WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle environmental impacts

  1. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Environmental impacts of construction materials use: a life cycle perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available of the environmental impacts of a product (or service). The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept previously known as Life Cycle Analysis has emerged as one of the most appropriate tools for assessing product-related environmental impacts and for supporting an effective...

  3. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    is focused on the product system which comprises all the processes which the product and its components meet throughout their lives- from the extraction of raw materials via manufacture, use and waste management to final disposal, or in short from the cradle to the grave (see Figure 1). The focus......What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...

  4. A study into life cycle environmental impacts of photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This study presents a Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Cells (LCA). It was undertaken by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) on behalf of ETSU for the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). This study uses the technique of LCA to examine all aspects of the production, use and disposal of PVs and the consequent environmental effects. This allows an appraisal of the environmental effects of increasing UK production of PVs to supply more demand for electricity in the EU and the developing world. Impacts result from obtaining raw materials, manufacturing solar power generating equipment, and any final disposal or recycling requirements. The environmental impacts resulting from these phases are known as the PV LIfe Cycle impacts. (author)

  5. Impact on environmental qualification from a longer fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanwarwalla, M.H.; Akhtar, S.; Drankhan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    There is a general trend in the nuclear industry towards longer fuel cycles because of the economic benefits. The economic benefits for increasing the fuel cycle from eighteen to twenty four months is estimated by the industry to be about $5.05 million per unit year based on a two week mid-cycle maintenance outage. Equipment with a unique characteristic may require maintenance and/or inspection more frequently than can be accommodated in a longer cycle. The maintenance and surveillance (M ampersand S) requirements for these equipment need to be reviewed to accommodate a longer cycle and avoid any unplanned outage. ComEd's LaSalle Station is considering a move to a longer fuel cycle. A study was done to determine the impact of a longer fuel cycle on their current environmental qualification (EQ) program, and the feasibility of implementing changes to their program to accommodate a longer fuel cycle. This paper discusses (1) the impact, if any, the longer fuel cycle will have on the maintenance and surveillance requirements of the 50.49 or environmentally qualified equipment at LaSalle Station, (2) the various techniques, i.e., partial testing, performance based monitoring etc., employed to extend the existing maintenance and surveillance requirements, and (3) the estimated economic savings, if any, from the extended M ampersand S interval

  6. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  7. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  8. Representativeness of environmental impact assessment methods regarding Life Cycle Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnouf, Antoine; Latrille, Éric; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Helias, Arnaud

    2018-04-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) characterises all the exchanges between human driven activities and the environment, thus representing a powerful approach for tackling the environmental impact of a production system. However, LCA practitioners must still choose the appropriate Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method to use and are expected to justify this choice: impacts should be relevant facing the concerns of the study and misrepresentations should be avoided. This work aids practitioners in evaluating the adequacy between the assessed environmental issues and studied production system. Based on a geometrical standpoint of LCA framework, Life Cycle Inventories (LCIs) and LCIA methods were localized in the vector space spanned by elementary flows. A proximity measurement, the Representativeness Index (RI), is proposed to explore the relationship between those datasets (LCIs and LCIA methods) through an angular distance. RIs highlight LCIA methods that measure issues for which the LCI can be particularly harmful. A high RI indicates a close proximity between a LCI and a LCIA method, and highlights a better representation of the elementary flows by the LCIA method. To illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, representativeness of LCIA methods regarding four electricity mix production LCIs from the ecoinvent database are presented. RIs for 18 LCIA methods (accounting for a total of 232 impact categories) were calculated on these LCIs and the relevance of the methods are discussed. RIs prove to be a criterion for distinguishing the different LCIA methods and could thus be employed by practitioners for deeper interpretations of LCIA results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  10. The environmental impact of organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery through life-cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao; He, Chao; Gao, Hong; Xie, Hui; Li, Yourong; Wu, Shuangying; Xu, Jinliang

    2013-01-01

    The LCA (life-cycle assessment) was applied to evaluate EI (the environmental impact) of ORCPW (organic Rankine cycle power-plant for waste-heat-recovery) in this paper. The model of LCA on the ORCPW was established. The life-cycle of ORCPW was divided into construction, operation and decommissioning phases. The inventory of environmental emissions was listed for the ORCPW with 7 different working fluids. The GWP (global warming potential), AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTP (human toxicity potential), SWP (solid waste potential) and SAP (soot and dust potential) were investigated. Some EIs of ORCPW were compared with the EIs of other power generation modes. The results show that the construction phase of ORCPW contributes mostly to the GWP and EP. GWP is the most serious EI followed by HTP among all the environmental impacts. The average pay back times of greenhouse gas discharged from ORCPW is calculated on the basis of five other power generation modes. For 7 different working fluids, it is 3–5 years for CO 2 , about one year for CH 4 and 3–6 years for NO x . But CO cannot be paid back during the life-cycle of ORCPW according to the average pay back time. - Highlights: • LCA was proposed to evaluate the environmental performance of ORC. • The ORC life cycle environmental emissions inventory was established. • GWP is the most serious environmental impact, followed by HTP. • The ORC with R113 exhibits the lowest environment impact load, followed by Pentane. • The total GWP of ORC could be paid back in 5 years

  11. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  12. Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First full life cycle assessment of shale gas used for electricity generation. • Comparison with coal, conventional and liquefied gas, nuclear, wind and solar PV. • Shale gas worse than coal for three impacts and better than renewables for four. • It has higher photochemical smog and terrestrial toxicity than the other options. • Shale gas a sound environmental option only if accompanied by stringent regulation. - Abstract: Exploitation of shale gas in the UK is at a very early stage, but with the latest estimates suggesting potential resources of 3.8 × 10 13 cubic metres – enough to supply the UK for next 470 years – it is viewed by many as an exciting economic prospect. However, its environmental impacts are currently unknown. This is the focus of this paper which estimates for the first time the life cycle impacts of UK shale gas, assuming its use for electricity generation. Shale gas is compared to fossil-fuel alternatives (conventional gas and coal) and low-carbon options (nuclear, offshore wind and solar photovoltaics). The results suggest that the impacts range widely, depending on the assumptions. For example, the global warming potential (GWP100) of electricity from shale gas ranges from 412 to 1102 g CO 2 -eq./kWh with a central estimate of 462 g. The central estimates suggest that shale gas is comparable or superior to conventional gas and low-carbon technologies for depletion of abiotic resources, eutrophication, and freshwater, marine and human toxicities. Conversely, it has a higher potential for creation of photochemical oxidants (smog) and terrestrial toxicity than any other option considered. For acidification, shale gas is a better option than coal power but an order of magnitude worse than the other options. The impact on ozone layer depletion is within the range found for conventional gas, but nuclear and wind power are better options still. The results of this research highlight the need for tight regulation and

  13. The environmental impacts of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey about the environmental pollution and the population exposure caused by the nuclear fuel cycle is set up. Proceeding from the environmental changes caused by the construction of plants, the author shows the hazards of the operation of the plants. The fuel cycle beginning with the mining of nuclear fuels and reaching to their reprocessing, the environmental pollution by radionuclides and the population exposure resulting from this are outlined. After indicating the advantages of the concentration of nuclear plants, the author shows comparatively the hazards caused by conventional energy sources. (ORU) [de

  14. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimes, George G; Khanna, Vikas

    2013-06-20

    Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of -46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae's life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae's direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Given the high variability in microalgae's energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative.

  15. Environmental Impacts of Solar Thermal Systems with Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    De Laborderie , Alexis; Puech , Clément; Adra , Nadine; Blanc , Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre , Didier; Padey , Pierryves; Payet , Jérôme; Sie , Marion; Jacquin , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Available on: http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol14/002/ecp57vol14_002.pdf; International audience; Solar thermal systems are an ecological way of providing domestic hot water. They are experiencing a rapid growth since the beginning of the last decade. This study characterizes the environmental performances of such installations with a life-cycle approach. The methodology is based on the application of the international standards of Life Cycle Assessment. Two types of systems are presented. Fir...

  16. Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of Local Wine Production and Consumption in Texas: Using LCA to Inspire Environmental Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Poupart, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The future viability of wine production is directly linked to its environmental impacts and conditions in which it is required to operate. The environmental impacts related to the production of a food product are directly influenced by the amount of materials, energy, waste and the emissions the product releases throughout the products life cycle. A life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework that can identify a food products relative environmental impacts and provides insights into the ...

