands. Subsequent simulations using a synthetic Doppler reflectometer suggest that this diagnostic has the capability to capture the effect observed in the results provided by FAR. Finally, experimental studies performed using the Doppler reflectometer installed at the TJ-II stellarator show asymmetries in the coherence profiles matching the radial position of magnetic islands. The similarities found between simulations and experiments indicate that radial correlation length measurements could be used to detect magnetic islands in fusion plasmas.

  19. Predictions of the Maximum Amplitude, Time of Occurrence, and Total Length of Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, L. C.; Piacentini, R. D.; Verdes, P. F.

    2012-08-01

    In this work we predict the maximum amplitude, its time of occurrence, and the total length of Solar Cycle 24 by linear regression to the curvature (second derivative) at the preceding minimum of a smoothed version of the sunspots time series. We characterise the predictive power of the proposed methodology in a causal manner by an incremental incorporation of past solar cycles to the available data base. In regressing maximum cycle intensity to curvature at the leading minimum, we obtain a correlation coefficient R≈0.91 and for the upcoming Cycle 24 a forecast of 78 (90 % confidence interval: 56 - 106). The ascent time also appears to be highly correlated to the second derivative at the starting minimum ( R≈-0.77), predicting maximum solar activity for October 2013 (90 % confidence interval: January 2013 to September 2014). Solar Cycle 24 should come to an end by February 2020 (90 % confidence interval: January 2019 to July 2021), although in this case correlational evidence is weaker ( R≈-0.56).

  20. Heartbeat Cycle Length Detection by a Ballistocardiographic Sensor in Atrial Fibrillation and Sinus Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias Daniel; Brüser, Christoph; Winnersbach, Patrick; Napp, Andreas; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Nikolaus; Schauerte, Patrick; Mischke, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background. Heart rate monitoring is especially interesting in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and is routinely performed by ECG. A ballistocardiography (BCG) foil is an unobtrusive sensor for mechanical vibrations. We tested the correlation of heartbeat cycle length detection by a novel algorithm for a BCG foil to an ECG in AF and sinus rhythm (SR). Methods. In 22 patients we obtained BCG and synchronized ECG recordings before and after cardioversion and examined the correlation between heartbeat characteristics. Results. We analyzed a total of 4317 heartbeats during AF and 2445 during SR with a correlation between ECG and BCG during AF of r = 0.70 (95% CI 0.68–0.71, P < 0.0001) and r = 0.75 (95% CI 0.73–0.77, P < 0.0001) during SR. By adding a quality index, artifacts could be reduced and the correlation increased for AF to 0.76 (95% CI 0.74–0.77, P < 0.0001, n = 3468) and for SR to 0.85 (95% CI 0.83–0.86, P < 0.0001, n = 2176). Conclusion. Heartbeat cycle length measurement by our novel algorithm for BCG foil is feasible during SR and AF, offering new possibilities of unobtrusive heart rate monitoring. This trial is registered with IRB registration number EK205/11. This trial is registered with clinical trials registration number NCT01779674. PMID:26229965

  1. Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2011-02-11

    Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.

  2. Discrimination between monomorphic and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia using cycle length variability measured by wavelet transform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, G; Gómez, M J; Le Guyader, P; Trelles, F; Cardinal, R; Savard, P; Nadeau, R

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the capability of wavelet transform (WT) analysis to differentiate between monomorphic (MVTs) and polymorphic ventricular tachycardias (PVTs) in a canine model and to relate these results to epicardial isochronal maps on a beat-by-beat basis. Unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded from the surface of both ventricles with a 127-lead sock electrode array in 24 open-chest anesthetized dogs. The sampling frequency was 500 Hz. Atrioventricular block was induced by formaldehyde injection into the atrioventricular node. The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 60 minutes under ventricular pacing (140 stimuli/min) followed by reperfusion. Ventricular tachycardias were obtained during reperfusion and during left stellate ganglion stimulation. After visual selection, a total of 97 segments of 2,048 samples (4.096 seconds) were extracted and classified as 67 MVTs and 30 PVTs. A parameter based on the cycle length variability was defined in the second scale of the WT decomposition, normalized by its mean value. Similar assessment of cycle length variability was performed based on the detection of the point of most rapid change in potential with a negative slope in excess of -0.5 mV/ms in each individual electrogram to test the accuracy of the results obtained with the WT parameter. The WT parameter correctly identified 97% MVT and 83.3% PVT segments, for an overall accuracy of 92.8%. Beat-by-beat epicardial maps of MVT displayed a cluster of sites of initial activation close to the reperfusion area, while the sites of breakthrough from beats during PVT were much more dispersed over both ventricles. A strong and significant correlation was found between the number of electrodes with the earliest epicardial activation and the WT parameter (r = .78, P accuracy of the results obtained, a comparison was performed between the WT parameter (0.082 +/- 0.007) and the cycle length variability, estimated as the

  3. Electrophysiological evaluation in myotonic dystrophy: correlation with CTG length expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeilsticker Beatriz Helena Miranda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In myotonic dystrophy (MD, disease severity has been correlated with expansion of CTG repeats in chromosome 19. The aims of this study were to evaluate efficacy of electromyography in the diagnosis of MD, access the frequency and the characteristics of peripheral involvement in the disease and to verify whether the CTG repeats correlated with the electrophysiological abnormalities. Twenty-five patients and six relatives at risk of carrying the MD gene were examined. Electrical myotonia (EM was scored. Sensory and motor conduction velocity (CV were studied in five nerves. Leukocyte DNA analysis was done in 26 subjects. Myopathy and myotonia were found in 27 cases. EM was most frequent in muscles of hand and in tibialis anterior. No significant correlation was found between EM scores and length of CTG expansions. EM scores correlated significantly with the degree of clinical myopathy, expressed by a muscular disability scale. Peripheral neuropathy was found in eight subjects and was not restricted to those who were diabetics.

  4. Correlation of normal-range FMR1 repeat length or genotypes and reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Davis, Stephanie; Engmann, Lawrence; Nulsen, John C; Benadiva, Claudio A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to ascertain whether the length of normal-ranged CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene correlates with abnormal reproductive parameters. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all FMR1 carrier screening performed as part of routine care at a large university-based fertility center from January 2011 to March 2014. Correlations were performed between normal-range FMR1 length and baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ovarian volumes (OV), antral follicle counts (AFC), and incidence of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), while controlling for the effect of age. Six hundred three FMR1 screening results were collected. One subject was found to be a pre-mutation carrier and was excluded from the study. Baseline serum AMH, cycle day 3 FSH, OV, and AFC data were collected for the 602 subjects with normal-ranged CGG repeats. No significant difference in median age was noted amongst any of the FMR1 repeat genotypes. No significant correlation or association was found between any allele length or genotype, with any of the reproductive parameters or with incidence of DOR at any age (p > 0.05). However, subjects who were less than 35 years old with low/low genotype were significantly more likely to have below average AMH levels compared to those with normal/normal genotype (RR 3.82; 95 % CI 1.38-10.56). This large study did not demonstrate any substantial association between normal-range FMR1 repeat lengths and reproductive parameters.

  5. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length-A Prognostic Factor of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM10, SO₂, CO, and NOx) to represent a source-related mixture. PM10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NOx assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.

  6. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Length, Birth Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The umbilical cord and placenta have been considered to significantly contribute to the perinatal outcome. However, in our environment attempt at exploring its use has been limited due to sociocultural believes. This study aimed to identify the relationship between the umbilical cord length, newborn length and ...

  7. Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the current study was to determine the length of coronary sinus among black Kenyans. Coronary sinuses of seventy-four hearts (43 males and 31 females) of adult age range (20-70years) black Kenyans obtained during autopsy were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

  8. Correlation lengths in hydrodynamic models of active nematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2016-09-28

    We examine the scaling with activity of the emergent length scales that control the nonequilibrium dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal, using two popular hydrodynamic models that have been employed in previous studies. In both models we find that the chaotic spatio-temporal dynamics in the regime of fully developed active turbulence is controlled by a single active scale determined by the balance of active and elastic stresses, regardless of whether the active stress is extensile or contractile in nature. The observed scaling of the kinetic energy and enstrophy with activity is consistent with our single-length scale argument and simple dimensional analysis. Our results provide a unified understanding of apparent discrepancies in the previous literature and demonstrate that the essential physics is robust to the choice of model.

  9. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10(-18)), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R(2) = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Axial Region Optimization for Cycle Length Extension of Small Modular PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Ji Won [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol; Jung, Ji Eun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zheng, Youqi; Tak, Tae Woo; Lee, Deok Jung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper studied axial region sensitivity test in SMPWR to extend the cycle length. Zr- {sup 167}Er, Zr-B and Zr-Gd are used for BA material, the height of cutback and axial region has been changed. The cycle length of the reference core is 798 EFPD (26.6 EFPM), and there is no cutback and only {sup 167}Er-Zr is used in R-BA.Soluble boron-free small modular pressurized water reactor (SMPWR) can be a transportable size core due to the absence of the chemical volume control system (CVCS) and the amount of liquid radioactive waste, and further remove the corrosion problem caused by boric acid. The SMPWR needs large amount of burnable absorber (BA) instead of soluble boron, but the more the amount of BA is, the shorter the fuel cycle length is. Therefore, this paper studies axial region sensitivity test to make fuel cycle length of SMWPR longer. The procedure of axial region sensitivity test is as follows: cutback sensitivity tests, material and height sensitivity tests in the axial's reactor core design code system, has been used for these simulation. The optimal BA for cutback region is 10 cm of cutback with natural Gd 10 % in Zr-Gd, and the cycle length increases to 942 EFPD (31.4 months). Through the axial region sensitivity test, the cycle length becomes 1026 EFPD (34.2 months), but the peaking factors were not satisfied their limits. The 4.8-month increases compared with the reference core through the cutback sensitivity test. The possibility to excess reactivity with control rods in this core should verify.

  11. [Changes in bone mineral density of postmenopausal women in relation to the menstrual cycle length].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchev, E; Dimitrakova, E

    2010-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between the age of menarche, the length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding and fracture risk in the postmenopausal period. Evaluation of the menstrual cycle length and lumbar bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. We investigated three groups of postmenopausal women (each - n = 50). The first group included women with menstrual duration of 27 days during reproductive age, the second group included postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 28 days during the reproductive age, and the third group consisted of postmenopausal women with menstrual duration of 30 days during reproductive age. The average age of women was 58.80 +/- 0.94 y. in the first group, 60.36 +/- 5.12 y. in the second group and -61.84 +/- 0.80 y. in the third group. Age, age of menarche, number of childbirths, length of the menstrual cycle and menstrual bleeding, and lumbar bone density were assessed and registered for each woman. We used DXA in a anterior-posterior projection to assess the bone density of the lumbar spine; the obtained results are shown in gram/cm2. The women from the third group, with average menstrual cycle length of 30 days, reach menopause at a significantly later age, have longer menstrual cycle and shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density, compared to the other two groups. The data from our research show that women with anamnesis for average normal menstrual cycle length of 30 days reach menopausal period at a significantly later age, have shorter menstrual bleeding, and higher lumbar spine bone density compared to those with shorter menstrual cycle duration (27 and 28 days).

  12. Effect of operational cycle time length on nitrogen removal in an alternating oxidation ditch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, I D; Stamou, A; Katsiri, A

    2011-06-01

    This paper refers to nitrogen removal optimization of an alternating oxidation ditch system through the use of a mathematical model and pilot testing. The pilot system where measurements have been made has a total volume of 120 m(3) and consists of two ditches operating in four phases during one cycle and performs carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and settling. The mathematical model consists of one-dimensional mass balance (convection-dispersion) equations based on the IAWPRC ASM 1 model. After the calibration and verification of the model, simulation system performance was made. Optimization is achieved by testing operational cycles and phases with different time lengths. The limits of EU directive 91/271 for nitrogen removal have been used for comparison. The findings show that operational cycles with smaller time lengths can achieve higher nitrogen removals and that an "equilibrium" between phase time percentages in the whole cycle, for a given inflow, must be achieved.

  13. Correlation between spinal column length and the spread of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal anaesthesia was given by administering 1.8 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25 μg fentanyl through the L3/L4 or L4/L5 intervertebral space. The level of sensory blockade was assessed using pin-prick testing for pain sensation. Linear regression analysis was used to analyse the correlation; R < 0.25 indicates ...

  14. Extending Depot Length and Intervals for DDG 51 Class Ships: Examining the 72 Month Operational Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Class Maintenance Plan and his- torical standard cost trends based on return cost data. The long- range maintenance schedule does not include an...assumptions on which the 72-month schedule is based are that life-cycle maintenance for the class , which is laid out in the TFP, will not change...Depot Length and Intervals for DDG-51 Class Ships: The 72-Month Cycle they are generally accepted guidelines that provide a set of schedul - ing

  15. On the existence of cycles of every even length on generalized Fibonacci cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Zagaglia Salvi

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new topology for the interconnection of computing nodes in multiprocessors systems is the generalized Fibonacci cube.It can be embedded as a subgraph in the Boolean cube and it is also a supergraph of other structures. We prove that every edge of such a graph, but few initial cases, belongs to cycles of every even length.

  16. Reconstructing the 11-year solar cycle length from cosmogenic radionuclides for the last 600 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emma; Adolphi, Florian; Mekhaldi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund

    2017-04-01

    The cyclic behavior of the solar magnetic field has been known for centuries and the 11-year solar cycle is one of the most important features directly visible on the solar disc. Using sunspot records it is evident that the length of this cycle is variable. A hypothesis of an inverse relationship between the average solar activity level and the solar cycle length has been put forward (e.g. Friis-Christensen & Lassen, 1991), indicating longer solar cycles during periods of low solar activity and vice versa. So far, studies of the behavior of the 11-year solar cycle have largely been limited for the last 4 centuries where observational sunspot data are available. However, cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C from ice cores and tree rings allow an assessment of the strength of the open solar magnetic field due to its shielding influence on galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere. Similarly, very strong solar storms can leave their imprint in cosmogenic radionuclide records via solar proton-induced direct production of cosmogenic radionuclides in the Earth atmosphere. Here, we test the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between solar cycle length and the longer-term solar activity level by using cosmogenic radionuclide records as a proxy for solar activity. Our results for the last six centuries suggest significant solar cycle length variations that could exceed the range directly inferred from sunspot records. We discuss the occurrence of SPEs within the 11-year solar cycle from a radionuclide perspective, specifically the largest one known yet, at AD 774-5 (Mekhaldi et al., 2015). References: Friis-Christensen, E. & Lassen, K. Length of the solar-cycle - An indicator of solar activity closely associated with climate. Science 254, 698-700, doi:10.1126/science.254.5032.698 (1991). Mekhaldi, F., Muscheler, R., Adolphi, F., Aldahan, A., Beer, J., McConnell, J. R., Possnert, G., Sigl, M., Svensson, A., Synal, H. A., Welten, K. C. & Woodruff, T. E

  17. Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals, Menstrual Cycle Length, and Fecundity: Findings from a Prospective Pregnancy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kirsten J.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Thomas A.; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances have been associated with changes in menstrual cycle characteristics and fecundity, when modeled separately. However, these outcomes are biologically related, and we evaluate their joint association with exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances. Methods We recruited 501 couples from Michigan and Texas in 2005-2009 upon their discontinuing contraception and followed them until pregnancy or 12 months of trying. Female partners provided a serum sample upon enrollment and completed daily journals on menstruation, intercourse, and pregnancy test results. We measured seven perfluoroalkyl substances in serum using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed the association between perfluoroalkyl substances and menstrual cycle length using accelerated failure time models and between perfluoroalkyl substances and fecundity using a Bayesian joint modeling approach to incorporate cycle length. Results Menstrual cycles were 3% longer comparing women in the second versus first tertile of perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA; acceleration factor [AF]=1.03, 95% credible interval [CrI]=[1.00, 1.05]), but 2% shorter for women in the highest versus lowest tertile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (AF=0.98, 95% CrI=[0.96, 1.00]). When accounting for cycle length, relevant covariates and remaining perfluoroalkyl substances, the probability of pregnancy was lower for women in second versus first tertile of PFNA (odds ratio [OR]=0.6, 95% CrI=[0.4, 1.0]) though not when comparing the highest versus lowest (OR=0.7, 95% CrI=[0.3, 1.1]) tertile. Conclusions In this prospective cohort study, we observed associations between two perfluoroalkyl substances and menstrual cycle length changes, and between select perfluoroalkyl substances and diminished fecundity at some (but not all) concentrations. PMID:27541842

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals, Menstrual Cycle Length, and Fecundity: Findings from a Prospective Pregnancy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kirsten J; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Barr, Dana B; Louis, Thomas A; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances have been associated with changes in menstrual cycle characteristics and fecundity, when modeled separately. However, these outcomes are biologically related, and we evaluate their joint association with exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances. We recruited 501 couples from Michigan and Texas in 2005-2009 upon their discontinuing contraception and followed them until pregnancy or 12 months of trying. Female partners provided a serum sample on enrollment and completed daily journals on menstruation, intercourse, and pregnancy test results. We measured seven perfluoroalkyl substances in serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed the association between perfluoroalkyl substances and menstrual cycle length using accelerated failure time models and between perfluoroalkyl substances and fecundity using a Bayesian joint modeling approach to incorporate cycle length. Menstrual cycles were 3% longer comparing women in the second versus first tertile of perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA; acceleration factor [AF] = 1.03, 95% credible interval [CrI] = [1.00, 1.05]), but 2% shorter for women in the highest versus lowest tertile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; AF = 0.98, 95% CrI = [0.96, 1.00]). When accounting for cycle length, relevant covariates, and remaining perfluoroalkyl substances, the probability of pregnancy was lower for women in second versus first tertile of perfluorononanoate (PFNA; odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% CrI = [0.4, 1.0]) although not when comparing the highest versus lowest (OR = 0.7, 95% CrI = [0.3, 1.1]) tertile. In this prospective cohort study, we observed associations between two perfluoroalkyl substances and menstrual cycle length changes, and between select perfluoroalkyl substances and diminished fecundity at some (but not all) concentrations. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B136.

  19. Effects of Pedal Speed and Crank Length on Pedaling Mechanics during Submaximal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRATT, PAUL RICHARD; MARTIN, JAMES C.; ELMER, STEVE J.; KORFF, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During submaximal cycling, the neuromuscular system has the freedom to select different intermuscular coordination strategies. From both a basic science and an applied perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system adjusts pedaling mechanics in response to changes in pedaling conditions. Purpose To determine the effect of changes in pedal speed (a marker of muscle shortening velocity) and crank length (a marker of muscle length) on pedaling mechanics during submaximal cycling. Methods Fifteen trained cyclists performed submaximal isokinetic cycling trials (90 rpm, 240 W) using pedal speeds of 1.41 to 1.61 m·s−1 and crank lengths of 150 to 190 mm. Joint powers were calculated using inverse dynamics. Results Increases in pedal speed and crank length caused large increases knee and hip angular excursions and velocities (P 0.05). Joint moments and joint powers were less affected by changes in the independent variables, but some interesting effects and trends were observed. Most noteworthy, knee extension moments and powers tended to decrease, whereas hip extension power tended to increase with an increase in crank length. Conclusions The distribution of joint moments and powers is largely maintained across a range of pedaling conditions. The crank length induced differences in knee extension moments, and powers may represent a trade-off between the central nervous system’s attempts to simultaneously minimize muscle metabolic and mechanical stresses. These results increase our understanding of the neural and mechanical mechanisms underlying multi-joint task performance, and they have practical relevance to coaches, athletes, and clinicians. PMID:26559455

  20. Nuclear cycle length economics strategy using stochastic and deterministic Monte Carlo computation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wook Ahn, T.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) have historically been a low cost base-load electricity source because of their high fuel density and operational reliability. In the United States, NPPs typically run 18- to 24-month cycles to limit outage times and maximize capacity factor. recently, however, increased volatility in energy and fuel prices, lower natural gas prices, higher material costs, and new sources are challenging the nuclear industry. This warrants a study in developing a more robust cycle length and fuel burnup strategy to make NPPs more competitive. (Author)

  1. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  2. Comparison of mechanism of break up and cycle length in defibrillation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkus, Natalya; Puwal, Steffan

    2012-10-01

    Heart fibrillation is an often fatal condition which can be modeled by chaotic electrical activity; spiral waves of electrical activity rotate, break-up, and meander on tissue. As they do, they produce a chaotic distribution of electrical activity, negatively affecting physical contraction (blood pumping). Fenton, et al. studied several mechanisms of this wave breakup, including ``far from tip'' and ``Doppler shift.'' We used Fenton et al.'s mathematical model and the different modes of breakup proposed by Fenton to simulate fibrillation and to determine if the cycle length of the activity or the type of mechanism was more significant in defibrillation. Our data supports the conclusion that the cycle length is the more important factor in defibrillation.

  3. Quantum Correlations, Separability, and Quantum Coherence Length in Equilibrium Many-Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpetti, Daniele; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2016-09-01

    Nonlocality is a fundamental trait of quantum many-body systems, both at the level of pure states, as well as at the level of mixed states. Because of nonlocality, mixed states of any two subsystems are correlated in a stronger way than what can be accounted for by considering the correlated probabilities of occupying some microstates. In the case of equilibrium mixed states, we explicitly build two-point quantum correlation functions, which capture the specific, superior correlations of quantum systems at finite temperature, and which are directly accessible to experiments when correlating measurable properties. When nonvanishing, these correlation functions rule out a precise form of separability of the equilibrium state. In particular, we show numerically that quantum correlation functions generically exhibit a finite quantum coherence length, dictating the characteristic distance over which degrees of freedom cannot be considered as separable. This coherence length is completely disconnected from the correlation length of the system—as it remains finite even when the correlation length of the system diverges at finite temperature—and it unveils the unique spatial structure of quantum correlations.

  4. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  5. Thermomagnetic correlation lengths of strongly interacting matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Hernández, L. A.; Loewe, M.; Raya, Alfredo; Rojas, J. C.; Zamora, R.

    2017-08-01

    We study the correlation length between test quarks with the same electric and color charges in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, considering thermal and magnetic effects. We extract the correlation length from the quark correlation function. The latter is constructed from the probability amplitude to bring a given quark into the plasma once a previous one with the same quantum numbers is placed at a given distance apart. For temperatures below the transition temperature, the correlation length starts growing as the field strength increases to then decrease for large magnetic fields. For temperatures above the pseudocritical temperature, the correlation length continues increasing as the field strength increases. We found that such behavior can be understood as a competition between the tightening induced by the classical magnetic force versus the random thermal motion. For large enough temperatures, the increase of the occupation number contributes to the screening of the interaction between the test particles. The growth of the correlation distance with the magnetic field can be understood as due to the closer proximity between one of the test quarks and the ones popped up from the vacuum, which in turn appear due to the increase of the occupation number with the temperature.

  6. Correlations of leaf area with length and width measurements of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. Wargo

    1978-01-01

    Correlations of leaf area with length, width, and length times width of leaves of black oak, white oak, and sugar maple were determined to see if length and/or width could be used as accurate estimators of leaf area. The correlation of length times width with leaf area was high (r > + .95) for all three species. The linear equation Y = a + bX, where X = length times...

  7. Electromagnetism mechanism for enhancing the refueling cycle length of a WWER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursalehi, Navid; Nejati-Zadeh, Mostafa; Minuchehr, Abdolhamid [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Increasing the operation cycle length can be an important goal in the fuel reload design of a nuclear reactor core. In this research paper, a new optimization approach, electromagnetism mechanism (EM), is applied to the fuel arrangement design of the Bushehr WWER-1000 core. For this purpose, a neutronic solver has been developed for calculating the required parameters during the reload cycle of the reactor. In this package, two modules have been linked, including PARCS v2.7 and WIMS-5B codes, integrated in a solver for using in the fuel arrangement optimization operation. The first results of the prepared package, along with the cycle for the original pattern of Bushehr WWER-1000, are compared and verified according to the Final Safety Analysis Report and then the results of exploited EM linked with Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator (PARCS) and Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS) codes are reported for the loading pattern optimization. Totally, the numerical results of our loading pattern optimization indicate the power of the EM for this problem and also show the effective improvement of desired parameters for the gained semi-optimized core pattern in comparison to the designer scheme.

  8. Spermatogenic cycle length and sperm production in the freshwater turtle Kinosternon scorpioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alana Lislea; Campos-Junior, Paulo Henrique Almeida; Costa, Guilherme Mattos Jardim; de França, Luiz Renato

    2014-02-01

    Kinosternon scorpioides is a Brazilian freshwater turtle that belongs to the class Reptilia, encompassing almost 10,000 species. Nevertheless, very little is known about the testicular quantitative parameters, particularly those related to spermatogenesis, in this vertebrate class. Our main objectives were to investigate in detail the structure and function of the testis in K. scorpioides, particularly the aspects related to spermatogenic cycle length and Sertoli cell (SC) and spermatogenic efficiencies. Nine sexually mature turtles were examined, and intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine injections were administered to estimate duration of spermatogenesis. Based on the acrosome development in spermatids and the overall germ cell associations, 10 stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were characterized. Similar to birds, humans, and some primate species, several stages were observed per seminiferous tubule cross-sections. One spermatogenic cycle and the entire spermatogenic process lasted, respectively, 12 and 53 days. The SC efficiency (number of round spermatids per SC) and daily sperm production per gram of testis were, respectively, 20 and 40 million spermatids. As established for mammals, our findings suggest that SC efficiency is also a critical determinant of sperm production in reptiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the kinetics of spermatogenesis and testis function in any reptilian species. Besides allowing a better understanding of reproductive biology in reptiles, these data will be useful in comparative studies. Moreover, these results could provide the basis for investigations related to the evaluation of spermatogonial stem cell physiology niche in Kinosternon scorpioides.

  9. Electromagnetism Mechanism for Enhancing the Refueling Cycle Length of a WWER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Poursalehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the operation cycle length can be an important goal in the fuel reload design of a nuclear reactor core. In this research paper, a new optimization approach, electromagnetism mechanism (EM, is applied to the fuel arrangement design of the Bushehr WWER-1000 core. For this purpose, a neutronic solver has been developed for calculating the required parameters during the reload cycle of the reactor. In this package, two modules have been linked, including PARCS v2.7 and WIMS-5B codes, integrated in a solver for using in the fuel arrangement optimization operation. The first results of the prepared package, along with the cycle for the original pattern of Bushehr WWER-1000, are compared and verified according to the Final Safety Analysis Report and then the results of exploited EM linked with Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator (PARCS and Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS codes are reported for the loading pattern optimization. Totally, the numerical results of our loading pattern optimization indicate the power of the EM for this problem and also show the effective improvement of desired parameters for the gained semi-optimized core pattern in comparison to the designer scheme.

  10. Is the length of stay in hospital correlated with patient satisfaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, Ine; Kleefstra, Sophia M.; Kool, Rudolf B.; Westert, Gert P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction on the level of hospital wards. The underlying hypothesis is that good quality of care leads both to shorter LOS and to patients that are more satisfied. We used standardized LOS and standardized patient

  11. Is the length of stay in hospital correlated with patient satisfaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, I.; Kleefstra, S.M.; Kool, R.B.; Westert, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction on the level of hospital wards. The underlying hypothesis is that good quality of care leads both to shorter LOS and to patients that are more satisfied. DESIGN: We used standardized LOS and standardized

  12. Correlation between carbon-carbon bond length and the ease of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 5. Correlation between carbon-carbon bond length and the ease of retro Diels-Alder reaction. Sambasivarao Kotha Shaibal Banerjee Mobin Shaikh. Special issue on Chemical Crystallography Volume 126 Issue 5 September 2014 pp 1369-1371 ...

  13. APACHE-II score correlation with mortality and length of stay in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Saad Ahmed; Siddiqui, Shahla; Khan, Fazal Hameed

    2011-01-01

    To correlate the APACHE-II score system with mortality and length of stay in ICU. Cohort study. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May 2005 to May 2006. All adult patients who were admitted in the ICU were included. APACHE-II score was calculated at the second and seventh days of admission in the ICU. Patients who were discharged alive from the ICU or died after first APACHE-II Score (at 2nd day) were noted as the primary outcome measurement. Second APACHE-II score (at 7th day) was used to predict the length of stay in the ICU. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined with significance at p APACHE-II score was found in high category 31-40, 33 (84.6%) deaths were observed. This revealed that there might be more chances of death in case of high APACHE-II score (p=0.001). Insignificant but an inverse correlation (r = -0.084, p APACHE-II score and length of ICU stay. The APACHE-II scoring system was found useful for classifying patients according to their disease severity. There was an inverse relationship between the high score and the length of stay as well higher chances of mortality.

  14. Titin Isoform Size is Not Correlated with Thin Filament Length in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Lewis Greaser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling thin filament length in muscle remain controversial. It was recently reported that thin filament length was related to titin size, and that the latter might be involved in thin filament length determination. Titin plays several crucial roles in the sarcomere, but its function as it pertains to the thin filament has not been explored. We tested this relationship using several muscles from wild type rats and from a mutant rat model which results in increased titin size. Myofibrils were isolated from skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus, external oblique, gastrocnemius, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, and tibialis anterior using both adult wild type (WT and homozygous mutant (HM rats. Phalloidin and antibodies against tropomodulin-4 and nebulin’s N-terminus were used to determine thin filament length. The WT rats studied express skeletal muscle titin sizes ranging from 3.2 to 3.7 MDa, while the HM rats express a giant titin isoform sized at 3.7 MDa. No differences in phalloidin-based thin filament length, nebulin N terminus distances from the Z line, or tropomodulin distances from the Z line were observed across genotypes. The data indicates that, although titin performs many sarcomeric functions, its correlation with thin filament length and structure could not be demonstrated in the rat. Current models of thin filament assembly are inadequate to explain the phalloidin, nebulin N terminus, and tropomodulin staining patterns in the myofibril.

  15. Automatic adjustment of cycle length and aeration time for improved nitrogen removal in an alternating activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the nitrogen dynamics in the alternating BIODENITRO and BIODENIPHO processes with a focus on two control handles influencing now scheduling and aeration: the cycle length and the ammonia concentration at which a nitrifying period is terminated. A steady state analysis examining...... on a cycle by cycle single variable optimization rather than a more difficult multivariable optimization over a longer time horizon. Copyright (C) 1996 IAWQ....

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic correlates of multiple sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael G; Moir, Gavin L

    2006-11-01

    The aims of this study were to examine (a) the relationship between maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and several performance indices of multiple sprint cycling; (b) the relationship between maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and those same performance indices; and (c) the influence of recovery duration on the magnitude of those relationships. Twenty-five physically active men completed a VO(2)max test, a MAOD test, and 2 maximal intermittent (20 x 5 seconds) sprint cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 seconds or 30 seconds). Mean +/- SD for age, height, and body mass were 20.6 +/- 1.5 years, 177.2 +/- 5.4 cm, and 78.2 +/- 8.2 kg, respectively. All tests were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer with subsequent data normalized for body mass. Moderate (0.3 power output data and MAOD (range, 0.31-0.46; 95% confidence limits, -0.10 to 0.72). Moderate to large positive correlations also were observed between power output data and VO(2)max, the magnitude of which increased as values were averaged across all sprints (range, 0.45-0.67; 95% confidence limits 0.07-0.84). Correlations between fatigue and VO(2)max were greater in the intermittent protocol with 30-second recovery periods (r = -0.34; 95% confidence limits, 0.06 to -0.65). The results of this study reflect the complex energetics associated with multiple sprint work. Though the findings add support to the idea that multiple sprint sports demand a combination of speed and endurance, further longitudinal research is required to confirm the relative importance of these parameters.

  17. Lack of correlation between telomere length and telomerase activity and expression in leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Wysoki, Jacek; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Pernak, Monika; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2003-12-01

    The expression of three components of telomerase complex (hTR, hTERT, TP1) along with telomerase activity and telomere length in leukemic cells was investigated. Cells were isolated from peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of children with acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and non-lymphoblastic (ANLL) leukemia. Expression of three components of telomerase as well as telomerase activity was found in all leukemic cells. Chemiluminescent detection of terminal restriction fragments (TRF) from DNA isolated from ALL cells showed variable patterns expressing considerable heterogeneity of telomere length. The ALL cells appeared to have both long and short telomere lengths, in contrast to normal peripheral lymphocytes, which produced limited pattern of TRF. The ANLL cells produced predominantly short telomere pattern despite high telomerase activity and expression. It can be concluded that high telomerase activity and expression in leukemic cells is not always correlated with long telomeres (TRF pattern).

  18. Leukocyte telomere length in major depression: correlations with chronicity, inflammation and oxidative stress--preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen M Wolkowitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with an unusually high rate of aging-related illnesses and early mortality. One aspect of "accelerated aging" in depression may be shortened leukocyte telomeres. When telomeres critically shorten, as often occurs with repeated mitoses or in response to oxidation and inflammation, cells may die. Indeed, leukocyte telomere shortening predicts early mortality and medical illnesses in non-depressed populations. We sought to determine if leukocyte telomeres are shortened in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, whether this is a function of lifetime depression exposure and whether this is related to putative mediators, oxidation and inflammation.Leukocyte telomere length was compared between 18 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 controls and was correlated with lifetime depression chronicity and peripheral markers of oxidation (F2-isoprostane/Vitamin C ratio and inflammation (IL-6. Analyses were controlled for age and sex.The depressed group, as a whole, did not differ from the controls in telomere length. However, telomere length was significantly inversely correlated with lifetime depression exposure, even after controlling for age (p<0.05. Average telomere length in the depressed subjects who were above the median of lifetime depression exposure (≥9.2 years' cumulative duration was 281 base pairs shorter than that in controls (p<0.05, corresponding to approximately seven years of "accelerated cell aging." Telomere length was inversely correlated with oxidative stress in the depressed subjects (p<0.01 and in the controls (p<0.05 and with inflammation in the depressed subjects (p<0.05.These preliminary data indicate that accelerated aging at the level of leukocyte telomeres is proportional to lifetime exposure to MDD. This might be related to cumulative exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation in MDD. This suggest that telomere shortening does not antedate depression and is not an intrinsic feature. Rather, telomere shortening

  19. Acute effects of wheel running on adult hippocampal precursor cells in mice are not caused by changes in cell cycle length or S phase length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J. Fischer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise stimulates cellular brain plasticity by extending the pool of proliferating neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus. This effect has been investigated extensively, but the most immediate cellular effect induced by exercise that results in this acute increase in the number of cycling cells remained unclear. In the developing brain as well as adult pathological models, cell cycle alterations have a major influence on the balance between proliferative and neurogenic divisions. In this study we investigated whether this might also apply to the acute physiological pro-neurogenic stimulus of physical exercise in adulthood. Do changes in cell cycle precede the measurable increase in proliferation? After 5 days of voluntary wheel running, however, we measured only a very small, statistically not significant acceleration in cell cycle, which could not quantitatively explain the observed increase in proliferating cells after exercise. Thus, at this acute stage, changes at the level of cell cycle control is not the primary causal mechanism for the expansion of the precursor cell population, although with time after the stimulus changes in cell cycle of the entire population of labeled cells might be the result of the expanded pool of cells that have progressed to the advanced neurogenic stages with shorter cell cycle length.

  20. The correlated evolution of Runx2 tandem repeats, transcriptional activity, and facial length in carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, K E; Goswami, A; Flynn, J J; Niswander, L A

    2007-01-01

    To assess the ability of protein-coding mutations to contribute to subtle, inter-specific morphologic evolution, here, we test the hypothesis that mutations within the protein-coding region of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) have played a role in facial evolution in 30 species from a naturally evolving group, the mammalian order Carnivora. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find significant correlations between changes in Runx2 glutamine-alanine tandem-repeat ratio, and both Runx2 transcriptional activity and carnivoran facial length. Furthermore, we identify a potential evolutionary mechanism for the correlation between Runx2 tandem repeat ratio and facial length. Specifically, our results are consistent with the Runx2 tandem repeat system providing a flexible genetic mechanism to rapidly change the timing of ossification. These heterochronic changes, in turn, potentially act on existing allometric variation in carnivoran facial length to generate the disparity in adult facial lengths observed among carnivoran species. Our results suggest that despite potentially great pleiotropic effects, changes to the protein-coding regions of genes such as Runx2 do occur and have the potential to affect subtle morphologic evolution across a diverse array of species in naturally evolving lineages.

  1. Word-Length Correlations and Memory in Large Texts: A Visibility Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Guzmán-Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the correlation properties of word lengths in large texts from 30 ebooks in the English language from the Gutenberg Project (www.gutenberg.org using the natural visibility graph method (NVG. NVG converts a time series into a graph and then analyzes its graph properties. First, the original sequence of words is transformed into a sequence of values containing the length of each word, and then, it is integrated. Next, we apply the NVG to the integrated word-length series and construct the network. We show that the degree distribution of that network follows a power law, P ( k ∼ k - γ , with two regimes, which are characterized by the exponents γ s ≈ 1 . 7 (at short degree scales and γ l ≈ 1 . 3 (at large degree scales. This suggests that word lengths are much more strongly correlated at large distances between words than at short distances between words. That finding is also supported by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA and recurrence time distribution. These results provide new information about the universal characteristics of the structure of written texts beyond that given by word frequencies.

  2. Geriatric nutritional risk index correlates with length of hospital stay and inflammatory markers in older inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Simone; Kraft, Matthias; Krüger, Janine; Vogt, Lena J; Fiene, Michael; Mayerle, Julia; Aghdassi, Ali A; Steveling, Antje; Völzke, Henry; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Lerch, Markus M; Simon, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Malnutrition is a prevalent condition in older inpatients and has been shown to increase morbidity and direct medical costs. A number of established tools to assess malnutrition are available but malnourished patients rarely receive adequate nutritional assessment and treatment. The medical and economic consequences of malnutrition in hospitalized patients are therefore often underestimated. This study investigates whether the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) predicts hospital mortality, correlates with length of hospital stay (LOS) and inflammatory markers in older inpatients. We conducted a prospective monocentric study in 500 hospital patients over 65 years of age (female: 248; male: 252; age: 76.3 ± 0.31 years). GNRI was correlated to C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte count, LOS and all-cause mortality, adjusted for potential confounders. The median body mass index was 24.1 (25th percentile: 21.1; 75th percentile: 27.8) kg/m(2) and the mean GNRI 82.2 ± 0.56. A higher risk GNRI was associated with increased CRP levels (p risk GNRI and length of hospital stay, whereas, the association with in-hospital mortality was not significant. The GNRI correlates well with indicators of inflammation and the length of hospital stay. The routine implementation of the GNRI for the nutritional assessment of older patients could have a significant medical and socio-economic impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  4. Correlation between Visible Length of the Iris and the Length of the Maxillary Central Incisor Using Digital Image Analysis- A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini; Hemalatha; Chander, Gopi Naveen; Anitha, Kuttae Viswanathan

    2017-02-01

    Complete denture therapy is one such modality where science and art goes hand in hand. Selection of artificial teeth for completely edentulous patients is not easy in the absence of pre extraction records, because till date concrete guidelines do not exist. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between the visible length of the iris and the length of the maxillary central incisor to potentially provide a guide for teeth selection. A total of 20 Indian dental students consented to participate in the pilot study. Standardized digital images of the face revealing the eyes and component of teeth on smiling was captured using a digital camera. The digital measurements of the visible iris length (medial aperture height, tangential to iris) and the length of the maxillary central incisor from the zenith to the incisal edge were analysed using Adobe Photoshop creative cloud software. The data was statistically evaluated and results were tabulated. Karl Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation was utilized to detect if any association existed between the two variables. The mean value of length of central incisor was 10.39 mm and the mean value of the visible length of iris was found to be 12.9 mm. A Pearson correlation analysis revealed an r-value 0.01 (.322). On inference, the correlation between the visible iris length and that of maxillary central incisor were unable to produce a strong positive statistical association. However, an association factor between the two has been obtained. Deduction of 2.5 mm from the dimension of visible iris length will help in attaining the length of artificial maxillary central incisor tooth.

  5. Retrieval of Effective Correlation Length and Snow Water Equivalent from Radar and Passive Microwave Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Lemmetyinen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for retrieving SWE (snow water equivalent from space rely on passive microwave sensors. Observations are limited by poor spatial resolution, ambiguities related to separation of snow microstructural properties from the total snow mass, and signal saturation when snow is deep (~>80 cm. The use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar at suitable frequencies has been suggested as a potential observation method to overcome the coarse resolution of passive microwave sensors. Nevertheless, suitable sensors operating from space are, up to now, unavailable. Active microwave retrievals suffer, however, from the same difficulties as the passive case in separating impacts of scattering efficiency from those of snow mass. In this study, we explore the potential of applying active (radar and passive (radiometer microwave observations in tandem, by using a dataset of co-incident tower-based active and passive microwave observations and detailed in situ data from a test site in Northern Finland. The dataset spans four winter seasons with daily coverage. In order to quantify the temporal variability of snow microstructure, we derive an effective correlation length for the snowpack (treated as a single layer, which matches the simulated microwave response of a semi-empirical radiative transfer model to observations. This effective parameter is derived from radiometer and radar observations at different frequencies and frequency combinations (10.2, 13.3 and 16.7 GHz for radar; 10.65, 18.7 and 37 GHz for radiometer. Under dry snow conditions, correlations are found between the effective correlation length retrieved from active and passive measurements. Consequently, the derived effective correlation length from passive microwave observations is applied to parameterize the retrieval of SWE using radar, improving retrieval skill compared to a case with no prior knowledge of snow-scattering efficiency. The same concept can be applied to future radar

  6. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  7. Measurement of the magneto-optical correlation length in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Ralf; Eisenmann, Christoph; Reinke, Daniel; Maret, Georg

    2002-11-01

    In multiple light scattering media, magnetic field induced circular birefringence (Faraday effect) influences interference effects such as speckle pattern or coherent backscattering. It was predicted that in the diffusive regime the relevant correlation length with respect to the Faraday rotation l( small star, filled )(F) differs, in general, from the transport mean free path l( small star, filled ). We have experimentally verified the prediction that the ratio l( small star, filled )(F)/l( small star, filled ) equals 2 for Rayleigh scattering and decreases to 1 with increasing scatterer size. We also discuss the influence of the structure factor on l( small star, filled )(F).