  17. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  18. Reduction of environmental impact by FR cycle deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Atsushi; Nakai, Ryodai

    2005-03-01

    In this report radioactive waste generations in terms of disposal volume or disposal field equivalent, and the radioactive toxicity of HLW are evaluated to clarify the promising nuclear scenario for the sake of realization of sustainable society in 21st century. This analysis was conducted based on the outcomes of the mass flow evaluation tool 'FAMILY-21' which calculates a material balance for TRU in the following scenarios. 1) LWR once-through scenario, 2) Pu partly recycling in LWR scenario, 3) Pu full recycling in LWR scenario, 4) FBR deployment scenario, 5) Interim storage scenario. The result shows that the cumulative area of low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal field at 2150 in the FR cycle deployment scenario is 1.8 times larger than that in the LWR once-through scenario. The area of LLW disposal field at 2150 is a few km 2 in all the scenarios. In contrast, the cumulative area of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal field at 2150 in the FR cycle deployment scenario is less than half of that in the LWR once-through scenario. The area of HLW disposal field at 2150 is about 10 times of the area of LLW disposal field. Moreover, the FR deployment reduces the radioactive toxicity of HLW by U/TRU recycling, and shortens the period to decay under the natural Uranium toxicity level. Considering the area of radioactive waste disposal field and the radioactive toxicity of HLW, the advantage of the FR cycle deployment is indicated quantitatively from the viewpoint of the environmental burden reduction. (author)

  19. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  20. A study on the environmental impacts analysis with life cycle analysis of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. S.; Moon, K. H.; Youn, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    This Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) work was accomplished based on the ISO-14040 framework goal and scope definition, including life cycle inventory analysis, and life cycle impact assessment. For the selection of impact categories, resource use, global affairs, local affairs, and nuclear specific affair were considered. It was unexpected that environmental burdens are generally heavier in an electricity generation process than in upper stream and fabrication processes, except ODP and ETPs. It has been normally thought that environmental burden in upper steam would be heavier than those in other processes. This misconception could have originated from the ambiguous thought for end-of-pipe emissions and life cycle inventories

  1. Life Cycle Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Morten Als

    1996-01-01

    A precondition for environmentally conscious management is the awareness of the environmental impact potentials created by an industrial company. There is an obvious need for management tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criteria into the industrial decision making...... processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criteria from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. This paper introduces the concept of LCEM as an important element...... of the complete set of environmental objects in an industrial manufacturing company....

  2. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  3. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of environmental impacts of cellulosic ethanol using life cycle assessment with technological advances over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelzik, Paul F.; Zhang, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in quantifying the environmental impacts of materials, processes, products, or systems across their entire lifespan from creation to disposal. To evaluate the environmental impact of advancing technology, Life Cycle Assessment with Technological Advances over Time (LCA-TAT) incorporates technology improvements within the traditional LCA framework. In this paper, the LCA-TAT is applied to quantify the environmental impacts of ethanol production using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process as it improves over time. The data for the SSCF process are taken from the Aspen Plus ® simulation developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool (EFRAT) is used to calculate the fugitive emissions and SimaPro 7.1 software is used to quantify the environmental impacts of processes. The impact indicators of the processes are calculated using the Eco-indicator 95 method; impact categories analyzed include ozone layer depletion, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, winter smog, pesticides, greenhouse effect, acidification, and eutrophication. Based on the LCA-TAT results, it is found that removal of the continuous ion exchange step within the pretreatment area increases the environmental impact of the process. The main contributor to the increase in the environmental impact of the process is the heavy metal indicator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify major inputs and outputs that affect environmental impacts of the overall process. Based on this analysis it is observed that an increase in waste production and acid use have the greatest effect on the environmental impacts of the SSCF process. Comparing economic analysis with projected technological advances performed by NREL, the improvement in environmental impact was not matched by a concomitant improvement in economic performance. In

  5. Environmental impact analysis of batik natural dyes using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Sari, Diana Puspita; Purwanggono, Bambang; Hermawan, Andy Tri

    2017-11-01

    The use of natural dyes for batik dyeing is fewer than synthetic dyes because of its limitations in the application such complexity in manufacture and usage. For ease of use, natural dyes need to be processed into instant products. Extract of natural dyes are generally produced in liquid form that are less practical in long-term use. Dye powder obtained by drying the liquid extract using spray dryer. Production process of liquid natural dye is simpler and require less energy but need more energy for transporting. It is important to know which type of natural dyes should be produced based on their environmental impact. This research aim to compare environmental impact between liquid and powder natural dyes and also to find relative contribution of different stage in life cycle to total environmental impact. The appropriate method to analyze and compare the environmental impacts of powder and liquid natural dyes is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The "cradle to grave" approach used to assess environmental impact of powder and liquid natural dyes of Jalawe rind throughout production process of natural dyes, distribution and use of natural dyes for coloring batik. Results of this research show that powder natural dyes has lower environmental impacts than liquid natural dyes. It was found that distribution, mordanting and packaging of liquid dyes have big contribution to environmental impact.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the environmental and health impacts of nuclear and coal fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Chen Zhuzhou; Pan Ziqiang

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports on the environmental impacts and health effects of coal and nuclear fuel cycles in China. Data of interest for China are presented in a comparative manner; epidemiological investigations in Shanxi province indicate that the incidences of chronic pulmonary diseases and infant cogenital malformation were apparently increased over the fall-out areas of coal-fired power stations and coal mines. The authors outline the framework of a research project on environmental assessment of nuclear energy and other energy systems. The main features of the project are: environmental and health impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles, environmental impact assessment of coal transportation, cost accounting of nuclear and other energy sources, health risk assessment. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  7. Environmental Impacts of Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies: A Life Cycle Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-13

    All energy systems impact the environment. Much has been learned about these environmental impacts from decades of research. Through systematic reviews, meta-analysis and original research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been building knowledge about environmental impacts of both renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies. Evidence for greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use will be reviewed mostly from the perspective of life cycle assessment. Impacts from oil and natural gas systems will be highlighted. Areas of uncertainty and challenge will be discussed as suggestions for future research, as well as career opportunities in this field.

  8. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO{sub 2} emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  9. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO 2 emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  10. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  11. Potential health and environmental impacts attributable to the nuclear and coal fuel cycles: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the nuclear and coal fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation during the next decade. The author concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel fycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public for the balance of this century. The potential for large impacts exists in both fuel cycles, but the potential impacts associated with a runaway Greenhouse Effect from combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, cannot yet be reasonably quantified. Some of the potential environmental impacts of the coal fuel cycle cannot currently be realistically estimated, but those that can appear greater than those from the nuclear fuel cycle. 103 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  12. Life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impact of seven contemporary food waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2018-01-01

    Municipal food waste (FW) represents 35-45% of household residual waste in Australia, with the nation generating 1.6Tg annually. It is estimated that 91% of this FW ends up in landfill. This study used life cycle assessment to determine and compare the environmental impact of seven contemporary FW management systems for two real-life jurisdictions; incorporating the complete waste service and expanding the system to include inert and garden waste. Although, no system exhibited a best ranking across all impact categories, FW digestion based systems were all revealed to have a lower global warming potential than composting and landfilling systems. Mechanical biological treatment, anaerobic co-digestion, and home composting all demonstrated the lowest environmental impacts for two or more of the environmental impact categories assessed. The assessment included market and technological specific variables and uncertainties providing a framework for robust decision making at a municipality level. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  14. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Disinfection Technologies Used in Small Drinking Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher H; Shilling, Elizabeth G; Linden, Karl G; Cook, Sherri M

    2018-03-06

    Small drinking water systems serve a fifth of the U.S. population and rely heavily on disinfection. While chlorine disinfection is common, there is interest in minimizing chemical addition, especially due to carcinogenic disinfection byproducts and chlorine-resistant pathogens, by using ultraviolet technologies; however, the relative, broader environmental impacts of these technologies are not well established, especially in the context of small (environmental trade-offs between chlorine and ultraviolet disinfection via comparative life cycle assessment. The functional unit was the production of 1 m 3 of drinking water to U.S. Treatment included cartridge filtration followed by either chlorine disinfection or ultraviolet disinfection with chlorine residual addition. Environmental performance was evaluated for various chlorine contact zone materials (plastic, concrete, steel), ultraviolet validation factors (1.2 to 4.4), and electricity sources (renewable; U.S. average, high, and low impact grids). Performance was also evaluated when filtration and chlorine residual were not required. From a life cycle assessment perspective, replacing chlorine with UV was preferred only in a limited number of cases (i.e., high pumping pressure but filtration is not required). In all others, chlorine was environmentally preferred, although some contact zone materials and energy sources had an impact on the comparison. Utilities can use these data to inform their disinfection technology selection and operation to minimize environmental and human health impacts.

  15. How Many Environmental Impact Indicators Are Needed in the Evaluation of Product Life Cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Schipper, Aafke M; Hauck, Mara; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-04-05

    Numerous indicators are currently available for environmental impact assessments, especially in the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Because decision-making on the basis of hundreds of indicators simultaneously is unfeasible, a nonredundant key set of indicators representative of the overall environmental impact is needed. We aimed to find such a nonredundant set of indicators based on their mutual correlations. We have used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in combination with an optimization algorithm to find an optimal set of indicators out of 135 impact indicators calculated for 976 products from the ecoinvent database. The first four principal components covered 92% of the variance in product rankings, showing the potential for indicator reduction. The same amount of variance (92%) could be covered by a minimal set of six indicators, related to climate change, ozone depletion, the combined effects of acidification and eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and land use. In comparison, four commonly used resource footprints (energy, water, land, materials) together accounted for 84% of the variance in product rankings. We conclude that the plethora of environmental indicators can be reduced to a small key set, representing the major part of the variation in environmental impacts between product life cycles.

  16. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the third phase of an LCA study, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) where the life cycle inventory’s information on elementary flows is translated into environmental impact scores. In contrast to the three other LCA phases, LCIA is in practice largely automated...

  17. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of european non-ferro mining industries through life-cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    European mining industries are the vast industrial sector which contributes largely on their economy which constitutes of ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals industries. The non-ferro metals extraction and processing industries require focus of attention due to sustainability concerns as their manufacturing processes are highly energy intensive and impacts globally on environment. This paper analyses major environmental effects caused by European metal industries based on the life-cycle impact analysis technologies. This research work is the first work in considering the comparative environmental impact analysis of European non-ferro metal industries which will reveal their technological similarities and dissimilarities to assess their environmental loads. The life-cycle inventory datasets are collected from the EcoInvent database while the analysis is done using the CML baseline and ReCipe endpoint method using SimaPro software version 8.4. The CML and ReCipe method are chosen because they are specialized impact assessment methods for European continent. The impact categories outlined for discussion here are human health, global warming and ecotoxicity. The analysis results reveal that the gold industry is vulnerable for the environment due to waste emission and similar result retained by silver mines a little bit. But copper, lead, manganese and zinc mining processes and industries are environment friendly in terms of metal extraction technologies and waste emissions.