  8. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  9. Is There a Difference in Tachycardia Cycle Length during SVT in Children with AVRT and AVNRT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Marcos F; Motonaga, Kara S; Trela, Anthony; Dubin, Anne M; Avasarala, Kishor; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2016-11-01

    There are limited adult data suggesting the tachycardia cycle length (TCL) of atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (AVRT) is shorter than atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT), though little data exist in children. We sought to determine if there is a difference in TCL between AVRT and AVNRT in children. A single-center retrospective review of children with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) from 2000 to 2015 was performed. Age ≤ 18 years, invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) confirming AVRT or AVNRT. Atypical AVNRT, congenital heart disease, antiarrhythmic medication use at time of EPS. Data were compared between patients with AVRT and AVNRT via t-test, χ 2 test, and linear regression. A total of 835 patients were included (12 ± 4 years, 52 ± 31 kg, TCL 321 ± 55 ms), 539 (65%) with AVRT (270 Wolff-Parkinson-White, 269 concealed pathways) and 296 (35%) with AVNRT. Patients with AVRT were younger (11.7 ± 4.1 years vs 13.0 ± 3.6 years, P SVT, there was no difference in TCL (290 ± 49 ms vs 297 ± 49 ms, P = 0.26). When controlling for age, there was no difference in TCL between AVRT and AVNRT at baseline or on isoproterenol. The regression equation for TCL in the baseline state was TCL = 290 + 4 (age), indicating the TCL will increase by 4 ms above a baseline of 290 ms for each year of life. When controlling for age, there is no difference in the TCL between AVRT and AVNRT in children. Age, not tachycardia mechanism, is the most significant factor in predicting TCL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gutmajster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P=0.02 and in men (P=0.01, but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r=0.11, P<0.05 and RBC (r=0.08, P<0.05. The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.

  11. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body weights and feather length in growing Muscovy selected in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y H; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Wang, C T; Tai, C

    1999-12-01

    1. Heritabilities and genetic correlations in the base population of a closed strain of Muscovy duck, moderately selected for body weight at 10 weeks of age, have been estimated from the data of 9 successive generations for the following traits: male and female body weight at 10 and 18 weeks of age (BW10m, BW18m, BW10f, BW18f) and length of the 8th primary feather at 10 weeks of age (F110m, F110f). 2. Multivariate REML with an animal model was used, pooling data from the 9 generations (3283 and 3289 male and female offspring respectively). The same trait expressed in male and female was considered as 2 different traits. 3. The 8th primary feather was longer in females than in males by 6% to 22% at 10 weeks of age. Body weight was heavier in males than in females by 42% to 58% at 10 weeks of age and by 57% to 75% at 18 weeks of age. 3. The heritability estimates for body weight traits showed moderate values, being a little higher for females than for males at the same age, increasing with age from h2=0.24 at BW10m to h2=0.43 at BW18f. 4. The heritability estimates for feather length showed that a greater response would be obtained in selection for male feather length (h2=0.37) than for female length (h2=0.14). Both have high genetic correlations with body weight so they could be indirectly improved. 5. Heritabilities of the difference in body weights between males and females at 10 weeks (h2=0.07) and 18 weeks of age (h2=0.10) were small, as well as for feather length (h2=0.10). It would probably be difficult to modify sexual dimorphism in body weight through selection. 6. Genetic correlations between BW10m, BW18m and BW10f, BW18f were respectively r(g)=0.77 and r(g)=0.80. They were larger for body weight at the same ages between males and females, r(g)=0.90 (r(g)=0.88 between F110m and F110f). Body weight in males and females at the same age should be better considered as 2 different traits in a selection programme. 7. The cumulated predicted genetic gains

  12. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic...... intervention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. METHODS: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations included symptoms, physical signs, CTT, faecal loading, barium enema, endoscopy, sonography, anal manometry and biochemistry....... Interventions included a low-fat, high-fiber diet, cisapride or domperidone, and exercise for a mean of 21.6 months. RESULTS: The mean CTT was 40.71 h in patients vs 24.75 h in controls (p = 0.013). In patients, faecal loading was significantly greater than in controls (p

  13. Estimating the atmospheric correlation length with stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R; Hajimahmoodzadeh, M; Fallah, H R

    2014-03-01

    The atmospheric turbulence measurement has received much attention in various fields due to its effects on wave propagation. One of the interesting parameters for characterization of the atmospheric turbulence is the Fried parameter or the atmospheric correlation length. We numerically investigate the feasibility of estimating the Fried parameter using a simple and low-cost system based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm without the need for wavefront sensing. We simulate the atmospheric turbulence using Zernike polynomials and employ a wavefront sensor-less adaptive optics system based on the SPGD algorithm and report the estimated Fried parameter after compensating for atmospheric-turbulence-induced phase distortions. Several simulations for different atmospheric turbulence strengths are presented to validate the proposed method.

  14. Is severity of family burden a correlate of length of stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongbo; Ning, Yuping; Rosenheck, Robert; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yanling

    2015-11-30

    It has been difficult to identify relevant correlates of inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), but few have examined family burden as a potential factor. The present study investigated the association of several dimensions of family burden with LOS net of other factors. Dimensions of burden experienced by primary caregivers were evaluated in a sample of 602 psychiatric inpatients in a large hospital in Guangzhou, China within 1 week of admission. Factor analysis reduced the burden data to five factors. Bivariate association and multiple linear regression analyzes were used to investigate burden and other factors associated with LOS (average LOS=58.8 days, SD=44.3). Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to having health insurance coverage, being diagnosed with schizophrenia, being unmarried, and not being employed; being perceived by family members as showing more violent behavior and causing higher levels of caregiver distress were independently associated with longer LOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of intra-articular osseous measurements with posterior cruciate ligament length on MRI scans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Orakzai, S H

    2010-01-01

    Six patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) rupture, based on a positive posterior drawer test, had a normal appearance of the PCL on an MRI scan. It is postulated that the PCL had been ruptured but healed in a lengthened state. 12 volunteers with no history of knee trauma underwent an MRI scan of the knee. In this control group (n = 12), there was a close correlation between the lateral femoral condylar width in the sagittal plane and the PCL length, with a ratio of 2:1 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.817-2.095). In the clinically abnormal group (n = 6), the ratio was 1.49:1 (95% CI = 1.206-1.782) (p< 0.0005). In conclusion, the ratio of the lateral femoral condylar width in the sagittal plane to the PCL length is a useful index for diagnosing PCL attenuation and lengthening in the presence of a normal morphological MR appearance.

  16. Inactivation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases by Peracids Correlates with the Hydrocarbon Chain Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kuban-Jankowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases are crucial enzymes controlling numerous physiological and pathophysiological events and can be regulated by oxidation of the catalytic domain cysteine residue. Peracids are highly oxidizing compounds, and thus may induce inactivation of PTPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of peracids with different length of hydrocarbon chain on the activity of selected PTPs. Methods: The enzymatic activity of human CD45, PTP1B, LAR, bacterial YopH was assayed under the cell-free conditions, and activity of cellular CD45 in human Jurkat cell lysates. The molecular docking and molecular dynamics were performed to evaluate the peracids binding to the CD45 active site. Results: Here we demonstrate that peracids reduce enzymatic activity of recombinant CD45, PTP1B, LAR, YopH and cellular CD45. Our studies indicate that peracids are more potent inhibitors of CD45 than hydrogen peroxide (with an IC50 value equal to 25 nM for peroctanoic acid and 8 µM for hydrogen peroxide. The experimental data show that the inactivation caused by peracids is dependent on hydrocarbon chain length of peracids with maximum inhibitory effect of medium-chain peracids (C8-C12 acyl chain, which correlates with calculated binding affinities to the CD45 active site. Conclusion: Peracids are potent inhibitors of PTPs with the strongest inhibitory effect observed for medium-chain peracids.

  17. Sociodemographic correlates and family aggregation of leukocyte telomere length in adults and children from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannagan, Kerry S; Jansen, Erica C; Rozek, Laura S; Rentschler, Katie M; Roman, Ana Victoria; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Villamor, Eduardo

    2017-05-06

    Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative stress and inflammation related to chronic disease risk. We examined the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and estimated LTL family aggregation in Central America, a region with a high burden of chronic disease where LTL has not been studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 174 school age children and their parents in the capital cities of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and the city of Tuxtla-Gutierrez in Mexico. We measured LTL by quantitative PCR in DNA extracted from whole blood. We compared the distribution of LTL by categories of sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. Family aggregation was estimated with correlation coefficients and intraclass correlations. In mothers, LTL was inversely associated with age (P, trend < .0001) and positively associated with height (P = .0002). Among fathers, LTL was inversely associated with food insecurity (P, trend = .0004). In children, boys had 0.10 log units shorter LTL than girls (95% CI: -0.17, -0.03; P = .004). LTL was inversely associated with parental education (P, trend = .01) and positively associated with paternal age at birth (P, trend < .0001), maternal LTL (P, trend = .007), and paternal LTL (P, trend = .02). LTL varied significantly by country of origin among all family members. Aggregation was greatest between children and their mothers, and mostly occurred at the country, rather than family, level. LTL is associated with age and height in women; food insecurity in men; and sex, parental education, parental LTL, and paternal age at birth among children. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Plot intensity and cycle-length effects on growth and removals estimates from forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2015-01-01

    Continuous forest inventory planners can allocate the budget to more plots per acre or a shorter remeasurement cycle. A higher plot intensity benefits small area estimation and allows for more precision in current status estimates. Shorter cycles may provide better estimates of growth, removals and mortality. On a fixed budget, the planner can't have both greater...

  19. Modification of cervical length after cervical pessary insertion: correlation weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Manel; Goya, Maria; Gascón, Andrea; Pratcorona, Laia; Merced, Carme; Rodó, Carlota; Valle, Leonor; Romero, Azahar; Juan, Miquel; Rodríguez, Alberto; Muñoz, Begoña; Santacruz, Bele N; Carreras, Elena; Cabero, Luis

    2017-07-01

    To observe the modifications in cervical length (CL) in patients with and without cervical pessary (Arabin® ASQ 65/25/32) and correlate these modifications with gestational age at delivery. Prospective study of asymptomatic singleton pregnancies (PECEP-Trial) between weeks 20 + 0 and 23 + 6 with maternal short cervix (<25 mm) randomised into two groups: expectant management and cervical pessary. This study included 380 pregnant women: 190 with pessary and 190 without pessary. Mean CL in both groups at the time of randomisation showed no statistically-significant differences (pessary group: 19.0 mm and management group: 19.0 mm; p = 0.9). Mean CL measured after randomisation was 15.4 mm in patients of the expectant management group and 21.5 mm in the pessary group. These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). When means at randomisation and at the second measurement were compared, CL had decreased by 3.6 mm in the expectant management group and increased by 2.6 mm in the pessary group; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Coefficients of correlation showed that among patients of both groups with the same CL at 20 weeks of gestation, those with a pessary gave birth later. Insertion of an Arabin cervical pessary increased CL in asymptomatic patients with a short cervix, which correlated with shorter gestational age at delivery. The cervical pessary halted the progressive decrease in CL, which correlated with longer gestational age at delivery.

  20. Metabolic implications of menstrual cycle length in non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebić, Miro Šimun; Stojanović, Nataša; Baldani, Dinka Pavičić; Duvnjak, Lea Smirčić

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between menstrual cycle lenght and metabolic parameters in non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology, n = 250. Metabolic profiles of all participants were evaluated using anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), parameters of dyslipidemia (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) and markers of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index). The associations between menstrual cycle lenght and cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity were investigated. In non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology, menstrual cycle lenght was associated with hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance independently of body mass index. Moreover, menstrual cycle lenght added value to body mass index in predicting hypertriglyceridemia. The optimal menstrual cycle lenght cut-off value for identifying of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology at metabolic risk was found to be 45 days. Metabolic profile of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology (n = 75) with menstrual cycle lenght >45 days was similar to that of hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology (n = 138) while metabolic profile of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology with menstrual cycle lenght ≤45 days (n = 112) was similar to that of controls (n = 167). Non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology with menstrual cycle lenght >45 days had higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors compared to those with menstrual cycle lenght ≤45 days. Non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology are not metabolically homogeneous. Menstrual cycle lenght is an easy-to-obtain clinical parameter positively associated with the probability of unfavorable metabolic status in non

  1. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  2. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Boddum

    Full Text Available The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June-July. The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8-26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation.

  3. Growing correlation length on cooling below the onset of caging in a simulated glass-forming liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lačević, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We present a calculation of a fourth-order, time-dependent density correlation function that measures higher-order spatiotemporal correlations of the density of a liquid. From molecular dynamics simulations of a glass-forming Lennard-Jones liquid, we find that the characteristic length scale...... of the dynamics of the liquid in the alpha-relaxation regime....

  4. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization,...

  6. Dyslipidemia and chronic inflammation markers are correlated with telomere length shortening in Cushing's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aulinas

    Full Text Available Cushing's syndrome (CS increases cardiovascular risk (CVR and adipocytokine imbalance, associated with an increased inflammatory state. Telomere length (TL shortening is a novel CVR marker, associated with inflammation biomarkers. We hypothesized that inflammatory state and higher CVR in CS might be related to TL shortening, as observed in premature aging.To evaluate relationships between TL, CVR and inflammation markers in CS.In a cross-sectional study, 77 patients with CS (14 males, 59 pituitary-, 17 adrenal- and 1 ectopic-origin; 21 active disease and 77 age-, gender-, smoking-matched controls were included. Total white blood cell TL was measured by TRF-Southern technique. Clinical data and blood samples were collected (lipids, adrenal function, glucose. Adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were available in a subgroup of patients (n=32. Correlations between TL and clinical features were examined and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate potential predictors of TL.Dyslipidemic CS had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic subjects (7328±1274 vs 7957±1137 bp, p<0.05. After adjustment for age and body mass index, cured and active CS dyslipidemic patients had shorter TL than non-dyslipidemic CS (cured: 7187±1309 vs 7868±1104; active: 7203±1262 vs 8615±1056, respectively, p<0.05. Total cholesterol and triglycerides negatively correlated with TL (r-0.279 and -0.259, respectively, p<0.05, as well as CRP and IL6 (r-0.412 and -0.441, respectively, p<0.05. No difference in TL according the presence of other individual CVR factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity were observed in CS or in the control group. Additional TL shortening was observed in dyslipidemic obese patients who were also hypertensive, compared to those with two or less CVR factors (6956±1280 vs 7860±1180, respectively, p<0.001. Age and dyslipidemia were independent negative predictors of TL.TL is shortened in dyslipidemic CS

  7. Plasma PGFM and progesterone concentrations, luteolysis moment and estrous cycle length in Nelore cows submitted to uterine biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, endometrial samples were collected in 14 Nelore cows on days zero (ovulation, five, nine, thirteen and nineteen of the estrous cycle (biopsy group, and in 15 females these collections weren't performed (control group. Biopsies were done on the uterine horn endometrium contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. Blood samples were taken at -24, -16, -8, 0 +8, +16 and +24 hours in relation to progesterone drop (<1ng/mL, zero moment and evaluated for 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGFM by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Plasma progesterone concentration was determined by RIA every 24 hours. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC GLM and MIXED of the SAS. The mean value for PGFM during the entire period evaluated was greater in the biopsy group. The mean concentration of PGFM at moment zero was not different between the groups; the mean concentration of PGFM was higher in the biopsy group before and after the drop in progesterone level. The maximum mean concentration observed was not different between the groups; however, the mean minimum concentration was different with high values in the biopsy group. Although the PGFM concentrations were higher in the biopsy group, the biopsy and control groups had similar length of estrous cycle showing that repeated endometrial biopsy on the side contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum does not affect luteolysis and the length of the estrous cycle.

  8. Bone age in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: is there a correlation with hand function and limb length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-Sang; Choi, Im Jeong; Shin, Myung Jun; Yoon, Jin-A; Ko, Sung Hwa; Shin, Yong Beom

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the bone age and the upper extremity segmental lengths between the affected and the unaffected side and to reveal the correlation between the difference of bone age and the upper limb length discrepancy in the unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We also evaluated the relationship between difference of bone age and hand function. Seventy-eight patients participated in this study. The bone ages of hand-wrists of the patients were determined by the Greulich and Pyle atlas. Upper extremity segmental lengths were measured by radiograph. The side-to side length discrepancy was calculated as a percentage. Hand function was classified according to the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). There was significant difference in the bone age between the affected and unaffected side (phand function of 56 patients was evaluated by MACS and the MACS level showed correlation with difference of side-to-side bone age (r=0.29, p=0.03) and all segmental upper limb length discrepancies (phand function in the bone-age-delayed group was significantly better than the hand function in the bone-age-symmetrical group (phand function of the affected side is correlated with the difference of side-to-side bone age and the upper limb length discrepancy. Hand function might be helpful for predicting potential limb shortness and delayed bone age.

  9. Business cycles' correlation and systemic risk of the Japanese supplier-customer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichene, Hazem; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Yoshi

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to study and explain the business cycle correlations of the Japanese production network. We consider the supplier-customer network, which is a directed network representing the trading links between Japanese firms (links from suppliers to customers). The community structure of this network is determined by applying the Infomap algorithm. Each community is defined by its GDP and its associated business cycle. Business cycle correlations between communities are estimated based on copula theory. Then, based on firms' attributes and network topology, these correlations are explained through linear econometric models. The results show strong evidence of business cycle correlations in the Japanese production network. A significant systemic risk is found for high negative or positive shocks. These correlations are explained mainly by the sector and by geographic similarities. Moreover, our results highlight the higher vulnerability of small communities and small firms, which is explained by the disassortative mixing of the production network.

  10. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997-2012): Correlates, time trends and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick; Duran, Ana Clara; Tainio, Marko; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥ 9 h of cycling per day). Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  12. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  13. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  14. Increasing the Carbon Flux toward Synthesis of Short-Chain-Length-Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate in the Peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through Modification of the β-Oxidation Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Valeria Cora; Maeda, Isamu; Delessert, Syndie; Poirier, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Short-chain-length-medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates were synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae from intermediates of the β-oxidation cycle by expressing the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases from Aeromonas caviae and Ralstonia eutropha in the peroxisomes. The quantity of polymer produced was increased by using a mutant of the β-oxidation-associated multifunctional enzyme with low dehydrogenase activity toward R-3-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A.

  15. Telomere Length Determines TERRA and R-Loop Regulation through the Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Marco; Bonetti, Diego; Lockhart, Arianna; Serhal, Kamar; Kellner, Vanessa; Maicher, André; Jolivet, Pascale; Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Luke, Brian

    2017-06-29

    Maintenance of a minimal telomere length is essential to prevent cellular senescence. When critically short telomeres arise in the absence of telomerase, they can be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) to prevent premature senescence onset. It is unclear why specifically the shortest telomeres are targeted for HDR. We demonstrate that the non-coding RNA TERRA accumulates as HDR-promoting RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) preferentially at very short telomeres. The increased level of TERRA and R-loops, exclusively at short telomeres, is due to a local defect in RNA degradation by the Rat1 and RNase H2 nucleases, respectively. Consequently, the coordination of TERRA degradation with telomere replication is altered at shortened telomeres. R-loop persistence at short telomeres contributes to activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and promotes recruitment of the Rad51 recombinase. Thus, the telomere length-dependent regulation of TERRA and TERRA R-loops is a critical determinant of the rate of replicative senescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental correlates of cycling: Evaluating urban form and location effects based on Danish micro-data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish transportation and urban form micro-data. The results show that established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, but access to retail concentrations/centres, public...... transportation level-of-service, as well as competition between walking and cycling depending on environmental features can be added. Attractive conditions for using public transportation or walking are related to less cycling. The findings quantify the effects of urban form on the probability of cycling...

  17. Positive Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Metabolic Syndrome in a Korean Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wook Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In epidemiological studies, there are various associations of androgen receptor (AR CAG with several diseases or phenotypes. However, the relationship between CAG repeat length and metabolic syndrome (MS remains unclear, especially in Asian populations. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and MS in a Korean male population. Materials and Methods: We explored the relationship between AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and MS in a Korean male population (n=337 from 2013 to 2014. AR CAG repeat were determined by microsatellite fragment sizing. Components of MS and laboratory data (lipid profile, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] were analyzed with AR CAG repeat length. Results: The mean AR CAG repeat length was 22.3±4.7. Sixty-nine men (20.5% were diagnosed with MS. Men with MS showed significantly longer AR CAG repeat lengths compared with men without MS (26.2 vs. 21.4, p<0.001. With increasing CAG repeat, the number of components meeting the NCEP criteria increased significantly. AR CAG repeat length was associated significantly with high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride, and HbA1c levels. In the multivariate analysis, CAG repeat length, waist circumference, and levels of HDL were independently associated with MS. (odds ratio (OR=1.37, 1.19 and 0.90, p <0.001, 0.045, and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: AR CAG repeat length was associated with MS and laboratory test results, such as those for HDL, triglycerides, and HbA1c, in Korean males. Longer CAG repeat length was identified as a risk factor for MS in Korean males.

  18. Positive Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Metabolic Syndrome in a Korean Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Bae, Young Dae; Ahn, Sun Tae; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, there are various associations of androgen receptor (AR) CAG with several diseases or phenotypes. However, the relationship between CAG repeat length and metabolic syndrome (MS) remains unclear, especially in Asian populations. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and MS in a Korean male population. We explored the relationship between AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and MS in a Korean male population (n=337) from 2013 to 2014. AR CAG repeat were determined by microsatellite fragment sizing. Components of MS and laboratory data (lipid profile, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)) were analyzed with AR CAG repeat length. The mean AR CAG repeat length was 22.3±4.7. Sixty-nine men (20.5%) were diagnosed with MS. Men with MS showed significantly longer AR CAG repeat lengths compared with men without MS (26.2 vs. 21.4, p<0.001). With increasing CAG repeat, the number of components meeting the NCEP criteria increased significantly. AR CAG repeat length was associated significantly with high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and HbA1c levels. In the multivariate analysis, CAG repeat length, waist circumference, and levels of HDL were independently associated with MS. (odds ratio (OR)=1.37, 1.19 and 0.90, p<0.001, 0.045, and 0.001, respectively). AR CAG repeat length was associated with MS and laboratory test results, such as those for HDL, triglycerides, and HbA1c, in Korean males. Longer CAG repeat length was identified as a risk factor for MS in Korean males.

  19. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Walter D; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization, have been hypothesized to shape the evolution of this system, no empirical support for these mechanisms has previously been reported, beyond the observation that bird predation can extirpate small, experimentally mistimed emergences. Here we show that periodical cicada emergences appear to set populations of potential avian predators on numerical trajectories that result in significantly lower potential predation pressure during the subsequent emergence. This result provides new support for the importance of predators in shaping periodical cicada life history, offers an ecological rationale for why emergences are synchronized at the observed multiyear intervals, and may explain some of the developmental plasticity observed in these unique insects.

  20. Physiological Correlations with Short, Medium, and Long Cycling Time-Trial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borszcz, Fernando K.; Tramontin, Artur F.; de Souza, Kristopher M.; Carminatti, Lorival J.; Costa, Vitor P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated that physiological variables predict cycling endurance performance. However, it is still unclear whether the predictors will change over different performance durations. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between physiological variables and cycling time trials with different durations.…

  1. [Is the length of gestation a multiple of a fundamental cycle?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoujansky, J; Hedelin, G; Canguilhem, B

    1995-11-01

    Pregnancy duration was accurately determined using early ultrasonography in 21 patients prior to spontaneous abortion and in two successive pregnancies in each of 57 women prior to spontaneous delivery. Pregnancy durations before abortion or delivery approximated multiples of 14 days (14.4 and 13.3 days, respectively). In addition, in a given woman, the duration of two successive pregnancies carried to term was often identical; in a smaller number of cases, a difference of about 12 days (calculated value, 11.8 days) or, rarely, 24 days, was found. These values may correspond to the same functional period. These observations suggest that the duration of pregnancy (mean, 266 days) may be a multiple of the duration of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (12 to 14 days). Interindividual variations in luteal phase duration (standard deviation, 0.5 to 1 day) may explain inter-individual variations in pregnancy duration (standard deviation of about 15 days). The mean multiple may be 20. Thus, pregnancy duration may be determined both by fetal maturation and by a maternal time-counting mechanism. This hypothesis is discussed in the light of current data.

  2. Photoperiod length paces the temporal orchestration of cell cycle and carbon-nitrogen metabolism in Crocosphaera watsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Anthony; Rabouille, Sophie; Claquin, Pascal; Talec, Amélie; Raimbault, Virginie; Sciandra, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the effect of photoperiod length (PPL) (16:8 and 8:16 h of light-dark regime, named long and short PPL, respectively) on the temporal orchestration of the two antagonistic, carbon and nitrogen acquisitions in the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii strain WH8501 growing diazotrophically. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism were monitored at high frequency, and their patterns were compared with the cell cycle progression. The oxygen-sensitive N2 fixation process occurred mainly during the dark period, where photosynthesis cannot take place, inducing a light-dark cycle of cellular C : N ratio. Examination of circadian patterns in the cell cycle revealed that cell division occurred during the midlight period, (8 h and 4 h into the light in the long and short PPL conditions, respectively), thus timely separated from the energy-intensive diazotrophic process. Results consistently show a nearly 5 h time lag between the end of cell division and the onset of N2 fixation. Shorter PPLs affected DNA compaction of C. watsonii cells and also led to a decrease in the cell division rate. Therefore, PPL paces the growth of C. watsonii: a long PPL enhances cell division while a short PPL favours somatic growth (biomass production) with higher carbon and nitrogen cell contents. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Rapid Titration of Measles and Other Viruses: Optimization with Determination of Replication Cycle Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Rabilloud, Jessica; Lawrence, Philip; Gerlier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Background Measles virus (MV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen causing strong immunosuppression in affected individuals and a considerable number of deaths worldwide. Currently, measles is a re-emerging disease in developed countries. MV is usually quantified in infectious units as determined by limiting dilution and counting of plaque forming unit either directly (PFU method) or indirectly from random distribution in microwells (TCID50 method). Both methods are time-consuming (up to several days), cumbersome and, in the case of the PFU assay, possibly operator dependent. Methods/Findings A rapid, optimized, accurate, and reliable technique for titration of measles virus was developed based on the detection of virus infected cells by flow cytometry, single round of infection and titer calculation according to the Poisson's law. The kinetics follow up of the number of infected cells after infection with serial dilutions of a virus allowed estimation of the duration of the replication cycle, and consequently, the optimal infection time. The assay was set up to quantify measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using antibody labeling of viral glycoprotein, virus encoded fluorescent reporter protein and an inducible fluorescent-reporter cell line, respectively. Conclusion Overall, performing the assay takes only 24–30 hours for MV strains, 12 hours for VSV, and 52 hours for HIV-1. The step-by-step procedure we have set up can be, in principle, applicable to accurately quantify any virus including lentiviral vectors, provided that a virus encoded gene product can be detected by flow cytometry. PMID:21915289

  4. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Boisen, Kirsten A; Virtanen, Helena E

    2006-01-01

    in Denmark and at 0, 3 and 18 months in Finland with blood samples taken at 3 months (n = 630). Penile length and growth were registered and reproductive hormones (testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, oestradiol) were analysed. RESULTS: Penile length increased from birth (3.49+/-0.4 cm) to 3 years...... and growth. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal population-based study taking place at two large primary obstetric centres at the University Hospitals of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Turku, Finland. METHODS: Infant boys, 728 Danish and 1234 Finnish, underwent clinical examinations at 0, 3, 18 and 36 months...

  5. Thrombus imaging in acute stroke: correlation of thrombus length on susceptibility-weighted imaging with endovascular reperfusion success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisstanner, Christian; Gratz, Pascal P.; Schroth, Gerhard; Verma, Rajeev K.; Koechl, Arnold; Gralla, Jan; Zubler, Christoph; Hsieh, Kety; Mordasini, Pasquale; El-Koussy, Marwan [Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Jung, Simon [Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Arnold, Marcel [Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) enables visualization of thrombotic material in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to validate the accuracy of thrombus depiction on SWI compared to time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA), first-pass gadolinium-enhanced MRA (GE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Furthermore, we analysed the impact of thrombus length on reperfusion success with endovascular therapy. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions undergoing endovascular recanalization were screened. Only patients with a pretreatment SWI were included. Thrombus visibility and location on SWI were compared to those on TOF-MRA, GE-MRA and DSA. The association between thrombus length on SWI and reperfusion success was studied. Eighty-four of the 88 patients included (95.5 %) showed an MCA thrombus on SWI. Strong correlations between thrombus location on SWI and that on TOF-MRA (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.918, P < 0.001), GE-MRA (0.887, P < 0.001) and DSA (0.841, P < 0.001) were observed. Successful reperfusion was not significantly related to thrombus length on SWI (P = 0.153; binary logistic regression). In MCA occlusion thrombus location as seen on SWI correlates well with angiographic findings. In contrast to intravenous thrombolysis, thrombus length appears to have no impact on reperfusion success of endovascular therapy. (orig.)

  6. Correlation between carbon–carbon bond length and the ease of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Abstract. The bond length between C8-C9 in (1 R ... examined bond distance between the unsaturated nor- bornene and its saturated counterpart by x-ray crystal- .... Final R indices [I>2sigma(I)]. R1 = 0.0424, wR2 = 0.1054. R indices (all data).

  7. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI : Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Oudeman, Jos; Nicolay, Klaas; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Froeling, Martijn; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence

  8. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI: Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, V.; Oudeman, J.; Nicolay, K.; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, N.J.; Sprengers, A.M.J.; Nederveen, A.J.; Froeling, M.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence

  9. Corneal hysteresis is correlated with reduction in axial length after trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chukai; Zhang, Mingzhi; Huang, Yuqiang; Chen, Bin; Lam, Dennis S C; Congdon, Nathan

    2012-05-01

    We sought to determine whether corneal biomechanical parameters are predictive of reduction in axial length after anti-metabolite trabeculectomy. Chinese subjects undergoing trabeculectomy with mitomycin C by a single experienced surgeon underwent the following measurements: Corneal hysteresis (CH, Ocular Response Analyzer, Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments), Goldmann intra-ocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and axial length (AL, IOLMaster, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) were measured pre-operatively, and AL, CH and IOP were measured 1 day and 1 week post-operatively. Mean age of 31 subjects was 52.0 ± 15.2 years, and 15 (48.4%) were female. The mean pre-operative IOP of 21.4 ± 9.3 mmHg was reduced to 8.2 ± 4.6 mmHg 1 day and 11.0 ± 4.4 mmHg 1 week post-operatively (p < 0.001). AL declined from 22.99 ± 0.90 to 22.76 ± 0.87 mm at 1 day and 22.74 ± 0.9 mm at 1 week; 30/31 (%) eyes had a decline in AL (p < 0.001, sign test). In multivariate linear regression models including post-operative data from 1 day and 1 week, greater decline in Goldmann IOP (p < 0.0001, greater pre-op axial length (p < 0.001) and lower pre-operative CH (p = 0.03), were all associated with greater decline in post-operative axial length. Eyes with lesser ability of the ocular coat to absorb energy (lower CH) had significantly greater decrease in axial length after trabeculectomy-induced IOP-lowering.

  10. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Prevents Cell Cycle Arrest and Elongates Telomere Length in Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the molecular mechanisms of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF in preventing cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Primary culture of HDFs at various passages were incubated with 0.5 mg/mL TRF for 24 h. Telomere shortening with decreased telomerase activity was observed in senescent HDFs while the levels of damaged DNA and number of cells in G0/G1 phase were increased and S phase cells were decreased. Incubation with TRF reversed the morphology of senescent HDFs to resemble that of young cells with decreased activity of SA-β-gal, damaged DNA, and cells in G0/G1 phase while cells in the S phase were increased. Elongated telomere length and restoration of telomerase activity were observed in TRF-treated senescent HDFs. These findings confirmed the ability of tocotrienol-rich fraction in preventing HDFs cellular ageing by restoring telomere length and telomerase activity, reducing damaged DNA, and reversing cell cycle arrest associated with senescence.

  11. Identifying and Correcting Biases in Digital Image Correlation at Multiple Length Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Parada, Catalina; Da Silva Mello, Alberto W; Sangid, Michael D.; Woods, Hannah K; Otto, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate strain measurement at grain and sub-grain levels is important to predict and understand crack initiation during fatigue of materials. During cyclic loading, low magnitude strain is accumulated in the material and any distortion in the images can lead to inaccurate strain measurements and false prediction of the material’s behavior. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a reliable tool used to measure strain localization by correlating images before, during, and after cyclic loading. DIC...

  12. Estimation of Kubo number and correlation length of fluctuating magnetic fields and pressure in BOUT + + edge pedestal collapse simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook; Lee, W.-J.; Jhang, Hogun; Kaang, H. H.; Ghim, Y.-C.

    2017-10-01

    Stochastic magnetic fields are thought to be as one of the possible mechanisms for anomalous transport of density, momentum and heat across the magnetic field lines. Kubo number and Chirikov parameter are quantifications of the stochasticity, and previous studies show that perpendicular transport strongly depends on the magnetic Kubo number (MKN). If MKN is smaller than one, diffusion process will follow Rechester-Rosenbluth model; whereas if it is larger than one, percolation theory dominates the diffusion process. Thus, estimation of Kubo number plays an important role to understand diffusion process caused by stochastic magnetic fields. However, spatially localized experimental measurement of fluctuating magnetic fields in a tokamak is difficult, and we attempt to estimate MKNs using BOUT + + simulation data with pedestal collapse. In addition, we calculate correlation length of fluctuating pressures and Chirikov parameters to investigate variation correlation lengths in the simulation. We, then, discuss how one may experimentally estimate MKNs.

  13. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI. Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads. An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497. Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011. Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with

  14. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Allison A; Hurd, Peter L

    2005-03-01

    Finger length ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter second digits (index fingers) than fourth digits (ring fingers). Smaller, more masculine, digit ratios are thought to be associated with either higher prenatal testosterone levels or greater sensitivity to androgens, or both. Men with more masculine finger ratios are perceived as being more masculine and dominant by female observers, and tend to perform better in a number of physical sports. We hypothesized that digit ratio would correlate with propensity to engage in aggressive behavior. We examined the relationship between trait aggression, assayed using a questionnaire, and finger length ratio in both men and women. Men with lower, more masculine, finger length ratios had higher trait physical aggression scores (r(partial) = -0.21, N = 134, P = 0.028). We found no correlation between finger length ratio and any form of aggression in females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has an organizational effect on adult physical aggression in men.

  15. Disease associated malnutrition correlates with length of hospital stay in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Christina; Weber, Martina; Grote, Veit; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dell'Era, Laura; Flynn, Diana; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Gottrand, Frederic; Hartman, Corina; Hulst, Jessie; Joosten, Koen; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Kolaček, Sanja; Książyk, Janusz; Niseteo, Tena; Olszewska, Katarzyna; Pavesi, Paola; Piwowarczyk, Anna; Rousseaux, Julien; Shamir, Raanan; Sullivan, Peter B; Szajewska, Hania; Vernon-Roberts, Angharad; Koletzko, Berthold

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies reported a wide range of estimated malnutrition prevalence (6-30%) in paediatric inpatients based on various anthropometric criteria. We performed anthropometry in hospitalised children and assessed the relationship between malnutrition and length of hospital stay (LOS) and complication rates. In a prospective multi-centre European study, 2567 patients aged 1 month to 18 years were assessed in 14 centres in 12 countries by standardised anthropometry within the first 24 h after admission. Body mass index (BMI) and height/length malnutrition) and a BMI malnutrition) was associated with a 1.3 (CI95: 1.01, 1.55) and 1.6 (CI95: 1.27, 2.10) days longer LOS, respectively (p = 0.04 and p malnutrition in hospitalised children in Europe is common and is associated with significantly prolonged LOS and increased complications, with possible major cost implications, and reduced quality of life. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Full Length Research Paper Lack of correlation between H 2O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substance, we attempted to determine if there is a consistent link between in vitro anti-staphylococcal activity and H2O2 production by Lactobacillus spp. A simple quantitative analysis of H2O2 produced by Lactobacillus spp. was performed by a modified spectrophotometric method. A statistically significant correlation was ...

  17. [Correlation between the lengths of the long bones of the forearm and the fibula with body height in our population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Nadica; Vilić, Jasenka Vasić

    2012-05-01

    The task of a forensic examiner during exhumation of skeletal remains is to calculate antemortem height of a person whose skeletal remains were found. Anthropological investigations which provided formulae for calculating ante-mortem body height date back from XIX or from the first half of XX centuries. The most commonly used formulae are those of Trotter-Gleser, which were used to investigate skeletal remains from the World War II. Those investigations were conducted on skeletal remains of various ages and degrees of decay. Our experience with exhumation have shown that the present formulae do not deliver reliable values of antemortem height. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation of the length of long bones of leg and forearm with body height within our population and to establish the formulae for calculating ante-mortem body height within our population based on the obtained values. The lengths of ulna, radius, fibula and tibia were determined precisely by measuring bones on living individuals using a digital X-ray system. The height of individuals whose bones were measured was determined using an anthropometer. The highest degree of correlation between bone length and body height was found for tibia in males (r = 0.859, p population the length of long bones of the forearm and the leg are characterized by various degree of correlation with body height. The formulae that we set, make less distinction between the measured and the calculated body height as compared with the Trotter-Gleser formulae. We do hope that their implementation will facilitate identification of sceletal remains in our population.

  18. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Rasekh, Abdorrahman; Mombeini, Hayat; Konar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (N- TAD). We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12) of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdele- tions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12) patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 ± 0.35 (range, 11-26) and 19.96 ± 0.54 (range, 12-25) in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%), while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%). Conclusion Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. PMID:26246877

  19. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Reza Khatami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The androgen receptor (AR gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (NTAD. We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12 of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdeletions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12 patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 ± 0.35 (range, 11-26 and 19.96 ± 0.54 (range, 12-25 in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%, while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%. Conclusion: Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran.

  20. Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelena L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available We map the extent, infer the life-cycle length and describe spatial and temporal patterns of flowering of sarmentose bamboos (Guadua spp in upland forests of the southwest Amazon. We first examine the spectra and the spectral separation of forests with different bamboo life stages. False-color composites from orbital sensors going back to 1975 are capable of distinguishing life stages. These woody bamboos flower produce massive quantities of seeds and then die. Life stage is synchronized, forming a single cohort within each population. Bamboo dominates at least 161,500 km(2 of forest, coincident with an area of recent or ongoing tectonic uplift, rapid mechanical erosion and poorly drained soils rich in exchangeable cations. Each bamboo population is confined to a single spatially continuous patch or to a core patch with small outliers. Using spatial congruence between pairs of mature-stage maps from different years, we estimate an average life cycle of 27-28 y. It is now possible to predict exactly where and approximately when new bamboo mortality events will occur. We also map 74 bamboo populations that flowered between 2001 and 2008 over the entire domain of bamboo-dominated forest. Population size averaged 330 km(2. Flowering events of these populations are temporally and/or spatially separated, restricting or preventing gene exchange. Nonetheless, adjacent populations flower closer in time than expected by chance, forming flowering waves. This may be a consequence of allochronic divergence from fewer ancestral populations and suggests a long history of widespread bamboo in the southwest Amazon.

  1. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate With Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSmirnova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric RNA molecules (TERRA that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma, BRC-230 (breast cancer, AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts. We observed great clonal heterogeneity both in TRF (Terminal Restriction Fragment length and in TERRA levels. However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to γ-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  2. The correlation between the length of repetitive domain and mechanical properties of the recombinant flagelliform spidroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Shi, Chang-Hua; Tang, Chuan-Long; Cai, Yu-Ming; Meng, Qing

    2017-03-15

    Spider silk is an attractive biopolymer with numerous potential applications due to its remarkable characteristics. Among the six categories of spider silks, flagelliform (Flag) spider silk possesses longer and more repetitive core domains than others, therefore performing the highest extensibility. To investigate the correlation between the recombinant spidroin size and the synthetic fiber properties, four recombinant proteins with different sizes [N-Scn-C (n=1-4)] were constructed and expressed using IMPACT system. Subsequently, different recombinant spidroins were spun into fibers through wet-spinning via a custom-made continuous post-drawing device. Mechanical tests of the synthetic fibers with four parameters (maximum stress, maximum extension, Young's modulus and toughness) demonstrated that the extensibility of the fibers showed a positive correlation with spidroin size, consequently resulting in the extensibility of N-Sc4-C fiber ranked the highest (58.76%) among four fibers. Raman data revealed the relationship between secondary structure content and mechanical properties. The data here provide a deeper insight into the relationship between the function and structure of Flag silk for future design of artificial fibers. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Human-landing rate, gonotrophic cycle length, survivorship, and public health importance of Simulium erythrocephalum in Zaragoza, northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Lucientes-Curdi, Javier; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A

    2017-04-08

    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776) is one of the blackfly species responsible for major public health problems in Europe. Blackfly outbreaks of this species are becoming more frequent, threatening public health in Spain. In the present study, bionomic parameters of S. erythrocephalum in northeastern Spain were estimated. Simulium erythrocephalum was collected from May through June 2015 in Zaragoza, Spain, using the human-landing-collection (HLC) method. Daily pattern of total and parous landing activity was estimated, as was the gonotrophic cycle (GC) length and survivorship (S) rate, using time series analysis. Host-seeking females of S. erythrocephalum showed a bimodal human-landing activity pattern, with a minor and major peak at dawn and dusk, respectively; there was a significant negative association between human daily landing rate and temperature (P = 0.003) and solar radiation (P Spain. The data offer insights into the ecology of S. erythrocephalum, which can improve management strategies of this pest in Spain.

  4. Correlation Between Pin Misalignment and Crack Length in THT Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.

  5. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B

    2009-01-01

    intervention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. METHODS: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations included symptoms, physical signs, CTT, faecal loading, barium enema, endoscopy, sonography, anal manometry and biochemistry....... Interventions included a low-fat, high-fiber diet, cisapride or domperidone, and exercise for a mean of 21.6 months. RESULTS: The mean CTT was 40.71 h in patients vs 24.75 h in controls (p = 0.013). In patients, faecal loading was significantly greater than in controls (p....030), and symptoms increased significantly with increase in the number of redundancies (pcontrols (p = 0.033). Factor analysis showed that bloating correlated significantly with abdominal...

  6. Assessment of menstrual cycle length in cynomolgus monkeys as a female fertility endpoint of a biopharmaceutical in a 6 month toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiere, Jeanine L; Moffat, Graeme; Zhou, Lei; Tarlo, Kirk S

    2013-08-01

    According to ICH S6(R1), mating studies are not practical for assessing effects on female fertility of biopharmaceuticals that are pharmacologically active only in non-human primates (NHPs). Instead, fertility should be assessed by evaluating histopathology and organ weights of the reproductive tract in studies of at least 3 months dosing duration using sexually mature NHPs. An assessment of the menstrual cycle in females can be included if there is cause for concern based on pharmacological mode of action or relevant findings in previous studies. However, many factors unrelated to the molecule under evaluation can impact cycle length and thus affect data interpretation. Assessment of a monoclonal antibody in a 6 month repeat dose toxicity study is used as an example in this manuscript to review potential sources of background variability, identify strategies to minimize its impact and recommend optimal ways to collect, present and analyze menstrual cycle data. Experimental variables include the amount of time required for menses to normalize following the transport of animals to the testing facility, stress-related effects on the cycle length due to socialization issues with new cagemates, and the normal background irregularity of cycle length in NHPs. Study related procedures (i.e., animal handling for dosing, blood draws, body weights, ECGs, etc.) did not affect cycle lengths in this study. We show that introducing a number of key experimental control procedures to minimize cycle variability can enable a robust assessment of the effects of a biotherapeutic on menstrual cycling within a chronic toxicity study in NHPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  8. Correlation between thermodynamic efficiency and ecological cyclicity for thermodynamic power cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Layton

    Full Text Available A sustainable global community requires the successful integration of environment and engineering. In the public and private sectors, designing cyclical ("closed loop" resource networks increasingly appears as a strategy employed to improve resource efficiency and reduce environmental impacts. Patterning industrial networks on ecological ones has been shown to provide significant improvements at multiple levels. Here, we apply the biological metric cyclicity to 28 familiar thermodynamic power cycles of increasing complexity. These cycles, composed of turbines and the like, are scientifically very different from natural ecosystems. Despite this difference, the application results in a positive correlation between the maximum thermal efficiency and the cyclic structure of the cycles. The immediate impact of these findings results in a simple method for comparing cycles to one another, higher cyclicity values pointing to those cycles which have the potential for a higher maximum thermal efficiency. Such a strong correlation has the promise of impacting both natural ecology and engineering thermodynamics and provides a clear motivation to look for more fundamental scientific connections between natural and engineered systems.

  9. Correlation between thermodynamic efficiency and ecological cyclicity for thermodynamic power cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Astrid; Reap, John; Bras, Bert; Weissburg, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A sustainable global community requires the successful integration of environment and engineering. In the public and private sectors, designing cyclical ("closed loop") resource networks increasingly appears as a strategy employed to improve resource efficiency and reduce environmental impacts. Patterning industrial networks on ecological ones has been shown to provide significant improvements at multiple levels. Here, we apply the biological metric cyclicity to 28 familiar thermodynamic power cycles of increasing complexity. These cycles, composed of turbines and the like, are scientifically very different from natural ecosystems. Despite this difference, the application results in a positive correlation between the maximum thermal efficiency and the cyclic structure of the cycles. The immediate impact of these findings results in a simple method for comparing cycles to one another, higher cyclicity values pointing to those cycles which have the potential for a higher maximum thermal efficiency. Such a strong correlation has the promise of impacting both natural ecology and engineering thermodynamics and provides a clear motivation to look for more fundamental scientific connections between natural and engineered systems.

  10. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate with Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Alexandra; Gamba, Riccardo; Khoriauli, Lela; Vitelli, Valerio; Nergadze, Solomon G; Giulotto, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) molecules that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG-island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma), BRC-230 (breast cancer), AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers), and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts). However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to γ-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  11. A missing element of the deep carbon cycle: CO2 degassing estimates from rift length analysis during Pangea fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, S.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.

    2016-12-01

    The deep carbon cycle connects CO2 within the atmosphere and oceans to the vast CO2 reservoir in Earth's mantle: subducted lithosphere carries CO2 into the mantle, while extensional plate boundaries and arc volcanoes release it back to Earth's surface. The length of plate boundaries thereby exerts first-order control on global CO2 fluxes on geological time scales. Here we provide a worldwide census of extensional plate boundary length from the Triassic to present day, in one million year time intervals, using a novel analysis technique (Brune et al. 2016, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature18319). The most extensive rift phase during the fragmentation of Pangea occurred in the Cretaceous with extension along the South Atlantic (9700 km) and North Atlantic rifts (9100 km), within East Gondwana (8500 km), and the failed African rift systems (4900 km). The combined extent of these and several smaller rifts amounts to more than 30.000 km of simultaneously active continental rifting. It is well-accepted that volcanoes at plate boundaries release large amounts of CO2 from the Earth's interior. Recent work, however, revealed the importance of deep-cutting faults and diffuse degassing on CO2 emissions in the East African rift (Lee et al. 2016, Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2622). Upscaling these measured CO2 fluxes to all concurrently active global rift zones, we compute first-order estimates of total rift-related CO2 degassing rates for the last 240 Myr. Our results show that rift-related CO2 release rates may have reached 600 Mt/yr in the Early Cretaceous, while Cenozoic rates rarely exceeded 200 Mt/yr. By comparison, present-day estimates of CO2 release at mid-ocean ridges range between 53 and 97 Mt/yr. We suggest that rift-related degassing during supercontinental breakup played a major role in maintaining high atmospheric CO2 concentrations through Mesozoic times, which exceeded Quaternary values by 400%.

  12. Reliability of the two-point measurement of the spatial correlation length from Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals in fusion-grade plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaewook; Lampert, M; Ghim, Y -c

    2016-01-01

    A statistical method for the estimation of spatial correlation lengths of Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals with two measurement points is examined to quantitatively evaluate its reliability (variance) and accuracy (bias error). The standard deviation of the correlation value is analytically derived for randomly distributed Gaussian shaped fluctuations satisfying stationarity and homogeneity, allowing us to evaluate, as a function of fluctuation-to-noise ratios, sizes of averaging time windows and ratios of the distance between the two measurement points to the true correlation length, the goodness of the two-point measurement for estimating the spatial correlation length. Analytic results are confirmed with numerically generated synthetic data and real experimental data obtained with the KSTAR beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Our results can be applied to Gaussian-shaped fluctuating signals where a correlation length must be measured with only two measurement points.

  13. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  14. Ovulation Prevalence in Women with Spontaneous Normal-Length Menstrual Cycles – A Population-Based Cohort from HUNT3, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jerilynn C.; Naess, Marit; Langhammer, Arnulf; Forsmo, Siri

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovulatory menstrual cycles are essential for women’s fertility and needed to prevent bone loss. There is a medical/cultural expectation that clinically normal menstrual cycles are inevitably ovulatory. Currently within the general population it is unknown the proportion of regular, normal-length menstrual cycles that are ovulatory. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the population point prevalence of ovulation in premenopausal, normally menstruating women. The null hypothesis was that such cycles are ovulatory. Methods This is a single-cycle, cross-sectional, population-based study—a sub-study of the HUNT3 health study in the semi-rural county (Nord Trøndelag) in mid-Norway. Participants included >3,700 spontaneously (no hormonal contraception) menstruating women, primarily Caucasian, ages 20–49.9 from that county. Participation rate was 51.9%. All reported the date previous flow started. A single, random serum progesterone level was considered ovulatory if ≥9.54 nmol/L on cycle days 14 to -3 days before usual cycle length (CL). Results Ovulation was assessed in 3,168 women mean age 41.7 (interquartile range, [IQR] 36.8 to 45.5), cycle length 28 days (d) (IQR 28 to 28) and body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.1 to 26.4). Parity was 95.6%, 30% smoked, 61.3% exercised regularly and 18% were obese. 1,545 women with a serum progesterone level on cycle days 14 to -3 were presumed to be in the luteal phase. Of these, 63.3% of women had an ovulatory cycle (n = 978) and 37% (n = 567) were anovulatory. Women with/ without ovulation did not differ in age, BMI, cycle day, menarche age, cigarette use, physical activity, % obesity or self-reported health. There were minimal differences in parity (96.7% vs. 94.5%, P = 0.04) and major differences in progesterone level (24.5 vs. 3.8 nmol/L, P = 0.001). Conclusion Anovulation in a random population occurs in over a third of clinically normal menstrual cycles. PMID:26291617

  15. Expression of cell cycle bio-markers and telomere length in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study between radiation-associated and spontaneous cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achille, M.; Boukheris, H.; Caillou, B.; Talbot, M.; De Vathaire, F.; Sabatier, L.; Desmaze, C.; Schlumberger, M.; Soria, J.C. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DSV/DRR/Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Villejuif (France)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: Radiation exposure during childhood is the only well-established risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To better define the biologic profile of radiation-induced and sporadic PTC, we compared in these two groups of PTC the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and telomere length. Methods: Cell cycle markers (cyclin A, B1, D1, E, and Ki67) were evaluated on 100 PTC specimens (26 radiation-induced and 74 sporadic PTCs). The expression of cell cycle regulators was studied using immunohistochemistry; telomere length heterogeneity was studied using in situ hybridization in a subset of 16 formalin-fixed samples (8 radiation-induced and 8 sporadic PTCs). Results: At multivariate analysis, only cytoplasmic cyclin E staining was over expressed in sporadic cases (P = 0.006). The other cell cycle markers and telomere length did not differ significantly between sporadic PTC and radiation-induced PTC. Conclusions: These markers cannot be used to differentiate radiation-induced from sporadic PTCs. (authors)

  16. Effect of genomic long-range correlations on DNA persistence length: from theory to single molecule experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Julien; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Milani, Pascale; Audit, Benjamin; Vaillant, Cedric; Fontaine, Emeline; Mongelard, Fabien; Lavorel, Guillaume; St-Jean, Philippe; Bouvet, Philippe; Argoul, Françoise; Arneodo, Alain

    2010-04-22

    Sequence dependency of DNA intrinsic bending properties has been emphasized as a possible key ingredient to in vivo chromatin organization. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and liquid to image intrinsically straight (synthetic), uncorrelated (hepatitis C RNA virus) and persistent long-range correlated (human) DNA fragments in various ionic conditions such that the molecules freely equilibrate on the mica surface before being captured in a particular conformation. 2D thermodynamic equilibrium is experimentally verified by a detailed statistical analysis of the Gaussian nature of the DNA bend angle fluctuations. We show that the worm-like chain (WLC) model, commonly used to describe the average conformation of long semiflexible polymers, reproduces remarkably well the persistence length estimates for the first two molecules as consistently obtained from (i) mean square end-to-end distance measurement and (ii) mean projection of the end-to-end vector on the initial orientation. Whatever the operating conditions (air or liquid, concentration of metal cations Mg(2+) and/or Ni(2+)), the persistence length found for the uncorrelated viral DNA underestimates the value obtained for the straight DNA. We show that this systematic difference is the signature of the presence of an uncorrelated structural intrinsic disorder in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA fragment that superimposes on local curvatures induced by thermal fluctuations and that only the entropic disorder depends upon experimental conditions. In contrast, the WLC model fails to describe the human DNA conformations. We use a mean-field extension of the WLC model to account for the presence of long-range correlations (LRC) in the intrinsic curvature disorder of human genomic DNA: the stronger the LRC, the smaller the persistence length. The comparison of AFM imaging of human DNA with LRC DNA simulations confirms that the rather small mean square end-to-end distance observed, particularly for G

  17. Fatigue and mood correlates of sleep length in three age-social groups: School children, students, and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Pokorski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to trace the consequences of insufficient sleep, in terms of chronic sleep reduction rather than acute sleep deprivation, on fatigue, mood, cognitive performance self-estimations, and daytime sleepiness in different age-social groups. The age group of the subjects reflects their social situation and their working time organization: adolescents (n = 191) obeyed the strict school schedules with starting times often before 08:00 h; university students (n = 115) had more flexible timetables; young employees (n = 126) were engaged in regular morning schedules or irregular daytime hours or day and night shifts. A questionnaire study determined the declared need of sleep, self-reported sleep length, chronic fatigue (using a scale comprised of eight fatigue symptoms and four mood and three cognitive items), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). The declared need for sleep decreased in subsequent age groups from 9 h 23 min in school children to 8 h 22 min in university students and to 7 h 37 min in young employees. Consequently, the discrepancy between preferred and real sleep length (sleep deficit) was the largest in adolescents: 106 min. Females showed a greater need of sleep than males (p = .025) and significantly more fatigue, mood, and cognitive problems; they also exhibited higher level of daytime sleepiness (p sleep index (reported sleep length related to requirements) correlated significantly with all health issues in women (p sleep length was unrelated to mood and fatigue issues; the declared individual need of sleep and sleep index showed significant associations, especially in the group of adolescents. The most frequent complaints of adolescents included tiredness on awakening (46%), nervousness, and general weakness; university students reported excessive drowsiness (50%), tension, and nervousness; employees suffered mostly from negative moods, such as tension (49%), nervousness, and irritability. The findings of the study

  18. Rotavirus replication is correlated with S/G2 interphase arrest of the host cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Glück

    Full Text Available In infected cells rotavirus (RV replicates in viroplasms, cytosolic structures that require a stabilized microtubule (MT network for their assembly, maintenance of the structure and perinuclear localization. Therefore, we hypothesized that RV could interfere with the MT-breakdown that takes place in mitosis during cell division. Using synchronized RV-permissive cells, we show that RV infection arrests the cell cycle in S/G2 phase, thus favoring replication by improving viroplasms formation, viral protein translation, and viral assembly. The arrest in S/G2 phase is independent of the host or viral strain and relies on active RV replication. RV infection causes cyclin B1 down-regulation, consistent with blocking entry into mitosis. With the aid of chemical inhibitors, the cytoskeleton network was linked to specific signaling pathways of the RV-induced cell cycle arrest. We found that upon RV infection Eg5 kinesin was delocalized from the pericentriolar region to the viroplasms. We used a MA104-Fucci system to identify three RV proteins (NSP3, NSP5, and VP2 involved in cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Our data indicate that there is a strong correlation between the cell cycle arrest and RV replication.

  19. Correlation of APACHE II and SOFA scores with length of stay in various surgical intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Morena; Goranović, Tatjana; Holjevac, Jadranka Katancić

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score as the predictors of length of stay (LOS) in various surgical intensive care units (ICUs) and to test the hypothesis that the significance of scoring for predicting LOS is greater in specialized surgical ICUs. We scored patients in a non-specialized general surgical ICU (n = 328) and in a specialized cardiosurgical ICU (n = 158) consecutively on admission (APACHE II-1st day; SOFA-1st day) and on third day of stay (APACHE II-3rd day; SOFA-3rd day) in a 4-month period. LOS and APACHE II/SOFA scores were significantly correlated both on admission and on third day of stay in the general surgical ICU (APACHE II-1st day r = 0.289; SOFA-1st day r = 0.306; APACHE II-3rd day r = 0.728; SOFA-3rd day r = 0.725). LOS and APACHE II on admission were not significantly correlated in the cardiosurgical ICU (APACHE II-1st day r = 0.092), while SOFA on admission and APACHE II and SOFA on third day were significantly correlated (SOFA-1st day r = 0.258; APACHE II-3rd day r = 0.716; SOFA-3rd day r = 0.719). Usefulness of scoring for predicting LOS in ICU varied between different surgical ICUs. Contrary to our hypothesis, scoring had greater value for predicting LOS in the non-specialized general surgical ICU. APACHE II score on admission had no value for predicting LOS in the cardiosurgical ICU.

  20. The correlation of anandamide with gonadotrophin and sex steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in plasma anandamide (AEA levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle, and to analyze the relationship among AEA, sex steroids and gonadotrophins. Materials and Methods: The patients were fertile women with normal menstrual cycle, proposed to get in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment due to oviduct obstruction or male infertility. Patients were divided into two groups, cross-sectional (n=79 and longitudinal (n=10. The plasma AEA levels were examined by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS system. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, and progesterone (P were measured by chemiluminescence. Results: The AEA levels in the late follicular phase were slightly higher than those in the early follicular phase. Subsequently, the AEA levels peaked at the time of ovulation in both two cohorts. Finally, the lowest AEA levels were measured in the luteal phase. Moreover, there were highly significant positive correlations between the plasma AEA concentration and the serum levels of FSH, LH and E2, whereas the AEA level was not correlated with P during the normal menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Our observations reveal a dynamic change in the plasma AEA level, which is closely associated with the levels of gonadotrophin and sex steroid hormones, suggesting that the hormones may be involved in the regulation of AEA levels during the menstrual cycle. Our studies help to design new strategies to improve implantation and treatments for reproductive diseases.

  1. Sleep-wake Cycle Assessment in Type 2 Diabetes and Salivary Melatonin Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paula Regina Aguiar

    The aim of this study was to analyze the sleep-wake cycle of T2DM subjects and compare it to healthy controls using the nonparametric approach and to assess the changes in the circadian and homeostatic control of the sleep-wake cycle in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and correlate it with melatonin concentration. The sample consisted of 21 subjects with diagnosis of T2DM for more than a year and 21 healthy controls matched for gender and age. Subjects were assessed using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), actigraphy and melatonin levels. The findings revealed that T2DM subjects demonstrate lower IS (p=.03), higher IV (p=.046) and lower rhythm amplitude (p=.02) when compared to healthy controls. Mean melatonin concentrations collected at bed time were significantly lower in the diabetic subjects than that of controls (11.7+/-7.27 pg/ml vs. 24.13+/-10.80pg/ml; psleep duration (p=.03), efficiency (p=.02); and higher activity counts during the sleep phase (p=.02) in the diabetic group. Sleep efficiency was significantly correlated with melatonin collected two hours before bed time (rho=.61; p=.047). Additionally, there were significant inverse relationships between melatonin collected at two hours before bed time and latency (rho=-.87; p=.001), wake after sleep onset (rho=-.69; p=.02) and nocturnal activity (rho=-.67; p=.03). Latency was inversely correlated with melatonin collected at bed time (rho=-.69; p=.02). These findings suggest that T2DM presents disturbances in the homeostatic and circadian drives, mainly characterized by less consistency across days of the daily circadian signal, higher rhythm fragmentation and lower rhythm amplitude. In addition to the lower melatonin levels, the decrease in the amplitude of the activity rhythm may also be involved in circadian alterations of the sleep-wake cycle.

  2. Is the flux of solar neutrinos correlated with the solar magnetic activity cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDeKop, T.; Snodgrass, H.B. (Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A number of recent investigations (eg. Bahcall and Press 1991, Ap. J. 370, 730) have found a weak anticorrelation between solar neutrino flux and sunspot number, but according to the electroweak model for the neutrino, there should be no coupling of neutrinos with such solar parameters as magnetic field strength; hence if the magnetic cycle is produced as the authors think it is (i.e. not connected to some periodicity in the Sun's nuclear reactor) no such correlation should exist. A convincing demonstration that a correlation between SNU and magnetic activity does exist would therefore constitute a major discovery, necessarily altering current understanding either of the physics taking place within the Sun or of the neutrino itself. Bahcall and Press, using the rank-order correlation method, determined that the anticorrelation of SNU with sunspot number is of significance during the period 1977-89. The authors have redone this project, extending the data base to include all data through 1992, and they find that inclusion of the additional data greatly reduces the correlation between SNU and the solar magnetic field strength itself. Results have been obtained using both the magnetic flux for the entire sun and that within bands of latitude of varying width along the line of sight to the solar core. Here, using the entire data set 1970-92, the authors find a significant correlation for which the significance varies with the band width, being greatest when the width approximates the core diameter.

  3. IS THE SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD CORRELATED WITH THE DYNAMO CYCLE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: bbkarak@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale magnetic field is ubiquitous at the solar surface—even at high latitudes. From observations we know that this field is uncorrelated (or perhaps even weakly anticorrelated) with the global sunspot cycle. Our aim is to explore the origin, and particularly the cycle dependence, of such a phenomenon using three-dimensional dynamo simulations. We adopt a simple model of a turbulent dynamo in a shearing box driven by helically forced turbulence. Depending on the dynamo parameters, large-scale (global) and small-scale (local) dynamos can be excited independently in this model. Based on simulations in different parameter regimes, we find that, when only the large-scale dynamo is operating in the system, the small-scale magnetic field generated through shredding and tangling of the large-scale magnetic field is positively correlated with the global magnetic cycle. However, when both dynamos are operating, the small-scale field is produced from both the small-scale dynamo and the tangling of the large-scale field. In this situation, when the large-scale field is weaker than the equipartition value of the turbulence, the small-scale field is almost uncorrelated with the large-scale magnetic cycle. On the other hand, when the large-scale field is stronger than the equipartition value, we observe an anticorrelation between the small-scale field and the large-scale magnetic cycle. This anticorrelation can be interpreted as a suppression of the small-scale dynamo. Based on our studies we conclude that the observed small-scale magnetic field in the Sun is generated by the combined mechanisms of a small-scale dynamo and tangling of the large-scale field.

  4. Influence of the cycle length on the production of PHA and polyglucose from glycerol by bacterial enrichments in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2013-12-01

    PHA, a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by a wide range of microorganisms, is known for its applications as bioplastic. In recent years the use of agro-industrial wastewater as substrate for PHA production by bacterial enrichments has attracted considerable research attention. Crude glycerol as generated during biodiesel production is a waste stream that due to its high organic matter content and low price could be an interesting substrate for PHA production. Previously we have demonstrated that when glycerol is used as substrate in a feast-famine regime, PHA and polyglucose are simultaneously produced as storage polymers. The work described in this paper aimed at understanding the effect of the cycle length on the bacterial enrichment process with emphasis on the distribution of glycerol towards PHA and polyglucose. Two sequencing batch reactors where operated with the same hydraulic and biomass retention time. A short cycle length (6 h) favored polyglucose production over PHA, whereas at long cycle length (24 h) PHA was more favored. In both communities the same microorganism appeared dominating, suggesting a metabolic rather than a microbial competition response. Moreover, the presence of ammonium during polymer accumulation did not influence the maximum amount of PHA that was attained. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Whole-body efficiency is negatively correlated with minimum torque per duty cycle in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Jobson, Simon A; George, Simon R; Day, Stephen H; Nevill, Alan M

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a causal relationship between pedalling "circularity" and cycling efficiency. Eleven trained cyclists were studied during submaximal cycling. Variables recorded included gross and delta efficiency and the ratio of minimum to peak torque during a duty cycle. Participants also completed a questionnaire about their training history. The most notable results were as follows: gross efficiency (r = -0.72, P ratio of minimum to peak torque, particularly at higher work rates. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta efficiency and average minimum torque at 200 W (r = -0.76, P efficiency and gross efficiency, although experience and the ratio of minimum to peak torque were not related. These results show that variations in pedalling technique may account for a large proportion of the variation in efficiency in trained cyclists. However, it is also possible that some underlying physiological factor influences both. Finally, it appears that experience positively influences efficiency, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear.

  6. Effect of correlation length between metallic nanoparticles in nonlinear properties of composition of oxide glass and metallic nanoparticles using SPFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naseri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a kind of composite materials made up of noble metal nanoparticles (such as gold, silver, copper and a dielectric material (such as silica with unique properties. In this paper, using Strong Permittivity Fluctuation Theory (SPFT method, the coefficient of effective permittivity and the effective susceptibility coefficient are calculated for combining glass with metal nanoparticles, assuming that the nanoparticles are spherical. Coefficient of effective permittivity and the effective susceptibility index are estimated for the sample of homogeneous composite materials. And the results of this study are compared with experimental results and other models. It is observed that the data obtained for the zero-order estimate do not match the experimental results. By appropriate correlation length for the second- and third-order, specially for the second-order estimate of SPFT method, conformity between results can be established. Therefore, it can be concluded that SPFT method is betler than other models for calculating and improving the properties of the non-linear model.

  7. Length of stay for patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring with stereoelectroencephalography and subdural grids correlates positively with increased institutional profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alvin Y; Kharrat, Sohayla; Lundeen, Kelly; Mnatsakanyan, Lilit; Sazgar, Mona; Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Lin, Jack J; Hsu, Frank P K; Vadera, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    Lowering the length of stay (LOS) is thought to potentially decrease hospital costs and is a metric commonly used to manage capacity. Patients with epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode monitoring may have longer LOS because the time to seizure is difficult to predict or control. This study investigates the effect of economic implications of increased LOS in patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy. We retrospectively collected and analyzed patient data for 76 patients who underwent invasive monitoring with either subdural grid (SDG) implantation or stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) over 2 years at our institution. Data points collected included invasive electrode type, LOS, profit margin, contribution margins, insurance type, and complication rates. LOS correlated positively with both profit and contribution margins, meaning that as LOS increased, both the profit and contribution margins rose, and there was a low rate of complications in this patient group. This relationship was seen across a variety of insurance providers. These data suggest that LOS may not be the best metric to assess invasive monitoring patients (i.e., SEEG or SDG), and increased LOS does not necessarily equate with lower or negative institutional financial gain. Further research into LOS should focus on specific specialties, as each may differ in terms of financial implications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Statistical properties of correlated solar flares and coronal mass ejections in cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Outstanding problems in understanding early stellar systems include mass loss, angular momentum evolution, and the effects of energetic events on the surrounding environs. The latter of these drives much research into our own system's space weather and the development of predictive algorithms for geomagnetic storms. So dually motivated, we have leveraged a big-data approach to combine two decades of GOES and LASCO data to identify a large sample of spatially and temporally correlated solar flares and CMEs. In this presentation, we revisit the analysis of Aarnio et al. (2011), adding 10 years of data and further exploring the relationships between correlated flare and CME properties. We compare the updated data set results to those previously obtained, and discuss the effects of selecting smaller time windows within solar cycles 23 and 24 on the empirically defined relationships between correlated flare and CME properties. Finally, we discuss a newly identified large sample of potentially interesting correlated flares and CMEs perhaps erroneously excluded from previous searches.

  9. Estimation of Corrosion Fatigue Lives Based on the Variations of the Crack Lengths Distributions During Stress Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, Sotomi; Maekawa, Ichiro; Shiozawa, Kazuaki; Miyao, Kazyu

    1985-01-01

    Many small distributed cracks have been observed on the specimen during corrosion fatigue process, and the damage of corrosion fatigue is related to the behaviour of these distributed cracks. The distribution of crack lengths during corrosion fatigue was approximated well by the three parameter Weibull distribution under plane-bending fatigue tests of carbon steel in salt water. A method of estimation of corrosion fatigue lives was proposed. The crack initiation, crack growth behaviour and th...

  10. Correlation between capacity and impedance of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Simon F.; Brand, Martin J.; Campestrini, Christian; Gleissenberger, Markus; Jossen, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Conventional capacity measurement techniques are time-consuming and thus expensive. But to know the capacity of battery units is necessary, e.g. to select most equal cells for battery pack assembly or to decide whether single units of an aged battery pack are worthy to be reused in a 2nd-life application. So, a quick and easy approach to refer to the actual capacity is of great technical and economic interest. In this paper, the correlation between capacity and impedance of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle life is analyzed and assessed, whether it can serve as a base for capacity quick tests. Therefore, new cells, cells aged in the laboratory and those out of two identical electric vehicles are characterized to yield a broad set of data. Results of this work imply the feasibility of correlation based capacity quick tests. However, parameterization of needed functional dependencies between capacity and impedance must be done with laboratory aging data similar to the practical use as a strong dependency of the correlation behavior from the operational and storage conditions is observed. Especially high temperature leads to strong deviation which could be linked to the layered structure of the solid electrolyte interphase.

  11. Birth rate and its correlation with the lunar cycle and specific atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Pradhan, Susan; Bay, R Curtis; Coonrod, Dean V

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to use the Arizona State birth certificate database for Phoenix metropolitan hospitals, in conjunction with National Weather Service records to determine whether there is a relationship between birth rate and meteorologic or lunar conditions. This study attempts to dispel or lend significance to beliefs among hospital staff that the phase of the moon and/or meteorologic conditions are related to birth rate. Birth records were limited to spontaneous vaginal deliveries, 37 to 40 weeks' gestation, in Phoenix, between 1995 and 2000 (n = 167,956). Daily birth counts were merged with daily surface weather statistics from the National Weather Service for Sky Harbor Airport, and records of lunar phase for the same period. The analyses revealed no significant correlates of birth rate. Although there exists a popular belief that the phase of the lunar cycle and weather conditions affect birth rate, no such evidence was found in this study.

  12. Behavioral despair is differentially affected by the length and timing of photic stimulation in the dark phase of an L/D cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D; Aksoy, A; Canbeyli, R

    2008-07-01

    The effect of varying the length and timing of photic stimulation in the dark phase of an L/D lighting cycle on behavioral despair was investigated in female Wistar rats. Animals were kept in a vivarium on an L/D 12 h:12 h light cycle (lights on at 0700 h) except for a single day of light exposure in an insulated chamber in the dark phase of the L/D schedule. Light pulses provided by an incandescent lamp (15- and 25-W, for Exps. 1 and 2, respectively) either 2-h (Exp. 1) or 30-min in length (Exp. 2) were administered to independent groups of rats (n=8 each) either in the early, middle or late hours of the dark phase of the L/D cycle in the insulated chamber. Light pulses were delivered beginning 2 1/2, 5 1/2 or 7 1/2 h (Exp. 1) or 3 1/4, 6 1/4 and 8 1/4 h (Exp. 2) after dark onset. Control animals were treated similarly except for photic stimulation. In each experiment, an additional group received a light pulse of the appropriate length both in the early and late portion of the dark phase (double double-pulse groups): beginning 2 1/2 and 7 1/2 h (Exp. 1) or 3 1/4 and 8 1/4 h (Exp. 2) after dark onset. All animals then underwent two forced swim tests separated by 24 h with the first test occurring in the light (starting at 1500 h) following the dark phase when photic stimulation was administered. Total duration of immobility in the second swim test was measured to gauge behavioral despair. In Exp. 1, the 2-h double double-pulse group showed significantly shorter immobility compared to controls (pdespair depending on the timing and the duration of photic stimulation.

  13. Biology of triatominae (Reduviidade, Hemiptera from north of Formosa county (Goiás - Brazil. III: length of life cycle of Psammolestes tertius Lent and Jurberg 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the life cycle of Psammolestes tertius was studied. The mean length, in days, fromeach stage was: 26.3 (± 1.7 (1st, 28.6 (± 1.8 (2nd, 28.4 (± 1.8 (3rd, 32.2 (± 1.9 (4th and 33.5 (± 5.8 (5th. The mean egg incubation period was 15.7 days (± 1.7. Overall mortality was 48.9% and egg viability was 65.7%.

  14. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  15. Investigation on series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of bacteria using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, Monica Teodora; Luiza, Buimaga Iarinca; Cristescu, C P

    2013-03-21

    In the framework of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, we investigate characteristics of series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of some bacteria and archaea. We propose the use of a multifractal cross-correlation series that can be defined for any pair of equal lengths data sequences (or time series) and that can be characterized by the full set of parameters that are attributed to any time series. Comparison between characteristics of series of length of coding and non-coding DNA sequences and of their associated multifractal cross-correlation series for selected groups is used for the identification of class affiliation of certain bacteria and archaea. The analysis is carried out using the dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent on the size of fluctuations, the shape of the singularity spectra, the shape and relative disposition of the curves of the singular measures scaling exponent and the values of the associated parameters. Empirically, we demonstrate that the series of lengths of coding and non-coding sequences as well as the associated multifractal cross-correlation series can be approximated as universal multifractals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A viscous solvent enables information transfer from gene-length nucleic acids in a model prebiotic replication cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Christine; Gállego, Isaac; Laughlin, Brandon; Grover, Martha A.; Hud, Nicholas V.

    2017-04-01

    Many hypotheses concerning the nature of early life assume that genetic information was once transferred through the template-directed synthesis of RNA, before the emergence of coded enzymes. However, attempts to demonstrate enzyme-free, template-directed synthesis of nucleic acids have been limited by 'strand inhibition', whereby transferring information from a template strand in the presence of its complementary strand is inhibited by the stability of the template duplex. Here, we use solvent viscosity to circumvent strand inhibition, demonstrating information transfer from a gene-length template (>300 nt) within a longer (545 bp or 3 kb) duplex. These results suggest that viscous environments on the prebiotic Earth, generated periodically by water evaporation, could have facilitated nucleic acid replication—particularly of long, structured sequences such as ribozymes. Our approach works with DNA and RNA, suggesting that viscosity-mediated replication is possible for a range of genetic polymers, perhaps even for informational polymers that may have preceded RNA.

  17. AnSBBR with circulation applied to biohydrogen production treating sucrose based wastewater: effects of organic loading, influent concentration and cycle length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR containing immobilized biomass and operating with recirculation of the liquid phase (total liquid volume 4.5 L; treated volume per cycle 1.9 L was used to treat sucrose-based wastewater at 30 ºC and produce biohydrogen. The influence of applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the influent concentration at 3600 and 5400 mgCOD.L-1 and using cycle lengths of 4, 3 and 2 hours, obtaining in this manner volumetric organic loads of 9, 12, 13.5, 18 and 27 gCOD.L-1.d-1. Different performance indicators were used: productivity and yield of biohydrogen per applied and removed load, reactor stability and efficiency based on the applied and removed organic loads, both in terms of organic matter (measured as COD and carbohydrate (sucrose. The results revealed system stability (32-37% of H2 in biogas during biohydrogen production, as well as substrate consumption (12-19% COD; 97-99% sucrose. Conversion efficiencies decreased when the influent concentration was increased (at constant cycle length and when cycle lengths were reduced (at constant influent concentrations. The best yield was 4.16 mol-H2.kg-SUC-1 (sucrose load at 9 gCOD.L-1.d-1 (3600 mgCOD.L-1 and 4 h with H2 content in the biogas of 36% (64% CO2 and 0% CH4. However, the best specific molar productivity of hydrogen was 8.5 molH2.kgTVS-1.d-1 (32% H2; 68% CO2; 0% CH4, at 18 gCOD.L-1.d-1 (5400 mgCOD.L-1 and 3 h, indicating that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the "biochemical generation" of biogas, whereas the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter involves "biochemical consumption" of the substrate. The most significant metabolites were ethanol, acetic acid and butyric acid. Microbiological analyses revealed that the biomass contained bacilli and endospore filaments and showed no significant variations in morphology between

  18. Effects of correlations between particle longitudinal positions and transverse plane on bunch length measurement: a case study on GBS electron LINAC at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, L.; Arpaia, P.; Cianchi, A.; Liccardo, A.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Variola, A.

    2018-02-01

    In high-brightness LINear ACcelerators (LINACs), electron bunch length can be measured indirectly by a radio frequency deflector (RFD). In this paper, the accuracy loss arising from non-negligible correlations between particle longitudinal positions and the transverse plane (in particular the vertical one) at RFD entrance is analytically assessed. Theoretical predictions are compared with simulation results, obtained by means of ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking (ELEGANT) code, in the case study of the gamma beam system (GBS) at the extreme light infrastructure—nuclear physics (ELI-NP). In particular, the relative error affecting the bunch length measurement, for bunches characterized by both energy chirp and fixed correlation coefficients between longitudinal particle positions and the vertical plane, is reported. Moreover, the relative error versus the correlation coefficients is shown for fixed RFD phase 0 rad and π rad. The relationship between relative error and correlations factors can help the decision of using the bunch length measurement technique with one or two vertical spot size measurements in order to cancel the correlations contribution. In the case of the GBS electron LINAC, the misalignment of one of the quadrupoles before the RFD between  ‑2 mm and 2 mm leads to a relative error less than 5%. The misalignment of the first C-band accelerating section between  ‑2 mm and 2 mm could lead to a relative error up to 10%.

  19. Effects that passive cycling exercise have on muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Aline dos Santos; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo; Carvalho, Maurício Tatsch Ximenes; Soares, Janice Cristina; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects that passive cycling exercise, in combination with conventional physical therapy, have on peripheral muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial involving 38 patients (≥ 18 years of age) on mechanical ventilation who were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 16), receiving conventional physical therapy; and intervention (n = 22), receiving conventional physical therapy and engaging in passive cycling exercise five days per week. The mean age of the patients was 46.42 ± 16.25 years, and 23 were male. The outcomes studied were peripheral muscle strength, as measured by the Medical Research Council scale, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. Results: There was a significant increase in peripheral muscle strength (baseline vs. final) in both groups (control: 40.81 ± 7.68 vs. 45.00 ± 6.89; and intervention: 38.73 ± 11.11 vs. 47.18 ± 8.75; p < 0.001 for both). However, the range of increase in strength was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (8.45 ± 5.20 vs. 4.18 ± 2.63; p = 0.005). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation or length of hospital stay. Conclusions: The results suggest that the performance of continuous passive mobilization on a cyclical basis helps to recover peripheral muscle strength in ICU patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01769846 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]) PMID:28538781

  20. Menstrual cycle length: a surrogate measure of reproductive health capable of improving the accuracy of biochemical/sonographical ovarian reserve test in estimating the reproductive chances of women referred to ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Esposito, Federica; Armanini, Decio; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni B; Litta, Pietro; D'Antona, Donato; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-04-10

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether menstrual cycle length may be considered as a surrogate measure of reproductive health, improving the accuracy of biochemical/sonographical ovarian reserve test in estimating the reproductive chances of women referred to ART. A retrospective-observational-study in Padua' public tertiary level Centre was conducted. A total of 455 normo-ovulatory infertile women scheduled for their first fresh non-donor IVF/ICSI treatment. The mean menstrual cycle length (MCL) during the preceding 6 months was calculated by physicians on the basis of information contained in our electronic database (first day of menstrual cycle collected every month by telephonic communication by single patients). We evaluated the relations between MCL, ovarian response to stimulation protocol, oocytes fertilization ratio, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and pregnancy rate in different cohorts of patients according to the class of age and the estimated ovarian reserve. In women younger than 35 years, MCL over 31 days may be associated with an increased risk of OHSS and with a good OSI. In women older than 35 years, and particularly than 40 years, MCL shortening may be considered as a marker of ovarian aging and may be associated with poor ovarian response, low OSI and reduced fertilization rate. When AMH serum value is lower than 1.1 ng/ml in patients older than 40 years, MCL may help Clinicians discriminate real from expected poor responders. Considering the pool of normoresponders, MCL was not correlated with pregnancy rate while a positive association was found with patients' age. MCL diary is more predictive than chronological age in estimating ovarian biological age and response to COH and it is more predictive than AMH in discriminating expected from real poor responders. In women older than 35 years MCL shortening may be considered as a marker of ovarian aging while chronological age remains most accurate parameter in predicting pregnancy.

  1. A novel life cycle modeling system for Ebola virus shows a genome length-dependent role of VP24 in virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Ari; Moukambi, Felicien; Banadyga, Logan; Groseth, Allison; Callison, Julie; Herwig, Astrid; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hoenen, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Work with infectious Ebola viruses is restricted to biosafety level 4 (BSL4) laboratories, presenting a significant barrier for studying these viruses. Life cycle modeling systems, including minigenome systems and transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) systems, allow modeling of the virus life cycle under BSL2 conditions; however, all current systems model only certain aspects of the virus life cycle, rely on plasmid-based viral protein expression, and have been used to model only single infectious cycles. We have developed a novel life cycle modeling system allowing continuous passaging of infectious trVLPs containing a tetracistronic minigenome that encodes a reporter and the viral proteins VP40, VP24, and GP1,2. This system is ideally suited for studying morphogenesis, budding, and entry, in addition to genome replication and transcription. Importantly, the specific infectivity of trVLPs in this system was ∼ 500-fold higher than that in previous systems. Using this system for functional studies of VP24, we showed that, contrary to previous reports, VP24 only very modestly inhibits genome replication and transcription when expressed in a regulated fashion, which we confirmed using infectious Ebola viruses. Interestingly, we also discovered a genome length-dependent effect of VP24 on particle infectivity, which was previously undetected due to the short length of monocistronic minigenomes and which is due at least partially to a previously unknown function of VP24 in RNA packaging. Based on our findings, we propose a model for the function of VP24 that reconciles all currently available data regarding the role of VP24 in nucleocapsid assembly as well as genome replication and transcription. Ebola viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, with no countermeasures currently being available, and must be studied in maximum-containment laboratories. Only a few of these laboratories exist worldwide, limiting our ability to study

  2. 'Length'at Length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Translation invariance, axiom of choice, continuum hypothesis, axiom of determinateness. B V Rao was a Professor at the Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. Currently he is with the. Chennai Mathematical. Institute. This is the story of length, one of the simplest concepts. Starting with the concept of length for intervals, we ...