  19. Benchmarking Environmental Impacts of Peat Use for Electricity Generation in Ireland—A Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Murphy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of peat for energy generation accounts for approximately 4.1% of Ireland’s overall greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, with current levels of combustion resulting in the emission of 2.8 Mt of CO2 per annum. The aim of this research is to evaluate the life cycle environmental impacts of peat use for energy generation in Ireland, from peatland drainage and industrial extraction, to transportation, combustion, and subsequent after-use of the cutaway area, utilising Irish-specific emission factors. The environmental impacts considered are global warming potential, acidification potential, and eutrophication potential. In addition, the cumulative energy demand of the system is evaluated. Previous studies on the environmental impact of peat for energy in Ireland relied on default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC emission factors (EFs. This research utilises Irish-specific EFs and input data to reduce uncertainty associated with the use of default IPCC EFs, and finds that using default IPCC EFs overestimates the global warming potential when compared to Irish-specific EFs by approximately 2%. The greatest contribution to each of the environmental impacts considered arises from emissions generated during peat combustion, which accounts for approximately 95% of each of the environmental impact categories considered. Other stages of the life-cycle, such as impacts emanating from the peat extraction area, fossil fuel usage in harvesting and transportation machinery, and after-use of the cutaway area have much smaller effects on overall results. The transformation of cutaway peatlands to different after-use alternatives has the potential to mitigate some of the effects of peatland degradation and peat combustion.

  20. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  1. Life Cycle Environmental Impact of Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuina Chipindula

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The last decade witnessed a quantum increase in wind energy contribution to the U.S. renewable electricity mix. Although the overall environmental impact of wind energy is miniscule in comparison to fossil-fuel energy, the early stages of the wind energy life cycle have potential for a higher environmental impact. This study attempts to quantify the relative contribution of individual stages toward life cycle impacts by conducting a life cycle assessment with SimaPro® and the Impact 2002+ impact assessment method. A comparative analysis of individual stages at three locations, onshore, shallow-water, and deep-water, in Texas and the gulf coast indicates that material extraction/processing would be the dominant stage with an average impact contribution of 72% for onshore, 58% for shallow-water, and 82% for deep-water across the 15 midpoint impact categories. The payback times for CO2 and energy consumption range from 6 to 14 and 6 to 17 months, respectively, with onshore farms having shorter payback times. The greenhouse gas emissions (GHG were in the range of 5–7 gCO2eq/kWh for the onshore location, 6–9 CO2eq/kWh for the shallow-water location, and 6–8 CO2eq/kWh for the deep-water location. A sensitivity analysis of the material extraction/processing stage to the electricity sourcing stage indicates that replacement of lignite coal with natural gas or wind would lead to marginal improvements in midpoint impact categories.

  2. Embodied energy and environmental impacts of a biomass boiler: a life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Longo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 policy framework for climate and energy, proposed by the European Commission, aims towards the reduction of European greenhouse gas emissions by 40% in comparison to the 1990 level and to increase the share of renewable energy of at least the 27% of the European's energy consumption of 2030. The use of biomass as sustainable and renewable energy source may be a viable tool for achieving the above goals. However, renewable energy technologies are not totally clean because they cause energy and environmental impacts during their life cycle, and in particular they are responsible of air pollutant emissions. In this context, the paper assesses the energy and environmental impacts of a 46 kW biomass boiler by applying the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, as regulated by the international standards of series ISO 14040, ISO 21930 and EN 15804. The following life-cycle steps are included in the analysis: raw materials and energy supply, manufacturing, installation, operation, transport, and end-of-life. The results of the analysis, showing a life-cycle primary energy consumption of about 2,622 GJ and emissions of about 21,664 kg CO2eq, can be used as a basis for assessing the real advantages due to the use of biomass boilers for heating and hot water production.

  3. Life cycle environmental impacts of electricity from biogas produced by anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eFusi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts associated with the generation of electricity from biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of agricultural products and waste. Five real plants in Italy were considered, using maize silage, slurry and tomato waste as feedstocks and co-generating electricity and heat; the latter is not utilized. The results suggest that maize silage and the operation of anaerobic digesters, including open storage of digestate, are the main contributors to the impacts of biogas electricity. The system which uses animal slurry is the best option, except for the marine and terrestrial eco-toxicity. The results also suggest that it is environmentally better to have smaller plants using slurry and waste rather than bigger installations which require maize silage to operate efficiently. Electricity from biogas is environmentally more sustainable than grid electricity for seven out of 11 impacts considered. However, in comparison with natural gas, biogas electricity is worse for seven out of 11 impacts. It also has mostly higher impacts than other renewables, with a few exceptions, notably solar photovoltaics. Thus, for the AD systems and mesophilic operating conditions considered in this study, biogas electricity can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions relative to a fossil-intensive electricity mix; however, some other impacts increase. If mitigation of climate change is the main aim, other renewables have a greater potential to reduce GHG emissions. If, in addition to this, other impacts are considered, then hydro, wind and geothermal power are better alternatives to biogas electricity. However, utilization of heat would improve significantly its environmental sustainability, particularly global warming potential, summer smog and the depletion of abiotic resources and the ozone layer. Further improvements can be achieved by banning open digestate storage to prevent methane emissions and

  4. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Electricity from Biogas Produced by Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts associated with the generation of electricity from biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural products and waste. Five real plants in Italy were considered, using maize silage, slurry, and tomato waste as feedstocks and cogenerating electricity and heat; the latter is not utilized. The results suggest that maize silage and the operation of anaerobic digesters, including open storage of digestate, are the main contributors to the impacts of biogas electricity. The system that uses animal slurry is the best option, except for the marine and terrestrial ecotoxicity. The results also suggest that it is environmentally better to have smaller plants using slurry and waste rather than bigger installations, which require maize silage to operate efficiently. Electricity from biogas is environmentally more sustainable than grid electricity for seven out of 11 impacts considered. However, in comparison with natural gas, biogas electricity is worse for seven out of 11 impacts. It also has mostly higher impacts than other renewables, with a few exceptions, notably solar photovoltaics. Thus, for the AD systems and mesophilic operating conditions considered in this study, biogas electricity can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to a fossil-intensive electricity mix; however, some other impacts increase. If mitigation of climate change is the main aim, other renewables have a greater potential to reduce GHG emissions. If, in addition to this, other impacts are considered, then hydro, wind, and geothermal power are better alternatives to biogas electricity. However, utilization of heat would improve significantly its environmental sustainability, particularly global warming potential, summer smog, and the depletion of abiotic resources and the ozone layer. Further improvements can be achieved by banning open digestate storage to prevent methane emissions and regulating

  5. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Electricity from Biogas Produced by Anaerobic Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts associated with the generation of electricity from biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural products and waste. Five real plants in Italy were considered, using maize silage, slurry, and tomato waste as feedstocks and cogenerating electricity and heat; the latter is not utilized. The results suggest that maize silage and the operation of anaerobic digesters, including open storage of digestate, are the main contributors to the impacts of biogas electricity. The system that uses animal slurry is the best option, except for the marine and terrestrial ecotoxicity. The results also suggest that it is environmentally better to have smaller plants using slurry and waste rather than bigger installations, which require maize silage to operate efficiently. Electricity from biogas is environmentally more sustainable than grid electricity for seven out of 11 impacts considered. However, in comparison with natural gas, biogas electricity is worse for seven out of 11 impacts. It also has mostly higher impacts than other renewables, with a few exceptions, notably solar photovoltaics. Thus, for the AD systems and mesophilic operating conditions considered in this study, biogas electricity can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to a fossil-intensive electricity mix; however, some other impacts increase. If mitigation of climate change is the main aim, other renewables have a greater potential to reduce GHG emissions. If, in addition to this, other impacts are considered, then hydro, wind, and geothermal power are better alternatives to biogas electricity. However, utilization of heat would improve significantly its environmental sustainability, particularly global warming potential, summer smog, and the depletion of abiotic resources and the ozone layer. Further improvements can be achieved by banning open digestate storage to prevent methane emissions and regulating

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated, namely, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential (GWP, and ozone layer depletion (ODP. The building operation under use phase contributed the highest global warming potential and acidification with 2.41 × 103 kg CO2 eq and 1.10 × 101 kg SO2 eq, respectively. In the pre-use phase, concrete in the substructure has the most significant overall impact with cement as the primary raw material. The results showed that the residential building in Malaysia has a fairly high impact in GWP but lower in acidification and ODP compared to other studies.

  7. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided in the main document, and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided in the Appendices A-D. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  9. Life cycle water use of energy production and its environmental impacts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-12-17

    The energy sector is a major user of fresh water resources in China. We investigate the life cycle water withdrawals, consumptive water use, and wastewater discharge of China's energy sectors and their water-consumption-related environmental impacts, using a mixed-unit multiregional input-output (MRIO) model and life cycle impact assessment method (LCIA) based on the Eco-indicator 99 framework. Energy production is responsible for 61.4 billion m(3) water withdrawals, 10.8 billion m(3) water consumption, and 5.0 billion m(3) wastewater discharges in China, which are equivalent to 12.3%, 4.1% and 8.3% of the national totals, respectively. The most important feature of the energy-water nexus in China is the significantly uneven spatial distribution of consumptive water use and its corresponding environmental impacts caused by the geological discrepancy among fossil fuel resources, fresh water resources, and energy demand. More than half of energy-related water withdrawals occur in the east and south coastal regions. However, the arid north and northwest regions have much larger water consumption than the water abundant south region, and bear almost all environmental damages caused by consumptive water use.