  3. Neural Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Developmental Dyslexia during German Vowel Length Discrimination: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Groth, Katarina; Lachmann, Thomas; Riecker, Axel

    2012-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated phonological vs. auditory temporal processing in developmental dyslexia by means of a German vowel length discrimination paradigm (Groth, Lachmann, Riecker, Muthmann, & Steinbrink, 2011). Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from dyslexics and controls while performing same-different judgments of vowel duration in…

  4. Spatial correlation of conductive filaments for multiple switching cycles in CBRAM

    KAUST Repository

    Pey, K. L.

    2014-06-01

    Conducting bridge random access memory (CBRAM) is one of the potential technologies being considered for replacement of Flash memory for non-volatile data storage. CBRAM devices operate on the principle of nucleation and rupture of metallic filaments. One key concern for commercializing this technology is the question of variability which could arise due to nucleation of multiple filaments across the device at spatially different locations. The spatial spread of the filament location may cause long tails at the low and high percentile regions for the switching parameter distribution as the new filament that nucleates may have a completely different shape and size. It is therefore essential to probe whether switching in CBRAM occurs every time at the same filament location or whether there are other new filaments that could nucleate during repeated cycling with some spatial correlation (if any) to the original filament. To investigate this issue, we make use of a metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) transistor test structure with Ni as the top electrode and HfOx/SiOx as the dielectric stack. In-situ stressing using a nano-tip on the M-I-S stack is performed and the filament is imaged in real-time using a high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM). We also extract the location of the filament (LFIL) along the channel of the transistor after the nucleation stage using the weighted proportion of the source and drain currents. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  6. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibola, Christine F

    2004-01-01

    Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack), as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04) following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03) with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1), which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002). Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID

  7. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalin, Sergey; Kompanets, Victor; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Dormidonov, Alexander; Kandidov, Valerii

    2017-10-01

    A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  8. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  9. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapp Georgina SA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active school transport (AST has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197 attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls, school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96 and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99. Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05, parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82; and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17. Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.

  10. Perceived environmental correlates of cycling for transport among adults in five regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, L; Compernolle, S; Gheysen, F; Deforche, B; Brug, J; Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M; Feuillet, T; Glonti, K; Bárdos, H; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2016-01-01

    Regular cycling for transport is an important potential contributor to daily physical activity among adults. Characteristics of the physical environment are likely to influence cycling for transport. The current study investigated associations between perceived physical environmental neighbourhood factors and adults' cycling for transport across five urban regions across Europe, and whether such associations were moderated by age, gender, education and urban region. A total of 4,612 adults from five European regions provided information about their transport-related cycling and their neighbourhood physical environmental perceptions in an online survey. Hurdle models adjusted for the clustering within neighbourhoods were performed to estimate associations between perceived physical environmental neighbourhood factors and odds of engaging in cycling for transport and minutes of cycling for transport per week. Inhabitants of neighbourhoods that were perceived to be polluted, having better street connectivity, having lower traffic speed levels and being less pleasant to walk or cycle in had higher levels of cycling for transport. Moderation analyses revealed only one interaction effect by gender. This study indicates that cycling for transport is associated with a number of perceived physical environmental neighbourhood factors across five urban regions across Europe. Our results indicated that the majority of the outcomes identified were valid for all subgroups of age, gender, education and across regions in the countries included in the study. © 2016 World Obesity.

  11. Ovarian ultrasonography correlated with fecal progestins and estradiol during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Imke; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Pootoolal, Jason; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie S; Niemuller, Cheryl A

    2009-11-01

    Fecal and urinary progestin analyses have shown that giraffes express a short reproductive cycle, averaging 15 days, compared with other large ruminants. However, actual ovarian events have not been correlated with the hormonal pattern. In this study, mature cycling female Rothschild giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) were repeatedly examined by transrectal ultrasonography to correlate ovarian function with changes in fecal progestin (fP4 [n(c) = 6]) and estradiol (fE2 [n(c) = 6]) and serum progestin (n(c) = 2) as measured by enzyme immunoassay. Five females became pregnant and were monitored during early gestation. In this study, we discovered that hormone values for fP4 in cycling giraffes do not correlate with the classic profile of follicular development, ovulation, and luteogenesis. The corpus luteum (CL) and the next dominant follicle were forming simultaneously. A mean +/- SD peak in fE2 of 254.92 +/- 194.76 ng/g and subsequent ovulation occurred as early as 1 day after the fall in fP4. In pregnant giraffes, the CL reached a diameter significantly larger (mean +/- SD, 41.02 +/- 2.70 mm; P = 0.0126) than that during the cycle (33.48 +/- 2.80 mm), while follicular activity and fluctuating fE2 were still present. With this research, we demonstrated that the progesterone profile typically used to characterize the ovarian cycle does not correlate with luteal development in the ovaries of this species. Furthermore, we conclude that the giraffe could have evolved a short reproductive cycle because of the almost parallel order of ovarian events.

  12. Body Composition within the First 3 Months: Optimized Correction for Length and Correlation with BMI at 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Colin P; Zemel, Babette S; Kiely, Mairead; Irvine, Alan D; Kenny, Louise C; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Murray, Deirdre M

    2016-01-01

    Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study was to describe reference data for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for length (L) within the first 3 months and to evaluate if these measures predict the body mass index (BMI) at 2 years. Term infants had air displacement plethysmography performed at birth (n = 1,063) and approximately 2 months later (n = 922, between 49 and 86 days). Age- and sex-specific reference data were generated for FM, FFM, FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 and compared with BMI at 2 years. FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 were the optimal indices independent of length. In the first 3 months, mean FM/L 3 increased (males, from 2.7 to 5.9 kg/m 3 ; females, from 3.2 to 6.1 kg/m 3 ), whereas FFM/L 2 remained relatively stable (males, from 11.8 to 12.7 kg/m 2 ; females, from 12.8 to 12.1 kg/m 2 ). The odds of a BMI Z-score ≥2 at 2 years increased with increasing FM (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.97-3.7) and weight (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.64-3.13) Z-scores at 2 months. FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 provide length-independent measures of FM and FFM in infancy. During the first 3 months, there is an increase in FM/L 3 , but not in FFM/L 2 . The weight Z-score at 2 months is as good at predicting BMI at 2 years as body composition parameters. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Boardman

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+. However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-. MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition.MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]. Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH.Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN- and chromosomally instable (CIN+ by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6 had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13 which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066 and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004. Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040; and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949.MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  14. The clinical relevance and correlation between the initial straight length to the first curvature in human second maxillary premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekyatan, H; Willershausen, B; Briseno Marroquin, B

    2006-06-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the straight lengths of the root canal of human second maxillary premolars using standardized radiological techniques in vitro. The distances were examined starting from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the appearance of a curvature. In particular recommendations which may facilitate decision making with regard to the length of post systems after successful endodontic treatment should be available. Extracted human second maxillary premolars (n = 210) were used; teeth with root caries, artificial crowns, extensive fillings or with previous endodontic treatment were excluded from this investigation. The teeth were fixed in a specially developed device with standardized and reproducible distances and digital radiographs using the parallel technique were made. A descriptive statistical analysis and the calculation of the cumulative frequencies were made. The values for the distance starting from the CEJ to a first curvature were as follows: a) For right second premolars: median value=10.3 mm (min.: 5 mm; max.: 15.8 mm) and mean value= 10.4 SD+/- 2.6 mm; b) left second premolars: median value =10.2 mm (min.: 5 mm; max.: 17 mm) and mean value =10.3 mm SD +/-2.2 mm. Based on our data, high number of second maxillary premolars showed a curvature (30.4%) 9 mm apically from the CEJ. These findings should be taken into consideration for endodontic treatments and post insertions.

  15. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lisa A; Johnson, Ruth A; Viker, Kimberly B; Hafner, Kari A; Jenkins, Robert B; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Smyrk, Thomas C; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E; Engelman, Corinne D; Rider, David N; Vanderboom, Russell J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Petersen, Gloria M; Skinner, Halcyon G

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  16. Evolution and comparison of speed, cycle frequency, cycle length and cycle index on 200-m test in young paddlers Evolución y comparación de la velocidad, frecuencia, longitud e índice de ciclo sobre 200 m en palistas infantiles de diferentes modalidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ferrer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Speed evolution, cycle frequency, cycle length and cycle index were analysed during a 200-m maximal test, in young paddlers (23 kayak men, 22 kayak women and 20 canoe men; 13-14 years-old. Recordings were taken from a boat following each test and switched from analogue to digital format to measure the variables cited above. Evolution was similar in three categories. The speed and cycle index decreased through the test after the first 50 m, while the cycle length was stable. The cycle frequency had a progressive decrease along the distance. Men kayak got higher values in all the variables than women kayak and canoeist, but only were significantly higher in speed and cycle index. Lower values of cycle length and cycle frequency were obtained from canoe men and kayak women, respectively.
    Key Words: speed, cycle frequency, cycle length, cycle index, paddlers.

    Un total de 65 palistas de categoría infantil (23 hombres kayak, 22 mujeres kayak y 20 hombres canoa entre 13 y 14 años de edad, realizaron un test máximo de 200 m en una calle acotada por boyas, que fue grabado desde una perspectiva lateral y posteriormente pasado a formato digital para determinar la evolución de la velocidad, frecuencia de ciclo, longitud de ciclo e índice de ciclo. Las variables analizadas mostraron una evolución similar en todas las categorías. La velocidad y el índice de ciclo tuvieron una tendencia decreciente a partir de los primeros 50 m, mientras que la longitud de ciclo se estabilizó a partir de esta distancia hasta el final de la prueba; la frecuencia de ciclo disminuyó progresivamente durante todo el test. Los hombres kayak obtuvieron valores superiores al resto de categorías en todas las variables analizadas, siendo las diferencias significativas en velocidad e índice de ciclo. La menor velocidad en las otras categorías fue el resultado de valores significativamente

  17. The changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Li, Jing; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men. Point counting method was used to analyze the stereological parameters of Leydig cells. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was calculated in the same testicular tissue samples which were used for Leydig cell stereological analysis. The aging group had shown more severe pathological changes as well as higher pathologic scores than the young group. Compared with the control group, the volume density (VV) and surface density (NA) of Leydig cells in the aging group were increased significantly. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle in the aging group was decreased coincidently compared to the young group. Leydig cell Vv in the young group has a positive relationship with stages I, II, III, V and VI of seminiferous epithelium cycle, and Leydig cell NA and numerical density (NV) were positively related to stage IV. However, only the correlation between NV and stage II was found in the aging group. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was decreased in aging testes. Changes in the stage distribution in aging testes were related to the Leydig cell stereological parameters which presented as a sign of morphological changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Information literacy competency standards for higher education and their correlation with the cycle of knowledge generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Uribe Tirado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the cycle of knowledge generation proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi and sets out how the different indicators and expected results within the information literacy (IL standards used in higher education contribute to this cycle. After analyzing each standard and its interrelation with the four options to generate knowledge of Nonaka's cycle, it was identified that these standards are more geared to the generation of explicit knowledge, and therefore, it is necessary to work on other activities, and new proposed standards of IL that promote the generation of tacit knowledge and information processes needed.

  19. Correlating Multimodal Physical Sensor Information with Biological Analysis in Ultra Endurance Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles D.Warrington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The sporting domain has traditionally been used as a testing ground for new technologies which subsequently make their way into the public domain. This includes sensors. In this article a range of physical and biological sensors deployed in a 64 hour ultra-endurance non-stop cycling race are described. A novel algorithm to estimate the energy expenditure while cycling and resting during the event are outlined. Initial analysis in this noisy domain of “sensors in the field” are very encouraging and represent a first with respect to cycling.

  20. Regeneration of myelin sheaths of normal length and thickness in the zebrafish CNS correlates with growth of axons in caliber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Marja J.; Czopka, Tim; Goedhart, Marieke; Early, Jason J.

    2017-01-01

    Demyelination is observed in numerous diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the endogenous regenerative process of remyelination can replace myelin lost in disease, and in various animal models. Unfortunately, the process of remyelination often fails, particularly with ageing. Even when remyelination occurs, it is characterised by the regeneration of myelin sheaths that are abnormally thin and short. This imperfect remyelination is likely to have implications for the restoration of normal circuit function and possibly the optimal metabolic support of axons. Here we describe a larval zebrafish model of demyelination and remyelination. We employ a drug-inducible cell ablation system with which we can consistently ablate 2/3rds of oligodendrocytes in the larval zebrafish spinal cord. This leads to a concomitant demyelination of 2/3rds of axons in the spinal cord, and an innate immune response over the same time period. We find restoration of the normal number of oligodendrocytes and robust remyelination approximately two weeks after induction of cell ablation, whereby myelinated axon number is restored to control levels. Remarkably, we find that myelin sheaths of normal length and thickness are regenerated during this time. Interestingly, we find that axons grow significantly in caliber during this period of remyelination. This suggests the possibility that the active growth of axons may stimulate the regeneration of myelin sheaths of normal dimensions. PMID:28542521

  1. Biology of Triatominae (Reduviidae Hemiptera from North of Formosa County (Goiás-Brazil I. Length of life cycle of Triatoma sordida (Stal. 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Triatoma sordida was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 213 days. The mean length in days from each stage was: 24.3 (± 1.30 for the first. 32.8 (± 1.45 (2nd, 36.1 (± 1.50 (3rd, 44.6 (± 1.85 (4th and 52.0 (± 1.92 (5th. The mean egg incubation períod was 23.2 (± 1.40. Overall mortality was 18.8% and egg viability was 82.5%.Foi estudado no presente trabalho o ciclo biológico do Triatoma sordida A média da duração do ciclo de ovo a adulto foi 213 dias. A média de duração em dias para cada estágio foi 24,3 (± 1,30 para o primeiro, 32,8 (± 1,45 para o segundo, 36,1 (± 1,50 para o terceiro, 44,6 (± 1,85 para o quarto e 52,0 (± 1,92 para o quinto. A média do período de incubação dos ovos foi 23,2 (± 1,40. A mortalidade em todos ps estágios foi 18,8% e a viabilidade dos ovos foi 82,5%.

  2. Respiratory failure in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy does not correlate with the CTG repeat length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Kuntzer, Thierry; Gourdon, Geneviève; Barakat-Walter, Ibtissam

    2013-10-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by an expansion of CTG repeats in the region of DMPK, the gene encoding DM protein kinase. The severity of muscle disability in DM1 correlates with the size of CTG expansion. As respiratory failure is one of the main causes of death in DM1, we investigated the correlation between respiratory impairment and size of the (CTG)n repeat in DM1 animal models. Using pressure plethysmography the respiratory function was assessed in control and transgenic mice carrying either 600 (DM600) or >1300 CTG repeats (DMSXL). The statistical analysis of respiratory parameters revealed that both DM1 transgenic mice sub-lines show respiratory impairment compared to control mice. In addition, there is no significant difference in breathing functions between the DM600 and DMSXL mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that respiratory impairment is present in both transgenic mice sub-lines, but the severity of respiratory failure is not related to the size of the (CTG)n expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Variable mode-mixity during fatigue cycles – crack tip parameters determined from displacement fields measured by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vormwald

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focusses on discussing equivalent stress intensity factors and kink angles after a change of mode-mixity from one cycle to the next and when the mode-mixity changes continuously during the fatigue cycles. Thin-walled tubes with through-wall cracks have been loaded by proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion. In the experimental investigation, the region of fatigue crack growth was observed by applying the digital image correlation technique. Data on the variations of the displacement and strain fields during the cycles were acquired and used to determine mixed-mode variations of stress intensity factors associated with opening modes I, II and III. For each specific specimen the crack path was observed in order to relate its curvature – both kinks and continuously developing warped cracks – with the variations of the displacement field and associated stress intensity factors.

  4. Muscle synergies in cycling after incomplete spinal cord injury: correlation with clinical measures of motor function and spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe O. Barroso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI, patients suffer important sensorimotor impairments, such as abnormal locomotion patterns and spasticity. Complementary to current clinical diagnostic procedures, the analysis of muscle synergies has emerged as a promising tool to study muscle coordination, which plays a major role in the control of multi-limb functional movements.Objective: Based on recent findings suggesting that walking and cycling share similar synergistic control, the analysis of muscle synergies during cycling might be explored as an early descriptor of gait-related impaired control. This idea was split into the following two hypotheses: a iSCI patients present a synergistic control of muscles during cycling; b muscle synergies outcomes extracted during cycling correlate with clinical measurements of gait performance and/or spasticity.Methods: Electromyographic (EMG activity of 13 unilateral lower limb muscles was recorded in a group of 10 healthy individuals and 10 iSCI subjects during cycling at four different cadences. A nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF algorithm was applied to identify synergistic components (i.e., activation coefficients and muscle synergy vectors. Reconstruction goodness scores (VAF and r2 were used to evaluate the ability of a given number of synergies to reconstruct the EMG signals.A set of metrics based on the similarity between pathologic and healthy synergies were correlated with clinical scales of gait performance and spasticity.Results: iSCI patients preserved a synergistic control of muscles during cycling. The similarity with the healthy reference was consistent with the degree of the impairment, i.e., less impaired patients showed higher similarities with the healthy reference. There was a strong correlation between reconstruction goodness scores at 42 rpm motor performance scales (TUG, 10-Meter test and WISCI II. On the other hand, the similarity between the healthy and affected

  5. Muscle Synergies in Cycling after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: Correlation with Clinical Measures of Motor Function and Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Filipe O; Torricelli, Diego; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Taylor, Julian; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Santos, Cristina; Moreno, Juan C; Pons, José L

    2015-01-01

    After incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), patients suffer important sensorimotor impairments, such as abnormal locomotion patterns and spasticity. Complementary to current clinical diagnostic procedures, the analysis of muscle synergies has emerged as a promising tool to study muscle coordination, which plays a major role in the control of multi-limb functional movements. Based on recent findings suggesting that walking and cycling share similar synergistic control, the analysis of muscle synergies during cycling might be explored as an early descriptor of gait-related impaired control. This idea was split into the following two hypotheses: (a) iSCI patients present a synergistic control of muscles during cycling; (b) muscle synergies outcomes extracted during cycling correlate with clinical measurements of gait performance and/or spasticity. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 13 unilateral lower limb muscles was recorded in a group of 10 healthy individuals and 10 iSCI subjects during cycling at four different cadences. A non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) algorithm was applied to identify synergistic components (i.e., activation coefficients and muscle synergy vectors). Reconstruction goodness scores (VAF and r (2)) were used to evaluate the ability of a given number of synergies to reconstruct the EMG signals. A set of metrics based on the similarity between pathologic and healthy synergies were correlated with clinical scales of gait performance and spasticity. iSCI patients preserved a synergistic control of muscles during cycling. The similarity with the healthy reference was consistent with the degree of the impairment, i.e., less impaired patients showed higher similarities with the healthy reference. There was a strong correlation between reconstruction goodness scores at 42 rpm and motor performance scales (TUG, 10-m test and WISCI II). On the other hand, the similarity between the healthy and affected synergies presented correlation with some

  6. Correlation between TCA cycle flux and glucose uptake rate during respiro-fermentative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Jan; Fu, Jianan; Blank, Lars M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose repression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated under different environmental conditions using (13)C-tracer experiments. Real-time quantification of the volatile metabolites ethanol and CO(2) allowed accurate carbon balancing. In all experiments with the wild-type, a strong correlation between the rates of growth and glucose uptake was observed, indicating a constant yield of biomass. In contrast, glycerol and acetate production rates were less dependent on the rate of glucose uptake, but were affected by environmental conditions. The glycerol production rate was highest during growth in high-osmolarity medium (2.9 mmol g(-1) h(-1)), while the highest acetate production rate of 2.1 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed in alkaline medium of pH 6.9. Under standard growth conditions (25 g glucose l(-1) , pH 5.0, 30 degrees C) S. cerevisiae had low fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. A significant increase in TCA cycle activity from 0.03 mmol g(-1) h(-1) to about 1.7 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed when S. cerevisiae grew more slowly as a result of environmental perturbations, including unfavourable pH values and sodium chloride stress. Compared to experiments with high glucose uptake rates, the ratio of CO(2) to ethanol increased more than 50 %, indicating an increase in flux through the TCA cycle. Although glycolysis and the ethanol production pathway still exhibited the highest fluxes, the net flux through the TCA cycle increased significantly with decreasing glucose uptake rates. Results from experiments with single gene deletion mutants partially impaired in glucose repression (hxk2, grr1) indicated that the rate of glucose uptake correlates with this increase in TCA cycle flux. These findings are discussed in the context of regulation of glucose repression.

  7. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  8. Calculation of evolutionary correlation between individual genes and full-length genome: a method useful for choosing phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Individual genes or regions are still commonly used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among viral isolates. The genomic regions that can faithfully provide assessments consistent with those predicted with full-length genome sequences would be preferable to serve as good candidates of the phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiological studies of many viruses. Here we employed a statistical method to evaluate the evolutionary relationships between individual viral genes and full-length genomes without tree construction as a way to determine which gene can match the genome well in phylogenetic analyses. This method was performed by calculation of linear correlations between the genetic distance matrices of aligned individual gene sequences and aligned genome sequences. We applied this method to the phylogenetic analyses of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2, measles virus (MV, hepatitis E virus (HEV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparisons and the possible factors affecting the method accuracy were also discussed in the calculations. The results revealed that this method could produce results consistent with those of previous studies about the proper consensus sequences that could be successfully used as phylogenetic markers. And our results also suggested that these evolutionary correlations could provide useful information for identifying genes that could be used effectively to infer the genetic relationships.

  9. Gametogenesis correlated with steroid levels during the gonadal cycle of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglio, Alice; Sugni, Michela; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Bonasoro, Francesco; Schnell, Sabine; Lavado, Ramon; Porte, Cinta; Candia Carnevali, Daniela M

    2007-06-01

    The specific mechanism regulating reproduction in invertebrates is a field of topical interest which needs to be explored in detail considering also the intriguing possible comparison with vertebrates. In this paper levels of Testosterone (T) and Estradiol (E2) and their reciprocal ratios were determined in ovaries and testis of the echinoid model species Paracentrotus lividus during the year 2004 by taking into account a putative relationship between steroid levels and reproductive cycle. T levels appeared to significantly vary during male reproductive cycle, thus suggesting a possible role of this hormone in regulation of spermatogenesis as demonstrated for other echinoderms. E2 levels were lower in males with respect to females; consequently E2 involvement in oogenesis is hypothesized. In parallel with steroid levels evaluation, variations in P450-aromatase activity and its possible role on regulation of gametogenesis were also considered. Clear correlations between steroid levels and gonad index (GI), as well as between GI and reproductive cycle were not detected, suggesting that GI alone is not a reliable parameter in describing the reproductive status of the gonads. Altogether the results obtained so far confirm the presence of a relationship between steroid levels and reproductive cycle as suggested by previous results on different echinoderm species.

  10. Effects that passive cycling exercise have on muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Aline Dos Santos; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo; Carvalho, Maurício Tatsch Ximenes; Soares, Janice Cristina; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Albuquerque, Isabella Martins de

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects that passive cycling exercise, in combination with conventional physical therapy, have on peripheral muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital. This was a randomized clinical trial involving 38 patients (≥ 18 years of age) on mechanical ventilation who were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 16), receiving conventional physical therapy; and intervention (n = 22), receiving conventional physical therapy and engaging in passive cycling exercise five days per week. The mean age of the patients was 46.42 ± 16.25 years, and 23 were male. The outcomes studied were peripheral muscle strength, as measured by the Medical Research Council scale, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. There was a significant increase in peripheral muscle strength (baseline vs. final) in both groups (control: 40.81 ± 7.68 vs. 45.00 ± 6.89; and intervention: 38.73 ± 11.11 vs. 47.18 ± 8.75; p fisioterapia convencional, na força muscular periférica, no tempo de ventilação mecânica e no tempo de internação hospitalar em pacientes críticos internados em UTI de um hospital universitário terciário. Ensaio clínico randomizado envolvendo 38 pacientes (idade > 18 anos) em ventilação mecânica e divididos aleatoriamente em grupo controle (n = 16), que realizou fisioterapia convencional, e grupo intervenção (n = 22) submetidos a fisioterapia convencional e exercícios passivos em cicloergômetro cinco vezes por semana. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 46,42 ± 16,25 anos, e 23 eram homens. Os desfechos analisados foram força muscular periférica, mensurada pela escala Medical Research Council, tempo de ventilação mecânica e tempo de internação hospitalar. Houve um aumento significativo da força muscular periférica (basal vs. final) tanto no grupo controle (40,81 ± 7,68 vs. 45,00 ± 6

  11. Site-specific PEGylation of hemoglobin at Cys-93(beta): correlation between the colligative properties of the PEGylated protein and the length of the conjugated PEG chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, B N; Tsai, A; Upadhya, R; Perumalsamy, K; Smith, P K; Malavalli, A; Vandegriff, K; Winslow, R M; Intaglietta, M; Prabhakaran, M; Friedman, J M; Acharya, A S

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the molecular size of acellular hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed as an approach to reduce its undesirable vasoactive properties. The finding that bovine Hb surface decorated with about 10 copies of PEG5K per tetramer is vasoactive provides support for this concept. The PEGylated bovine Hb has a strikingly larger molecular radius than HbA (1). The colligative properties of the PEGylated bovine Hb are distinct from those of HbA and even polymerized Hb, suggesting a role for the colligative properties of PEGylated Hb in neutralizing the vasoactivity of acellular Hb. To correlate the colligative properties of surface-decorated Hb with the mass of the PEG attached and also its vasoactivity, we have developed a new maleimide-based protocol for the site-specific conjugation of PEG to Hb, taking advantage of the unusually high reactivity of Cys-93(beta) of oxy HbA and the high reactivity of the maleimide to protein thiols. PEG chains of 5, 10, and 20 kDa have been functionalized at one of their hydroxyl groups with a maleidophenyl moiety through a carbamate linkage and used to conjugate the PEG chains at the beta-93 Cys of HbA to generate PEGylated Hbs carrying two copies of PEG (of varying chain length) per tetramer. Homogeneous preparations of (SP-PEG5K)(2)-HbA, (SP-PEG10K)(2)-HbA, and (SP-PEG20K)(2)-HbA have been isolated by ion exchange chromatography. The oxygen affinity of Hb is increased slightly on PEGylation, but the length of the PEG-chain had very little additional influence on the O(2) affinity. Both the hydrodynamic volume and the molecular radius of the Hb increased on surface decoration with PEG and exhibited a linear correlation with the mass of the PEG chain attached. On the other hand, both the viscosity and the colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) of the PEGylated Hbs exhibited an exponential increase with the increase in PEG chain length. In contrast to the molecular volume, viscosity, and COP, the vasoactivity of the PEGylated Hbs was not a

  12. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P seeds. Significant (P fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty acid content was significantly (P seeds produced in T(1), than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5), but not in those produced in T(2).

  13. Olfactory bulb units - Activity correlated with inhalation cycles and odor quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrides, F.; Chorover, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Single olfactory bulb units were studied in two macrosmatic species of rodents under conditions intended to preserve the cyclical stimulation which normally accompanies nasal breathing. Patterns of unit activity related to the inhalation cycle were observed in all animals, often in the absence of specific stimuli, and could not be explained in simple mechanical terms. Distinctive changes in these patterns occurred in response to certain odors, and were generally independent of changes in the overall firing frequency. These findings indicate that a change in the overall firing frequency of unit discharges is neither a necessary nor sufficient measure of responsiveness to odors in the rodent olfactory bulb, and that stimulus-specific temporal distributions of unit firing may be involved in olfacto-endocrine activities.

  14. Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter region and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, A; Israel, S; Darvasi, A; Bachner-Melman, R; Uzefovsky, F; Cohen, L; Feldman, E; Lerer, E; Laiba, E; Raz, Y; Nemanov, L; Gritsenko, I; Dina, C; Agam, G; Dean, B; Bornstein, G; Ebstein, R P

    2008-04-01

    Human altruism is a widespread phenomenon that puzzled evolutionary biologists since Darwin. Economic games illustrate human altruism by showing that behavior deviates from economic predictions of profit maximization. A game that most plainly shows this altruistic tendency is the Dictator Game. We hypothesized that human altruistic behavior is to some extent hardwired and that a likely candidate that may contribute to individual differences in altruistic behavior is the arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) receptor that in some mammals such as the vole has a profound impact on affiliative behaviors. In the current investigation, 203 male and female university students played an online version of the Dictator Game, for real money payoffs. All subjects and their parents were genotyped for AVPR1a RS1 and RS3 promoter-region repeat polymorphisms. Parents did not participate in online game playing. As variation in the length of a repetitive element in the vole AVPR1a promoter region is associated with differences in social behavior, we examined the relationship between RS1 and RS3 repeat length (base pairs) and allocation sums. Participants with short versions (308-325 bp) of the AVPR1a RS3 repeat allocated significantly (likelihood ratio = 14.75, P = 0.001, df = 2) fewer shekels to the 'other' than participants with long versions (327-343 bp). We also implemented a family-based association test, UNPHASED, to confirm and validate the correlation between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and monetary allocations in the dictator game. Dictator game allocations were significantly associated with the RS3 repeat (global P value: likelihood ratio chi(2) = 11.73, df = 4, P = 0.019). The association between the AVPR1a RS3 repeat and altruism was also confirmed using two self-report scales (the Bardi-Schwartz Universalism and Benevolence Value-expressive Behavior scales). RS3 long alleles were associated with higher scores on both measures. Finally, long AVPR1a RS3 repeats were associated with

  15. Correlation analysis of factors influencing the electronic unit pump cycle fuel injection quantity under overall operating conditions for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Yao; Li Yun, Fan; En Zhe, Song; Bing Qi, Tian [Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China); Quan, Dong [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2012-09-15

    Electronic unit pump (EUP) can satisfy both diesel engine emission legislation and fuel economy by improving injection pressure and numerical control. Fluctuations in cycle fuel injection quantity (CFIQ) of EUP determine the coherence and stability of the EUP fuel injection system. The EUP simulation model is developed in the AMESim environment. The method for the simulation experiment is designed in the MODDE environment using the design of experiments method. The results of the simulation reveal the variation laws of correlation between parameters with interaction or no interaction under overall operating conditions of diesel engines. In addition, the results also show the EUP system is a complex nonlinear system. Under overall operating conditions, all the characteristic parameters, such as fuel supply pressure, cam profile velocity, control valve lift, injector opening pressure, injector needle lift, and injector flow coefficient, have significant correlation with CFIQ. The interacting first-order factors exhibit the most significant correlation with CFIQ. The self interacting second-order factors have significant secondary correlation with CFIQ.

  16. Single-molecule spectroelectrochemical cross-correlation during redox cycling in recessed dual ring electrode zero-mode waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghoon; Crouch, Garrison M; Fu, Kaiyu; Zaino Iii, Lawrence P; Bohn, Paul W

    2017-08-01

    The ability of zero-mode waveguides (ZMW) to guide light into subwavelength-diameter nanoapertures has been exploited for studying electron transfer dynamics in zeptoliter-volume nanopores under single-molecule occupancy conditions. In this work, we report the spectroelectrochemical detection of individual molecules of the redox-active, fluorogenic molecule flavin mononucleotide (FMN) freely diffusing in solution. Our approach is based on an array of nanopore-confined recessed dual ring electrodes, wherein repeated reduction and oxidation of a single molecule at two closely spaced annular working electrodes yields amplified electrochemical signals. We have articulated these structures with an optically transparent bottom, so that the nanopores are bifunctional, exhibiting both nanophotonic and nanoelectrochemical behaviors allowing the coupling between electron transfer and fluorescence dynamics to be studied under redox cycling conditions. We also investigated the electric field intensity in electrochemical ZMWs (E-ZMW) through finite-element simulations, and the amplification of fluorescence by redox cycling agrees well with predictions based on optical confinement effects inside the E-ZMW. Proof-of-principle experiments are conducted showing that electrochemical and fluorescence signals may be correlated to reveal single molecule fluctuations in the array population. Cross-correlation of single molecule fluctuations in amperometric response and single photon emission provides unequivocal evidence of single molecule sensitivity.

  17. Telomere Length Attrition, a Marker of Biological Senescence, Is Inversely Correlated with Triglycerides and Cholesterol in South Asian Males with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Harte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD than white Caucasians, for a given BMI. Premature biological ageing, assessed by reduction in telomere length (TL, may be mediated by factors resulting from altered metabolic profiles associated with obesity. We hypothesise that ethnicity and metabolic status represent detrimental factors contributing to premature biological ageing. Therefore we assessed TL in two South Asian, age and BMI-matched cohorts [T2DM (n=142 versus non-T2DM (n=76] to determine the effects of BMI, gender, lipid and CVD profile on biological ageing. Genomic DNA was obtained from the UKADS cohort; biochemical and anthropometric data was collected and TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our findings indicated a gender-specific effect with reduced TL in T2DM men compared with non-T2DM men (P=0.006. Additionally, in T2DM men, TL was inversely correlated with triglycerides and total cholesterol (r=−0.419, P<0.01; r=−0.443, P<0.01. In summary, TL was reduced amongst South Asian T2DM men and correlated with triglycerides and total cholesterol. This study highlights enhanced biological ageing among South Asian, T2DM men, which appears to be tracked by changes in lipids and BMI, suggesting that raised lipids and BMI may directly contribute to premature ageing.

  18. Correlation of Real Time PCR Cycle Threshold Cut-Off with Bordetella pertussis Clinical Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Bolotin

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis testing performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is interpreted based on a cycle threshold (Ct value. At Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL, a Ct value <36 is reported as positive, and Ct values ≥36 and <40 are reported as indeterminate. PHOL reported indeterminate results to physicians and public health units until May 2012, after which these results were only reported to physicians. We investigated the association between Ct value and disease symptom and severity to examine the significance of indeterminate results clinically, epidemiologically and for public health reporting. B. pertussis positive and indeterminate RT-PCR results were linked to pertussis cases reported in the provincial Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS, using deterministic linkage. Patients with positive RT-PCR results had a lower median age of 10.8 years compared to 12.0 years for patients with indeterminate results (p = 0.24. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower Ct values than non-hospitalized patients (median Ct values of 20.7 vs. 31.6, p<0.001. The proportion of patients reporting the most indicative symptoms of pertussis did not differ between patients with positive vs. indeterminate RT-PCR results. Taking the most indicative symptoms of pertussis as the gold-standard, the positive predictive value of the RT-PCR test was 68.1%. RT-PCR test results should be interpreted in the context of the clinical symptoms, age, vaccination status, prevalence, and other factors. Further information on interpretation of indeterminate RT-PCR results may be needed, and the utility of reporting to public health practitioners should be re-evaluated.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi: Correlations of Biological Aspects of the Life Cycle in Mice and Triatomines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Valdirene S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The infection pattern in Swiss mice and Triatomine bugs (Rhodnius neglectus of eleven clones and the original stock of a Trypanosoma cruzi isolate, derived from a naturally infected Didelphis marsupialis, were biochemically and biologically characterized. The clones and the original isolate were in the same zymodeme (Z1 except that two clones were found to be in zymodeme 2 when tested with G6PDH. Although infective, neither the original isolate nor the clones were highly virulent for the mice and lesions were only observed in mice infected with the original stock and one of the clones (F8. All clones and the original isolate infected bugs well while only the original isolate and clones E2 and F3 yielded high metacyclogenesis rates. An observed correlation between absence of lesions in the mammal host and high metacyclogenesis rates in the invertebrate host suggest a evolutionary trade off i.e. a fitness increase in one trait which is accompanied by a fitness reduction in a different one. Our results suggest that in a species as heterogeneous as T. cruzi, a cooperation effect among the subpopulations should be considered.

  20. Cell cycle-dependent mobility of Cdc45 determined in vivo by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Broderick

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic DNA replication is a dynamic process requiring the co-operation of specific replication proteins. We measured the mobility of eGFP-Cdc45 by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS in vivo in asynchronous cells and in cells synchronized at the G1/S transition and during S phase. Our data show that eGFP-Cdc45 mobility is faster in G1/S transition compared to S phase suggesting that Cdc45 is part of larger protein complex formed in S phase. Furthermore, the size of complexes containing Cdc45 was estimated in asynchronous, G1/S and S phase-synchronized cells using gel filtration chromatography; these findings complemented the in vivo FCS data. Analysis of the mobility of eGFP-Cdc45 and the size of complexes containing Cdc45 and eGFP-Cdc45 after UVC-mediated DNA damage revealed no significant changes in diffusion rates and complex sizes using FCS and gel filtration chromatography analyses. This suggests that after UV-damage, Cdc45 is still present in a large multi-protein complex and that its mobility within living cells is consistently similar following UVC-mediated DNA damage.

  1. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: Greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Doherty, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0. 77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. Correlation between incremental changes of oestradiol-17 beta and prolactin during the menstrual cycle by means of multiple plasma sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicovic, P M; Franchi, F; Lusi, M

    1981-01-01

    Incremental changes of circulating oestradiol-17 beta (E2) and prolactin (PRL) at midcycle and in the luteal phase were studied in 7 healthy young women by means of multiple plasma sampling over a longer period of time. The mean E2 and PRL levels were significantly higher at both times of assessment than in the follicular phase (p less than 0.001). Rapid fluctuations of both E2 and PRL levels were observed; amplitude of E2 fluctuations was increased at higher mean E2 plasma levels. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation (r = 0.62; p less than 0.01) between the incremental changes of E2 and PRL levels at midcycle and in the luteal phase. The present data shows that changes in the plasma levels of E2, and perhaps in the amplitude of the fluctuations, play a crucial role in the regulation of PRL secretion and release during the normal menstrual cycle.

  3. Charge Separation in Intermixed Polymer:PC70BM Photovoltaic Blends: Correlating Structural and Photophysical Length Scales as a Function of Blend Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Utzat, Hendrik

    2017-04-24

    A key challenge in achieving control over photocurrent generation by bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is understanding how the morphology of the active layer impacts charge separation and in particular the separation dynamics within molecularly intermixed donor-acceptor domains versus the dynamics between phase-segregated domains. This paper addresses this issue by studying blends and devices of the amorphous silicon-indacenodithiophene polymer SiIDT-DTBT and the acceptor PCBM. By changing the blend composition, we modulate the size and density of the pure and intermixed domains on the nanometer length scale. Laser spectroscopic studies show that these changes in morphology correlate quantitatively with the changes in charge separation dynamics on the nanosecond time scale and with device photocurrent densities. At low fullerene compositions, where only a single, molecularly intermixed polymer-fullerene phase is observed, photoexcitation results in a ∼ 30% charge loss from geminate polaron pair recombination, which is further studied via light intensity experiments showing that the radius of the polaron pairs in the intermixed phase is 3-5 nm. At high fullerene compositions (≥67%), where the intermixed domains are 1-3 nm and the pure fullerene phases reach ∼4 nm, the geminate recombination is suppressed by the reduction of the intermixed phase, making the fullerene domains accessible for electron escape.

  4. Correlation of endogenous hormonal levels, fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density measured using 3D MRI during one menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Chen, W P; Chan, S; Yeh, D C; Su, M Y; McLaren, C E

    2013-09-01

    We measured breast density (BD) on MRI and correlated with endogenous hormonal levels. Twenty-four premenopausal women received four weekly breast MRI. A blood sample was collected on the same day of MRI. BD was measured using a computer-based algorithm. The generalized estimation equation method was applied to model mean fibroglandular tissue volume (FV) and mean percent density (PD) from predictor variables including estradiol, progesterone, and week during a cycle. In week 3, a borderline significant correlation between estradiol and PD (r = 0.43, P = 0.04), estradiol and FV (r = 0.40, P = 0.05) and between progesterone and FV (r = 0.42, P = 0.04) was noted. The FV and PD measured in weeks 4 and 1 were higher than in weeks 2 and 3, adjusted for variation in endogenous estradiol and progesterone, indicating that the hormone change could not account for the changes in density. No lag effect of endogenous hormone on the change of FV or PD was noted (all P-values > 0.05). Our results showed that BD is not strongly associated with the endogenous hormone. Their association with breast cancer risk was likely coming from different mechanisms, and they should be considered as independent risk factors.

  5. Investigation of the distance error induced by cycle-to-cycle jitter in a correlating time-of-flight distance measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Johannes; Hofbauer, Michael; Davidovic, Milos; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-07-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) range sensors acquire distances by means of an optical signal delay measurement. As the signal travels at the speed of light, distance resolutions in the subcentimeters range require a time measurement resolution that is in the picoseconds range. However, typical clock synthesizers and digital buffers possess cycle-to-cycle jitter values of up to hundreds of picoseconds, which can potentially have a noticeable impact on the TOF system performances. In this publication, we investigate the influence of two common types of cycle-to-cycle jitter distributions on the measured distance. This includes a random Gaussian distribution, which is caused by, e.g., stochastic noise sources, and a discrete jitter distribution, which is found when timing constraints fail in synchronous digital designs. It was demonstrated that a Gaussian cycle-to-cycle jitter has only a negligible impact on the performance of the TOF distance sensors up to a standard deviation of 1 ns of the Gaussian jitter distribution. However, even the discrete cycle-to-cycle jitter investigated in its simplest form lowers the distance precision of the TOF sensor by a factor of 2.86, i.e., the standard deviation increases from 2.9 to 8.3 mm.

  6. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  7. The correlation of right 2D:4D finger length ratio to the low-grade inflammation marker IL-6 in children. The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, Odysseas; Moschonis, George; Koumpitski, Alexandra; Mantzou, Aimilia; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults. To examine the association of right 2D:4D with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 301 children (53.5% girls) aged 9-13 in Greece and their parents. Children who were sick during the previous week of examination (n=44) were excluded from the analyses. Socio-demographic (gestational age, birth weight, age, gender, maternal education level), anthropometric (body weight and height, finger length), clinical (pubertal stage, sickness during the previous week of the examination), blood [serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), serum high sensitivity interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum leptin], lifestyle (dietary intake, maternal smoking during pregnancy) and physical fitness (handgrip strength) data were collected. CRP, IL-6 and leptin were measured with ELISA, using standard equipment and procedures, in accordance with manufacturers' instructions. Full data were available for 257 children (52.1% girls). The rank values of right 2D:4D and IL-6 were included in the analyses. Right 2D:4D was correlated only with IL-6 at a bivariate level (r=0.216, p=0.012) in girls. At a linear multivariate level, this association remained significant, even after adjusting for several potential confounders such as age, Tanner stage, maternal education level, body mass index, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of pregnancy, protein-, carbohydrate-, fat-intake and physical fitness (β±SE=0.220±0.066, p=0.001). Right 2D:4D was found to be associated with IL-6 in girls. Right 2D:4D may be a valuable, simple screening tool of low-grade inflammation in children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Pituitary Blockage with GnRH Antagonist and Gonadotrophin Stimulation Length on The Outcome of ICSI Cycles in Women Older than 36 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Santana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate whether the length of pituitary blockage with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonists or the stimulation period influence intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes in patients older than 36 years of age. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 138 couples with maternal age >36 years undergoing ICSI with an antagonist protocol were included. The influences of stimulation and suppression length on the response to ovarian stimulation and ICSI outcomes were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis was performed to assess the predictive value of the stimulation period for achievement of implantation and pregnancy. Results: The gonadotrophin stimulation length negatively influenced the implantation rate (RC: -4.200; p=0.023. The area under ROC curve (AUC could distinguish between women with positive and negative implantation (AUC: 0.611; CI: 0.546-0.673 and pregnancy (AUC: 0.593; CI: 0.528-0.656. The threshold value demonstrated a high negative predictive value on likelihood of implantation (p=0.0032, 90% sensitivity and pregnancy (p=0.0147, 87.1% sensitivity when patients underwent more than 10 days of stimulation. Conclusion: The stimulation period negatively influences the implantation rate in women older than 36 years. A stimulation interval greater than 10 days is associated with a negative predictive value for the chance of implantation and pregnancy.

  9. Analysis and modelling of a 9.3 kyr palaeoflood record: correlations, clustering, and cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a unique 9.5 m palaeo-lacustrine record of 771 palaeofloods which occurred over a period of 9.3 kyr in the Piànico–Sèllere Basin (southern Alps during an interglacial period in the Pleistocene (sometime from 780 to 393 ka and analyse its correlation, clustering, and cyclicity properties. We first examine correlations, by applying power-spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA to a time series of the number of floods per decade, and find weak long-range persistence: a power-spectral exponent βPS  ≈  0.39 and an equivalent power-spectral exponent from DFA, βDFA ≈  0.25. We then examine clustering using the one-point probability distribution of the inter-flood intervals and find that the palaeofloods cluster in time as they are Weibull distributed with a shape parameter kW =  0.78. We then examine cyclicity in the time series of number of palaeofloods per year, and find a period of about 2030 years. Using these characterizations of the correlation, clustering, and cyclicity in the original palaeoflood time series, we create a model consisting of the superposition of a fractional Gaussian noise (FGN with a 2030-year periodic component and then peaks over threshold (POT applied. We use this POTFGN + Period model to create 2 600 000 synthetic realizations of the same length as our original palaeoflood time series, but with varying intensity of periodicity and persistence, and find optimized model parameters that are congruent with our original palaeoflood series. We create long realizations of our optimized palaeoflood model, and find a high temporal variability of the flood frequency, which can take values of between 0 and > 30 floods century−1. Finally, we show the practical utility of our optimized model realizations to calculate the uncertainty of the forecasted number of floods per century with the number of floods in the preceding century. A key finding of

  10. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  11. CD38 Expression in a Subset of Memory T Cells Is Independent of Cell Cycling as a Correlate of HIV Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Würsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine if the expression of the activation marker CD38 can correlate with HIV disease progression independently of cycling, we performed a cluster-based multivariate correlation analysis of total circulating CD4+ T cell counts and viral loads with frequencies of CD38 and Ki67 expression on CD4+ lymphocytes from patients with untreated HIV infection, stratified in maturation subpopulations, and subpopulation subsets defined by the expression of CXCR5, CXCR3, and CCR4. The frequencies of the activated phenotypes %CD38+ Ki67− and %CD38+ Ki67+ of the CXCR5− CXCR3− CCR4+ (“pre-Th2” central memory (TCM cell subset clustered together, comprising a significant negative correlate of total circulating CD4+ T cell counts and a positive correlate of viral load in multivariate analysis. Frequency of cycling-uncoupled CD38 expression in “pre-Th2” TCM cells was a negative correlate of total circulating CD4+ T cell counts in univariate analysis, which was not the case of their %CD38+ Ki67+. CXCR5+ CXCR3− CCR4−  TCM cells were underrepresented in patients, and their absolute counts correlated negatively with their %CD38+ Ki67− but not with their % CD38+ Ki67+. Our results may imply that CD38 expression either reflects or participates in pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease independently of cell cycling.

  12. Serum caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations and menstrual cycle function: correlations with beverage intakes and associations with race, reproductive hormones, and anovulation in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Radin, Rose G; Zarek, Shvetha M; Mitchell, Emily M; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-07-01

    Clinicians often recommend limiting caffeine intake while attempting to conceive; however, few studies have evaluated the associations between caffeine exposure and menstrual cycle function, and we are aware of no previous studies assessing biological dose via well-timed serum measurements. We assessed the relation between caffeine and its metabolites and reproductive hormones in a healthy premenopausal cohort and evaluated potential effect modification by race. Participants (n = 259) were followed for ≤2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens ≤8 times/cycle. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between serum caffeine biomarkers and geometric mean reproductive hormones, whereas Poisson regression was used to assess risk of sporadic anovulation. The highest compared with the lowest serum caffeine tertile was associated with lower total testosterone [27.9 ng/dL (95% CI: 26.7, 29.0 ng/dL) compared with 29.1 ng/dL (95% CI: 27.9, 30.3 ng/dL), respectively] and free testosterone [0.178 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.171, 0.185 ng/dL) compared with 0.186 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.179, 0.194 ng/dL), respectively] after adjustment for age, race, percentage of body fat, daily vigorous exercise, perceived stress, depression, dietary factors, and alcohol intake. The highest tertiles compared with the lowest tertiles of caffeine and paraxanthine were also associated with reduced risk of anovulation [adjusted RRs (aRRs): 0.39 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.87) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.87), respectively]. Additional adjustment for self-reported coffee intake did not alter the reproductive hormone findings and only slightly attenuated the results for serum caffeine and paraxanthine and anovulation. Although reductions in the concentrations of total testosterone and free testosterone and decreased risk of anovulation were greatest in Asian women, there was no indication of effect modification by race. Caffeine intake, irrespective of the beverage source, may be associated with

  13. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Marina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS. However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Method In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months. Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen. Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS. FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Results Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4, and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4. Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5 and (2/26/4, respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10 and (9/13/10 for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9, corresponding to maximum and minimum

  14. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Tang, Dalin

    2011-07-19

    Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up) were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months). Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen). Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI) at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS) on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS). FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4). Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5) and (2/26/4), respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10) and (9/13/10) for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9), corresponding to maximum and minimum flow rates. Flow shear stress

  15. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped over short distances (maximum eight kilometres among older adolescents (17-18 years, to school and to other destinations.562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed.More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations.Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social

  16. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Walking, Cycling, Public Transport and Passive Transport to Various Destinations in Flemish Older Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; de Geus, Bas; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro) and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped) over short distances (maximum eight kilometres) among older adolescents (17-18 years), to school and to other destinations. 562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed. More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations. Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social environment

  17. Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  18. Expression of telomeres in astrocytoma WHO grade 2 to 4: TERRA level correlates with telomere length, telomerase activity, and advanced clinical grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors.

  19. Vertex part T -> d + n and its correlations with the triton binding energy and the doubling energy and the doublet nd-scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Orlov, Y V; Nikitina, L I

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic normalization constant C sub T sup 2 of triton is calculated in a two-body potential model with potentials having a Yukawa-type short-distance behavior and asymptotics V(r) -> const r sup - supnu exp(-mu r), where nu 0, 1, 2. It is shown that C sub T sup 2 decreases monotonically, while nu increases. The value of C sub T sup 2 monotonically declines with rising of the product (a sub 2 k), where a sub 2 is the doublet scattering length and k is the triton wave number. Such a behavior is in accordance with the effective range theory, taking k ctg delta pole into account, and with the general trend of the Faddeev calculation results. However, it is shown that some earlier N/D-method calculations give the opposite result: a sharp increase of C sub T sup 2. The T -> d + n-vertex-form-factor model calculations are compared with the known three-body result

  20. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of ‘never’ and ‘always’ cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducheyne Fabian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. Methods 850 parents completed a questionnaire to assess personal, family, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical environmental factors related to the cycling behavior of their children. Parents indicated on a question matrix how many days a week their child (1 walked, (2 cycled, was (3 driven by car or (4 public transport to and from school during fall, winter and spring. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlates. Results Overall, 39.3% of children never cycled to school and 16.5% of children always cycled to school. Children with high levels of independent mobility and good cycling skills perceived by their parents were more likely to always cycle to school (resp. OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.15 and OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16 and less likely to never cycle to school (resp. OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.91 and OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.7-0.84. Children with friends who encourage them to cycle to school were more likely to always cycle to school (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15 and less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.83-1.0. In addition, children with parents who encourage them to cycle to school were less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.7-0.87. Regarding the physical environmental factors, only neighborhood traffic safety was significantly associated with

  1. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of ‘never’ and ‘always’ cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. Methods 850 parents completed a questionnaire to assess personal, family, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical environmental factors related to the cycling behavior of their children. Parents indicated on a question matrix how many days a week their child (1) walked, (2) cycled, was (3) driven by car or (4) public transport to and from school during fall, winter and spring. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlates. Results Overall, 39.3% of children never cycled to school and 16.5% of children always cycled to school. Children with high levels of independent mobility and good cycling skills perceived by their parents were more likely to always cycle to school (resp. OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.15 and OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16) and less likely to never cycle to school (resp. OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.91 and OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.7-0.84). Children with friends who encourage them to cycle to school were more likely to always cycle to school (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.83-1.0). In addition, children with parents who encourage them to cycle to school were less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.7-0.87). Regarding the physical environmental factors, only neighborhood traffic safety was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., children

  2. How to conduct a proper sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment: taking into account correlations within LCI data and interactions within the LCA calculation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrene; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-06

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a significant tool for studying the robustness of results and their sensitivity to uncertainty factors in life cycle assessment (LCA). It highlights the most important set of model parameters to determine whether data quality needs to be improved, and to enhance interpretation of results. Interactions within the LCA calculation model and correlations within Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) input parameters are two main issues among the LCA calculation process. Here we propose a methodology for conducting a proper SA which takes into account the effects of these two issues. This study first presents the SA in an uncorrelated case, comparing local and independent global sensitivity analysis. Independent global sensitivity analysis aims to analyze the variability of results because of the variation of input parameters over the whole domain of uncertainty, together with interactions among input parameters. We then apply a dependent global sensitivity approach that makes minor modifications to traditional Sobol indices to address the correlation issue. Finally, we propose some guidelines for choosing the appropriate SA method depending on the characteristics of the model and the goals of the study. Our results clearly show that the choice of sensitivity methods should be made according to the magnitude of uncertainty and the degree of correlation.

  3. Expression of BTG1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its correlation with cell cycles, cell apoptosis, and cell metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G G; Lu, Y F; Cheng, Y J; Yang, C R; Liu, Q; Jing, S W; Han, X C

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the expression, clinical significance of B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the biological effect in its cell line by BTG1 overexpression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to analyze BTG1 protein expression in 70 cases of hepatocellular cancer and 32 cases of normal tissues to study the relationship between BTG1 expression and clinical factors. Recombinant lentiviral vector was constructed to overexpress BTG1 and then infect hepatocellular cancer HepG2 cell line. The level of BTG1 protein expression was found to be significantly lower in hepatocellular cancer tissue than normal tissues (P expression of BTG1 was significantly correlated with tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, clinic stage, and histological grade of patients with hepatocellular cancer (P expression correlated significantly with poor overall survival time by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P protein expression compared with HepG2 cell-untransfected BTG1 (P expression decreased in hepatocellular cancer and correlated significantly with lymph node metastasis, clinic stage, histological grade, poor overall survival, proliferation, and metastasis in hepatocellular cancer cell by regulating CND1, Bcl-2, and MMP-9 protein expression, suggesting that BTG1 may play important roles as a negative regulator to hepatocellular cancer cell.

  4. Maximal power and force-velocity relationships during cycling and cranking exercises in volleyball players. Correlation with the vertical jump test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driss, T; Vandewalle, H; Monod, H

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a test battery adjusted to volleyball players and to study the links between dynamic (vertical jump, force-velocity relationships and maximal anaerobic power in cranking and cycling) and static (maximal voluntary force and rate of force development in isometric conditions) performances. The relationships between braking force (F) and peak velocity (V) have been determined for cycling and cranking exercises in 18 male volleyball players of a district league. According to previous studies, these F-V relationships were assumed to be linear and were expressed as follows: V = V0(1-F/F0), where V0 should be an estimate of the maximal velocity at zero braking force whereas F0 is assumed to be a braking force corresponding to zero velocity. Maximal anaerobic power in cycling (Pmax leg) and cranking (Pmax arm) were calculated as equal to 0.25 V0F0. The same subjects performed a vertical jump test (VJ) and a strength test on an isometric leg press with the measurement of the unilateral isometric maximal voluntary force (MVF) and indices of rate of isometric force development (RFD): maximal rate of force development (MRFD) and the time from 25% to 50% of MVF (T25-50). Pmax leg (15.8 +/- 1.4 W.kg-1) and V0 arm (259.6 +/- 13.1 rpm) were high but similar to the results of elite athletes, previously collected with the same protocols and the same devices. VJ was significantly with F0 leg, Pmax leg and Pmax arm related to body mass. The performances of the dynamic tests were significantly correlated and especially the parameters (V0, F0, Pmax) of the force velocity tests in cycling were significantly correlated with the same parameters in cranking. The results of the isometric tests (MVF, MRFD) were not correlated with VJ, except T25-50 of the left leg. A vertical jump test and a force velocity test with the arms are proposed for a test battery in volleyball players.

  5. Stratospheric warmings - The quasi-biennial oscillation Ozone Hole in the Antarctic but not the Arctic - Correlations between the Solar Cycle, Polar Temperatures, and an Equatorial Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Ulf-Peter

    2010-05-15

    This report is a tutorial and overview over some of the complex dynamic phenomena in the polar and equatorial stratosphere, and the unexpected correlation that exists between these and the solar cycle. Sudden stratospheric warmings (stratwarms) occur in the polar stratosphere in winter, but not equally distributed between the two hemispheres. As a result, the ozone hole in the springtime polar stratosphere is much more severe in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is a dynamic phenomenon of the equatorial stratosphere. Through processes not fully understood, the phase of the QBO (easterly or westerly) influences the onset of stratwarms. In addition, a correlation between the stratospheric winter temperature over the poles and the solar cycle has been found, but only if the datapoints are ordered by the phase of the QBO. - The best explanations and figures from four recent textbooks are selected, and abstracts of most relevant publications from the six last years are collected, with the most relevant portions for these subjects highlighted. - In addition to being basic science, the understanding of these phenomena is important in the context of the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect, as well as anthropogenic and natural climate change. (author)

  6. The expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase associated cell cycle (GACC genes correlates with cancer stage and poor survival in patients with solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunrui Wang

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is often used as a stable housekeeping marker for constant gene expression. However, the transcriptional levels of GAPDH may be highly up-regulated in some cancers, including non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. Using a publically available microarray database, we identified a group of genes whose expression levels in some cancers are highly correlated with GAPDH up-regulation. The majority of the identified genes are cell cycle-dependent (GAPDH Associated Cell Cycle, or GACC. The up-regulation pattern of GAPDH positively associated genes in NSCLC is similar to that observed in cultured fibroblasts grown under conditions that induce anti-senescence. Data analysis demonstrated that up-regulated GAPDH levels are correlated with aberrant gene expression related to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1 in gluconeogenesis in conjunction with up-regulation of most glycolytic genes is closely related to high expression of GAPDH in the tumors. The data presented demonstrate that up-regulation of GAPDH positively associated genes is proportional to the malignant stage of various tumors and is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Thus, this work suggests that GACC genes represent a potential new signature for cancer stage identification and disease prognosis.

  7. Endocrine correlates of reproduction in the wolf. I. Serum progesterone, estradiol and LH during the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The estrous cycle of 10 intact female wolves, aged 8 months-8 years at the initiation of the study, was characterized in terms of vaginal smears, behavioral observations and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) from January through June. No estrous cycles occurred in these animals between June and December. All were housed with male wolves. Two pups and 1 adult remained anestrous during this interval. One pup and 2 adults produced litters between May 4-6. Four adults exhibited endocrine changes similar to those of the pregnant animals but no litters or signs of abortion were observed. The duration of proestrus was 15.7 ± 1.6 days (X ± SEM, n = 6), of estrus 9.0 ± 1.2 days (n = 4) and of the luteal phase 63 ± 2 days (n = 6). The duration of pregnancy was between 60-65 days. The anestrous females (86 blood samples) had 6 progesterone values between 1-2 ng/ml and the remainder below 1 ng/ml. Their estradiol-17β concentrations varied between 5-20 pg/ml. Values for LH varied between 0.1-2 ng/ml, except for 1 value above 15 ng/ml for each of the 2 anestrous pups on 12 January.The 7 estrous animals (260 samples) included 1 pup and 2 adults that delivered litters. Estradiol-17β varied between 10-20 pg/ml during proestrus, peaked at 30-70 pg/ml late in proestrus and fluctuated between 10-30 pg/ml during pregnancy or the duration of luteal activity in the nonpregnant animals. The preovulatory LH rise, 5-15 ng/ml, extended over 3 days during and immediately following the peak estradiol-17β values. An earlier elevation in LH was observed in 3 of the estrous animals. Progesterone began increasing during the LH surge and peaked 11-14 days later at 22-40 ng/ml. Progesterone concentrations greater than 3 ng/ml were maintained for 56-68 days in 6 of the 7 animals exhibiting estrus. Progesterone concentrations declined at parturition but continued to fluctuate between 0.2-3 ng/ml for 3-6 weeks.

  8. Physical factors correlate to microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling gene abundance in a nitrate fed eutrophic lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Paul Highton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous run-off from farmed pastures contributes to the eutrophication of Lake Ellesmere, a large shallow lagoon/lake on the east coast of New Zealand. Tributaries periodically deliver high loads of nitrate to the lake which likely affect microbial communities therein. We hypothesized that a nutrient gradient would form from the potential sources (tributaries creating a disturbance resulting in changes in microbial community structure. To test this we first determined the existence of such a gradient but found only a weak nitrogen (TN and phosphorous gradient (DRP. Changes in microbial communities were determined by measuring functional potential (quantification of nitrogen cycling genes via nifH, nirS, nosZI and nosZII using qPCR, potential activity (via denitrification enzyme activity, as well as using changes in total community (via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our results demonstrated that changes in microbial communities at a phylogenetic (relative abundance and functional level (proportion of the microbial community carrying nifH and nosZI genes were most strongly associated with physical gradients (e.g. lake depth, sediment grain size, sediment porosity and not nutrient concentrations. Low nitrate influx at the time of sampling is proposed as a factor contributing to the observed patterns.

  9. Trophoblast subtype-specific EGFR/ERBB4 expression correlates with cell cycle progression and hyperplasia in complete hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Fuchs, Roman; Dekan, Sabine; Milla, Stephanie K; Haider, Sandra; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    -regulated kinase 1/2 in EGFR(+) primary trophoblasts; however, they do not show an effect on HLA-G(+) EVTs. Both ligands strongly induce cell cycle progression in primary trophoblasts (P trophoblast subtypes within the human placenta. Manipulation of EGFR signalling might thus offer a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of molar pregnancies associated with trophoblast hyperplasia. This study was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (grant P-25187-B13 to J.P.). There are no competing interests to declare. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The correlation between isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in adolescent soccer players in an annual training cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isokinetic testing is often used to provide coaches with important information about the physical status of athletes. Therefore, a number of studies focused on the assessment of the relationship between isokinetic and functional tests including soccer. The results of a limited number of studies indicate that the relationship changes in different training periods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in three different periods of the annual training cycle in adolescent soccer players. METHODS: A group of adolescent soccer players (n = 16; average age 16.7 ± 0.7 years was tested at the end of the competitive season, at the beginning of the off-season and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. The isokinetic concentric peak torque (PT, peak power (Pmax and time to peak torque (TPT of the dominant leg and non-dominant leg were measured at angular velocities of 60°•s–1, 180°•s–1, 360°•s–1. The explosive strength of the lower extremities was measured using the countermovement jump with free arms (CMJF method and countermovement jump with the arms crossed over the chest. Based on literary reviews, a logically significant value of the correlation was set at > 0.30. RESULTS: The correlations between the isokinetic strength characteristics and vertical jump performance irrespective of the training period were low to moderate; 56% of the correlations were > 0.30. In the different periods of the annual training cycle, the occurrence of correlations > 0.30 as well as their value varied – 67% at the end of the competitive season, 31% at the beginning of the off-season and 64% at the beginning of the competitive season. For both types of jumps, the correlations for Pmax and PT parameters were the lowest during the second measurement in most cases; no trend was observed for the TPT

  11. Diurnal changes in the xanthophyll cycle pigments of freshwater algae correlate with the environmental hydrogen peroxide concentration rather than non-photochemical quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Miller, Ramona; Aigner, Siegfried; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In photosynthetic organisms exposure to high light induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in part is prevented by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). As one of the most stable and longest-lived ROS, H2O2 is involved in key signalling pathways in development and stress responses, although in excess it can induce damage. A ubiquitous response to high light is the induction of the xanthophyll cycle, but its role in algae is unclear as it is not always associated with NPQ induction. The aim of this study was to reveal how diurnal changes in the level of H2O2 are regulated in a freshwater algal community. Methods A natural freshwater community of algae in a temporary rainwater pool was studied, comprising photosynthetic Euglena species, benthic Navicula diatoms, Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species. Diurnal measurements were made of photosynthetic performance, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and H2O2. The frequently studied model organisms Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species were isolated to study photosynthesis-related H2O2 responses to high light. Key Results NPQ was shown to prevent H2O2 release in Chlamydomonas and Chlorella species under high light; in addition, dissolved organic carbon excited by UV-B radiation was probably responsible for a part of the H2O2 produced in the water column. Concentrations of H2O2 peaked at 2 µm at midday and algae rapidly scavenged H2O2 rather than releasing it. A vertical H2O2 gradient was observed that was lowest next to diatom-rich benthic algal mats. The diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments included the violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin cycles; the former was induced prior to the latter, but neither was strictly correlated with NPQ. Conclusions The diurnal cycling of H2O2 was apparently modulated by the organisms in this freshwater algal community. Although the community showed flexibility in its levels of NPQ, the diurnal changes in

  12. Up-regulation of cell cycle arrest protein BTG2 correlates with increased overall survival in breast cancer, as detected by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirström Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that the ADIPOR1, ADORA1, BTG2 and CD46 genes differ significantly between long-term survivors of breast cancer and deceased patients, both in levels of gene expression and DNA copy numbers. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of the corresponding proteins in breast carcinoma and to determine their correlation with clinical outcome. Methods Protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in an independent breast cancer cohort of 144 samples represented on tissue microarrays. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the differences in protein expression between dead and alive patients. We used Cox-regression multivariate analysis to assess whether the new markers predict the survival status of the patients better than the currently used markers. Results BTG2 expression was demonstrated in a significantly lower proportion of samples from dead patients compared to alive patients, both in overall expression (P = 0.026 and cell membrane specific expression (P = 0.013, whereas neither ADIPOR1, ADORA1 nor CD46 showed differential expression in the two survival groups. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis showed that a model containing BTG2 expression in combination with HER2 and Ki67 expression along with patient age performed better than a model containing the currently used prognostic markers (tumour size, nodal status, HER2 expression, hormone receptor status, histological grade, and patient age. Interestingly, BTG2 has previously been described as a tumour suppressor gene involved in cell cycle arrest and p53 signalling. Conclusions We conclude that high-level BTG2 protein expression correlates with prolonged survival in patients with breast carcinoma.

  13. Impact of Erbia in Long Cycle Operation of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Eun; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hocheol [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we design a core suitable for long cycle operation and we perform sensitivity tests of MTC on the content of erbia (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fuel rods. The correlations between the erbia content and MTC, peaking factor, critical boron concentration (CBC) and fuel cycle length are analyzed. CASMO-4E/SIMULATE-3, which is Studsvik's reactor core design code system, has been used for these simulations. In this paper, we designed a core suitable for long cycle operation and we conducted sensitivity tests of MTC on the content of erbia in fuel rods. Erbia is used in normal and zoning fuel region. The correlation between the erbia content and MTC, peaking factor and CBC was analyzed. The more the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} enrichment increases, the more the MTC is enhanced. However, although Er enrichment increases, initial CBC and fuel cycle length do not change remarkably. Er presents the right property of reducing MTC without causing a large change to initial CBC and fuel cycle length. In conclusion, using the properties of Er, MTC can be enhanced and the safety margins can be increased for long cycle operation of cores.

  14. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Economic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of the economic

  15. Urban form, demographic and socio-economic correlates of walking, cycling, and e-biking: Evidence from eight neighborhoods in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2018-01-01

    . Furthermore, if the contribution of walking and cycling to sustainable urban mobility is to be maintained and repositioned, the younger generation requires substantial encouragement to get them to cycle more, while low education, low and middle income earners, non-hukou citizens are groups that should...... be encouraged to keep on walking, cycling and e-biking even if their income situation may improve in the future....

  16. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  17. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  18. Impact of UO{sub 2} Enrichment of Fuel Zoning Rods in Long Cycle Operation of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Deokjung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Eun; Choe, Jiwon [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Extending the cycle length can not only increase the energy production, but also bring down outage costs by reducing the number of refueling outages during the lifetime of a nuclear power plant. It is reasonable that more fresh fuels are loaded for long cycle operation. However, minimizing the number of fresh fuels is essential in aspect of fuel economics. This can cause high power peaking near the water holes, due to increased thermalization of neutrons in those regions. To prevent this, special fuel zoning rods are used and surround the water holes. These rods use lower-enriched uranium (they have an enrichment rate lower than the other fuel rods). If we adjust the enrichment rate of fuel zoning rods, we can reduce power peaking and moreover increase cycle length. In this paper, we designed a core suitable for long cycle operation and we conducted sensitivity tests of fuel cycle length on UO2 enrichment rate in fuel zoning region in order to extend the cycle length while using the same number of fresh fuels. The correlations between the fuel zoning enrichment and cycle length, peaking factor, CBC and shutdown margin were analyzed. The more the enrichment rate in fuel zoning region increases, the more the fuel cycle length increases. At the same time, CBC, Fq and shutdown margin do not change significantly. Increasing the fuel zoning enrichment rate presents the right property of increasing the fuel cycle length without causing a large change to CBC, Fq and shutdown margin. In conclusion, by increasing the uranium enrichment rate in fuel zoning region, fuel cycle length can be increased and the safety margins can be maintained for long cycle operation of cores.

  19. Comparison Between Path Lengths Traveled by Solar Electrons and Ions in Ground-Level Enhancement Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

  20. Association between psychological stress and menstrual cycle characteristics in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsom, Susannah Heyer; Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; Koch, Patricia Bartholow; Gierach, Gretchen; West, Sheila G

    2004-01-01

    In previous studies of the relationship between stress and menstrual cycles, stress has been found to be associated with longer cycles, to be associated with shorter cycles, and to have no association with cycle length. Some of the menstrual cycle changes that have been attributed to stress are similar to those experienced by women during perimenopause. In an effort to see whether an association between psychological stress and menstrual cycle characteristics can be detected in women approaching menopause, this study examines this relationship in perimenopausal women who are participants in the Tremin Research Program on Women's Health. The analyses used prospectively recorded bleeding data and retrospectively captured life-event data. A single-year cross-sectional analysis of data from 206 women shows no correlation between stress level, as measured by total number and severity of stressful life events, and cycle characteristics, including interval length, duration of bleed, and variability in both of these factors, nor are there significant differences in cycle characteristics between subgroups of women with different overall levels of stress. In analyzing stress levels and cycle characteristics across 2 years, however, women with marked increases in their level of stress (n = 30) are shown to have decreased length (-0.2 days/cycle) of menstrual cycle intervals and decreased duration of bleed (-0.1 day/cycle) compared with increases in these measures (+2.9 days/cycle for cycle interval; +0.3 days/cycle for duration of bleed) among women with no marked change in stress level (n = 103); t-tests indicate that these differences are significant (p < .05).

  1. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  2. Neandertal clavicle length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W.; Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status. PMID:24616525

  3. Neandertal clavicle length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Holliday, Trenton W; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2014-03-25

    The Late Pleistocene archaic humans from western Eurasia (the Neandertals) have been described for a century as exhibiting absolutely and relatively long clavicles. This aspect of their body proportions has been used to distinguish them from modern humans, invoked to account for other aspects of their anatomy and genetics, used in assessments of their phylogenetic polarities, and used as evidence for Late Pleistocene population relationships. However, it has been unclear whether the usual scaling of Neandertal clavicular lengths to their associated humeral lengths reflects long clavicles, short humeri, or both. Neandertal clavicle lengths, along with those of early modern humans and latitudinally diverse recent humans, were compared with both humeral lengths and estimated body masses (based on femoral head diameters). The Neandertal do have long clavicles relative their humeri, even though they fall within the ranges of variation of early and recent humans. However, when scaled to body masses, their humeral lengths are relatively short, and their clavicular lengths are indistinguishable from those of Late Pleistocene and recent modern humans. The few sufficiently complete Early Pleistocene Homo clavicles seem to have relative lengths also well within recent human variation. Therefore, appropriately scaled clavicular length seems to have varied little through the genus Homo, and it should not be used to account for other aspects of Neandertal biology or their phylogenetic status.

  4. Correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em dois ciclos de seleção recorrente em milho-pipoca Correlations among agronomic traits in two recurrent selection cycles in popcorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máskio Daros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de monitorar o comportamento de blocos gênicos em diferentes gerações de seleção recorrente em milho pipoca, quantificaram-se as correlações fenotípica, genotípica e de ambiente entre caracteres agronômicos, em dois ciclos de seleção recorrente. O primeiro ciclo foi formado por famílias de irmãos completos e o segundo ciclo por famílias S1. Embora não significativa, em ambos os ciclos, houve correlação genotípica negativa entre capacidade de expansão e rendimento de grãos. Para o segundo ciclo, as maiores magnitudes de correlação genotípica positiva ocorreram entre rendimento de grãos, número de espigas sadias e estande, indicando a possibilidade de sucesso na seleção de uma ou outra, com base no rendimento de grãos. Embora não significativa e em baixa magnitude, houve acréscimo da correlação genotípica entre rendimento de grãos e capacidade de expansão do primeiro para o segundo ciclo, denotando aumento na concentração de alelos favoráveis na população.This work was carried out to estimate environment, genotypic and phenotypic correlations among traits in two intrapopulational recurrent selection cycles in popcorn. The first cycle was composed by full sib families and the second cycle by S1 families. Seventy-five families of full sib and two hundred and twenty two families S1 were evaluated in randomized complete block design with two replicates in two environments. Although not statistically significant, genotypic correlation between grain yield and popping expansion was negative in both selection cycles. For the second cycle of recurrent selection, the highest positive estimates of genotypic correlations were found between: grain yield and number of ears and grain yield and stand, indicating the perspective of the success for selection based on grain yield. Although in less magnitude there was an increase in genotypic correlation between the grain yield and popping expansion from the

  5. Copy Number Defects of G1-Cell Cycle Genes in Neuroblastoma are Frequent and Correlate with High Expression of E2F Target Genes and a Poor Prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Jan J.; Koster, Jan; Ebus, Marli E.; van Sluis, Peter; Westerhout, Ellen M.; de Preter, Katleen; Gisselsson, David; Øra, Ingrid; Speleman, Frank; Caron, Huib N.; Versteeg, Rogier

    2012-01-01

    The tightly controlled network of cell cycle genes consists of a core of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) that are activated by periodically expressed cyclins. The activity of the cyclin-CDK complexes is regulated by cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) and multiple signal transduction routes

  6. Black hole clustering and duty cycles in the Illustris simulation

    OpenAIRE

    DeGraf, Colin; Sijacki, Debora

    2016-01-01

    We use the high-resolution cosmological simulation Illustris to investigate the clustering of supermassive black holes across cosmic time, the link between black hole clustering and host halo masses, and the implications for black hole duty cycles. Our predicted black hole correlation length and bias match the observational data very well across the full redshift range probed. Black hole clustering is strongly luminosity-dependent on small, 1-halo scales, with some moderate dependence on larg...

  7. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  8. The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Brown

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian circadian behavior is governed by a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus, and its intrinsic period length is believed to affect the phase of daily activities. Measurement of this period length, normally accomplished by prolonged subject observation, is difficult and costly in humans. Because a circadian clock similar to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is present in most cell types, we were able to engineer a lentiviral circadian reporter that permits characterization of circadian rhythms in single skin biopsies. Using it, we have determined the period lengths of 19 human individuals. The average value from all subjects, 24.5 h, closely matches average values for human circadian physiology obtained in studies in which circadian period was assessed in the absence of the confounding effects of light input and sleep-wake cycle feedback. Nevertheless, the distribution of period lengths measured from biopsies from different individuals was wider than those reported for circadian physiology. A similar trend was observed when comparing wheel-running behavior with fibroblast period length in mouse strains containing circadian gene disruptions. In mice, inter-individual differences in fibroblast period length correlated with the period of running-wheel activity; in humans, fibroblasts from different individuals showed widely variant circadian periods. Given its robustness, the presented procedure should permit quantitative trait mapping of human period length.

  9. Endometrial and Subendometrial Vascularity by Three-Dimensional (3D) Power Doppler and Its Correlation with Pregnancy Outcome in Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet V; Agarwal, Ritu; Sharma, Urmila; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Bandwal, Pradeep

    2016-10-01

    To study the role of endometrial and subendometrial blood flow measured by 3D power Doppler as predictors of pregnancy in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A hospital-based prospective study of two hundred and twenty-one (221) women undergoing FET cycles with a triple-line endometrium ≥7 mm on day 14 endometrial and subendometrial blood flow was assessed using 3D power Doppler, and various indices endometrial volume, subendometrial volume and their vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation flow index (VFI) were obtained and compared between the pregnant and the non-pregnant group. Primary outcome was clinical pregnancy. Out of 221 women, 97(43.89 %) became pregnant, while 124 (56.10 %) failed to become pregnant. The endometrial volume was comparable between the two groups. Endometrial VI, FI and VFI were significantly higher in the pregnant as compared to the non-pregnant group. There was a significant difference in subendometrial VI and VFI between the two groups, but FI was similar. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularity by 3D power Doppler can be a useful parameter in predicting pregnancy in FET cycles.

  10. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  11. Correlation of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow assessment by two-dimensional power Doppler with pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Divya; Upadhyay, Amit Jitendra; Deepika, K; Pranesh, Gautham T; Rao, Kamini A

    2014-04-01

    Various markers have been proposed to evaluate endometrial receptivity, such as molecular markers and sonographic markers. Commonly used sonographic markers include endometrial thickness and pattern. A good endometrial blood flow is considered necessary for improved pregnancy outcome. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of subendometrial endometrial blood flow with two-dimensional-power Doppler (2D-PD) in predicting pregnancy outcome in hormone replacement frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Prospective, non-randomized observational study. A total of 165 patients undergoing their first FET cycle were evaluated for subendometrial-endometrial blood flow by 2D-PD once the endometrium was ≥7 mm thick. Group A consisted of 127 women showing the presence of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow. Group B comprised of 38 women in whom subendometrial blood flow was absent. Progesterone supplement was added and transfer of 2-3 cleavage stage good quality embryos was done after 3 days. Independent two-tailed t-test and Chi-square test. There was no significant difference in body mass index, endometrial thickness, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone levels, number of mature oocytes, semen parameters and the number of good quality embryos in the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean age in Group A was 32.05 years and 33.73 years in Group B, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Overall pregnancy rate (PR) was 30.90%. PRs were significantly higher in the presence of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow than in its absence (35.43% vs. 15.78%, P = 0.02). Furthermore, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate were significantly higher in Group A when compared to Group B (31.49% and 14.79% vs. 13.15% and 6.52%, P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The presence of endometrial blood flow significantly improves cycle outcome in hormone replacement therapy-FET cycles.

  12. Multipartite graph decomposition: cycles and closed trails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Billington

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on cycle decompositions of complete multipartite graphs (where the parts are not all of size 1, so the graph is not K_n , in the case that the cycle lengths are “small”. Cycles up to length n are considered, when the complete multipartite graph has n parts, but not hamilton cycles. Properties which the decompositions may have, such as being gregarious, are also mentioned.

  13. Research Notes Patterns of thorn length, density, type and colour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Notes Patterns of thorn length, density, type and colour in African Acacias. JJ Midgley, MA Botha, D Balfour. Abstract. In Acacia no trade-off occurs between thorn length and thorn density and no correlation exists between thorn length and leaf length. By relating thorn length and density to leaf length it is clear that ...

  14. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication.......0-21.5). The genetic analyses suggested that telomere length was not causally associated with attendance at hospital for depression or with purchase of antidepressant medication. CONCLUSIONS: Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses.......BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...

  15. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  16. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than...

  17. Correlation of Etch Pits and Dislocations in As-grown and Thermal Cycle-Annealed HgCdTe(211) Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghayenegar, M.; Jacobs, R. N.; Benson, J. D.; Stoltz, A. J.; Almeida, L. A.; Smith, David J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports observations of the different types of etch pits and dislocations present in thick HgCdTe (211) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CdTe/Si (211) composite substrates. Dislocation analysis for as-grown and thermal cycle-annealed samples has been carried out using bright-field transmission electron microscopy. Triangular pits present in as-grown material are associated with a mixture of Frank partials and perfect dislocations, while pits with fish-eye shapes have perfect dislocations with 1/2[0\\bar{1}1] Burgers vector. The dislocations beneath skew pits are more complex as they have two different crystallographic directions, and are associated with a mixture of Shockley partials and perfect dislocations. Dislocation analysis of samples after thermal cycle annealing (TCA) shows that the majority of dislocations under the etch pits are short segments of perfect dislocations with 1/2[0\\bar{1}1] Burgers vector while the remainder are Shockley partials. The absence of fish-eye shape pits in TCA samples suggests that they are associated with mobile dislocations that have reacted during annealing, causing the overall etch pit density to be reduced. Very large pits with a density ˜2×103 cm-2 are observed in as-grown and TCA samples. These defects thread from within the CdTe buffer layer into the upper regions of the HgCdTe layers. Their depth in as-grown material is so large that it is not possible to locate and identify the underlying defects.

  18. Nutrient-cycling microbes in Coastal Douglas-fir forests: Regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip-Edouard eShay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness and evenness and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analysed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared DGGE profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1, nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA PCR amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725 - 3489, while pH (3.8 - 5.5 best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4 - 23%; but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14 - 25%. Results suggest that in-situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms detected in forest soils responded to smaller

  19. Nutrient-cycling microbes in coastal Douglas-fir forests: regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Philip-Edouard; Winder, Richard S; Trofymow, J A

    2015-01-01

    Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however, their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness, and evenness) and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analyzed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA) polymerase chain reaction amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725-3489), while pH (3.8-5.5) best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4-23%); but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14-25%). Results suggest that in situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms detected in

  20. Effects of a high mean stress on the high cycle fatigue life of PWA 1480 and correlation of data by linear elastic fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S.; Kwasny, R.

    1985-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue tests using 5-mm-diameter smooth specimens were performed on the single crystal alloy PWA 1480 (001 axis) at 70F (room temperature) in air and at 100F (538C) in vacuum (10 to the -6 power torr). Tests were conducted at zero mean stress as well as at high tensile mean stress. The results indicate that, although a tensile mean stress, in general, reduces life, the reduction in fatigue strength, for a given mean stress at a life of one million cycles, is much less than what is predicted by the usual linear Goodman plot. Further, the material appears to be significantly more resistant to mean stress effects at 1000F than at 70F. Metallographic examinations of failed specimens indicate that failures in all cases are initiated from micropores of sizes of the order of 30 to 40 microns. Since the macroscopic stress-strain response in all cases was observed to be linear elastic, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analyses were carried out to determine the crack growth curves of the material assuming that crack initiation from a micropore (a sub o = 40 microns) occurs very early in life. The results indicate that the calculated crack growth rates at an R (defined as the ratio between minimum stress to maximum stress) value of zero are approximately the same at 70F as at 1000F. However, the calculated crack growth rates at other R ratios, both positive and negative, tend to be higher at 70F than at 1000F. Calculated threshold effects at large R values tend to be independent of temperature in the temperature regime studied. They are relatively constant with increasing R ratio up to a value of about 0.6, beyond which the calculated threshold stress intensity factor range decreases rapidly with increasing R ratios.