  10. Energy systems. Tome 3: advanced cycles, low environmental impact innovative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, R.

    2009-01-01

    This third tome about energy systems completes the two previous ones by showing up advanced thermodynamical cycles, in particular having a low environmental impact, and by dealing with two other questions linked with the study of systems with a changing regime operation: - the time management of energy, with the use of thermal and pneumatic storage systems and time simulation (schedule for instance) of systems (solar energy type in particular); - the technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime operation studies. Because this last topic is particularly complex, new functionalities have been implemented mainly by using the external classes mechanism, which allows the user to freely personalize his models. This tome is illustrated with about 50 examples of cycles modelled with Thermoptim software. Content: foreword; 1 - generic external classes; 2 - advanced gas turbine cycles; 3 - evaporation-concentration, mechanical steam compression, desalination, hot gas drying; 4 - cryogenic cycles; 5 - electrochemical converters; 6 - global warming, CO 2 capture and sequestration; 7 - future nuclear reactors (coupled to Hirn and Brayton cycles); 8 - thermodynamic solar cycles; 10 - pneumatic and thermal storage; 11 - calculation of thermodynamic solar facilities; 12 - problem of technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime; 13 - exchangers modeling and parameterizing for the dimensioning and the non-nominal regime; 14 - modeling and parameterizing of volumetric compressors; 15 - modeling and parameterizing of turbo-compressors and turbines; 16 - identification methodology of component parameters; 17 - case studies. (J.S.)

  11. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  13. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion

  14. Evaluation of Environmental Impacts for Rice Agroecosystems using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoramdel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate life cycle assessment (LCA for rice agroecosystems based on mean of nitrogen fertilizer levels (less than 190, 190-200, 200-210, 210-220 and more than 220 kg N ha during 1999-2012, an experiment was conducted. Four steps includung goal definition and scoping, inventory analysis, life cycle impact assessment and integration and interpretation were computed. Functional unit was considered as one tone paddy. Impact categories were acidification, eutrophication in aquatic and tresstrial ecosystems and global warming. The results showed that the highest paddy yield was obtained 5.35 t.ha-1 in 190-200 kg N ha. The maximum aquatic eutrophication potential was computed for more than 220 kg N ha-1 with 0.79 PO4 equiv./t paddy. EcoX per one tone paddy and maximum environmental impacts was belonged to aquatic eutrophication (0.13 Eco-index per one tone paddy. It seems that system management including green manure, nitrogen fixing species and reduced tillage could be regarded to reduce problematic environmental impacts in rice production systems.

  15. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of substituting food wastes for traditional anaerobic digestion feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Camacho, María Natividad; Curry, Robin; Cromie, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In this study, life cycle assessment has been used to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts of substituting traditional anaerobic digestion (AD) feedstocks with food wastes. The results have demonstrated the avoided GHG emissions from substituting traditional AD feedstocks with food waste (avoided GHG-eq emissions of 163.33 CO 2 -eq). Additionally, the analysis has included environmental benefits of avoided landfilling of food wastes and digestate use as a substitute for synthetic fertilisers. The analysis of the GHG mitigation benefits of resource management/circular economy policies, namely, the mandating of a ban on the landfilling of food wastes, has demonstrated the very substantial GHG emission reduction that can be achieved by these policy options - 2151.04 kg CO 2 eq per MWh relative to UK Grid. In addition to the reduction in GHG emission, the utilization of food waste for AD instead of landfilling can manage the leakage of nutrients to water resources and eliminate eutrophication impacts which occur, typically as the result of field application. The results emphasise the benefits of using life-cycle thinking to underpin policy development and the implications for this are discussed with a particular focus on the analysis of policy development across the climate, renewable energy, resource management and bioeconomy nexus and recommendations made for future research priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Health Impacts of Nuclear Fuel Cycle With Emphasis to Monitoring and Radiological Safety Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.; El- Shanshory, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Security of energy supply and global climatic changes due to carbon dioxide gas emission of fissile fuels encouraged many developed countries for planning to introduce nuclear power for energy generation. Recently, nuclear power provides approximately 20 % of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of 0.5 Gt of C/year. This is a modest contribution to the reduction of global carbon emissions, 6.5 Gt C/year. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different reactor types (such as thermal and fast neutron reactors). Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of material used to immobilize different radionuclides. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant impact on carbon emissions. By the year 2050, carbon free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total energy production by a factor of three to ten. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/year, depending on the type of the carbon-based energy source. This paper reviews, discusses and evaluates the relation between the different types of fuel cycles and their environmental impacts. The paper investigates the environmental impacts of the nuclear fuel cycle compared to fossil fuel energy system.. It also reviews the impact of an expansion of this scale on the generation of nuclear waste and fissile material that might be diverted to the production of nuclear weapons. Investigations of different wastes fissile and fertile mater in the fuel cycle have been estimated. The paper provides an overview of the main contaminates in the waste streams and effluents from nuclear fuel cycle

  18. Environmental impacts of lighting technologies - Life cycle assessment and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welz, Tobias; Hischier, Roland; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2011-01-01

    With two regulations, 244/2009 and 245/2009, the European Commission recently put into practice the EuP Directive in the area of lighting devices, aiming to improve energy efficiency in the domestic lighting sector. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment comparison of four different lighting technologies: the tungsten lamp, the halogen lamp, the conventional fluorescent lamp and the compact fluorescent lamp. Taking advantage of the most up-to-date life cycle inventory database available (ecoinvent data version 2.01), all life cycle phases were assessed and the sensitivity of the results for varying assumptions analysed: different qualities of compact fluorescent lamps (production phase), different electricity mixes (use phase), and end-of-life scenarios for WEEE recycling versus municipal solid waste incineration (disposal phase). A functional unit of 'one hour of lighting' was defined and the environmental burdens for the whole life cycle for all four lamp types were calculated, showing a clearly lower impact for the two gas-discharge lamps, i.e. the fluorescent and the compact fluorescent lamp. Differences in the product quality of the compact fluorescent lamps reveal to have only a very small effect on the overall environmental performance of this lamp type; a decline of the actual life time of this lamp type doesn't result in a change of the rank order of the results of the here examined four lamp types. It was also shown that the environmental break-even point of the gas-discharge lamps is reached long before the end of their expected life-span. All in all, it can be concluded that a change from today's tungsten lamp technology to a low-energy-consuming technology such as the compact fluorescent lamp results in a substantial environmental benefit.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach C. Winfield

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs, are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.

  20. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  1. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  2. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France). Observation, Impacts, Energy Center

    2013-07-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  3. The monetary valuation of the health and environmental impacts of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Thieme, M.

    1997-01-01

    From 1991 to 1995, the ExternE project, part of the European Commission's (DG XII) 'Joule Programme', began the process of better integrating the health and environmental external costs of electricity generation, that were not traditionally included in the energy policy making process. During the first phase, the methodologies were developed to tackle the difficult task of evaluating and monetizing the impacts of the different energy systems. This was followed by national implementation projects to complete the assessment of all relevant fuel cycles analyses in the European Union member states. In this paper, the methodology and the results of the studies of the nuclear fuel cycle, developed by the French Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire (CEPN), are presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  5. Life Cycle Assessment to support the quantification of the environmental impacts of an event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, Sara; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Aguiari, Filippo; Scipioni, Antonio, E-mail: scipioni@unipd.it

    2017-03-15

    In recent years, several tools have been used to define and quantify the environmental impacts associated with an event; however, a lack of uniform approaches for conducting environmental evaluations has been revealed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, which is rarely applied to an event, can be an appropriate tool for calculating the environmental impacts associated with the assembly, disassembly, and use phase of an event analysing in particular the components and the displays used to establish the exhibits. The aim is also to include the issues reported by ISO 20121:2012 involving the interested parties that can be monitored but also affected by the event owner, namely the event organiser, the workforce and the supply chain. A small event held in Northern Italy was selected as the subject of the research. The results obtained show that the main contributors are energy consumption for lighting and heating and the use of aluminium materials, such as bars for supporting the spotlights, carpet and the electronic equipment. A sensitivity analysis for estimating the effects of the impact assessment method chosen has also been conducted and an uncertainty analysis has been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. This study highlighted the importance of the energy consumed by heating and lighting on the environmental implications, and indicated that the preparation and assembly should always be considered when quantifying the environmental profile of an event. - Highlights: • LCA methodology, developed for products and services, is applied to an event. • A small event held in Northern Italy is analysed. • The main contributors are energy consumption and the use of aluminium and carpet. • Exhibition site preparation can have important environmental implications. • This study demonstrates the importance of the assembly, disassembly and use phase.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment to support the quantification of the environmental impacts of an event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toniolo, Sara; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Aguiari, Filippo; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several tools have been used to define and quantify the environmental impacts associated with an event; however, a lack of uniform approaches for conducting environmental evaluations has been revealed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, which is rarely applied to an event, can be an appropriate tool for calculating the environmental impacts associated with the assembly, disassembly, and use phase of an event analysing in particular the components and the displays used to establish the exhibits. The aim is also to include the issues reported by ISO 20121:2012 involving the interested parties that can be monitored but also affected by the event owner, namely the event organiser, the workforce and the supply chain. A small event held in Northern Italy was selected as the subject of the research. The results obtained show that the main contributors are energy consumption for lighting and heating and the use of aluminium materials, such as bars for supporting the spotlights, carpet and the electronic equipment. A sensitivity analysis for estimating the effects of the impact assessment method chosen has also been conducted and an uncertainty analysis has been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. This study highlighted the importance of the energy consumed by heating and lighting on the environmental implications, and indicated that the preparation and assembly should always be considered when quantifying the environmental profile of an event. - Highlights: • LCA methodology, developed for products and services, is applied to an event. • A small event held in Northern Italy is analysed. • The main contributors are energy consumption and the use of aluminium and carpet. • Exhibition site preparation can have important environmental implications. • This study demonstrates the importance of the assembly, disassembly and use phase.