  1. Climatic correlates of female and male reproductive cycles and plasma steroid hormone levels in the many-lined sun skink Eutropis multifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Du, Yu; Yang, Jing; Lin, Chi-Xian; Ji, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    Gonadal activity and plasma steroid hormone (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) levels in males and females of a viviparous skink (Eutropis multifasciata) were investigated. Changes in the hormone profiles were then correlated to changes in environmental factors such as temperature and rainfall and were found to vary seasonally in both sexes. Gonadal activity, calculated using testicular mass and volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height in males and, in females, ovary mass and largest follicular volume also varied seasonally. Peak spermiogenesis was in synchrony with maximal vitellogenic activity, but reproductive synchronicity among females was low. Ovary mass and largest follicular volumes were negatively related to air temperature and rainfall. Testicular mass and volume were not related to air temperature, but both were negatively related to rainfall. Rainfall explained a greater proportion of variation in vitellogenic activity than temperature. As for the climatic correlates of seasonal variation in plasma steroid hormones, we found only in males that the plasma level of testosterone was negatively related to rainfall. Taken together, our data show that male and female reproductive activities are more tightly correlated with rainfall than temperature in E. multifasciata. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline(4-nitrobenzoate): strong induction of stereoelectronic effects via a readily synthesized proline derivative. Crystallographic observation of a correlation between torsion angle and bond length in a hyperconjugative interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil K; Yap, Glenn P A; Zondlo, Neal J

    2014-05-02

    (2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline(4-nitrobenzoate) was synthesized. The crystal structure revealed an exo ring pucker, with the nitrobenzoate pseudoaxial on the pyrrolidine envelope and antiperiplanar to C(β) and C(δ) C-H bonds. The unit cell exhibited variation in C(δ)-H/C(γ)-O and C(β)-H/C(γ)-O torsion angles, with a 15° increase in torsion angle (148° to 163°) observed to result in a 0.018 Å decrease in C(δ)-H/C(γ)-O bond length, consistent with favorable σC-H → σ*C-O hyperconjugative interactions increasing with greater orbital overlap.

  3. Perceived exertion and anaerobic threshold during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L A; Kolka, M A; Wilkerson, J E

    1982-01-01

    Six adult females with normal menstrual cycles (28-31 d in length) volunteered to exercise on a bicycle ergometer on five different days of their menstrual cycles (days 2, 8, 14, 20, and 26; day 1 = onset of menstruation). Each day the subjects exercised at a maximum work load (184.4 W) and at four submaximal exercise intensities (45.0, 83.1, 121.4 and 154.4 W). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained during minute 4 of each 5-min submaximal exercise bout and at exhaustion each day. Overall, RPE was linearly correlated with heart rate (r = 0.87) when all exercise intensities and cycle days were considered. There was no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) change in RPE at any exercise intensity related to cycle day. Factors (expired ventilatory volume, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, end-tidal CO2 tension, and heart rate) that may have affected RPE, maximal aerobic power, and anaerobic threshold (AT) were also statistically unchanged because of cycle day. Anaerobic threshold averaged 68.7% of the VO2max, or 1.592 l . min for all cycle days, as determined by the total expiratory volume/oxygen uptake "break point" method of Wasserman and co-workers (18). These data support the utilization of female subjects with normal menstrual cycles in psychophysiological studies without regard to menstrual cycle phase.

  4. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  5. Solar cycle lengths and climate: A reference revisited - Reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, K.; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2000-01-01

    that solar forcing constitutes an important contribution to the natural temperature fluctuations. This does not exclude, as also stated previously, that other climate forcings may have an effect on global temperature, including the effect of man-made greenhouse gases, in particular, after 1970....

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  7. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between sonographic renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal length (RL) in normal adult Nigerian. Study design: The RL and RPT of 309 normal subjects within the age range of 18 – 80years were measured sonographically and prospectively. Correlation was performed between ...

  8. Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic diversity, to estimate mid parent heterosis and to correlate the estimated parental genetic diversity with heterosis chilli. Five CMS B - lines and 30 testers were used for morphological and AFLP marker genetic divergence analysis.

  9. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  10. Energy-Length Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Mihul, Alexandru C; Mihul, Eleonora A

    2006-01-01

    Lorentz ordering (causality) implies the following rule: for any given energy p0 of a system there is a certain interval c0 on x0 so that their product is the Lorentz ordering constant L It means p0c0 = L. The constant L=hc. Hence Planck constant h in a similar way as c are both consequences of Lorentz metric. The basic ideas are: 1. Lorentz metric implies that x0 must represent a length like the other components of x in X 2. The dual metric space X* is well defined since the Lorentz metric t...

  11. Sequence-Dependent Persistence Lengths of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Glowacki, Jaroslaw; Grandchamp, Alexandre E; Manning, Robert S; Maddocks, John H

    2017-04-11

    A Monte Carlo code applied to the cgDNA coarse-grain rigid-base model of B-form double-stranded DNA is used to predict a sequence-averaged persistence length of l F = 53.5 nm in the sense of Flory, and of l p = 160 bp or 53.5 nm in the sense of apparent tangent-tangent correlation decay. These estimates are slightly higher than the consensus experimental values of 150 bp or 50 nm, but we believe the agreement to be good given that the cgDNA model is itself parametrized from molecular dynamics simulations of short fragments of length 10-20 bp, with no explicit fit to persistence length. Our Monte Carlo simulations further predict that there can be substantial dependence of persistence lengths on the specific sequence [Formula: see text] of a fragment. We propose, and confirm the numerical accuracy of, a simple factorization that separates the part of the apparent tangent-tangent correlation decay [Formula: see text] attributable to intrinsic shape, from a part [Formula: see text] attributable purely to stiffness, i.e., a sequence-dependent version of what has been called sequence-averaged dynamic persistence length l̅ d (=58.8 nm within the cgDNA model). For ensembles of both random and λ-phage fragments, the apparent persistence length [Formula: see text] has a standard deviation of 4 nm over sequence, whereas our dynamic persistence length [Formula: see text] has a standard deviation of only 1 nm. However, there are notable dynamic persistence length outliers, including poly(A) (exceptionally straight and stiff), poly(TA) (tightly coiled and exceptionally soft), and phased A-tract sequence motifs (exceptionally bent and stiff). The results of our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with both molecular dynamics simulation and diverse experimental data including minicircle cyclization rates and stereo cryo-electron microscopy images.

  12. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce {alpha}-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Musa [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prinz, Sonja [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Herbaceck, Irene; Hoelzl, Christine [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mikulits, Wolfgang [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Knasmueller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Kopp, Brigitte [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Krupitza, Georg, E-mail: georg.krupitza@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-05

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H{sub 2}O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 {mu}g BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 {mu}g berberine and 0.3 {mu}g/ml palmatine. 1.2 {mu}g/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 {mu}g/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of {alpha}-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  13. Genetic polymorphism of toll-like receptors 4 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism to correlate with mastitic cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja H. Gupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to study the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4 gene polymorphism from cattle DNA to correlate with mastitis cows. Materials and Methods: In present investigation, two fragments of TLR4 gene named T4CRBR1 and T4CRBR2 of a 316 bp and 382 bp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively from Kankrej (22 and Triple cross (24 cattle. The genetic polymorphisms in the two populations were detected by a single-strand conformational polymorphism in the first locus and by digesting the fragments with restriction endonuclease Alu I in the second one. Results: Results showed that both alleles (A and B of two loci were found in all the two populations and the value of polymorphism information content indicated that these were highly polymorphic. Statistical results of χ2 test indicated that two polymorphism sites in the two populations fit with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p˂0.05. Meanwhile, the effect of polymorphism of TLR4 gene on the somatic cell score (SCS indicated the cattle with allele a in T4CRBR1 showed lower SCS than that of allele B (p<0.05. Thus, the allele A might play an important role in mastitis resistance in cows. Conclusion: The relationship between the bovine mastitis trait and the polymorphism of TLR4 gene indicated that the bovine TLR4 gene may play an important role in mastitis resistance.

  14. Application of δ13c Values Recorded in Neoproterozoic Marine Dolomite As a Marker for Global Correlations: Significance of Major δ13c Variations for the Carbon Cycle Based on Studies of Modern Dolomite Precipitating Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Bahniuk, A.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since the early Paleozoic, the average bulk δ13C value of marine carbonates has remained relatively positive varying between 0 and +4‰ with distinctive positive excursions that are associated with global changes in the carbon cycle. Unlike the Phanerozoic δ13C data for marine limestones, a major δ13C excursion has been recorded in a globally deposited Neoproterozoic marine dolomite formation, known as the cap dolostone. This excursion with δ13C values ranging systematically between -3 and -5‰ represents a global chronstratigraphic marker used to correlate the end of the major Marinoan glaciation at 636 Ma1. Does this excursion signify a primary seawater value and how might it be interpreted as a primary carbon cycle signal, considering the widespread distribution of the cap dolostone? Studies of modern dolomite precipitating environments, such as supratidal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. and Qatar and coastal hypersaline lagoons of Rio de Janiero State, Brazil, indicate that microbial activity or the biological products, thereof, influence or mediate mineral formation. The precipitating solutions are sourced from normal seawater, which has experienced variable stages of concentration through evaporative processes. Comparison of δ13C values of sabkha dolomite with that formed in the hypersaline lagoons reveals that the former are always rather positive (approx. +2 to +7 ‰), whereas the latter are always negative (approx. -5‰ to -11‰). During very early diagenesis, the original δ13C value of the initial precipitate is not necessarily retained, indicating that synsedimentary processes can alter the carbon signal prior to burial and later diagenesis. However, the potential for very early lithification of microbial dolomite promotes the preservation of original δ13C values, which, thus, can be useful for evaluation of the ancient carbon cycle. 1Halverson, G.P. et al., 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record, GSA Bulletin, v. 117, p

  15. Regioselective binding of spermine, N1,N12-bismethylspermine, and N1,N12-bisethylspermine to tRNAPhe as revealed by 750 MHz 1H-NMR and its possible correlation with cell cycling and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydman Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of spermine (SPM, N¹,N12-bismethylspermine (BMS and N¹,N12-bisethylspermine (BES to tRNA Phe was studied using ¹H-NMR at 750 MHz. The polyamines were enriched in 13C at the 5-CH2 and 8-CH2 residues and the nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE cross peaks connecting the ¹H-NMR resonances of the13C-methylenes and several base paired imino protons of tRNA Phe were obtained using 1D13C-half filteredspectra. It was found that while SPM and BMS bind to the N(3-H of base pairs T54-m¹A58, U50-A64 and U52-A62, BES binds only to T54-m¹A58 and U50-A64. This regioselectivity in the binding of the three polyamines to tRNA was correlated with their biological effects on cell growth. Using human melanoma cancer cells (MALME-3M, we found that SPM and BMS were without effect and cytostatic, respectively, while BES was distinctly cytotoxic. The latter also affected cell cycling and, at variance with SPM and BMS, lead to a distinctG1/S cell cycle arrest.

  16. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  17. Length dependence of active force production in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; MacIntosh, B R; Herzog, W

    1999-05-01

    The sliding filament and cross-bridge theories of muscle contraction provide discrete predictions of the tetanic force-length relationship of skeletal muscle that have been tested experimentally. The active force generated by a maximally activated single fiber (with sarcomere length control) is maximal when the filament overlap is optimized and is proportionally decreased when overlap is diminished. The force-length relationship is a static property of skeletal muscle and, therefore, it does not predict the consequences of dynamic contractions. Changes in sarcomere length during muscle contraction result in modulation of the active force that is not necessarily predicted by the cross-bridge theory. The results of in vivo studies of the force-length relationship suggest that muscles that operate on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship typically function in stretch-shortening cycle contractions, and muscles that operate on the descending limb typically function in shorten-stretch cycle contractions. The joint moments produced by a muscle depend on the moment arm and the sarcomere length of the muscle. Moment arm magnitude also affects the excursion (length change) of a muscle for a given change in joint angle, and the number of sarcomeres arranged in series within a muscle fiber determines the sarcomere length change associated with a given excursion.

  18. Correlação entre vocabulário expressivo e extensão média do enunciado em crianças com alteração específica de linguagem Correlation between expressive vocabulary and mean length utterance in children with language disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a influência da idade no desempenho lexical e gramatical, e investigar a existência de correlação entre vocabulário expressivo e as medidas de extensão média de enunciado em crianças com alteração específica de linguagem. MÉTODO: participaram do estudo trinta sujeitos com diagnóstico de alteração específica de linguagem, entre 4:0 a 6:11 anos, sendo dez de cada faixa etária. Todos realizaram de forma completa a prova de vocabulário expressivo (ABFW e de Extensão Média do Enunciado, independente de gênero ou escolaridade. O estudo foi retrospectivo e a coleta de dados se baseou nas filmagens e gravações das provas acima mencionadas. RESULTADOS: o desempenho gramatical não apresentou diferença estatística entre as idades, mas foi observada correlação positiva entre o vocabulário expressivo e o uso de palavras de classe fechada, e entre o vocabulário expressivo e a extensão de palavras por enunciado (p-valor PURPOSE: to check the influence of age on the lexical and grammatical performance, and investigate the correlation between the number of usual verbal description in expressive vocabulary test and measures for mean length of utterance in children with Specific Language Impairment. METHOD: thirty children with Specific Language Impairment between 4:0 and 6:11 year-old took part in the study, and ten were selected from each age range that had the Expressive Vocabulary Test (ABFW and Mean Length of Utterance Test, independent gender or education. The study was retrospective, based on filming and recordings of those tests as for the data collection. RESULTS: no statistical difference was found in the grammatical performance among ages, but positive correlation was observed among the usual verbal description and parameters MG-2 and EME-P for Mean Length of Utterance Test (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: age alone is not enough to predict improvement of vocabulary and grammar; however the expansion of nouns in

  19. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  20. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.

  1. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M.; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard W; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we

  2. Correlation between prevalence of erectile dysfunction and length of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even stationary bikes can cause trauma to the blood supply to the penis, resulting in erectile dysfunction (22). Objective: To evaluate the effects of long hours of bicycle riding/week on erectile function among bicycle taxi (boda boda) riders in Bungoma town. Design: A Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Bungoma town, part of ...

  3. Estimation of stature from hand length in Gujarat region

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Patel; Bharat Patel; Ritesh Shah; Naimish Bhojak; Jalpa Desai

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of stature from hand length differs in various researchers in different ethnic groups. Same is done here to derive the regression equations for correct estimation of stature from hand lengths in Gujarati population. Objective An attempt is done here to find out correlation between stature and hand length in Gujarati population between 18-22 years of age and possibly to derived regression equation for the same. Material and method Stature and...

  4. Fibre operating lengths of human lower limb muscles during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edith M; Delp, Scott L

    2011-05-27

    Muscles actuate movement by generating forces. The forces generated by muscles are highly dependent on their fibre lengths, yet it is difficult to measure the lengths over which muscle fibres operate during movement. We combined experimental measurements of joint angles and muscle activation patterns during walking with a musculoskeletal model that captures the relationships between muscle fibre lengths, joint angles and muscle activations for muscles of the lower limb. We used this musculoskeletal model to produce a simulation of muscle-tendon dynamics during walking and calculated fibre operating lengths (i.e. the length of muscle fibres relative to their optimal fibre length) for 17 lower limb muscles. Our results indicate that when musculotendon compliance is low, the muscle fibre operating length is determined predominantly by the joint angles and muscle moment arms. If musculotendon compliance is high, muscle fibre operating length is more dependent on activation level and force-length-velocity effects. We found that muscles operate on multiple limbs of the force-length curve (i.e. ascending, plateau and descending limbs) during the gait cycle, but are active within a smaller portion of their total operating range.

  5. Measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the length of day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Trimble, V.; Feldman, M. R.

    2015-04-01

    About a dozen measurements of Newton's gravitational constant, G, since 1962 have yielded values that differ by far more than their reported random plus systematic errors. We find that these values for G are oscillatory in nature, with a period of P = 5.899 +/- 0.062 \\text{yr} , an amplitude of (1.619 +/- 0.103) × 10-14 \\text{m}3 \\text{kg}-1 \\text{s}-2 , and mean-value crossings in 1994 and 1997. However, we do not suggest that G is actually varying by this much, this quickly, but instead that something in the measurement process varies. Of other recently reported results, to the best of our knowledge, the only measurement with the same period and phase is the Length of Day (LOD —defined as a frequency measurement such that a positive increase in LOD values means slower Earth rotation rates and therefore longer days). The aforementioned period is also about half of a solar activity cycle, but the correlation is far less convincing. The 5.9 year periodic signal in LOD has previously been interpreted as due to fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. We report the G/LOD correlation, whose statistical significance is 0.99764 assuming no difference in phase, without claiming to have any satisfactory explanation for it. Least unlikely, perhaps, are currents in the Earth's fluid core that change both its moment of inertia (affecting LOD) and the circumstances in which the Earth-based experiments measure G. In this case, there might be correlations with terrestrial-magnetic-field measurements.

  6. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  7. Nasal and sleep cycle--possible synchronization during night sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov; Dimov, Pavel Donchev

    2003-08-01

    Regular cyclic changes in nostril airflow due to a nasal congestion and decongestion are known in literature as nasal cycle. Registration of breathing from each nostril separately gives possibility to registrate moments of alternative change of airflow of nostrils and periods of nasal cycle. This registration during night sleep shows that the length of these periods are about 1.5h, 3.0 h and 4.5h. The length of these periods are multiple of mean length of sleep cycle--about 1.5h. The alternative change of airflow through nostrils occurs through some of REM stages of the sleep. This shows, that during the night sleep becomes synchronization of nasal and sleep cycles in some of the REM phases of sleep. As a result--length of periods of the nasal cycle are one or more length of sleep cycle.

  8. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed......We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...

  9. Activity cycles in members of young loose stellar associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lanza, A. F.; Messina, S.; Spada, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Magnetic cycles analogous to the solar cycle have been detected in tens of solar-like stars by analyzing long-term time series of different magnetic activity indexes. The relationship between the cycle properties and global stellar parameters is not fully understood yet. One reason for this is the lack of long-term time series for stars covering a wide range of stellar parameters. Aims: We searched for activity cycles in a sample of 90 young solar-like stars with ages between 4 and 95 Myr with the aim to investigate the properties of activity cycles in this age range. Methods: We measured the length Pcyc of a given cycle by analyzing the long-term time series of three different activity indexes: the period of rotational modulation, the amplitude of the rotational modulation and the median magnitude in the V band. For each star, we also computed the global magnetic activity index ⟨ IQR ⟩ that is proportional to the amplitude of the rotational modulation and can be regarded as a proxy of the mean level of the surface magnetic activity. Results: We detected activity cycles in 67 stars. Secondary cycles were also detected in 32 stars of the sample. The lack of correlation between Pcyc and Prot and the position of our targets in the Pcyc/Prot-Ro-1 diagram suggest that these stars belong to the so-called transitional branch and that the dynamo acting in these stars is different from the solar dynamo and from that acting in the older Mt. Wilson stars. This statement is also supported by the analysis of the butterfly diagrams whose patterns are very different from those seen in the solar case. We computed the Spearman correlation coefficient rS between Pcyc, ⟨ IQR ⟩ and various stellar parameters. We found that Pcyc in our sample is uncorrelated with all the investigated parameters. The ⟨ IQR ⟩ index is positively correlated with the convective turnover timescale, the magnetic diffusivity timescale τdiff, and the dynamo number DN, whereas it is anti-correlated

  10. CYCLE CONTROL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changed to gestodene. Although large- scale comparative trials are needed to confirm this finding, evidence suggests that cycle control with gestodene is better than for monophasic preparations containing desogestrel, norgestimate or levonorgestrel,10 as well as for levonorg- estrel-or norethisterone-containing triphasics.

  11. Menu Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  12. Simple cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Rivin, Igor

    1999-01-01

    We obtain sharp bounds for the number of n-cycles in a finite graph as a function of the number of edges, and prove that the complete graph is optimal in more ways than could be imagined. En route, we prove some sharp estimates on power sums.

  13. Happy Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    og Interaktions Design, Aarhus Universitet under opgave teamet: ”Happy Cycling City – Aarhus”. Udfordringen i studieopgaven var at vise nye attraktive løsningsmuligheder i forhold til cyklens og cyklismens integration i byrum samt at påpege relationen mellem design og overordnede diskussioner af...

  14. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Mochokidae Inase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationships showed that all the fishes exhibited positive allometric growth pattern with regression exponent b value greater than 3, while the correlation coefficient (r) obtained ranged from 0.733 to 0.885 revealed a positive correlation. The results also showed that the condition factor (K) of all the species ...

  15. Length-weight and length-length relationships for six fish species from Zohreh River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Keivany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports Length-weight and length-length parameters for six fish species belonging to four families from the Zohreh River. The weight-length relationships were estimated using the equation W= Lb. The values of the slope parameter (b varied between 2.72 and 3.72, with a mean±SD of 3.015±0.18. The values b parameter in the length-weight relationship equations were calculated as 2.72 for Arabibarbus grypus (Heckel, 1843, 2.96 for Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843, 2.72 for Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843, 3.25 for Aphanius dispar (Rüppell, 1829, 2.91 for Sillago sihama (Forsskål, 1775 and 3.15 for Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981. This study presents the first reference on LWR and LLR for these species in Zohreh River.

  16. ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE RENAL LENGTH IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Čukuranović Kokoris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the significance of absolute and relative renal length in the diagnoses of several chronic kidney diseases (CKDs in which kidney size changes in different manners during the disease course. The study included 181 patients: 35 with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN, 31 with diabetic nephropathy (DN, 30 with primary glomerular diseases (GN, 30 with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, and 58 healthy controls (C. Absolute renal length was the distance between two most distant points on their poles and it was measured ultrasonographically, and relative length was obtained as the ratio of renal length and body height (kidney/body ratio, KBR. In the statistical analysis, One Way ANOVA test was used to establish the differences in absolute lengths and KBR between the studied groups; 2 test was used to establish the differences in the number of examinees of male and female gender; correlation and linear regression analysis were used to assess the association between age of the examinees and absolute and relative parameters of kidney size. The obtained results demonstrated that the average lengths of the right and left kidney were highest in ADPKD and lowest in BEN group. The average values of KBR of the right and left kidney showed a trend similar to that of average absolute lengths in all groups, except in GN and DN groups, in which absolute parameters of kidney size differed significantly from relative parameters. The correlation analysis showed that a significant negative correlation between age and absolute i.e. relative parameters of kidney size existed only in BEN group, but even in this case the differences between correlation coefficients of absolute and relative length of both kidneys were not statistically significant. Based on the obtained results, we could not establish the advantage of absolute over relative kidney length and vice versa in the studied CKDs. Further studies of larger

  17. Estimation of stature from radiographic measurement of foot dimensions: Truncated foot length may be more reliable than full foot length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwani, Abdullahi Suleiman; Salihu, Abubakar Tijjani; Garba, Isa Sa'idu; Rufa'i, Adamu Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Foot length has been shown to be a reliable dimension for estimation of stature. However, phalanges of the foot are very small bones and their length may not be proportional to person's stature. Thus, we hypothesized that foot length measured excluding the phalanges, the truncated foot length, may be more reliable in stature estimation than full foot length. This study, therefore, aimed at comparing the accuracy of the regression equations derived from the truncated foot length and the full foot length. The study recruited a sample of 32 young adults (16 males and 16 females) aged from 20 to 35 years. Lateral radiographs of the right feet were obtained for each subject in a bilateral standing position while maintaining equal weight on both feet. Standing height of the participants was measured with a stadiometer. Truncated foot length and full foot length were measured on the lateral radiographs of the foot. Independent t-test was used to check for mean differences in the dimensions between genders. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the equations for stature estimation. Intra and inter-observer reliability were calculated from four precision estimates: absolute technical error of measurement (aTEM), relative technical error of measurement (rTEM), coefficient of reliability (Rr) and coefficient of variation (Cv). All the dimensions measured were significantly larger in males than females. Linear regression equations were derived for estimation of stature using both the truncated foot length and full foot length. The regression equations derived from truncated foot length have larger correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, adjusted coefficient of determination as well as smaller standard error of estimation than those derived from full foot length. All the precision estimates showed that the measurement errors are within acceptable limits. This study suggests that even if the full foot length is available, excluding the phalanges may

  18. Clinical correlates of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder and a recent history of substance use disorder: a subtype comparison from baseline data of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keming; Verduin, Marcia L; Kemp, David E; Tolliver, Bryan K; Ganocy, Stephen J; Elhaj, Omar; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen T; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2008-07-01

    To compare clinical variables in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I or II disorder and a recent history of substance use disorder (SUD). Cross-sectional data from 2 studies of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder or rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder and a recent history of SUD were used to retrospectively assess the differences in clinical variables between the subtypes. The studies were conducted from November 1997 to February 2007 at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio. Extensive clinical interview and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, SUDs, and other Axis I disorders and to collect clinical variables. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Global Assessment Scale (GAS), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were used to measure the severity of impairment at the initial assessment. One-way analysis of variance or chi(2) was used for significance tests. A Bonferroni adjustment was applied for multiple comparisons. Of 245 patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder (rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder, N = 191; rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder, N = 54) and a recent history of SUD, the demographics were similar. A significantly higher rate of panic disorder was observed in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder than in those with rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder (odds ratio = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.66 to 8.32, p = .008). A significantly higher psychiatric composite score on the ASI was also found in patients with rapid-cycling bipolar I disorder than in those with rapid-cycling bipolar II disorder even after Bonferroni adjustment (p = .0007). There were no significant differences between the subtypes in the rates of previous hospitalization or suicide attempt, early childhood verbal, physical, or sexual abuse, lifetime substance abuse or dependence, the number of

  19. Impact of accelerometer epoch length on physical activity and sedentary behaviour outcomes for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Rachel C; Harvey, Alysha; Grattan, Kimberly P; Adamo, Kristi B

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Health Measures Survey uses accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Between cycles 2 and 3, a transition was made from 60-second to 15-second epochs in accelerometry data for children aged 3 to 5. This study examines the impact of epoch length on physical activity and sedentary behaviour outcomes. Twenty-nine children aged 3 to 5 wore two accelerometers at the same time, one initialized to collect data in 60-second epochs, and the other, in 15-second epochs. Comparisons between epoch settings were made for several physical activity variables. Compared with the 60-second epoch setting, the 15-second setting captured more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time, but fewer steps and less light and total physical activity. The correlation between epoch settings was high for all variables except steps. The epoch length used in accelerometer data collection affects physical activity and sedentary behaviour data for preschool-aged children.

  20. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  1. sexual dimorphism and genetic correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Claude Moreteau, Helene Legout and Brigitte Moreteau. J. Genet. 90, 295–302. Table 1. Correlations between wing and thorax length at the within (n = 420) and between line level (n = 30). Temperature. Within line. Between line. ◦. C. Female.

  2. Amplitude e cadência do passo e componentes da aptidão muscular em idosos: um estudo correlacional multivariado Amplitud y cadencia del paso y componentes de la capacidad muscular en personas de edad avanzada: un estudio correlativo multivariado A multivariate analysis of the correlation between step length-pacing and muscular fitness components in elder subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2004-10-01

    resultados indicaron que: a AMP y CAP se asociaron significativamente con el conjunto de las variables de fuerza y flexibilidad, según sugerido por la buena correlación canónica (r can = 0,79; p The objective of the study was to verify the association between step length and pacing during gait and muscular fitness components (CAM (flexibility, strength and muscular endurance of the inferior limbs in 25 physically independent and apparently healthy women aged between 65 to 86 years-old (mean = 79±7 yrs tests. The following variables were assessed: a total and inferior limbs height and body weight; b step length and pacing (CAMP and CAP; c 2-minute step-in-place test (number of repetitions (RESISR; d maximal strength of knee extensors (load/body weight (FORCAR; e ankle and hip flexibility (FLEXT and FLEXQ. Data were analyzed by simple and multivariate correlation techniques. The results suggested that: a step length and pacing variables were directly associated to CAM, as suggested by the canonical analysis (rcan =.79; p <.05; b the step length seemed to be more correlated with maximal strength and muscular endurance than with flexibility; c the overall association of FLEXT, FLEXQ, FORCAR and RESISR with AMP and CAP was stronger than the correlations found for any isolated variable. Based on these findings, a regression equation was proposed to estimate gait efficiency from CAM variables: EMB = 7.53-.26(FLEXQ+.29(FLEXT-1.87(FORCAR-.05(RESISR, and EMF = 7(EMB+76, where EMB = Raw Gait Score and EMF = Final Gait Score (r² =.90; SEE =.35; p <.0001.

  3. When Does Length Cause the Word Length Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Bireta, Tamra J.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2011-01-01

    The word length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, has been termed one of the benchmark findings that any theory of immediate memory must account for. Indeed, the effect led directly to the development of working memory and the phonological loop, and it is viewed as the best remaining…

  4. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  5. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  6. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  7. Slip length measurement using BBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadegan, Adib; Snoeyink, Craig

    2015-11-01

    We will be presenting experimental characterizations of slip lengths of fluids in nano/micro channels. These channels are becoming increasingly important in sensor and separations applications. However, crucial questions still remain on the mechanisms that govern slip-length behavior. We used Bessel Beam microscopy (BBM), a novel super-resolution imaging system, in conjunction with TIRF system. These two, together led us to be able to do Particle Tracking Velocimetry with significantly higher accuracy than previously possible. We will be presenting results demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and advantages that make this method unique.

  8. Embryo quality and IVF treatment outcomes may correlate with different sperm comet assay parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsu, M; Sharma, V; Miller, D

    2002-07-01

    Standard semen parameters have proven poor at predicting the outcomes of IVF treatment cycles. As recent studies suggest that the male genome may play an important role in early embryogenesis, this study attempts to correlate the level of sperm DNA damage in fresh semen and prepared sperm with the outcomes of conventional IVF treatment cycles. Forty patients embarking on IVF treatment were recruited into this prospective observational study. Both fresh semen and PureSperm-prepared sperm were processed using a modified comet assay 3-6 months prior to the patients' IVF treatment cycles. Comet head DNA (mean and integrated head density) and tail DNA parameters (length and moment) were measured separately. Significant correlations between total sperm concentration and between comet length, moment, mean head density with embryo quality were detected in fresh semen and prepared sperm. Surprisingly, no significant correlations between head and tail parameters were detected. Comet head and tail DNA parameters appear to be potentially useful as predictors of embryo quality and IVF outcomes, especially in couples with unexplained subfertility. The lack of correlation between head and tail parameters may be due to a different mechanism of DNA damage within these two compartments.

  9. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  10. Femur length and biparietal diameter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... Conclusion: The fetal parameters used in this study were consistently smaller than reported values from European studies up to the 34th week of ... parameters include crown‑rump length, abdominal circumference, femur ... the continuous mid‑line echo is broken by the cavum septi pellucidi, and taken from ...

  11. How to measure path length?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.

    2015-01-01

    Path length measuring is a relevant engineering problem. Leonardo Da Vinci designed for the military appropriate equipment, the podometer, to do so. Modern equipment such as step meters and map meters are quite similar to Da Vinci?s design, despite geometrical statistical - stereological - methods

  12. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  13. Fetal foot length at delivery as a tool for determining gestation length in non-macerated stillbirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elaine; Coldrey, Jean; Wright, Colleen; Nel, Daan; Roberts, Drucilla J; Boyd, Theonia K; Odendaal, Hein

    2017-07-01

    To assess whether fetal foot length at autopsy could reliably indicate gestation duration at stillbirth and the effects of maceration on this method. The present cross-sectional secondary analysis was part of the Safe Passage Study; all Safe Passage Study participants who experienced a stillbirth at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between August 1, 2007, and January 31, 2015, were eligible to participate. After providing written informed consent for autopsy, the duration of gestation calculated using early ultrasonography and fetal foot length were compared. There were 69 fetal autopsies included in the present study; placental histology was available for 65. Generally, the gestation length calculated from the first ultrasonography scan correlated well with that calculated from the fetal foot length (Spearman correlation=0.85). However, significant differences were found in the gestation lengths calculated when the fetus was macerated (PFoot length at stillbirth was a good indicator of gestation length; however, it was a weaker indicator if fetal maceration had occurred. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    Many older people live with a range of chronic diseases. However, these diseases do not necessarily impede an active lifestyle. In this article the author analyses the relation between the active ageing discourse and the way older people at two Danish activity centres handle disease. How does...... active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...

  15. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  16. Can uptake length in strams be determined by nutrient addition experiments? Results from an interbiome comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J Mulholland; J. L. Tanks; J. R. Webster; W. B. Bowden; W. K Dodds; S. V. Gregory; N. B Grimm; J. L. Meriam; J. L. Meyer; B. J. Peterson; H. M. Valett; W. M. Wollheim

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient uptake length is an important parnmeter tor quantifying nutrient cycling in streams. Although nutrient tracer additions are the preierred method for measuring uptake length under ambient nutrient concentrations, short-term nutrient addition experiments have more irequently been used to estimate uptake length in streams. Theoretical analysis of the relationship...

  17. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2 , temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1 ) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1 ), and

  18. Revisited sunspot numbers and prediction of solar cycle 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishkalo, M.

    2016-06-01

    Parameteres of solar cycles are found usind revisited sunspot numbers in 2015. Correlations between cycle parameters were studied. Solar cycle 25 was predicted using regression equations obtained. I was predicted that minimum and maximum of the cycle (8.3 and 166.7) will occur in May of 2020 and November 2024 to February 2025 respectively.49

  19. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  20. Hydrological cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  1. Fractional correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlovic, D; Ozaktas, H M; Lohmann, A W

    1995-01-10

    Recently, optical interpretations of the fractional-Fourier-transform operator have been introduced. On the basis of this operator the fractional correlation operator is defined in two different ways that are both consistent with the definition of conventional correlation. Fractional correlation is not always a shift-invariant operation. This property leads to some new applications for fractional correlation as shift-variant image detection. A bulk-optics implementation of fractional correlation is suggested and demonstrated with computer simulations.

  2. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  3. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae from a reservoir in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Schwarz da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 is a freshwater prawn occurring in rivers and reservoirs of Central and South America. Given its broad geographical distribution, the species shows great intraspecific morphological, reproductive, physiological and ecological plasticity. Furthermore, it also stands out for its economic importance, especially in the states of North (Pará and Amapá and Northeast Brazil. Despite the wide geographic distribution and economic importance of M. amazonicum, the biology of this species is poorly known, particularly in Northeast Brazil. We analyzed the length-weight relationships and condition factor of males and females of M. amazonicum. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2008 to August 2009 at the Pedra do Cavalo Reservoir, city of Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, State of Bahia. All specimens were sexed, measured and weighted. After that, length-weight relationships and the allometric (K and relative (Kr condition factors were calculated. Altogether 2,974 specimens were analyzed, 334 of which were males (11% and 2,640 were females (89%. Females were larger and heavier than males. Males and females showed isometric and negative allometric growth, respectively. Monthly variations in the condition factor were similar for both sexes, and correlated strongly with rainfall regime and temperature in the region. Such variations are not correlated with the reproductive cycle of the species, but are probably correlated with food availability and somatic growth.

  4. CNS Myelin Sheath Lengths Are an Intrinsic Property of Oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Marie E; Byrne, Lauren; Ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-09-21

    Since Río-Hortega's description of oligodendrocyte morphologies nearly a century ago, many studies have observed myelin sheath-length diversity between CNS regions. Myelin sheath length directly impacts axonal conduction velocity by influencing the spacing between nodes of Ranvier. Such differences likely affect neural signal coordination and synchronization. What accounts for regional differences in myelin sheath lengths is unknown; are myelin sheath lengths determined solely by axons or do intrinsic properties of different oligodendrocyte precursor cell populations affect length? The prevailing view is that axons provide molecular cues necessary for oligodendrocyte myelination and appropriate sheath lengths. This view is based upon the observation that axon diameters correlate with myelin sheath length, as well as reports that PNS axonal neuregulin-1 type III regulates the initiation and properties of Schwann cell myelin sheaths. However, in the CNS, no such instructive molecules have been shown to be required, and increasing in vitro evidence supports an oligodendrocyte-driven, neuron-independent ability to differentiate and form initial sheaths. We test this alternative signal-independent hypothesis--that variation in internode lengths reflects regional oligodendrocyte-intrinsic properties. Using microfibers, we find that oligodendrocytes have a remarkable ability to self-regulate the formation of compact, multilamellar myelin and generate sheaths of physiological length. Our results show that oligodendrocytes respond to fiber diameters and that spinal cord oligodendrocytes generate longer sheaths than cortical oligodendrocytes on fibers, co-cultures, and explants, revealing that oligodendrocytes have regional identity and generate different sheath lengths that mirror internodes in vivo. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the interfacial phenomena of a 4.7 V and 55 °C Li-ion battery with Li-rich layered oxide cathode and grap2hite anode and its correlation to high-energy cycling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hieu Quang; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Kwon, Young-Gil; Song, Seung-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Research progress of high-energy performance and interfacial phenomena of Li1.13Mn0.463Ni0.203Co0.203O2 cathode and graphite anode in a 55 °C full-cell under an aggressive charge cut-off voltage to 4.7 V (4.75 V vs. Li/Li+) is reported. Although anodic instability of conventional electrolyte is the critical issue on high-voltage and high-temperature cell operation, interfacial phenomena and the solution to performance improvement have not been reported. Surface spectroscopic evidence revealed that structural degradation of both cathode and anode materials, instability of surface film at cathode, and metal-dissolution from cathode and -deposition at anode, and a rise of interfacial resistance with high-voltage cycling in 55 °C conventional electrolyte are resolved by the formation of a stable surface film with organic/inorganic mixtures at cathode and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at anode using blended additives of fluorinated linear carbonate and vinylene carbonate. As a result, significantly improved cycling stability of 77% capacity retention delivering 227-174 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles is obtained, corresponding to 819-609 Wh per kg of cathode active material. Interfacial stabilization approach would pave the way of controlling the performance and safety, and widening the practical application of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials and high-voltage electrolyte materials in various high-energy density Li-ion batteries.

  6. Positive Feedback Keeps Duration of Mitosis Temporally Insulated from Upstream Cell-Cycle Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ana Rita; Gelens, Lendert; Sheriff, Rahuman S M; Santos, Silvia D M

    2016-10-20

    Cell division is characterized by a sequence of events by which a cell gives rise to two daughter cells. Quantitative measurements of cell-cycle dynamics in single cells showed that despite variability in G1-, S-, and G2 phases, duration of mitosis is short and remarkably constant. Surprisingly, there is no correlation between cell-cycle length and mitotic duration, suggesting that mitosis is temporally insulated from variability in earlier cell-cycle phases. By combining live cell imaging and computational modeling, we showed that positive feedback is the molecular mechanism underlying the temporal insulation of mitosis. Perturbing positive feedback gave rise to a sluggish, variable entry and progression through mitosis and uncoupled duration of mitosis from variability in cell cycle length. We show that positive feedback is important to keep mitosis short, constant, and temporally insulated and anticipate it might be a commonly used regulatory strategy to create modularity in other biological systems. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The chromosome cycle of prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA undergoes replication, condensation-decondensation and segregation, sequentially, in some fixed order. Other conditions, like sister-chromatid cohesion (SCC), may span several chromosomal events. One set of these chromosomal transactions within a single cell cycle constitutes the “chromosome cycle”. For many years it was generally assumed that the prokaryotic chromosome cycle follows major phases of the eukaryotic one: -replication-condensation-segregation-(cell division)-decondensation-, with SCC of unspecified length. Eventually it became evident that, in contrast to the strictly consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes, all stages of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle run concurrently. Thus, prokaryotes practice “progressive” chromosome segregation separated from replication by a brief SCC, and all three transactions move along the chromosome at the same fast rate. In other words, in addition to replication forks, there are “segregation forks” in prokaryotic chromosomes. Moreover, the bulk of prokaryotic DNA outside the replication-segregation transition stays compacted. I consider possible origins of this concurrent replication-segregation and outline the “nucleoid administration” system that organizes the dynamic part of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle. PMID:23962352

  8. Record length requirement of long-range dependent teletraffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2017-04-01

    This article contributes the highlights mainly in two folds. On the one hand, it presents a formula to compute the upper bound of the variance of the correlation periodogram measurement of teletraffic (traffic for short) with long-range dependence (LRD) for a given record length T and a given value of the Hurst parameter H (Theorems 1 and 2). On the other hand, it proposes two formulas for the computation of the variance upper bound of the correlation periodogram measurement of traffic of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) type and the generalized Cauchy (GC) type, respectively (Corollaries 1 and 2). They may constitute a reference guideline of record length requirement of traffic with LRD. In addition, record length requirement for the correlation periodogram measurement of traffic with either the Schuster type or the Bartlett one is studied and the present results about it show that both types of periodograms may be used for the correlation measurement of traffic with a pre-desired variance bound of correlation estimation. Moreover, real traffic in the Internet Archive by the Special Interest Group on Data Communication under the Association for Computing Machinery of US (ACM SIGCOMM) is analyzed in the case study in this topic.

  9. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...... income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share...

  10. Korelace mezi délkou lyžařské tratě a rychlostí vrcholových slalomářů Correlation between the length of the ski track and the velocity of top slalom skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Lešnik

    2007-02-01

    the help of a kinematic analysis, differences in the choice of a line of skiing between individual competitors were established based on a sample of top competitors in the World Cup in Kranjska Gora. We tried to establish whether the competitors achieved higher velocities with such a line of skiing, thus achieving faster sliding among the slalom gates and in the end a better time. In the first part of our research it was proven that none of the competitors had an extremely short line of skiing in the first two successive turns. It was also found out that the competitors who had the shortest lines of skiing in the first analysed turn had, as a rule, the longest lines of skiing in the second turn and vice versa. Based on these findings, it could be claimed that under present conditions, it is extremely difficult, possibly even impossible, to ski in such a way that the line of skiing would be very short in several successive turns. The second part of our research focussed on the establishment of the correlation between the trajectories of the skis and the velocity of skiing. The calculations of the correlations proved a statistically significant correlation between the average velocity of skiing and an average distance of the length of the line of skiing from the y-axis in the entire measured segment. It was established that the measured space was covered faster by the competitors whose line of skiing was shorter, which means more direct.