  7. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  8. Food losses, shelf life extension and environmental impact of a packaged cheesecake: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Michele Mario; Meleddu, Marta; Piga, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions. The environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two were examined in relation to a cheesecake that is normally packaged in low density polyethylene film and has a limited shelf life due to microbial growth. A shelf life extension was sought via application of the well-established modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technique. Samples for MAP (N 2 /CO 2 : 70/30) were placed inside multilayer gas barrier trays, which were then wrapped with a multilayer gas and water barrier film (i.e. AerPack packaging); control batches were packaged in gas barrier recycled polyethylene terephthalate (XrPet) trays and wrapped with a XrPet film. Samples were then stored at 20°C and inspected at regular intervals for chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Results show that the new packaging solution could considerably extend the shelf life of cheesecakes, thereby reducing food waste and decreasing the overall environmental impact. Moreover, the new packaging allows one to minimize transport costs and to generate economies of scale in manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 2: Life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Sue M; Arnold, J Cris

    2011-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains up to 25% plastics. Extraction of higher quality fractions for recycling leaves a mix of plastic types contaminated with other materials, requiring the least environmentally harmful disposal route. Data from trials of pyrolysis, described in part 1 of this paper set, were used in a life cycle assessment of the treatment of WEEE plastics. Various levels of recycling of the sorted fraction were considered, and pyrolysis was compared with incineration (with energy recovery) and landfill for disposal of the remainder. Increased recycling gave reduced environmental impact in almost all categories considered, although inefficient recycling decreased that benefit. Significant differences between pyrolysis, incineration and landfill were seen in climate change impacts, carbon sent to landfill, resources saved, and radiation. There was no overall "best" option. Landfill had the least short-term impact on climate change so could be a temporary means of sequestering carbon. Incineration left almost no carbon to landfill, but produced the most greenhouse gases. Pyrolysis or incineration saved most resources, with the balance depending on the source of electricity replaced by incineration. Pyrolysis emerged as a strong compromise candidate since the gases and oils produced could be used as fuels and so provided significant resource saving without high impact on climate change or landfill space.

  10. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  12. Life cycle environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Saeid Shahvarooghi; Asoodar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology. Inventory data for production of the inputs were taken from Ecoinvent, BUWAL 250, and IDMAT 2001 databases. The results revealed that in sugarcane cultivation process, electricity and trash burning were the most important contributors to all impact categories except OLD and TE. In industrial phase, natural gas had the highest contribution to the most impact categories. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for production of 1000 L molasses-based bioethanol was 1322.78 kg CO 2  eq. By comparing total GHG emissions from 1000 L bioethanol to gasoline, the net avoided GHG emissions came out at 503.17 kg CO 2  eq. According to results, it is clear that with increasing irrigation efficiency and improving performance of heating systems in industrial phase, environmental burdens would be significantly reduced.

  13. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bilec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, using a Monte-Carlo approach to incorporate uncertainty in power plant performance and LCA impacts. Our results show that, under the cost-optimal base case scenario, Brazil’s GHGs from electricity (excluding hydroelectric reservoir emissions rise 370% by 2040 relative to 2010, with the carbon intensity per MWh rising 100%. This rise would make Brazil’s carbon emissions targets difficult to meet without demand-side programs. Our results show a future electricity mix dominated by environmental tradeoffs in the use of large-scale renewables, questioning the use tropical hydropower and highlighting the need for additional work to assess and include ecosystem and social impacts, where information is currently sparse.

  14. STAKEHOLDER OPINION-BASED COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURKEY WITH SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Gorkem Uctug

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey were compared to those of Denmark, France, and Poland. The reason for selecting these particular countries for benchmarking was the fact that electricity generation in these countries is dominated mostly by a single source, that is wind, nuclear, and coal, respectively. OpenLCA software and European Life Cycle Database database were used, CML2001 method was employed. The life cycle analysis approach was from cradle to gr...

  15. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  16. Energy systems. Tome 3: advanced cycles, low environmental impact innovative systems; Systeme energetiques, TOME 3: cycles avances, systemes innovants a faible impact environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gicquel, R

    2009-07-01

    This third tome about energy systems completes the two previous ones by showing up advanced thermodynamical cycles, in particular having a low environmental impact, and by dealing with two other questions linked with the study of systems with a changing regime operation: - the time management of energy, with the use of thermal and pneumatic storage systems and time simulation (schedule for instance) of systems (solar energy type in particular); - the technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime operation studies. Because this last topic is particularly complex, new functionalities have been implemented mainly by using the external classes mechanism, which allows the user to freely personalize his models. This tome is illustrated with about 50 examples of cycles modelled with Thermoptim software. Content: foreword; 1 - generic external classes; 2 - advanced gas turbine cycles; 3 - evaporation-concentration, mechanical steam compression, desalination, hot gas drying; 4 - cryogenic cycles; 5 - electrochemical converters; 6 - global warming, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration; 7 - future nuclear reactors (coupled to Hirn and Brayton cycles); 8 - thermodynamic solar cycles; 10 - pneumatic and thermal storage; 11 - calculation of thermodynamic solar facilities; 12 - problem of technological dimensioning and non-nominal regime; 13 - exchangers modeling and parameterizing for the dimensioning and the non-nominal regime; 14 - modeling and parameterizing of volumetric compressors; 15 - modeling and parameterizing of turbo-compressors and turbines; 16 - identification methodology of component parameters; 17 - case studies. (J.S.)

  17. Life cycle environmental impacts of three products derived from wild-caught Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert W R; Tyedmers, Peter H

    2012-05-01

    Concern has been voiced in recent years regarding the environmental implications of the Antarctic krill fishery. Attention has focused primarily on ecological concerns, whereas other environmental aspects, including potentially globally problematic emissions and material and energy demands, have not been examined in detail. Here we apply life cycle assessment to measure the contributions of krill meal, oil, and omega-3 capsules to global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, eutrophication, energy use, and biotic resource use. Supply chains of one krill fishing and processing company, Aker BioMarine of Norway, were assessed. Impacts of krill products were found to be driven primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels onboard the fishing vessel and a transport/resupply vessel. Approximately 190 L of fuel are burned per tonne of raw krill landed, markedly higher than fuel inputs to reduction fisheries targeting other species. In contrast, the biotic resource use associated with extracting krill is relatively low compared to that of other reduction fisheries. Results of this study provide insight into the broader environmental implications of the krill fishery, comparisons between products derived from krill and other species targeted for reduction, opportunities for improving the fishery's performance, and a baseline against which to measure future performance. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    of less healthy foods (sugar-sweetened beverages). Further studies are needed to test whether this conclusion holds within a more comprehensive assessment of environmental and nutritional health impacts. Conclusions This case study provides the first quantitative epidemiology-based estimate......Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional...

  19. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  20. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  1. Integrative Application of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment to Environmental Impacts of Anthropogenic Pollutants at a Watershed Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaodan; Yu, Shen; Ma, Hwongwen

    2018-01-01

    Intense human activities have led to increasing deterioration of the watershed environment via pollutant discharge, which threatens human health and ecosystem function. To meet a need of comprehensive environmental impact/risk assessment for sustainable watershed development, a biogeochemical process-based life cycle assessment and risk assessment (RA) integration for pollutants aided by geographic information system is proposed in this study. The integration is to frame a conceptual protocol of "watershed life cycle assessment (WLCA) for pollutants". The proposed WLCA protocol consists of (1) geographic and environmental characterization mapping; (2) life cycle inventory analysis; (3) integration of life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) with RA via characterization factor of pollutant of interest; and (4) result analysis and interpretation. The WLCA protocol can visualize results of LCIA and RA spatially for the pollutants of interest, which might be useful for decision or policy makers for mitigating impacts of watershed development.

  2. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  3. Evaluation of Environmental Impacts for Rice Agroecosystems using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khoramdel; J. Shabahang; A. Amin Ghafouri

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate life cycle assessment (LCA) for rice agroecosystems based on mean of nitrogen fertilizer levels (less than 190, 190-200, 200-210, 210-220 and more than 220 kg N ha) during 1999-2012, an experiment was conducted. Four steps includung goal definition and scoping, inventory analysis, life cycle impact assessment and integration and interpretation were computed. Functional unit was considered as one tone paddy. Impact categories were acidification, eutrophication in aquatic a...

  4. Comparative study on life cycle environmental impact assessment of copper and aluminium cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Lin, Ling; Song, Dan; Guo, Huiting; Chen, Liang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Mei; Chen, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization in China, domestic demands for copper and aluminium resources increase continuously and the output of copper and aluminium minerals rises steadily. The output of copper in China increased from 0.6 million tons (metal quantity) in 2003 to 1.74 million tons (metal quantity) in 2014, and the output of bauxite increased from 21 million tons in 2006 to 59.21 million tons in 2014. In the meantime, the import of copper and aluminium minerals of China is also on a rise. The import of copper concentrate and bauxite increased from 4.94 million tons and 9.68 million tons in 2006 to 10.08 million tons and 70.75 million tons in 2013 respectively. Copper and aluminium resources are widely applied in fields such as construction, electrical and electronics, machinery manufacturing, and transportation, and serve as important material basis for the national economic and social development of China. Cable industry is a typical industry where copper and aluminium resources are widely used. In this paper, a product assessment model is built from the perspective of product life cycle. Based on CNLCD database, differences in environmental impacts of copper and aluminium cables are analyzed from aspects such as resource acquisition, product production, transportation, utilization, and resource recycling. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of products at different stages with different types of environmental impact are analyzed, so as to provide data support for cable industry in terms of product design and production, etc.

  5. Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

    2013-07-01

    FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

  6. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - a life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used...... on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry...... separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house...

  7. Environmental impacts of waste incineration in a regional system (Emilia Romagna, Italy) evaluated from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morselli, Luciano; De Robertis, Claudia; Luzi, Joseph; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano

    2008-01-01

    The advisability of using incineration, among the other technologies in Municipal Solid Waste Management, is still a debated issue. However, technological evolution in the field of waste incineration plants has strongly decreased their environmental impacts in the last years. A description of a regional situation in Northern Italy (Emilia Romagna Region) is here presented, to assess the impacts of incinerators by the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and to stress the most impacting steps in incineration process. The management of solid residues and heavy metal emission resulted the most important environmental concerns. Furthermore, a tentative comparison with the environmental impact of landfill disposal, for the same amount of waste, pointed out that incineration process must be considered environmentally preferable

  8. STAKEHOLDER OPINION-BASED COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN TURKEY WITH SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Uctug

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey were compared to those of Denmark, France, and Poland. The reason for selecting these particular countries for benchmarking was the fact that electricity generation in these countries is dominated mostly by a single source, that is wind, nuclear, and coal, respectively. OpenLCA software and European Life Cycle Database database were used, CML2001 method was employed. The life cycle analysis approach was from cradle to grave. The environmental impact criteria which were studied were acidification, global warming potential, depletion of abiotic resources – elements, depletion of abiotic resources - fossil fuels, eutrophication, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidation, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition to comparing the four countries in terms of these individual impacts, the overall environmental impact scores for all countries were calculated, once with equal weights for all impacts and once with weights which were determined by acquiring the stakeholder opinions via an online questionnaire. In both cases, Poland turned out to have the highest environmental impact due to the high share coal in the electricity mix, and Turkey came second after Poland. Equal-weight-analysis returned Denmark as the country with the cleanest electricity generation infrastructure whereas stakeholder-weight-analysis results showed that it was France who had the lowest environmental impact. This result was attributed to the high weight of global warming potential and France’s nuclear-energy-based electricity generation system has a very low global warming potential when compared to other three countries. It was concluded that the prospective addition of nuclear energy, solar energy, and clean coal technologies into Turkey’s electricity mix shall reduce the overall environmental impact of electricity

  9. Environmental impact of Funerals. Life cycle assessments of activities after life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This research investigates the environmental impact of funerals in the Netherlands. There are multiple reasons for this research. First of all, there is interest from civilians, the funeral sector and governmental authorities. Furthermore, there

  10. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  11. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This paper aims to make a sustainability assessment of different wine-growing scenarios located in Calabria (Southern Italy that combines conflicting insights, i.e., environmental and economic ones, by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC to identify the main hotspots and select the alternative scenarios closest to the ideal solution through the VIKOR multicriteria method. In particular, the latter allowed us to obtain synthetic indices for a two-dimensional sustainability assessment. Conventional practices associated to the espalier training system represent the best compromise from both environmental and economic points of view, due to the higher yield per hectare. The choices regarding Functional Unit (FU and indicators were shown to have a high influence on results.

  12. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Biofuels using Life-Cycle-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials and products that are made from biofeedstocks environmentally sustainable?” However, thinking holistically allows decision-makers to view the potential ‘cradle-to-grave’ environmental impacts of the engineered systems that ...

  13. Environmental impact efficiency of natural gas combined cycle power plants: A combined life cycle assessment and dynamic data envelopment analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gamboa, Mario; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2018-02-15

    The energy sector is still dominated by the use of fossil resources. In particular, natural gas represents the third most consumed resource, being a significant source of electricity in many countries. Since electricity production in natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants provides some benefits with respect to other non-renewable technologies, it is often seen as a transitional solution towards a future low‑carbon power generation system. However, given the environmental profile and operational variability of NGCC power plants, their eco-efficiency assessment is required. In this respect, this article uses a novel combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach in order to estimate -over the period 2010-2015- the environmental impact efficiencies of 20 NGCC power plants located in Spain. A three-step LCA+DEA method is applied, which involves data acquisition, calculation of environmental impacts through LCA, and the novel estimation of environmental impact efficiency (overall- and term-efficiency scores) through dynamic DEA. Although only 1 out of 20 NGCC power plants is found to be environmentally efficient, all plants show a relatively good environmental performance with overall eco-efficiency scores above 60%. Regarding individual periods, 2011 was -on average- the year with the highest environmental impact efficiency (95%), accounting for 5 efficient NGCC plants. In this respect, a link between high number of operating hours and high environmental impact efficiency is observed. Finally, preliminary environmental benchmarks are presented as an additional outcome in order to further support decision-makers in the path towards eco-efficiency in NGCC power plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts for urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, G.; Brattebo, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the urban water and wastewater network is directly related to both the quantity and the desired quality of the supplied water/treated wastewater - in other words, to the level of service provided to consumers. The level of service is dependent on not just the quantity and quality of the water but also the state of the infrastructure. Maintaining the infrastructure so as to be able to provide the required high level of service also demands energy. Apart from being a significant operational cost component, energy use also contributes to life-cycle environmental impacts. This paper studies the direct energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the water and wastewater system in Oslo; and presents a break-up among the different components of the network, of quantities, costs and environmental impacts. Owing to the diversity in the periods of time for which comprehensive data for the whole system are available, the study period is restricted to years 2000-2006. The per-capita annual consumption of energy in the operational phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh; and per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. The energy consumed on the upstream, per unit volume water supplied was around 0.4 kWh on average, while the corresponding value for the downstream was 0.8 kWh per cubic metre wastewater treated. The upstream Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged between 70 and 80 g per cubic metre of water supplied, about 22% greater on average than the corresponding specific GHG emissions on the downstream. -- Research highlights: → Annual per-capita energy consumption in the Operation and Maintenance (O and M) phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh. → Annual per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. → Upstream O and M energy consumption per

  15. Assessing environmental and health impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. Methodology and application to prospective actinides recycling options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzenne, Claude; Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Le Boulch, Denis

    2005-01-01

    French Industrial Companies: EDF, AREVA (COGEMA and FRAMATOME-ANP), associated with ANDRA, the organization in charge of the waste management in France, and Public Research Institute CEA and IRSN, involved in the nuclear waste management, have developed in collaboration a methodology intended to assess the environmental and health impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. This methodology, based on fuel cycle simulation, Life Cycle Analysis, and Impact Studies of each fuel cycle facilities, has been applied to a set of nuclear scenarios covering a very contrasted range of waste management options, in order to characterize the effect of High Level Waste transmutation, and to estimate to what extent it could contribute to reduce their overall impact on health and environment. The main conclusion we could draw from this study is that it is not possible to discriminate, as far as health and environmental impacts are concerned, nuclear scenarios implementing very different levels of HLW transmutation, representative of the whole range of available options. The main limitation of this work is due to the hypothesis of normal behavior of all fuel cycle facilities: main future improvement of the methodology would be to take the accidental risk into account. (author)

  16. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  17. Comparative analysis of methods for integrating various environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed several methods for integrating characterized environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment. Each of them, however, may lead to different results. This study presents internal and external normalization methods, weighting factors proposed by panel methods, and a monetary valuation based on an endpoint life cycle impact assessment method as the integration methods. Furthermore, this study investigates the differences among the integration methods and identifies the causes of the differences through a case study in which five elementary school buildings were used. As a result, when using internal normalization with weighting factors, the weighting factors had a significant influence on the total environmental impacts whereas the normalization had little influence on the total environmental impacts. When using external normalization with weighting factors, the normalization had more significant influence on the total environmental impacts than weighing factors. Due to such differences, the ranking of the five buildings varied depending on the integration methods. The ranking calculated by the monetary valuation method was significantly different from that calculated by the normalization and weighting process. The results aid decision makers in understanding the differences among these integration methods, and, finally, help them select the method most appropriate for the goal at hand.