  11. Geometry of area without length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming; Inami, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    To define a free string by the Nambu-Goto action, all we need is the notion of area, and mathematically the area can be defined directly in the absence of a metric. Motivated by the possibility that string theory admits backgrounds where the notion of length is not well defined but a definition of area is given, we study space-time geometries based on the generalization of a metric to an area metric. In analogy with Riemannian geometry, we define the analogues of connections, curvatures, and Einstein tensor. We propose a formulation generalizing Einstein's theory that will be useful if at a certain stage or a certain scale the metric is ill defined and the space-time is better characterized by the notion of area. Static spherical solutions are found for the generalized Einstein equation in vacuum, including the Schwarzschild solution as a special case.

  12. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  13. On the Sensitivity of the Diurnal Cycle in the Amazon to Convective Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itterly, Kyle; Taylor, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This presentation uses publicly available CERES and radiosonde data to investigate the sensitivity of thetropical convective diurnal cycle to atmosphere state. Averaging surface observations into regimes of convective intensitydefined by satellite shows great promise for physical understandingof convection.• Convective processes in the Amazon are highly variable seasonallyand locally.• Buoyancy/CIN more important JJA– Mesoscale/synoptic features easier to separate– Length/depth of buoyancy layer very important in DJF (EL).• Moisture more important DJF, esp. UTH– Humidity of lower atmosphere significantly impacts LTS, LCL and abilityfor parcels to reach LFC.• Lower level jet strength/direction important• Convective initiation correlated with LTS, LR, LTH, EL• Duration/Phase better correlated with humidity variables• Surface Flux amplitude well correlated with convection

  14. Biogeochemical cycling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research is underway at the NASA Ames Research Center that is concerned with aspects of the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. An interdisciplinary research group is attempting to correlate nitrogen transformations, processes, and productivity with variables that can be remotely sensed. Recent NASA and other publications concerning biogeochemical cycling at global scales identify attributes of vegetation that could be related or explain the spatial variation in biologically functional variables. These functional variables include net primary productivity, annual nitrogen mineralization, and possibly the emission rate of nitrous oxide from soils.

  15. Determinants of gap length in esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula and the impact of gap length on outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muffazzal Rassiwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed at identifying factors which may affect the gap length in cases of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA-TEF and whether gap length plays any role in determining the outcome. Materials and Methods: All consecutive cases of EA-TEF were included and different patient parameters were recorded. Plain radiographs with a nasogastric tube in the upper esophagus were taken. Patients were grouped into T1-T2; T2-T3; T3-T4; and T4 depending on the thoracic vertebral level of the arrest of the tube. During surgery, the gap length between the pouches was measured using a Vernier caliper and the patients were grouped into A, B, and C (gap length >2.1 cm; >1-≤2 cm and ≤1 cm. The operative gap groups were compared with the radiography groups and the other recorded parameters. Results: Total numbers of cases were 69. Birth weight was found to be significantly lower in Group A (mean = 2.14 kg as compared to Group B (mean = 2.38 kg and Group C patients (mean = 2.49 kg (P = 0.016. The radiographic groups compared favorably with the intraoperative gap length groups (P < 0.001. The need for postoperative ventilation (70.83% in Group A vs. 36.84% in Group C, P = 0.032 and mortality (62.5%, 26.9% and 15.8% in Group A, B, and C, respectively, P = 0.003 co-related significantly with the gap length. Conclusion: Birth weight had a direct reciprocal relationship with the gap length. Radiographic assessment correlated with intraoperative gap length. Higher gap length was associated with increased need for postoperative ventilation and poor outcome.

  16. Estimating telomere length from whole genome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhihao; Mangino, Massimo; Aviv, Abraham; Spector, Tim; Durbin, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres play a key role in replicative ageing and undergo age-dependent attrition in vivo. Here, we report a novel method, TelSeq, to measure average telomere length from whole genome or exome shotgun sequence data. In 260 leukocyte samples, we show that TelSeq results correlate with Southern blot measurements of the mean length of terminal restriction fragments (mTRFs) and display age-dependent attrition comparably well as mTRFs. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of insert name of society].

  17. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Day length constrains the time budget of aphid predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joschinski, Jens; Kiess, Tim; Krauss, Jochen

    2017-07-20

    Phenology shifts and range expansions cause organisms to experience novel day length - temperature correlations. Depending on the temporal niche, organisms may benefit or suffer from changes in day length, thus potentially affecting phenological adaptation. We assessed the impact of day length changes on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer), both of which prey on aphids. Larvae of E. balteatus are night-active, whereas those of C. carnea appear to be crepuscular. We subjected both species in climate chambers to day lengths of 16 : 8 L : D and, to circumvent diapause responses, 20 : 4 L : D. We recorded development times and predation rates of both species. E. balteatus grew 13% faster in the 16 : 8 L : D treatment and preyed on significantly more aphids. In contrast, C. carnea grew 13% faster in the 20 : 4 L : D treatment and higher predation rates in 20 : 4 L : D were marginally significant. Our results show that day length affects development and predation, but that the direction depends on species. Such differences in the use of day length may alter the efficiency of biocontrol agents in a changing climate. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations...... between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. RESULTS: At all ages, length showed consistently...

  20. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  1. Telomere Length in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

  2. [Comparison between the tooth length measured by cone-beam CT and the tooth length measured with vernier caliper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-qiang; Mi, Zhen-lin; Ge, Zhen-lin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of cone-bean CT (CBCT) on the measurement of the tooth length. One hundred and sixty single root premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected. The tooth length was measured with vernier caliper. The premolars were divided into 10 groups randomly, 16 premolars in each group.In each group, the teeth were lined in molar area, premolar area, canine area and anterior tooth area in maxilla and mandible. Then CBCT was taken, and the tooth length was measured using the software supplied by the manufacturer in coronal and sagittal plane. Accuracy was compared between vernier caliper measurement and CBCT measurement. The tooth length measured by CBCT was smaller than that measured with the vernier caliper. Significant differences were found in six areas, except the maxillary and mandibular premolar areas. With the increase of mesial-distal inclination or buccolingual torque angle, the difference between tooth length measured by CBCT and that measured with vernier caliper increased. The correlation between buccolingual torque angle (∠X1) and the coronal view of CBCT radiology tooth length (Spearmen index was 7.00, P vernier caliper.

  3. Prognostic correlation of cell cycle progression score and Ki-67 as a predictor of aggressiveness, biochemical failure, and mortality in men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iván Henríquez; Parada, David; Gallardo, Pablo; Gascón, Marina; Besora, Arnau; Peña, Karla; Riu, Francesc; Arquez Pianetta, Miquel; Abuchaibe, Oscar; Torres Royò, Laura; Arenas, Meritxell

    2017-01-01

    Ki-67 is a proliferation marker in prostate cancer. A prognostic RNA signature was developed to characterize prostate cancer aggressiveness. The aim was to evaluate prognostic correlation of CCP and Ki-67 with biochemical failure (BF), and survival in high-risk prostate cancer patients (pts) treated with radiation therapy (RT). CCP score and Ki-67 were derived retrospectively from pre-treatment paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissue of 33 men diagnosed from 2002 to 2006. CCP score was calculated as an average expression of 31 CCP genes. Ki-67 was determined by IHC. Single pathologist evaluated all tissues. Factors associated to failure and survival were analyzed. Median CCP score was 0.9 (-0-1 - 2.6). CCP 0: 1 pt; CCP 1: 19 pts; CCP 2: 13 pts. Median Ki-67 was 8.9. Ki-67 cutpoint was 15.08%. BF and DSM were observed in 21% and 9%. Ki-67 ≥ 15% predicted BF (p = 0.043). With a median follow-up of 8.4 years, 10-year BF, OS, DM and DSM for CCP 1 vs. CCP 2 was 76-71% (p = 0.83), 83-73% (p = 0.86), 89-85% (p = 0.84), and 94-78% (p = 0.66). On univariate, high Ki-67 was correlated with BF (p = 0.013), OS (p = 0.023), DM (p = 0.007), and DSM (p = 0.01). On Cox MVA, high Ki-67 had a BF trend (p = 0.063). High CCP score was not correlated with DSM. High Ki-67 significantly predicted outcome and provided prognostic information. CCP score may improve accuracy stratification. We did not provide prognostic correlation of CCP and DSM. It should be validated in a larger cohort of pts.

  4. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...

  6. Moulting cycle and growth of in the African river prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moult cycle in adults and juveniles of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii was investigated. Increase in length at moult calculated as growth factor (% increment in length) was 1.06 (21%) and 0.86 (12%) for juveniles and adults, respectively. Limb regeneration was found to accelerate the moulting process in the species.

  7. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Length and Time Scales in Continental Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B. R.; Bunge, H.

    2003-12-01

    Nonlinear feedback between continents and the mantle through thermal blanketing has long been surmised as a mechanism for continental drift and Wilson cycles. Paleomagnetism provides ample evidence for large scale (10,000 km) continental motion on time scales of several hundred million years, indicative of large scale mantle circulation. While much has been learned about the interactions between continents and mantle flow from analog and numerical modeling studies in two and three dimensions, a rigorous sensitivity study on the effects of continents in high resolution 3D spherical mantle convection models has yet to be pursued. As a result, a quantitative understanding of the scales of continental motion as they relate to relevant fluid dynamic processes is lacking. Here we focus on the effect of continental size. Continents covering 30% of the surface are representative of a supercontinent such as Pangea, smaller continents (10% of Earth's surface) are representative of present day Asia, and still smaller continents (3% of Earth's surface) are similar to present day Antarctica. These continents are introduced into simple end-member mantle flow regimes characterized by combinations of bottom or internal heating and uniform or layered mantle viscosity. We find that large scale mantle structure, and correspondingly the large scale displacement of continents, depends not only on mantle heating mode and radial viscosity structure, but also on continental size. Supercontinents promote heterogeneity on the largest scales (spherical harmonic degree one), especially when combined with strong bottom heating and a high viscosity lower mantle. Degree one heterogeneities in turn drive cyclical continental motion, with continents moving from the hot to the cold hemisphere on time scales of several hundred million years. Smaller continents are unable to initiate degree one convection. As a result, their motion is governed by shorter length and time scales. We apply these

  9. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  10. Simulation of FEL pulse length calculation with THz streaking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgisyan, I., E-mail: ishkhan.gorgisyan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ischebeck, R.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Juranić, P., E-mail: ishkhan.gorgisyan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-04-02

    Simulation of THz streaking of photoelectrons created by X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser and reconstruction of the free-electron laser pulse lengths. Having accurate and comprehensive photon diagnostics for the X-ray pulses delivered by free-electron laser (FEL) facilities is of utmost importance. Along with various parameters of the photon beam (such as photon energy, beam intensity, etc.), the pulse length measurements are particularly useful both for the machine operators to measure the beam parameters and monitor the stability of the machine performance, and for the users carrying out pump–probe experiments at such facilities to better understand their measurement results. One of the most promising pulse length measurement techniques used for photon diagnostics is the THz streak camera which is capable of simultaneously measuring the lengths of the photon pulses and their arrival times with respect to the pump laser. This work presents simulations of a THz streak camera performance. The simulation procedure utilizes FEL pulses with two different photon energies in hard and soft X-ray regions, respectively. It recreates the energy spectra of the photoelectrons produced by the photon pulses and streaks them by a single-cycle THz pulse. Following the pulse-retrieval procedure of the THz streak camera, the lengths were calculated from the streaked spectra. To validate the pulse length calculation procedure, the precision and the accuracy of the method were estimated for streaking configuration corresponding to previously performed experiments. The obtained results show that for the discussed setup the method is capable of measuring FEL pulses with about a femtosecond accuracy and precision.

  11. Sunspot Cycle Prediction Using Multivariate Regression and Binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    49

    historical sunspot number record and that SILSO(Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar. Observations) maintains this new record as well as the original version of sunspot numbers. Table-2 gives a detailed description of the major properties of all the past 23 sunspot cycles in terms of the cycle length, peak amplitude, duration ...

  12. Rapid cycling genomic selection in a multiparental tropical maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is th...

  13. Water Erosion in Different Slope Lengths on Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bagio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion degrades the soil and contaminates the environment, and one influential factor on erosion is slope length. The aim of this study was to quantify losses of soil (SL and water (WL in a Humic Cambisol in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from July 4, 2014 to June 18, 2015 in individual events of 41 erosive rains in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina and to estimate soil losses through the USLE and RUSLE models. The treatments consisted of slope lengths of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m, with an average degree of slope of 8 %, on bare and uncropped soil that had been cultivated with corn prior to the study. At the end of the corn cycle, the stalk residue was removed from the surface, leaving the roots of the crop in the soil. Soil loss by water erosion is related linearly and positively to the increase in slope length in the span between 11 and 44 m. Soil losses were related to water losses and the Erosivity Index (EI30, while water losses were related to rain depth. Soil losses estimated by the USLE and RUSLE model showed lower values than the values observed experimentally in the field, especially the values estimated by the USLE. The values of factor L calculated for slope length of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m for the two versions (USLE and RUSLE of the soil loss prediction model showed satisfactory results in relation to the values of soil losses observed.

  14. A study of the length – weight relationship and condition factor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.1145 (March). Pseudotolithus elongatus exhibited an allometric growth. There was a positive correlation between length and weight of both sexes. P. elongatus was also in a good condition. Keywords: Fish, length–weight relationship, condition ...

  15. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    that there is a significant difference between the length and weight relationship (p less than 0.001). The two-way analysis of the variance also showed a very high correlation between relative increment in length and weight with temperature (p less than 0...

  16. Inclusion of Height and Limb Length when Interpreting Sympathetic Skin Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Emad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is more than a decade since scientists are making use of sympathetic skin response (SSR as a clinical and research method to evaluate sympathetic nervous system. A major portion of the efferent pathway of this response is composed of non-myelinated nerves. Thus, the latency of the response may be significantly different in normal individuals with different height and limb lengths. This study was designed to investigate the effect of these parameters on the SSR results. We measured the height and limb length of 65 normal individuals with different heights (divided into 3 groups of height ≤150 cm, 150-170 cm, and ≥170 cm. The participants had neither peripheral nor central neuropathy. They also had none of the exclusion criteria. Then, they underwent SSR testing of both palms and soles. The correlation between the height and limb length in relation to SSR parameters (latency and amplitude was analyzed statistically by Pearson’s correlation. No significant correlation was detected between the height and limb length and the SSR amplitude. However, the results showed significant correlation between SSR latency recorded from all four sites (both palms and soles and the height of participants. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between SSR latency recorded from any limb and the length of that limb. Regarding the significant effect of the height and limb length on the SSR latency, both the height and limb length should be considered when interpreting the results of SSR.

  17. Can cycling safety be improved by opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions? A theoretical examination of available literature and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methorst, Rob; Schepers, Paul; Kamminga, Jaap; Zeegers, Theo; Fishman, Elliot

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have found bicycle-motor vehicle crashes to be more likely on bidirectional cycle paths than on unidirectional cycle paths because drivers do not expect cyclists riding at the right side of the road. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions prevent this lack of expectancy and accordingly improves cycling safety. A new national standard requires careful consideration because a reversal is difficult once cyclists are used to their new freedom of route choice. We therefore explored the hypothesis using available data, research, and theories. The results show that of the length of cycle paths along distributor roads in the Netherlands, 72% is bidirectional. If drivers would become used to cyclists riding at the left side of the road, this result raises the question of why bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands still have a poor safety record compared to unidirectional cycle paths. Moreover, our exploration suggested that bidirectional cycle paths have additional safety problems. It increases the complexity of unsignalized intersections because drivers have to scan more directions in a short period of time. Moreover, there are some indications that the likelihood of frontal crashes between cyclists increases. We reject the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions will improve cycle safety. We recommend more attention for mitigating measures given the widespread application of bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Length-weight and length-length relationships in populations of Garra rufa from different rivers and basins of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Keivany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the length-weight and length-length relationships for 28 populations of Garra ruffa in different basins of Iran, including Tigris, Karkheh, Karun, Persis and Hormuz. The length-weight relationships from most localities are reported here for the first time. For most populations the b value was not significantly different from 3, indicating an isometric growth, in a few, it was significantly bigger than 3, indicating a positive allometric growth, and in some, it was significantly smaller than 3, indicating a negative allometric growth. In the whole samples, it was not significantly different from 3, indicating an isometric growth.

  19. On q-power cycles in cubic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a conjecture of Erdos and Gyárfás, we consider, for any q ≥ 2, the existence of q-power cycles (i.e. with length a power of q) in cubic graphs. We exhibit constructions showing that, for every q ≥ 3, there exist arbitrarily large cubic graphs with no q-power cycles. Concerning...... the remaining case q = 2 (which corresponds to the conjecture of Erdos and Gyárfás), we show that there exist arbitrarily large cubic graphs whose only 2-power cycles have length 4 only, or 8 only....

  20. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  1. Variation in human gape cycle kinematics and occlusal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Myra F

    2017-11-01

    This study tested hypotheses relating intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology and intraspecific variation in jaw movements during feeding. Gape cycle kinematic variation was hypothesized to correlate with gape cycle number within a chewing sequence as well as with food toughness and stiffness. Gape cycle kinematic variation was also hypothesized to correlate with variation in occlusal area, slope, and volume. Twenty-six adult human subjects chewed four foods with varying material properties while their jaw movements were recorded using three-dimensional coordinates of facial markers captured with a Vicon camera system. Post-canine occlusal morphology of each subject was quantified in ArcGIS using dental topographic analysis of dental casts. Gape cycle duration did not vary with gape cycle number, food toughness, or food stiffness. Gape cycle vertical and lateral displacement correlated negatively with gape cycle number, while foods with higher toughness and Young's modulus had greater jaw vertical and lateral displacement. Subjects with steeper occlusal slopes had longer gape cycle durations and greater amounts of vertical displacement during the slow closing phase of the gape cycle. The results suggest that gape cycle durations are relatively consistent despite changes in food properties and gape cycle number, while occlusal slope affects gape cycle duration and vertical displacement during inferred occlusal contact. However, gape cycle number and bolus properties explain greater amounts of kinematic variation than does occlusal morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Pecho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB length and polarization resistance (Rpol. Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance. However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and Rpol. The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and Rpol. In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPBactive by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPBactive, effective ionic conductivity are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer.

  3. Northern Drosophila montana flies show variation both within and between cline populations in the critical day length evoking reproductive diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Pekka; Tyukmaeva, Venera I; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive diapause, and its correct timing, plays an important role in the life cycle of many insect species living in a seasonally varying environment at high latitudes. In the present paper we have documented variation in the critical day length (CDL) for adult reproductive diapause and the steepness of photoperiodic response curves (PPRCs) in seven clinal populations of Drosophila montana in Finland between the latitudes 61 and 67°N, paying special attention to variation in these traits within and between cline populations. The isofemale lines representing these populations showed a sharp transition from 0% to 100% in females' diapause incidence in the shortening day lengths, indicated by steep PPRCs. The mean CDL showed a clear latitudinal cline decreasing by 1.6h from North to South regardless of the age of the lines, variation within the populations (i.e. among lines) in this trait being up to 3h. The steepness of the PPRCs correlated with the age of the line and this trait showed no clear latitudinal cline. Further studies on a large number of lines from one D. montana population confirmed that while maintaining the flies in diapause preventing conditions in the laboratory has no effect on CDL, older lines had steeper PPRCs. High variation in CDL within and between D. montana cline populations is likely to be heritable and provide a good potential for the evolution of photoperiodic responses. Information on genetic variation in life-history traits, such as diapause, is of utmost importance for predicting the ability of insects to survive in seasonally changing environmental conditions and to respond to long term changes in the length of the growing period e.g. by postponing the timing of diapause towards shorter day length and later calendar date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Striatal and extrastriatal atrophy in Huntington's disease and its relationship with length of the CAG repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Ruocco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects the striatum most severely. However, except for juvenile forms, relative preservation of the cerebellum has been reported. The objective of the present study was to perform MRI measurements of caudate, putamen, cerebral, and cerebellar volumes and correlate these findings with the length of the CAG repeat and clinical parameters. We evaluated 50 consecutive patients with HD using MRI volumetric measurements and compared them to normal controls. Age at onset of the disease ranged from 4 to 73 years (mean: 43.1 years. The length of the CAG repeat ranged from 40 to 69 (mean: 47.2 CAG. HD patients presented marked atrophy of the caudate and putamen, as well as reduced cerebellar and cerebral volumes. There was a significant correlation between age at onset of HD and length of the CAG repeat, as well as clinical disability and age at onset. The degree of basal ganglia atrophy correlated with the length of the CAG repeat. There was no correlation between cerebellar or cerebral volume and length of the CAG repeat. However, there was a tendency to a positive correlation between duration of disease and cerebellar atrophy. While there was a negative correlation of length of the CAG repeat with age at disease onset and with striatal degeneration, its influence on extrastriatal atrophy, including the cerebellum, was not clear. Extrastriatal atrophy occurs later in HD and may be related to disease duration.

  5. Solar activity and terrestrial climate: an analysis of some purported correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter

    2003-01-01

    claimed to support solar hypotheses. My analyses show that the apparent strong correlations displayed on these graphs have been obtained by an incorrect handling of the physical data. Since the graphs are still widely referred to in the literature and their misleading character has not yet been generally......The last decade has seen a revival of various hypotheses claiming a strong correlation between solar activity and a number of terrestrial climate parameters: Links between cosmic rays and cloud cover, first total cloud cover and then only low clouds, and between solar cycle lengths and Northern...... the existence of important links between solar activity and terrestrial climate. Such links have over the years been demonstrated by many authors. The sole objective of the present analysis is to draw attention to the fact that some of the widely publicized, apparent correlations do not properly reflect...

  6. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  7. Controlling Arc Length in Plasma Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit maintains arc length on irregularly shaped workpieces. Length of plasma arc continuously adjusted by control circuit to maintain commanded value. After pilot arc is established, contactor closed and transfers arc to workpiece. Control circuit then half-wave rectifies ac arc voltage to produce dc control signal proportional to arc length. Circuit added to plasma arc welding machines with few wiring changes. Welds made with circuit cleaner and require less rework than welds made without it. Beads smooth and free of inclusions.

  8. Cycling in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Methods. Seventeen adults who aged 50–75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Results. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants’ confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment and improved physical health. Conclusions. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.

  9. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  10. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  11. PET-CT offers accurate assessment of tumour length in oesophageal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, K.E., E-mail: james.catton@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lucas, E. [University of Nottingham, Derby Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Tewari, N. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); James, E. [Department of Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Catton, J.A. [Department of Oesophago-Gastric Surgery, Nottingham University Hospitals, Hucknall Road, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We examine the accuracy of staging modalities in estimating tumour length of oesophageal malignancy. • PET CT correlates most strongly with histopathological length of resected specimen. • Better measure than EUS with OGD correlating poorly. • Potential impact in radiotherapy and surgical resection planning. - Abstract: Introduction: Radiotherapy is increasingly used for both curative and palliative treatment of oesophageal malignancy. Accurate treatment depends on determining tumour location and length. This study assessed the value of PET-CT versus other staging modalities in determining tumour length. Materials and methods: Oesophageal cancer patients who underwent staging with PET/CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in addition to their diagnostic upper GI endoscopy and subsequent surgical resection were assessed. PET/CT length was obtained retrospectively by using Hermes Hybrid Viewer™ with a 1–5 Standardised Uptake Value grey scale. An SUV of 5 was used as the cut off for determining length. Direct measurement by EUS and OGD were determined. Results: 53 patients underwent PET-CT, EUS, OGD and surgical resection for oesophageal cancer. Overall the correlation between PET-CT and histopathological length was strongest (Pearson r = 0.5977, 95% CI 0.390–0.747) versus EUS (Pearson R = 0.5365, 95% CI 0.311–0.705) and OGD (Pearson r = 0.1574, 95% CI −0.118 to 0.410). After excluding tumours with a significant chemotherapy response, PET-CT length correlated significantly with histopathological length (R = 0.5651, p = 0.0005). In comparison, the correlation between histological length and EUS (R = 0.4637, p = 0.0057) measurement was less significant and this did not correlate with OGD (R = −0.1084, p = 0.5417). Conclusion: Tumour length estimated by PET-CT correlated most strongly with histopathological length of oesophageal malignancy and is the most accurate determinant of tumour length of all the staging modalities. This suggests a

  12. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  13. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Menstrual Cycle ProblemsFrom missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow ...

  14. Associations between neighbourhood walkability and cycling in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan; Troelsen, Jens

    . Simple linear regression analysis on cycling showed that the walkability index scores had significant Pearson coefficients in relation to cycling (cycle kilometres: 0.15, pmultiple linear regression model (educational level...... to calculate a walkability index for each zone by combining z-scores for street connectivity, land use mix, residential density, and retail floor area ratio. Multiple linear regression and Pearson correlations were used to quantify the associations between walkability and walking, cycling, and passive...

  15. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  16. Cycling To Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  17. Estimation of height from the length of the sternum in an adult Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Parchake, Soniya Bhaurao; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    Stature estimation is one of the essential early steps during forensic investigation of human skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to obtain a linear regression formula for estimating stature from sternal length of a central Indian population. The study includes 92 male cadavers brought for medico-legal autopsies. The linear regression equations were derived from manubrium, mesosternum and the total sternal length. The regression model provided a 95% confidence interval of ±14.8 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.55. Compared with other studies, regression formulae based on the length of the sternum provided considerably larger standard errors than that based on long bone lengths. The study indicates that sternal length in relation with body stature shows a moderate positive correlation and relatively low reliability in estimating stature, and has limited forensic value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Britt J; Blount, Jonathan D; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-31

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length.

  19. Variation in leader length of bitterbrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Hubbard; David. Dunaway

    1958-01-01

    The estimation of herbage production and· utilization in browse plants has been a problem for many years. Most range technicians have simply estimated the average length of twigs or leaders. then expressed use by deer and livestock as a percentage thereof based on the estimated average length left after grazing. Riordan used this method on mountain mahogany (

  20. Length-biased Weighted Maxwell Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Modi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for life-time data. In this paper, we develop the length-biased form of Weighted Maxwell distribution (WMD. We study the statistical properties of the derived distribution including moments, moment generating function, hazard rate, reverse hazard rate, Shannon entropy and estimation of parameters

  1. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  2. On the homology length spectrum of surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, Daniel; Parlier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    On a surface with a Finsler metric, we investigate the asymptotic growth of the number of closed geodesics of length less than L which minimize length among all geodesic multicurves in the same homology class. An important class of surfaces which are of interest to us are hyperbolic surfaces.

  3. Associations between urban form and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    The bikeability project has analysed the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish National Transportation Survey data transportation and urban form micro-data; and based on a smaller sample of primary data which included housing preferences, policy and attitude variables. Analysis...... of National Travel Survey data indicated that established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, and that access to retail concentrations/centres, public transportation level-of-service, as well as competition between walking and cycling depending...... on environmental features can be added to the set of influential environmental factors. Attractive conditions for using public transportation or walking are related to less cycling. Highly relevant in the context of the promotion of cycling, the results suggest different effects of urban form on the probability...

  4. Telomere length elongation after weight loss intervention in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, L; Anzivino, C; Baldelli, E; Zenobii, M F; Rocchi, M B L; Bertolotti, M

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres may be considered markers of biological aging, shorter telomere length is associated with some age-related diseases; in several studies short telomere length has also been associated to obesity in adults and adolescents. However the relationship between telomere complex functions and obesity is still not clear. Aim of the study was to assess telomere length (TL) in adults' obese subjects before and after weight loss obtained by placement of bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB) for 6months. We enrolled 42 obese subjects before and after BIB placement as weight loss intervention. Blood samples were collected in order to obtain DNA from leukocyte to measure TL by quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed only in 37 subjects with complete data; all presented important body weight loss (124.06±26.7 vs 105.40±23.14, pweight loss (r=0.44, p=0.007) as well as an inverse correlation between TL at baseline and TL elongation (r=-0.35, p=0.03).The predictors of TL elongation were once again weight loss and short TL at baseline (respectively p=0.007 and p=0.003). Our study shows that weight loss is associated to telomere lengthening in a positive correlation: the greater weight loss the greater telomere lengthening; moreover telomere lengthening is more significant in those subjects with shortest telomeres at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modification of creep and low cycle fatigue behaviour induced by welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carofalo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the mechanical properties of Waspaloy superalloy have been evaluated in case of welded repaired material and compared to base material. Test program considered flat specimens on base and TIG welded material subjected to static, low-cycle fatigue and creep test at different temperatures. Results of uniaxial tensile tests showed that the presence of welded material in the gage length specimen does not have a relevant influence on yield strength and UTS. However, elongation at failure of TIG material was reduced with respect to the base material. Moreover, low-cycle fatigue properties have been determined carrying out tests at different temperature (room temperature RT and 538°C in both base and TIG welded material. Welded material showed an increase of the data scatter and lower fatigue strength, which was anyway not excessive in comparison with base material. During test, all the hysteresis cycles were recorded in order to evaluate the trend of elastic modulus and hysteresis area against the number of cycles. A clear correlation between hysteresis and fatigue life was found. Finally, creep test carried out on a limited number of specimens allowed establishing some changes about the creep rate and time to failure of base and welded material. TIG welded specimen showed a lower time to reach a fixed strain or failure when a low stress level is applied. In all cases, creep behaviour of welded material is characterized by the absence of the tertiary creep.

  6. A NIMA-related kinase, Cnk2p, regulates both flagellar length and cell size in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brian A; Quarmby, Lynne M

    2005-08-01

    The cycle of ciliogenesis and ciliary disassembly is coordinated with cell division. In the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas, the two flagella are maintained at constant and equal length during interphase, and are reabsorbed prior to mitosis. We report that the NIMA-related kinase, Cnk2p, is an axonemal protein that affects flagellar length via effects on disassembly rate and also plays a role in the cellular assessment of size prior to committing to mitosis. This is the second NIMA-related kinase shown to affect ciliary function and cell cycle progression in Chlamydomonas. We speculate that members of the NIMA family have evolved nuanced roles to coordinate cilia/cell cycle regulation.

  7. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. We examine a number of other solar activity indicators including the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores that vary in association with the sunspots. We examine the characteristics of individual solar cycles including their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, and the nature of active latitudes, hemispheres, and longitudes. We examine long-term variability including the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle.

  8. Comparative analysis of maximum renal longitudinal length with positional changes on ultrasound with multiplanar reconstructed MR image in Korea Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Kang, Woo Young; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Yook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Yong [Public Health Medical Service, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable position in which the measured length on ultrasound is close to the true renal length obtained through a multiplanar reconstructed MR image. A total of 33 individuals (males: 15, females: 18) without any underlying renal disease were included in the present study. Renal length was measured as the longest axis at the level of the renal hilum in three positions-supine, lateral decubitus, and prone, respectively. With a 3.0 T MR scanner, 3D eTHRIVE was acquired. Subsequently, the maximum longitudinal length of both the kidneys was measured through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Paired t-test was used to compare the renal length obtained from ultrasonographic measurement with the length obtained through multiplanar reconstructed MR images. Our study demonstrated significant difference between sonographic renal length in three positions and renal length through MRI (p < 0.001). However, the longest longitudinal length of right kidney among the measured three values by ultrasound was statistically similar to the renal length measured by reconstructed MR image. Among them, the lateral decubitus position showed the strongest correlation with true renal length (right: 0.887; left: 0.849). We recommend measurement of the maximum renal longitudinal length in all possible positions on ultrasonography. If not allowed, the best measurement is on the lateral decubitus showing the strongest correlation coefficient with true renal length.

  9. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  10. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO2 films under above-band-gap illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO2 nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

  11. Improving length-based weight estimates by adding a body habitus (obesity) icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G; Inaba, Alson S; Young, Lynette L; Anderson, Kathy M

    2009-09-01

    Length-based dosing systems reduce errors associated with resuscitation drug dosing. Obese and thin children of the same length are dosed the same despite their different weights. Length (height) and weight were measured in children after a body habitus icon assignment. Within each body habitus group, regression analysis was performed to generate a weight-estimation formula using body habitus and length (BHL). This BHL method was compared to the Broselow tape (BT). Height and weight data were plotted to obtain visual scattergrams. Logarithmic regression yielded higher correlation coefficients than standard linear regression. Within body habitus groups, BHL epinephrine dose estimates were more accurate than BT dose estimates using 0.01 mg/kg as a dosing standard. Adding body habitus information to the patient's length results in a more accurate weight estimate than length alone in children. The accuracy improvement is greater in children 3 years and older as compared to younger children.

  12. Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…

  13. Length filtration of the separable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Doković, Dragomir Ž.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the separable states ρ of an arbitrary multi-partite quantum system with Hilbert space H of dimension d. The length L(ρ) of ρ is defined as the smallest number of pure product states having ρ as their mixture. The length filtration of the set of separable states, S , is the increasing chain ∅ ⊊S1‧⊆S2‧⊆⋯, where Si‧={ρ ∈S :L (ρ )≤i }. We define the maximum length, Lmax=maxρ ∈S L (ρ ), critical length, Lcrit, and yet another special length, Lc, which was defined by a simple formula in one of our previous papers. The critical length indicates the first term in the length filtration whose dimension is equal to Dim S . We show that in general d≤Lc≤Lcrit≤Lmax≤d2. We conjecture that the equality Lcrit=Lc holds for all finite-dimensional multi-partite quantum systems. Our main result is that Lcrit=Lc for the bipartite systems having a single qubit as one of the parties. This is accomplished by computing the rank of the Jacobian matrix of a suitable map having S as its range.

  14. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  15. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  16. 25 MeV solar proton events in Cycle 24 and previous cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian G.; von Rosenvinge, Tycho T.; Cane, Hilary V.

    2017-08-01

    We summarize observations of around a thousand solar energetic particle (SEP) events since 1967 that include ∼25 MeV protons, made by various near-Earth spacecraft (IMPs 4, 5, 7, 8, ISEE 3, SOHO), that encompass Solar Cycle 20 to the current cycle (24). We also discuss recent observations of similar SEP events in Cycle 24 made by the STEREO spacecraft. The observations show, for example, that the time distribution of ∼25 MeV proton events varies from cycle to cycle. In particular, the time evolution of the SEP occurrence rate in Cycle 24 is strongly asymmetric between the northern and southern solar hemispheres, and tracks the sunspot number in each hemisphere, whereas Cycle 23 was more symmetric. There was also an absence of 25 MeV proton events during the solar minimum preceding Cycle 24 (other minima show occasional, often reasonably intense events). So far, events comparable to the exceptionally intense events detected in Cycles 22 and 23 have not been observed at Earth in Cycle 24, though Cycle 21 (the largest of the cycles considered here) also apparently lacked such events. We note a correlation between the rates of intense 25 MeV proton events and ;ground level enhancements; (GLEs) observed by neutron monitors, since 1967, and conclude that the number of ;official; GLEs (1) observed to date in Cycle 24 appears to be significantly lower than expected (5 to 7 ± 1) based on the rate of intense 25 MeV proton events in this cycle.

  17. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  18. Correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array

  19. C.N. Cofrentes power up-rate up to 110 %. A challenge for cycle 14 core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Bernal, M.I.; Lopez Carbonell, M.T.; Garcia Delgado, L. [Iberdrola, Nuclear Fuel Dept., Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    C.N.Cofrentes is a GE design BWR reactor with 624 bundles in the core, a rated power of 2894 MWt and it is currently operating Cycle 13 at 104.2 % power. Commercial operation started in 1984 with 12-month cycles at rated power. Both cycle length and thermal power have been increased since then. Power has been up-rated in two steps, first at 102 % in Cycle 4 and later in Cycle 11 at 104.2%. Cycle length has been extended from the original 12-month to the currently 18-month cycles. Next cycle, Cycle 14, will be an 18-month cycle operating at 110 % power. This goal is a challenge for the in-house nuclear design team. Start up for Cycle 14 is planned for the first quarter of 2002. (author)

  20. Size effects on miniature Stirling cycle cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqin; Chung, J. N.

    2005-08-01

    Size effects on the performance of Stirling cycle cryocoolers were investigated by examining each individual loss associated with the regenerator and combining these effects. For the fixed cycle parameters and given regenerator length scale, it was found that only for a specific range of the hydrodynamic diameter the system can produce net refrigeration and there is an optimum hydraulic diameter at which the maximum net refrigeration is achieved. When the hydraulic diameter is less than the optimum value, the regenerator performance is controlled by the pressure drop loss; when the hydraulic diameter is greater than the optimum value, the system performance is controlled by the thermal losses. It was also found that there exists an optimum ratio between the hydraulic diameter and the length of the regenerator that offers the maximum net refrigeration. As the regenerator length is decreased, the optimum hydraulic diameter-to-length ratio increases; and the system performance is increased that is controlled by the pressure drop loss and heat conduction loss. Choosing appropriate regenerator characteristic sizes in small-scale systems are more critical than in large-scale ones.

  1. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  2. Peripheral Refraction, Peripheral Eye Length, and Retinal Shape in Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkicharla, Pavan K; Suheimat, Marwan; Schmid, Katrina L; Atchison, David A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate how peripheral refraction and peripheral eye length are related to retinal shape. Relative peripheral refraction (RPR) and relative peripheral eye length (RPEL) were determined in 36 young adults (M +0.75D to -5.25D) along horizontal and vertical visual field meridians out to ±35° and ±30°, respectively. Retinal shape was determined in terms of vertex radius of curvature Rv, asphericity Q, and equivalent radius of curvature REq using a partial coherence interferometry method involving peripheral eye lengths and model eye raytracing. Second-order polynomial fits were applied to RPR and RPEL as functions of visual field position. Linear regressions were determined for the fits' second order coefficients and for retinal shape estimates as functions of central spherical refraction. Linear regressions investigated relationships of RPR and RPEL with retinal shape estimates. Peripheral refraction, peripheral eye lengths, and retinal shapes were significantly affected by meridian and refraction. More positive (hyperopic) relative peripheral refraction, more negative RPELs, and steeper retinas were found along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian and in myopes than in emmetropes. RPR and RPEL, as represented by their second-order fit coefficients, correlated significantly with retinal shape represented by REq. Effects of meridian and refraction on RPR and RPEL patterns are consistent with effects on retinal shape. Patterns derived from one of these predict the others: more positive (hyperopic) RPR predicts more negative RPEL and steeper retinas, more negative RPEL predicts more positive relative peripheral refraction and steeper retinas, and steeper retinas derived from peripheral eye lengths predict more positive RPR.

  3. Photoperiodic control of diapause induction in the zygaenid moth Thyrassia penangae – involving day-length measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hai-Min He, Chao Chen, Hai-Jun Xiao, Fang-Sen Xue Institute of Entomology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The zygaenid moth Thyrassia penangae is a typical long-day species, entering winter diapause as a prepupa in a cocoon in response to short-day conditions during autumn. The previous photoperiodic responses under non-24-h light–dark cycle and Nanda–Hamner experiments (greatly extended dark periods coupled with a short photophase or a long photophase revealed that the moth measured day length rather than night length in the determination of diapause. In this study, we further extend non-24-h light–dark cycle experiments and use the Bünsow experiment (the extended scotophase or photophase interrupted by 1-h light pulse or 1-h dark interruption to test the photoperiodism for diapause induction of this moth. The extended non-24-h light–dark cycle experiment showed that when the length of photophase exceeded critical day length, diapause incidence was quite low regardless of scotophase duration. No circadian rhythmicity was found in Bünsow experiments. The incidence of diapause was consistently low when preinterruption photophase was longer than the critical day length. The two experiments provide further evidence that this moth measures day length instead of night length. Keywords: Thyrassia penangae, diapause, photoperiodism, day-length measurement, Bünsow experiment

  4. A Method for Determining Skeletal Lengths from DXA Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelman Ignac

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal ratios and bone lengths are widely used in anthropology and forensic pathology and hip axis length is a useful predictor of fracture. The aim of this study was to show that skeletal ratios, such as length of femur to height, could be accurately measured from a DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry image. Methods 90 normal Caucasian females, 18–80 years old, with whole body DXA data were used as subjects. Two methods, linear pixel count (LPC and reticule and ruler (RET were used to measure skeletal sizes on DXA images and compared with real clinical measures from 20 subjects and 20 x-rays of the femur and tibia taken in 2003. Results Although both methods were highly correlated, the LPC inter- and intra-observer error was lower at 1.6% compared to that of RET at 2.3%. Both methods correlated positively with real clinical measures, with LPC having a marginally stronger correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.94; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.89 than RET (r2 = 0.86; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.85 with X-rays and real measures respectively. Also, the time taken to use LPC was half that of RET at 5 minutes per scan. Conclusion Skeletal ratios can be accurately and precisely measured from DXA total body scan images. The LPC method is easy to use and relatively rapid. This new phenotype will be useful for osteoporosis research for individuals or large-scale epidemiological or genetic studies.

  5. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  6. Martian Length of Day Measurements from Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Bills, B.

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the Martian Length of Day (LOD) can be determined at a scientifically use level by a combination of regular (but not necessarily frequent) range and Doppler measurements from Earth and dead reckoning in a Kalman filter.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes: Measuring Dispersion and Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Barry J.; Hobbie, Erik K.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hight-Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Chun, Jaehun; Obrzut, Jan; Bajpai, Vardhan; Phelan, Fred R.; Simien, Daneesh; Yeon Huh, Ji; Migler, Kalman B.