  18. Comparative analysis of methods for integrating various environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Previous studies have proposed several methods for integrating characterized environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment. Each of them, however, may lead to different results. This study presents internal and external normalization methods, weighting factors proposed by panel methods, and a monetary valuation based on an endpoint life cycle impact assessment method as the integration methods. Furthermore, this study investigates the differences among the integration methods and identifies the causes of the differences through a case study in which five elementary school buildings were used. As a result, when using internal normalization with weighting factors, the weighting factors had a significant influence on the total environmental impacts whereas the normalization had little influence on the total environmental impacts. When using external normalization with weighting factors, the normalization had more significant influence on the total environmental impacts than weighing factors. Due to such differences, the ranking of the five buildings varied depending on the integration methods. The ranking calculated by the monetary valuation method was significantly different from that calculated by the normalization and weighting process. The results aid decision makers in understanding the differences among these integration methods, and, finally, help them select the method most appropriate for the goal at hand.

  19. Incorporating lean thinking and life cycle assessment to reduce environmental impacts of plastic injection moulded products

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Leong, Jun; Vichare, Parag

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, environmental footprint of the product manufacture has emerged as an important public concern, causing manufacturers to re-assess their product’s environmental impacts. Responding to global outcry on global warming, world leaders have agreed to limit global temperature rise to less than 2°C above the temperature in pre-industrial times. As a result, governments and industrial leaders around the world have proposed a roadmap for 80% emissions reduction by 2050. The aim of ...

  20. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Oekobilanz von Energieprodukten: Oekologische Bewertung von Biotreibstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  1. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yelin Deng; Yajun Tian

    2015-01-01

    The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70%) and French flax fibre (30%). Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that...

  2. Recommendations for Life Cycle Impact Assessment in the European context - based on existing environmental impact assessment models and factors (International Reference Life Cycle Data System - ILCD handbook)

    OpenAIRE

    HAUSCHILD Michael; GOEDKOOP Mark; GUINEE Jerome; HEIJUNGS Reinout; HUIJBREGTS Mark; JOLLIET Olivier; MARGNI Manuele; DE SCHRYVER An

    2010-01-01

    To achieve more sustainable production and consumption patterns, we must consider the environmental implications of the whole supply-chain of products, both goods and services, their use, and waste management, i.e. their entire life cycle from ¿cradle to grave¿. In the Communication on Integrated Product Policy (IPP), (EC, 2003), the European Commission committed to produce a handbook on best practice in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Action ...

  3. Integration of artificial intelligence methods and life cycle assessment to predict energy output and environmental impacts of paddy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Chau, Kwok-Wing

    2018-08-01

    Prediction of agricultural energy output and environmental impacts play important role in energy management and conservation of environment as it can help us to evaluate agricultural energy efficiency, conduct crops production system commissioning, and detect and diagnose faults of crop production system. Agricultural energy output and environmental impacts can be readily predicted by artificial intelligence (AI), owing to the ease of use and adaptability to seek optimal solutions in a rapid manner as well as the use of historical data to predict future agricultural energy use pattern under constraints. This paper conducts energy output and environmental impact prediction of paddy production in Guilan province, Iran based on two AI methods, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The amounts of energy input and output are 51,585.61MJkg -1 and 66,112.94MJkg -1 , respectively, in paddy production. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental impacts of paddy production. Results show that, in paddy production, in-farm emission is a hotspot in global warming, acidification and eutrophication impact categories. ANN model with 12-6-8-1 structure is selected as the best one for predicting energy output. The correlation coefficient (R) varies from 0.524 to 0.999 in training for energy input and environmental impacts in ANN models. ANFIS model is developed based on a hybrid learning algorithm, with R for predicting output energy being 0.860 and, for environmental impacts, varying from 0.944 to 0.997. Results indicate that the multi-level ANFIS is a useful tool to managers for large-scale planning in forecasting energy output and environmental indices of agricultural production systems owing to its higher speed of computation processes compared to ANN model, despite ANN's higher accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental impact estimation of the sugar cane cultivation, using the methodology of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra D, Juan Felipe; Vargas V, Olga Rocio

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the results of a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for traditional and organic cultivation of sugar cane in Valle del Cauca. Eco-scores obtained for each case, shown that organic cultivation is less harmful, in environmental terms, than traditional one. In the last one, the biomass burning process, made to facilitate the crop, is the principal environmental problem, while in the first one, it is the use of pollinaza, an organic fertilizer based on these results recommendations were made to obtain significant reduction in the impact of the sugar cane cultivation

  5. Environmental impact of the management of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings; introduction; present and future management of radioactive wastes (origin and characteristics of radioactive wastes; present and possible future processes for management); production of waste following present management methods (quantities produced by one reactor, and estimate of global production; estimate of cumulative global production to the year 2000); alternative management processes; environmental impacts of present management methods (pollution; land use; natural resources; socio-economic constraints); impacts of effluent release (radiation doses due to various isotopes, at different distances and over various periods); global impacts; impacts of radioactive waste processing, storing and disposal (various methods discussed); detailed consideration of underground disposal (migration of radionuclides through geologic formations); disposal of wastes from decommissioning of nuclear installations (reactors and reprocessing plants); mining wastes; alternative processes; conclusions. (U.K.)

  6. Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshyar, E.

    2017-07-01

    Current intensive grain crops production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of barley production. This study was undertaken to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production. Additionally, three alternative scenarios were examined for irrigated barley fields including conservation tillage and biomass utilization policies. The findings showed that around 25 GJ/ha energy is needed in order to produce 2300 kg/ha irrigated barley and 13 GJ/ha for 1100 kg/ha rain-fed barley. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results indicated that irrigated farms had more environmental impacts than rain-fed farms. Electricity generation and consumption had the highest effect on the abiotic depletion potential, human toxicity potential, freshwater and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. However, alternative scenarios revealed that using soil conservation tillage systems and biomass consumption vs. gas for electricity generation at power plants can significantly mitigate environmental impacts of irrigated barley production similar to the rain-fed conditions while higher yield is obtained.

  7. Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houshyar, E.

    2017-01-01

    Current intensive grain crops production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of barley production. This study was undertaken to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production. Additionally, three alternative scenarios were examined for irrigated barley fields including conservation tillage and biomass utilization policies. The findings showed that around 25 GJ/ha energy is needed in order to produce 2300 kg/ha irrigated barley and 13 GJ/ha for 1100 kg/ha rain-fed barley. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results indicated that irrigated farms had more environmental impacts than rain-fed farms. Electricity generation and consumption had the highest effect on the abiotic depletion potential, human toxicity potential, freshwater and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. However, alternative scenarios revealed that using soil conservation tillage systems and biomass consumption vs. gas for electricity generation at power plants can significantly mitigate environmental impacts of irrigated barley production similar to the rain-fed conditions while higher yield is obtained.

  8. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70% and French flax fibre (30%. Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that flax mat-PP has 0.8–2 times higher environmental impact values than the glass mat-PP in most environmental impact categories over the production and end-of-life (EoL phases. For purpose of providing potential trajectories of marginal flax fibre supply, additional scenarios: the “all French fibre”, and “all Chinese fibre” are evaluated formulating the lower and upper boundaries in terms of environmental impact change, respectively. A “the attributional fibre supply mix” scenario is supplied as well. All of these scenarios are useful for policy analysis.

  9. Exergic, economic and environmental impacts of natural gas and diesel in operation of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi Khoshkar Vandani, Amin; Joda, Fatemeh; Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of natural gas and diesel on the power plant performance. • Exergy, economic and environmental evaluation of a combined cycle power plant. • Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to perform the environmental evaluation. • Optimizing the power plant in terms of exergy and economic. • Better performance of natural gas with respect to diesel. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) play an important role in electricity production throughout the world. Their energy efficiency is relatively high and their production rates of greenhouse gases are considerably low. In a country like Iran with huge oil and gas resources, most CCPP’s use natural gas as primary fuel and diesel as secondary fuel. In this study, effect of using diesel instead of natural gas for a selected power plant will be investigated in terms of exergy, economic and environmental impacts. The environmental evaluation is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the second step, the operation of the plant will be optimized using exergy and economic objective functions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the plant with natural gas as fuel is equal to 43.11%, while this efficiency with diesel will be 42.03%. Furthermore, the annual cost of plant using diesel is twice as that of plant using natural gas. Finally, diesel utilization leads to more contaminants production. Thus, environmental effects of diesel are much higher than that of natural gas. The optimization results demonstrate that in case of natural gas, exergy efficiency and annual cost of the power plant improve 2.34% and 4.99%, respectively. While these improvements for diesel are 2.36% and 1.97%.

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon Tarpani, Raphael Ricardo; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-06-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are of increasing interest because of their ecotoxicological properties and environmental impacts. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are the main pathway for their release into freshwaters due to the inefficiency of conventional WWTPs in removing many of these contaminants from effluents. Therefore, different advanced effluent treatment techniques have been proposed for their treatment. However, it is not known at present how effective these treatment methods are and whether on a life cycle basis they cause other environmental impacts which may outweigh the benefits of the treatment. In an effort to provide an insight into this question, this paper considers life cycle environmental impacts of the following advanced treatment techniques aimed at reducing freshwater ecotoxicity potential of PPCPs: granular activated carbon (GAC), nanofiltration (NF), solar photo-Fenton (SPF) and ozonation. The results suggest that on average NF has the lowest impacts for 13 out of 18 categories considered. GAC is the best alternative for five impacts, including metals and water depletion, but it has the highest marine eutrophication. SPF and ozonation are the least sustainable for eight impacts, including ecotoxicity and climate change. GAC and NF are also more efficient in treating heavy metals while avoiding generation of harmful by-products during the treatment, thus being more suitable for potable reuse of wastewater. However, releasing the effluent without advanced treatment to agricultural land achieves a much higher reduction of freshwater ecotoxicity than treating it by any of the advanced treatments and releasing to the environment. Therefore, the use of advanced effluent treatment for agricultural purposes is not recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of life cycle assessment to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the management of sludge and biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Karina Cubas; Aisse, Miguel Mansur; Possetti, Gustavo Rafael Collere; Prado, Marcelo Real

    2018-05-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors used in sewage treatment generate two by-products that can be reused: sludge and biogas. At the present time in Brazil, most of this resulting sludge is disposed of in sanitary landfills, while biogas is commonly burned off in low-efficiency flares. The aim of the present study was to use life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impacts from four different treatment and final destination scenarios for the main by-products of wastewater treatment plants. The baseline scenario, in which the sludge was sanitized using prolonged alkaline stabilization and, subsequently, directed toward agricultural applications and the biogas destroyed in open burners, had the most impact in the categories of global warming, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and human non-carcinogenic toxicity. The scenario in which heat resulting from biogas combustion is used to dry the sludge showed significant improvements over the baseline scenario in all the evaluated impact categories. The recovery of heat from biogas combustion decreased significantly the environmental impact associated with global warming. The combustion of dried sludge is another alternative to improve the sludge management. Despite the reduction of sludge volume to ash, there are environmental impacts inherent to ozone formation and terrestrial acidification.