    2011-03-01

    Advanced technological uses of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) rely on the production of single length and chirality populations that are currently only available through liquid phase post processing. The foundation of all of these processing steps is the attainment of individualized nanotube dispersion in solution; an understanding of the collodial properties of the dispersed SWCNTs can then be used to designed appropriate conditions for separations. In many instances nanotube size, particularly length, is especially active in determining the achievable properties from a given population, and thus there is a critical need for measurement technologies for both length distribution and effective separation techniques. In this Progress Report, we document the current state of the art for measuring dispersion and length populations, including separations, and use examples to demonstrate the desirability of addressing these parameters.

  8. Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments linked to soybean mosaic virus resistance gene in Glycine soja and conversion to a sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid selection.

  9. CPS Trawl Life History Length Frequency Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Length distribution of a subset of individuals from a species (mainly non-target) caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of coastal pelagic...

  10. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  11. Vuilleumier Cycle Cryogenic Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    changing pressure to produce a cooling effect is similar to that of the cold section of the Stirling cycle refrigerator , since the method by which the...AFFDL-TR-76-17 VUILLEUMIER CYCLE CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL BRANCH 4 VEHICLE EQUIPMENT DIVISION APRIL 1976 TECHNICAL REPORT AFFDL...WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) Cryogenic Refrigerator Vuilleumier Cycle 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  12. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and

  13. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D imag...

  15. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  16. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  17. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Renaudin, Valérie; SUSI, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier...

  18. The nitrogen cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    .... Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions...

  19. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Joseph [MIT Sloan School of Management, 50 Memorial Drive, E52-447, Cambridge MA 02142 (United States); Muehlegger, Erich [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Mailbox 25, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Samphantharak, Krislert [Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 1519, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend the model and empirically test its predictions with a new dataset of daily station-level prices in 115 US cities. Consistent with the theory, and often in contrast with previous empirical work, we find the least and most concentrated markets are much less likely to exhibit cycling behavior both within and across cities; areas with more independent convenience-store gas stations are also more likely to cycle. (author)

  20. Estimates of sexual partnership dynamics: extending negative and positive gaps to status lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Guajardo, D; García-Ramos, G

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study are to generalise the concept of gap length between partners and to estimate the duration of four types of measures for heterosexual partnerships, called status lengths: (1) time spent as single before becoming monogamous (S-M, positive gap), (2) duration of concurrency before monogamy (C-M, negative gap), (3) duration of monogamy before concurrency (M-C) and (4) time spent in monogamy before becoming single (M-S). Medians and CIs were obtained using the US National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6 conducted in 2002. A significant gender difference was found in the monogamous to single status length (medians 38 months for women, and 19.3 months for men). Other status lengths were similar between genders (S-M: 20 women, 18 men; M-C: 16 women, 13 men; and C-M: 5 for women and men). Respondents younger than the median age at first marriage showed shorter status lengths compared to older ones. Median status lengths were comparable between heterosexuals and bisexuals. Percentage of concurrency in 1 year was 3.3% for women and 3.8% for men. One of the new status lengths (M-C) qualitatively indicates the transmission risk to an upcoming concurrent partner. The set of four status lengths may be useful in the context of epidemiological models with partnership dynamics.

  1. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  2. Modelling solar cycle length based on Poincaré maps for Lorenz-type equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lundstedt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two systems of Lorenz-type equations modelling solar magnetic activity are studied: Firstly a low order dynamic system in which the toroidal and poloidal fields are represented by x- and y-coordinates respectively, and the hydrodynamical information is given by the z coordinate. Secondly a complex generalization of the three ordinary differential equations studied by Lorenz. By studying the Poincaré map we give numerical evidence that the flow has an attractor with fractal structure. The period is defined as the time needed for a point on a hyperplane to return to the hyperplane again. The periods are distributed in an interval. For large values of the Dynamo number there is a long tail toward long periods and other interesting comet-like features. These general relations found for periods can further be physically interpreted with improved helioseismic estimates of the parameters used by the dynamical systems. Solar Dynamic Observatory is expected to offer such improved measurements.

  3. Element Cycles: An Environmental Chemistry Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippins, Tracy; Anderson, Cody M.; Poindexter, Eric F.; Sultemeier, S. Whitney; Schultz, Linda D.

    2011-01-01

    "Element Cycles" is an activity designed to reinforce correlation of essential elements and their different forms in the ecosystem. Students are assigned essential elements to research as homework, then share results, and construct game boards with four ecosphere sections: geosphere (earth), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere…

  4. Density Functional Theory and Materials Modeling at Atomistic Length Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K. Ghosh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We discuss the basic concepts of density functional theory (DFT as applied to materials modeling in the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic length scales. The picture that emerges is that of a single unified framework for the study of both quantum and classical systems. While for quantum DFT, the central equation is a one-particle Schrodinger-like Kohn-Sham equation, the classical DFT consists of Boltzmann type distributions, both corresponding to a system of noninteracting particles in the field of a density-dependent effective potential, the exact functional form of which is unknown. One therefore approximates the exchange-correlation potential for quantum systems and the excess free energy density functional or the direct correlation functions for classical systems. Illustrative applications of quantum DFT to microscopic modeling of molecular interaction and that of classical DFT to a mesoscopic modeling of soft condensed matter systems are highlighted.

  5. Universal cycle periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cycles in historical economic data. The literature on stochastic and deterministic cycles in variables such as the consumer price index, employment, interest rates, commodity prices, and GDP is huge and scattered, but our meta-analysis reveals various communalities. Our

  6. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...

  7. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  8. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  9. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  10. Life cycle management (LCM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels.......The chapter gives an introduction to Life Cycle Management (LCM) and shows how LCM can be practiced in different contexts and at different ambition levels....

  11. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  12. The carbon cycle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  13. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  14. An Adaptive Model for Calculating the Correlation Degree of Multiple Adjacent Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the urban adaptive traffic control system, subarea partition algorithm divides the road network into some small subareas and then determines the optimal signal control mode for each signalized intersection. Correlation model is the core of subarea partition algorithm because it can quantify the correlation degree of adjacent signalized intersections and decides whether these intersections can be grouped into one subarea. In most cases, there are more than two intersections in one subarea. However, current researches only focus on the correlation model for two adjacent intersections. The objective of this study is to develop a model which can calculate the correlation degree of multiple intersections adaptively. The cycle lengths, link lengths, number of intersections, and path flow between upstream and downstream coordinated phases were selected as the contributing factors of the correlation model. Their jointly impacts on the performance of the coordinated control mode relative to the isolated control mode were further studied using numerical experiments. The paper then proposed a correlation index (CI as an alternative to relative performance. The relationship between CI and the four contributing factors was established in order to predict the correlation, which determined whether adjacent intersections could be partitioned into one subarea. A value of 0 was set as the threshold of CI. If CI was larger than 0, multiple intersections could be partitioned into one subarea; otherwise, they should be separated. Finally, case studies were conducted in a real-life signalized network to evaluate the performance of the model. The results show that the CI simulates the relative performance well and could be a reliable index for subarea partition.

  15. Urban Aerodynamic Roughness Length Mapping Using Multitemporal SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic roughness is very important to urban meteorological and climate studies. Radar remote sensing is considered to be an effective means for aerodynamic roughness retrieval because radar backscattering is sensitive to the surface roughness and geometric structure of a given target. In this paper, a methodology for aerodynamic roughness length estimation using SAR data in urban areas is introduced. The scale and orientation characteristics of backscattering of various targets in urban areas were firstly extracted and analyzed, which showed great potential of SAR data for urban roughness elements characterization. Then the ground truth aerodynamic roughness was calculated from wind gradient data acquired by the meteorological tower using fitting and iterative method. And then the optimal dimension of the upwind sector for the aerodynamic roughness calculation was determined through a correlation analysis between backscattering extracted from SAR data at various upwind sector areas and the aerodynamic roughness calculated from the meteorological tower data. Finally a quantitative relationship was set up to retrieve the aerodynamic roughness length from SAR data. Experiments based on ALOS PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed data from 2006 to 2011 prove that the proposed methodology can provide accurate roughness length estimations for the spatial and temporal analysis of urban surface.

  16. The association of telomere length with family violence and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Photoperiod, temperature, and food availability as drivers of the annual reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Echinometra sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Omri; Loya, Yossi

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the efforts invested in the search for the environmental factors that regulate discrete breeding periods in marine invertebrates, they remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first account of the annual reproductive cycle of the pantropical sea urchin Echinometra sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat (Red Sea) and explore some of the main environmental variables that drive echinoid reproduction. Monthly measurements of gonado-somatic indexes and histological observations of 20 specimens revealed a single seasonal reproductive cycle, with gametogenesis in males and females being highly synchronized. Gametogenesis commenced in June and peak spawning occurred between September and October. Gonado-somatic indexes were significantly correlated with seawater temperatures but not with photoperiod. The latter cycle lagged behind the gonado-somatic cycle by two months, suggesting that the onset of gametogenesis corresponds to shortening day length, while spawning may be driven by warming seawater temperatures. Gonads remained quiescent throughout the winter and spring (January through May) when temperatures were at their lowest. Chlorophyll- a concentrations increased significantly in the months following spawning (October through January). These high concentrations are indicative of high phytoplankton abundance and may reflect the increase in food availability for the developing larvae. Of the external test dimensions, length presented the highest correlation to body weight, indicating length as the best predictor for body size in Echinometra. Neither sexual dimorphism nor size differences between males and females were detected, and the sex ratios were approximately 1:1 in three distant Echinometra populations. Environmentally regulated reproduction, as occurs in sea urchins, might face severe outcomes due to anthropogenic disturbances to the marine environment. Consequently, there is a need to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms that drive and

  18. Telomere Length Dynamics and the Evolution of Cancer Genome Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kez Cleal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are progressively eroded during repeated rounds of cell division due to the end replication problem but also undergo additional more substantial stochastic shortening events. In most cases, shortened telomeres induce a cell-cycle arrest or trigger apoptosis, although for those cells that bypass such signals during tumour progression, a critical length threshold is reached at which telomere dysfunction may ensue. Dysfunction of the telomere nucleoprotein complex can expose free chromosome ends to the DNA double-strand break (DSB repair machinery, leading to telomere fusion with both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. The consequences of telomere fusions in promoting genome instability have long been appreciated through the breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB cycle mechanism, although recent studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have uncovered evidence of involvement in a wider spectrum of genomic rearrangements including chromothripsis. A critical step in cancer progression is the transition of a clone to immortality, through the stabilisation of the telomere repeat array. This can be achieved via the reactivation of telomerase, or the induction of the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT pathway. Whilst telomere dysfunction may promote genome instability and tumour progression, by limiting the replicative potential of a cell and enforcing senescence, telomere shortening can act as a tumour suppressor mechanism. However, the burden of senescent cells has also been implicated as a driver of ageing and age-related pathology, and in the promotion of cancer through inflammatory signalling. Considering the critical role of telomere length in governing cancer biology, we review questions related to the prognostic value of studying the dynamics of telomere shortening and fusion, and discuss mechanisms and consequences of telomere-induced genome rearrangements.

  19. On the resilience of long cycles in random graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dellamonica Jr., Domingos; Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu; MARCINISZYN, MARTIN; Steger, Angelika

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we determine the local and global resilience of random graphs G(n,p) (p >> n(-1)) with respect to the property of containing a cycle of length at least (1 - alpha)n. Roughly speaking, given alpha > 0, we determine the smallest r(g) (G, alpha) with the property that almost surely every subgraph of G = G(n,p) having more than r(g) (G, alpha)vertical bar E(G)vertical bar edges contains a cycle of length at least (1 - alpha)n (global resilience). We also obtain, for alpha < 1/2, the...

  20. Ultrasound assessment of cervical length in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, An-Shine; Chao, Angel; Hsieh, Peter Ching-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  1. Ultrasound Assessment of Cervical Length in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical length in high-risk women for preterm birth has to be identified before early second trimester. Sequential evaluations lead to high predictive significance. The mean cervical length at 24 weeks is about 35 mm when measured by transvaginal ultrasound. A short cervix is defined as a cervix that is less than 25 mm and funneling, i.e. ballooning of the membranes into a dilated internal os, but with a closed external os. Factors such as short cervical length, uterine anomaly, previous cervical surgery, multiple gestation and positive fetal fibronectin results are associated with preterm delivery. Serial transvaginal ultrasound examinations during the early second trimester would provide longitudinal changes in the cervical length. The use of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and cerclage has shown to be beneficial in preventing preterm delivery. When combined with other predictors such as occiput position, parity, maternal age and body mass index, cervical length is a useful parameter for predicting the feasibility of labor induction and successful delivery.

  2. Scaling of avian primary feather length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather (f(prim contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus. The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was controlled for using independent contrasts: f(prim is proportional to ta(0.78-0.82. The scaling exponent was not significantly different from that predicted (0.86 by earlier work. It appears that there is a general trend for the primary feathers of birds to contribute proportionally less, and ta proportionally more, to overall wingspan as this dimension increases. Wingspan in birds is constrained close to mass (M(1/3 because of optimisation for lift production, which limits opportunities for exterior morphological change. Within the wing, variations in underlying bone and feather lengths nevertheless may, in altering the joint positions, permit a range of different flight styles by facilitating variation in upstroke kinematics.

  3. Effects of Foodstuffs on Intestinal Length in Larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) : Developmental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Shinri, Horiuchi; Yutaka, Koshida; Department of Biology, College of General Education, Osaka University

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between foodstuffs and intestinal length was examined in larvae of Rhacophorus arboreus (Anura: Rhacophoridae). The larva, being heterophagous, has a tube-like intestine provided with neither epithelial outfoldings nor villi, and intestinal length is found to be a good morphological index of digestive and absorptive functions of the intestine. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The grown larva fed on boiled spinach had an intestine more than 1.5 times as long as that...

  4. Relationship of functional leg-length discrepancy to abnormal pronation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Brian A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between abnormal pronation and functional leg-length discrepancies. Visual assessment and a pelvic thrust maneuver were used to identify the functionally short leg in 56 indigenous Mexicans (20 males and 36 females; mean age, 33 years; mean weight, 59 kg; and mean height, 1.60 m). The Foot Posture Index was used with a modified stance position to identify the more pronated foot. The posterosuperior iliac spines were used to identify the "relative" position of the innominate bones. The raw data obtained from this study were evaluated using the McNemar test for paired proportions. A significant positive correlation was found between abnormal pronation and hip position and between hip position and functional leg-length discrepancy. These results are consistent with a theoretical ascending dysfunctional pelvic model: Abnormal pronation pulls the innominate bones anteriorly (forward); anterior rotation of the innominate bones shifts the acetabula posteriorly and cephalad (backward and upward); and this shift in the acetabula hyperextends the knees and shortens the legs, with the shortest leg corresponding to the most pronated foot.

  5. Edge condition for long cycles in bipartite graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adamus, Lech

    2009-01-01

    Graphs and Algorithms; International audience; The following problem was solved by Woodall in 1972: for any pair of nonnegative integers n and k < n/2 - 1 find the minimum integer g(n, k) such that every graph with n vertices and at least g(n, k) edges contains a cycle of length n - k. Woodall proved even more: the size g(n, k), in fact, guarantees the existence of cycles C, for all 3

  6. Does length of common limb influence remission of diabetes? Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramraj V Nagendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strict patient selection criteria, diabetes remission is not seen in all patients after gastric bypass. Can length of the common limb influence diabetes remission? Aim: To find if any correlation exists between the length of the common limb and remission of diabetes. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients with Type II diabetes mellitus and a fasting C-peptide >1 ng/ml who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass were included. All patients had standard limb lengths and length of the common limb was measured in all patients. Patients were followed up and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was repeated at 6 months postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative HbA1c were then correlated with the lengths of common limb to look for any relation. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of the 25 patients, 15 were females and 10 were males. The mean age was 44.16 years and the mean body mass index (BMI was 43.96 kg/m 2 . Preoperative HbA1c varied from 5.8 to 12.3%. Length of the common limb varied from 210 to 790 cm (mean 470.4 cm. HbA1c at 6 months ranged from 4.8 to 7.7% (mean 5.81%. On comparison of preoperative and 6 months postoperative HbA1c and correlating with the length of common limb, we found that patients with a common limb of length 600 cm length (P = 0.004. Conclusion: A shorter common limb does appear to have better chances of resolution of Type II diabetes mellitus in our study, thus paving the way for further studies.

  7. Altered Maxwell equations in the length gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, H R

    2013-01-01

    The length gauge uses a scalar potential to describe a laser field, thus treating it as a longitudinal field rather than as a transverse field. This distinction is revealed in the fact that the Maxwell equations that relate to the length gauge are not the same as those for transverse fields. In particular, a source term is necessary in the length-gauge Maxwell equations, whereas the Coulomb-gauge description of plane waves possesses the basic property of transverse fields that they propagate with no source terms at all. This difference is shown to be importantly consequential in some previously unremarked circumstances; and it explains why the G\\"oppert-Mayer gauge transformation does not provide the security that might be expected of full gauge equivalence.

  8. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  9. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  10. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  11. Epinephrine auto-injector needle length: what is the ideal length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T Ted; Lieberman, Phil

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the clinical effects of the needle length of epinephrine (adrenaline) auto-injectors. Epinephrine has maximal pharmacodynamic effect within 10 min of intramuscular administration into the thigh. Prefilled epinephrine auto-injectors are designed for simplicity of use and safety. Auto-injectors are primarily used by patients in an unsupervised setting in cases of anaphylaxis. There are weight-appropriate doses of epinephrine available with auto-injectors that are prefilled, to prevent dosing errors, with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.50 mg amounts. In addition, needle lengths vary from 1.17 to 2.50 cm. The recommended needle lengths differ between adults and pediatric patients. In addition, the needle lengths differ between devices as well. There are concerns that the needle length may be too short in select obese patients. Yet, there are also concerns that the needle length may be too long in some patients. Factors that affect the depth of the injection, and therefore the pharmacokinetics of the drug, include not only the needle length but also the BMI, obesity, compression of soft tissue, and propulsion. Epinephrine auto-injectors have different needle lengths. Using the right device with appropriate needle length based on BMI, obesity, and employing the proper technique can improve the outcome in an anaphylactic event.

  12. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  13. Tail paradox, partial identifiability, and influential priors in Bayesian branch length inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannala, Bruce; Zhu, Tianqi; Yang, Ziheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have observed that Bayesian analyses of sequence data sets using the program MrBayes sometimes generate extremely large branch lengths, with posterior credibility intervals for the tree length (sum of branch lengths) excluding the maximum likelihood estimates. Suggested explanations for this phenomenon include the existence of multiple local peaks in the posterior, lack of convergence of the chain in the tail of the posterior, mixing problems, and misspecified priors on branch lengths. Here, we analyze the behavior of Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms when the chain is in the tail of the posterior distribution and note that all these phenomena can occur. In Bayesian phylogenetics, the likelihood function approaches a constant instead of zero when the branch lengths increase to infinity. The flat tail of the likelihood can cause poor mixing and undue influence of the prior. We suggest that the main cause of the extreme branch length estimates produced in many Bayesian analyses is the poor choice of a default prior on branch lengths in current Bayesian phylogenetic programs. The default prior in MrBayes assigns independent and identical distributions to branch lengths, imposing strong (and unreasonable) assumptions about the tree length. The problem is exacerbated by the strong correlation between the branch lengths and parameters in models of variable rates among sites or among site partitions. To resolve the problem, we suggest two multivariate priors for the branch lengths (called compound Dirichlet priors) that are fairly diffuse and demonstrate their utility in the special case of branch length estimation on a star phylogeny. Our analysis highlights the need for careful thought in the specification of high-dimensional priors in Bayesian analyses.

  14. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2001-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  15. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  16. Nonlinear Radial Correlation of Electrostatic Fluctuations in the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W. X.; Xiao, C.; White, D.; Elia, M.; Hirose, A.

    1997-09-01

    A practical algorithm to calculate the nonlinear correlation is developed. This algorithm permits the determination of not only the correlation strength but also the correlation direction. Application of the algorithm to data obtained in the edge plasma in the STOR-M tokamak with Langmuir probes indicates that the direction of fluctuation correlation reverses after L-H transition and that the nonlinear correlation length is 4 times as long as the linear correlation length.

  17. Length of winter coat in horses depending on husbandry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Krzysztof; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Janczarek, Iwona; Jabłecki, Zygmunt; Kolstrung, Ryszard

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the length of coat on selected body areas in horses and ponies kept under different husbandry (stable) conditions during the winter-spring period. The study included 12 Małpolski geldings and 12 geldings of Felin ponies aged 10-15 years. Horses were kept in two stables (six horses and six ponies in each stable). The type of performance, husbandry conditions and feeding of the studied animals were comparable. As of December 1, samples of hair coat from the scapula, sternum, back and abdomen areas of both body sides were collected seven times. The lengths of 20 randomly selected hair fibers were measured. Daily measurements of air temperature in the stables were also taken. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using the following factors: the body part from where the coat was sampled, the subsequent examination and the stable as well as the interaction between these factors. The significance of differences between means was determined with a t-Tukey test. The relations between air temperature in the stable and hair length were calculated using Pearson's correlation. It was found that air temperature in the stable impacts the length of winter coat in horses and ponies. The effect of this factor is more pronounced in ponies; as in the stables with lower temperatures it produces a longer hair coat which is more evenly distributed over the body in comparison with horses. Keeping horses and ponies in stables with a low air temperature accelerates coat shedding by approximately 25 days. Coat shedding begins from the scapula area. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Validation of a novel ultrasound measurement of achilles tendon length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Riecke, Anja Falk; Boesen, Anders; Hansen, Philip; Maier, Jens Friedrich; Døssing, Simon; Troelsen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    A clinically applicable and accurate method for measuring Achilles tendon length is needed to investigate the influence of elongation of the Achilles tendon after acute rupture. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an ultrasonographic (US) length measurement of the Achilles tendon-aponeurosis complex. Both legs of 19 non-injured subjects were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and US. The length from calcaneus to the medial head of m. Gastrocnemius was measured by three independent US examiners. Repeated US measurements were performed and compared to MRI measurements. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and the agreement between MRI and US were determined. Data were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of the measurement (SEM) and the minimal detectable change (MDC). Intra-rater reliability of US assessment showed no significant differences between test days: ICC 0.96, SEM 4 mm and MDC 10 mm. Inter-rater reliability showed a systematic difference between US observers of 2-5 mm (p = 0.001-0.036); ICC 0.97, SEM 3 mm and MDC 9 mm. MRI measurements were on average 4 mm longer than US (p = 0.001). The novel ultrasound measurement showed good reliability and accuracy. For comparison between groups of non-injured subjects differences of more than 4 mm can be detected. For repeated assessment of individual subjects differences of more than 10 mm can be detected. The measurement needs to be further assessed in the setting of acute Achilles tendon rupture. This new ultrasound measurement might allow for length measurement of ruptured Achilles tendons in the acute and chronic state after rupture. II.

  19. Estimation of stature from foot length in adult Nepalese population and its clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Karki, R K; Khanal, K; Karna, R

    2012-01-01

    Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Interrelationships among different body measurements may be used to estimate one from another in case of missing body parts. Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. The current study dealt with developing a regression equation for stature estimation from foot length and to find out the correlation between body height and foot length of Nepalese people. The present study was carried out to establish the regression equation and correlation coefficient between individual height and mean foot length. It was conducted on 440 students of age group 17 to 25 years studying in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Nepal. Body height and foot length were measured in centimeter. There was significant correlation between height and foot length (r = 0. 703, p stature of adult Nepalese based on foot length.

  20. [A model of individually forecasting the penile length gained after penis lengthening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yi; Tao, Ling; Chen, Liang; Cao, Chuan; Li, Shi-Rong

    2011-11-01

    To establish a model of individually forecasting the penile length gained after penis lengthening. A total of 322 patients were diagnosed congenital penile shortness and received partial suspensory ligament release in our department from Oct. 1988 to Apr. 2011. The patients were divide into two groups as Modeling Group (n = 200) and Checking Group (n = 122). Then a two-dimensional model of the suspensory-ligament-release penis lengthening is established. In the Modeling Group, a statistical analysis of the penile length in flaccid and erectile state before and after penis lengthening was carried out, and a forecasting predictive function of increased penile length was derived. Then the predictive accurate rate was tested in the Checking Group. There was a significant linear correlation between the increased length in flaccid and erectile state (correlation coefficient = 0.921, P forecasting models were established. A predictive function of increased flaccid length was derived from the two regression forecasting models. The effectively forecasting rates were 84.5% (169/200, the Modeling Group) and 87.7% (107/122, the Checking Group) when the absolute value of forecasting error was less than 1.5 cm. The discovered significant correlation and the established forecasting function provide us a model of roughly and individually forecasting the penile length gained after penis lengthening.

  1. Qualitative Video Analysis of Track-Cycling Team Pursuit in World-Class Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Samuel; Maier, Thomas; Faiss, Raphael

    2017-11-01

    Track-cycling team pursuit (TP) is a highly technical effort involving 4 athletes completing 4 km from a standing start, often in less than 240 s. Transitions between athletes leading the team are obviously of utmost importance. To perform qualitative video analyses of transitions of world-class athletes in TP competitions. Videos captured at 100 Hz were recorded for 77 races (including 96 different athletes) in 5 international track-cycling competitions (eg, UCI World Cups and World Championships) and analyzed for the 12 best teams in the UCI Track Cycling TP Olympic ranking. During TP, 1013 transitions were evaluated individually to extract quantitative (eg, average lead time, transition number, length, duration, height in the curve) and qualitative (quality of transition start, quality of return at the back of the team, distance between third and returning rider score) variables. Determination of correlation coefficients between extracted variables and end time allowed assessment of relationships between variables and relevance of the video analyses. Overall quality of transitions and end time were significantly correlated (r = .35, P = .002). Similarly, transition distance (r = .26, P = .02) and duration (r = .35, P = .002) were positively correlated with end time. Conversely, no relationship was observed between transition number, average lead time, or height reached in the curve and end time. Video analysis of TP races highlights the importance of quality transitions between riders, with preferably swift and short relays rather than longer lead times for faster race times.

  2. Effects of subcutaneous IL-2 therapy on telomere lengths in PBMC in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aladdin, H; Larsen, C S; Schjerling, P

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on mean terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Ten human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals were included and IL-2 was administered subcutaneously with 3 x 106 IU three...... by the end of the study. At baseline, mean TRF lengths were positively correlated to the ratio of naïve and memory phenotype within both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. This study shows that IL-2 treatment induces transient shortened mean TRF lengths in PBMC from HIV-infected individuals, indicating that IL-2 enhances...

  3. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  4. Analysis of muscle coordination strategies in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilutsky, B I; Gregory, R J

    2000-09-01

    The functional significance of the stereotypical muscle activation patterns used in skilled multi-joint tasks is not well understood. Optimization methods could provide insight into the functional significance of muscle coordination. The purpose of this study was to predict muscle force patterns during cycling by pushing and pulling the pedal using different optimization criteria and compare the predictions with electromyographic (EMG) patterns. To address the purpose of the study, 1) the contribution of muscle length and velocity changes to EMG-muscle force relationships during cycling was examined by comparing joint moments calculated from EMG and inverse dynamics, 2) patterns of individual muscle forces during cycling of five subjects were predicted using 13 different optimization criteria, and 3) the properties of the criterion with the best performance in predicting the normalized EMG were used to explain the features and functional significance of muscle coordination in cycling. It was shown that the criterion that minimizes the sum of muscle stresses cubed demonstrated the best performance in predicting the relative magnitude and patterns of muscle activation. Based on this criterion, it was suggested that the functional significance of muscle coordination strategy in cycling may be minimization of fatigue and/or perceived effort.

  5. Hexagonalization of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Thiago [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-30

    We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N. The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.

  6. Effects of isometric quadriceps strength training at different muscle lengths on dynamic torque production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorkõiv, Marika; Nosaka, Kazunori; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to (1) determine whether isometric training at a short vs. long quadriceps muscle length affects concentric torque production; (2) examine the relationship between muscle hypertrophy and concentric torque; and (3) determine whether changes in fascicle length are associated with changes in concentric torque. Sixteen men performed isometric training at a short (SL, n = 8) or a long muscle length (LL, n = 8). Changes in maximal concentric torque were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 rad · s(-1). The relationships between the changes in concentric torque, cross-sectional area, volume and fascicle length were tested. Concentric torque increased significantly after training only in LL and at angular velocities of 30 and 120 rad · s(-1) by 12-13% (P Muscle size increased in LL only, the changes were correlated (r = 0.73-0.93, P torque. Vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length increased in both groups (5.4 ± 4.9%, P = 0.001) but the change was not correlated with changes in concentric torque in either group. Isometric training-induced increases in muscle size and concentric torque were best elicited by training at long muscle lengths. These results highlight a clear muscle length dependence of isometric training on dynamic torque production.

  7. Measurement and restoration of equality in length of the lower limbs in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoikka, V; Paavilainen, T; Lindholm, T S; Turula, K B; Ylikoski, M

    1987-01-01

    Alteration of the length of the lower limb was measured in 39 patients undergoing total hip replacement. Radiographs were taken in the erect posture prior to operation and 6 months postoperatively. The inequality of limb length was measured by the difference between the height of the vertices of the femoral heads and by the difference between the lowest points of the ischial tuberosities. The change of the length was measured intraoperatively as the difference observed between two reference points: one above the acetabulum and the other on the proximal femur. Good correlation was obtained between the change of the limb length made intraoperatively and the change in the limb length using the ischial tuberosities as reference points; no correlation was observed when the vertices of the femoral heads were the reference points. Inequality of limb length can be radiologically determined before and after total hip arthroplasty. Femoral and prosthetic heads are not good reference points for measurement. The difference in the height of the ischial tuberosities demonstrates inequality of limb functional length as it reflects the tilting of the pelvis.

  8. Measurement and restoration of equality in length of the lower limbs in total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoikka, V.; Paavilainen, T.; Lindholm, T.S.; Turula, K.B.; Ylikoski, M.

    1987-08-01

    Alteration of the length of the lower limb was measured in 39 patients undergoing total hip replacement. Radiographs were taken in the erect posture prior to operation and 6 months postoperatively. The inequality of limb length was measured by the difference between the height of the vertices of the fermoral heads and by the difference between the lowest points of the ischial tuberosities. The change of the length was measured intraoperatively as the difference observed between two reference points: One above the acetabulum and the other on the proximal femur. Good correlation was obtained between the change of the limb length made intraoperatively and the change in the limb length using the ischial tuberosities as reference points; no correlation was observed when the vertices of the femoral heads were the reference points. Inequality of limb length can be radiologically determined before and after total hip arthroplasty. Femoral and prosthetic heads are not good reference points for measurement. The difference in the height of ischial tuberosities demonstrates inequality of limb functional length as it reflects the tilting of the pelvis.

  9. The relationship between arch height and foot length: Implications for size grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew; Naemi, Roozbeh; Branthwaite, Helen; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2017-03-01

    Medial longitudinal Arch Height is synonymous with classifying foot type and conversely foot function. Detailed knowledge of foot anthropometry is essential in the development of ergonomically sound footwear. Current Footwear design incorporates a direct proportionate scaling of instep dimensions with those of foot length. The objective of this paper is to investigate if a direct proportional relationship exists between human arch height parameters and foot length in subjects with normal foot posture. A healthy convenience sample of 62 volunteers was recruited to participate in this observational study. All subjects were screened for normal foot health and posture. Each subject's foot dimensions were scanned and measured using a 3D Foot Scanner. From this foot length and arch height parameters were obtained. Normalised ratios of arch height with respect to foot length were also calculated. The arch height parameters and the normalised arch ratios were used interchangeably as the dependent variables with the foot length parameters used as the independent variable for Simple Linear Regression and Correlation. Analysis of foot length measures demonstrated poor correlation with all arch height parameters. No significant relationships between arch height and foot length were found. The predictive value of the relationship was found to be poor. This holds significant implications for the current method of proportionate scaling of footwear in terms of fit and function to the midfoot region for a normative population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-06-28

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GMAT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GMAT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, PGMAT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Life Cycle Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of Life Cycle Management (LCM)—a discipline that deals with the managerial tasks related to practicing sustainable development in an organisation . Just as Life Cycle Assessment, LCM advocates the life cycle perspective , and it applies this perspective in decision......-making processes. The chapter shows that LCA can play a key role in LCM since LCA provides quantitative performance measurements. It also explains, which stakeholders need to be considered, how LCA and LCM relate, how LCA can be used to develop Key Performance Indicators, and addresses how LCM can be integrated...

  12. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances......—and in the reporting of public finances—is beginning to emerge....

  13. Intralocus sexual conflict over wing length in a wild migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarka, Maja; Akesson, Mikael; Hasselquist, Dennis; Hansson, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) occurs when males and females have different adaptive peaks but are constrained from evolving sexual dimorphism because of shared genes. Implications of this conflict on evolutionary dynamics in wild populations have not been investigated in detail. In comprehensive analyses of selection, heritability, and genetic correlations, we found evidence for an ISC over wing length, a key trait for flight performance and migration, in a long-term study of wild great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus). We found moderate sexual dimorphism, high heritability, moderate sexually antagonistic selection, and strong positive cross-sex genetic correlation in wing length, together supporting the presence of ISC. A negative genetic correlation between male wing length and female fitness indicated that females inheriting alleles for longer wings from their male relatives also inherited lower fitness. Moreover, cross-sex genetic correlations imposed constraint on the predicted microevolutionary trajectory of wing length (based on selection gradients), especially in females where the predicted response was reversed. The degree of sexual dimorphism in wing length did not change over time, suggesting no sign of conflict resolution. Our study provides novel insight into how an ISC over a fitness trait can affect microevolution in a wild population under natural selection.

  14. Scale tunable telediffractometer: use in optical correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallmitjana, Santiago; Juvells, Ignacio P.; Bosch, Salvador; de F. Moneo, J. R.

    1990-07-01

    When a large scale Fourier transform is required, the main disadvantage in the classical architecture for optical Fourier transforiing (froi front to back focal planes of a lens) is its length. If special detectors (CCD caDera), spatial sodulators (light valve) or filters (iiquid crystal iodulator) are to be used, the size of the transfora has to iatch the size of the active eleient of the device. When perforiirig optical correlation, the final length of the set up will be about four times the focal length of the two lenses (if they are equal).

  15. Is cervical length associated with maternal characteristics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, A. J.; van Os, M. A.; Kleinrouweler, C. E.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pajkrt, E.; Kazemier, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Women with a mid-trimester short cervical length (CL) are at increased risk for preterm delivery. Consequently, CL measurement is a potential screening tool to identify women at risk for preterm birth. Our objective was to assess possible associations between CL and maternal characteristics. A

  16. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, Oleksandr V.; Azimi, Hamed; Scharber, Markus; Morana, Mauro; Blom, Paul W. M.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  17. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accordingly, selection should favour a longer 'race' to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. ... Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065, India; School of Ecology and Conservation, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 ...

  18. Path length resolved optical Doppler flowmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Wax, Adam; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    The readings in laser Doppler perfusion monitoring are affected by the optical properties of the tissue in which the microvasculature is embedded, through their effect on the optical path lengths. Thus for a constant perfusion, the LDF output signal is affected by the variance in individual photon

  19. On some queue length controlled stochastic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the input, output and queueing processes in a general controlled single-server bulk queueing system. It is supposed that inter-arrival time, service time, batch size of arriving units and the capacity of the server depend on the queue length.

  20. Indicators for Cervical Length in Twin Pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frederik J. R.; Schuit, Ewoud; Liem, Sophie M. S.; Lim, Arianne C.; Duvekot, Johannes; Scheepers, Liesbeth C. J.; Woiski, Mallory M.; Franssen, Maureen M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bijvanck, Bas Nij; Bekedam, Dick J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical length (CL) is associated with the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in multiple pregnancies. However, the position of CL within the pathophysiological pathway of PTB is unclear, and it is unknown which factors are predictive for CL. This study aims to investigate whether in twin

  1. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Tiefenback, Michael G. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  2. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  3. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  4. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosa rugosa is an excellent ornamental plant with important ecological, economical and medicinal values in China. Polymorphism amplifications of the genomic DNA of 5 wild R. rugosa accessions and 25 cultivars that originated from China with fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism molecular markers were ...

  5. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    synthetic stellar population model, gives strong evidence that the Galactic thin disk density scale length, hR, ... be preferred to investigate the stellar distribution, specially at large distances from the. Sun. In this paper, we present ... city gradient according to age metallicity and age scale height relations. In the model, the key ...

  6. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  7. Length, protein–protein interactions, and complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, T.; Frenkel, D.; Gupta, V.; Deem, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein–protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they

  8. Analytical calculation of chain length in ferrofluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Verdet coefficient (constant), particle diameter, viscosity of the carrier fluid, particle density, magnetization and shear rate. The formulated relation of chain length is supported by error analysis to yield the uncertainty in the result. The maximum uncertainty in four sets of data is found as ∼0.75. Keywords. Ferrofluid; chain ...

  9. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  10. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted

  11. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  12. Phenotypic Relationships Between Gestation Length And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic Relationships Between Gestation Length And Preweaning Litter Traits In Rabbits. ... size at birth(LSB), litter size at 21 days (LS21), litter weight at 21 days(LW21), litter weight at birth (LWAB), and still birth number(SBN) when subjected to multiple regression analysis revealed non-significant t-test value with GL.

  13. THE BIMODAL STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z. L., E-mail: zldu@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Some properties of the 11 yr solar cycle can be explained by the current solar dynamo models. However, some other features remain not well understood such as the asymmetry of the cycle, the double-peaked structure, and the “Waldmeier effect” that a stronger cycle tends to have less rise time and a shorter cycle length. We speculate that the solar cycle is governed by a bi-dynamo model forming two stochastic processes depicted by a bimodal Gaussian function with a time gap of about 2 yr, from which the above features can be reasonably explained. The first one describes the main properties of the cycle dominated by the current solar dynamo models, and the second one occurs either in the rising phase as a short weak explosive perturbation or in the declining phase as a long stochastic perturbation. The above function is the best one selected from several in terms of the Akaike information criterion. Through analyzing different distributions, one might speculate about the dominant physical process inside the convection zone. The secondary (main) process is found to be closely associated with complicated (simple) active ranges. In effect, the bi-dynamo model is a reduced form of a multi-dynamo model, which could occur from the base of the convection zone through its envelope and from low to high heliographic latitude, reflecting the active belts in the convection zone. These results are insensitive to the hemispheric asymmetry, smoothing filters, and distribution functions selected and are expected to be helpful in understanding the formation of solar and stellar cycles.

  14. Product Life Cycle Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walaszek, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... This phase of work was undertaken to: (1) provide guidelines, technical support, and planning approaches for researchers that result in realistic life cycle plans for products emerging from the RSM...

  15. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  16. Cycles in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alspach, BR

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

  17. Life Cycle Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  18. Solar Cycle Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristóf Petrovay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including forecasts for cycle 24. The review focuses on those aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start of the given cycle. Prediction methods form three main groups. Precursor methods rely on the value of some measure of solar activity or magnetism at a specified time to predict the amplitude of the following solar maximum. Their implicit assumption is that each numbered solar cycle is a consistent unit in itself, while solar activity seems to consist of a series of much less tightly intercorrelated individual cycles. Extrapolation methods, in contrast, are based on the premise that the physical process giving rise to the sunspot number record is statistically homogeneous, i.e., the mathematical regularities underlying its variations are the same at any point of time and, therefore, it lends itself to analysis and forecasting by time series methods. Finally, instead of an analysis of observational data alone, model based predictions use physically (more or less consistent dynamo models in their attempts to predict solar activity. In their overall performance during the course of the last few solar cycles, precursor methods have clearly been superior to extrapolation methods. Nevertheless, most precursor methods overpredicted cycle 23, while some extrapolation methods may still be worth further study. Model based forecasts have not yet had a chance to prove their skills. One method that has yielded predictions consistently in the right range during the past few solar cycles is that of K. Schatten et al., whose approach is mainly based on the polar field precursor. The incipient cycle 24 will probably mark the end of the Modern Maximum, with the Sun

  19. Assessment of growth from foot length in Taiwanese neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsyr-Yuh; Ou, Shan-Fu; Huang, Shih-Hui; Lee, Chi-Ning; Ger, Luo-Ping; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ming; Weng, Ken-Pen

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between foot length (FL) and birth body weight (BBW), birth body length (BBL), and head circumference (HC). However, there is no data on birth FL in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate FL measurement in Taiwanese neonates as a method of estimating other anthropometric indices. In this retrospective study, we enrolled 256 babies born at our hospital and Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital from 2003-2005. Medical records were reviewed for sex, BBW, BBL, HC, gestational age, and birth FL. Ill newborns, small-for-gestational-age babies, or those with poor birth footprints were excluded. FL at birth was measured from the center of the back of the heel to the tip of the big toe. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relation of FL to BBW and BBL. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess inter-rater reliability. A total of 256 babies were reviewed. There were 136 male and 120 female neonates. The gestational age was 38.5+/-1.3 (mean+/-standard deviation) weeks, ranging from 35-42 weeks. The BBW was 3137+/-396g. The BBL was 51.1+/-2.1 cm. The HC was 33.5+/-1.7 cm. The FL was 7.4+/-0.46 cm. The regression equation for BBW (y) on FL (x) was as follows: y=486.2+360.4x (pBBW, BBL and HC. However, it did not reliably estimate BBW, BBL, or HC-the three anthropometric indices were weakly correlated (r<0.5) with FL.

  20. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...