  12. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF EDITIONS OF BOOKS KEPT IN ARCHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Onici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized foruse and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is acollection of books.This paper presents studies about the importance of environmental conditions on the life cycle of editions of books keptin archives and libraries. Under which it was established that environmental conditions do not meet current standards,which led to the development of microorganisms on the surface both editions of books and libraries as reviewed.Manuscripts and printed books are the part of national and universal cultural heritage, along with other spiritualvalues that define spirituality of a nation.Library policy scope has evolved and continues to develop within the meaning of complication because of a range offactors: social, economic, political, etc.. Governmental strategies and decisions of public authorities are deeplydetermined by convergence, globalization and cooperation undoubtedly lead to regrouping library institutions invarious areas: computerization, trade, digitization, etc.

  13. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle and application of compartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joon Hong; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Kim, Chang Lak

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports the preliminary results obtained by VR-KHNP code, developed by joint collaboration between UC Berkeley and KHNP. The code has been developed for the LLW repository performance assessment. It can evaluate quantitatively the mass transfer rates from the repository to the far field, and to the biosphere, and the spatial distribution of radionuclide mass, both as a function of time. With the code, the radionuclide migration has been calculated, and the results have been successfully benchmarked against those from SAGE. Effect of repository configuration in relation to the water flow has been investigated. The numerical results show that the effects of water flow direction on the radionuclide release rates to the biosphere are not significant. Based on the mass in the biosphere, the environmental impact of the repository has also been evaluated. The result shows that the impact is significantly smaller than that from HLW repository or from mill tailings and depleted uranium

  14. Assessing the environmental impacts of soil compaction in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Franziska; Sonderegger, Thomas; Bayer, Peter; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2018-07-15

    Maintaining biotic capacity is of key importance with regard to global food and biomass provision. One reason for productivity loss is soil compaction. In this paper, we use a statistical empirical model to assess long-term yield losses through soil compaction in a regionalized manner, with global coverage and for different agricultural production systems. To facilitate the application of the model, we provide an extensive dataset including crop production data (with 81 crops and corresponding production systems), related machinery application, as well as regionalized soil texture and soil moisture data. Yield loss is modeled for different levels of soil depth (0-25cm, 25-40cm and >40cm depth). This is of particular relevance since compaction in topsoil is classified as reversible in the short term (approximately four years), while recovery of subsoil layers takes much longer. We derive characterization factors quantifying the future average annual yield loss as a fraction of the current yield for 100years and applicable in Life Cycle Assessment studies of agricultural production. The results show that crops requiring enhanced machinery inputs, such as potatoes, have a major influence on soil compaction and yield losses, while differences between mechanized production systems (organic and integrated production) are small. The spatial variations of soil moisture and clay content are reflected in the results showing global hotspot regions especially susceptible to soil compaction, e.g. the South of Brazil, the Caribbean Islands, Central Africa, and the Maharashtra district of India. The impacts of soil compaction can be substantial, with highest annual yield losses in the range of 0.5% (95% percentile) due to one year of potato production (cumulated over 100y this corresponds to a one-time loss of 50% of the present yield). These modeling results demonstrate the necessity for including soil compaction effects in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Copyright © 2018

  15. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  17. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.

  18. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  19. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO x emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO 2 -eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO 2 -eq, with 294 kg CO 2 -eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO x process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  20. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  1. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  2. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr; Ha, Jikwang, E-mail: wlrhkd29@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  3. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...... methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel...

  5. Environmental impacts of future low-carbon electricity systems: Detailed life cycle assessment of a Danish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.; Simonsen, Christian G.; Astrup, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of a power system with a high share of wind power assessed. • LCI data for electricity supply in Denmark in 2010 and 2030 (low carbon) provided. • Focus on GHG reduction may lead to increase in other impact categories. • Imported biomass might cause high GHG emissions form Land Use Change. • Need for guidelines for LCA of electricity supply (cogeneration and power import). - Abstract: The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed. The results showed that consumption of fossil resources and global warming impacts from the Danish electricity sector could be reduced significantly compared with 2010. Nevertheless, a reduction in GHG may be at the expense of other environmental impacts, such as the increased depletion of abiotic resources. Moreover, the results were very dependent upon biomass origin: when agricultural land was affected by biomass import, and land use changes and transportation were included, GHG emissions from imported biomass were comparable to those from fossil fuels. The results were significantly influenced by the modeling approach regarding the import of electricity, biomass provision, and the allocation between heat and power in cogeneration plants. As the importance of all three aspects is likely to increase in the future, transparency in LCA modeling is critical. Characterized impacts for Danish power plants in 2010 and 2030 (including corresponding

  6. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  7. Environmental impacts of future low-carbon electricity systems: Detailed life cycle assessment of a Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.

    2014-01-01

    by the modeling approach regarding the import of electricity, biomass provision, and the allocation between heat and power in cogeneration plants. As the importance of all three aspects is likely to increase in the future, transparency in LCA modeling is critical. Characterized impacts for Danish power plants......The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark...... was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed...

  8. Environmental Assessment for Potential Impacts of Ocean CO2 Storage on Marine Biogeochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.; Shibamoto, Y.; Harada, K.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean CO2 storage that actively utilizes the ocean potential to dissolve extremely large amounts of CO2 is a useful option with the intent of diminishing atmospheric CO2 concentration. CO2 storage into sub-seabed geological formations is also considered as the option which has been already put to practical reconnaissance in some projects. Direct release of CO2 in the ocean storage and potential CO2 leakage from geological formations into the bottom water can alter carbonate system as well as pH of seawater. It is essential to examine to what direction and extent chemistry change of seawater induced by CO2 can affect the marine environments. Previous studies have shown direct and acute effects by increasing CO2 concentrations on physiology of marine organisms. It is also a serious concern that chemistry change can affect the rates of chemical, biochemical and microbial processes in seawater resulting in significant influences on marine biogeochemical cycles of the bioelements including carbon, nutrients and trace metals. We, AIST, have conducted a series of basic researches to assess the potential impacts of ocean CO2 storage on marine biogeochemical processes including CaCO3 dissolution, and bacterial and enzymatic decomposition of organic matter. By laboratory experiments using a special high pressure apparatus, the improved empirical equation was obtained for CaCO3 dissolution rate in the high CO2 concentrations. Based on the experimentally obtained kinetics with a numerical simulation for a practical scenario of oceanic CO2 sequestration where 50 Mton CO2 per year is continuously injected to 1,000-2,500 m depth within 100 x 333 km area for 30 years, we could illustrate precise 3-D maps for the predicted distributions of the saturation depth of CaCO3, in situ Ω value and CaCO3 dissolution rate in the western North Pacific. The result showed no significant change in the bathypelagic CaCO3 flux due to chemistry change induced by ocean CO2 sequestration. Both

  9. Environmental impacts and resource use of milk production on the North China Plain, based on life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Ledgard, Stewart; Luo, Jiafa; Guo, Yongqin; Zhao, Zhanqin; Guo, Liang; Liu, Song; Zhang, Nannan; Duan, Xueqin; Ma, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Life cycle assessment methodology was used to quantify the environmental impacts and resource use of milk production on the North China Plain, the largest milk production area in China. Variation in environmental burden caused by cow productivity was evaluated, as well as scenario analysis of the effects of improvement practices. The results indicated that the average environmental impact potential and resource use for producing 1kg of fat and protein corrected milk was 1.34kgCO 2 eq., 9.27gPO 4 3- eq., 19.5gSO 2 eq., 4.91MJ, 1.83m 2 and 266L for global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP), non-renewable energy use (NREU), land use (LU) and blue water use (BWU; i.e. water withdrawal), respectively. Feed production was a significant determinant of GWP, NREU, LU and BWU, while AP and EP were mainly affected by manure management. Scenario analysis showed that reducing use of concentrates and substituting with alfalfa hay decreased GWP, EP, AP, NREU and LU (by 1.0%-5.5%), but caused a significant increase of BWU (by 17.2%). Using imported soybean instead of locally-grown soybean decreased LU by 2.6%, but significantly increased GWP and NREU by 20% and 6.9%, respectively. There was no single perfect manure management system, with variable effects from different management practices. The environmental burden shifting observed in this study illustrates the importance of assessing a wide range of impact categories instead of single or limited indicators for formulating environmental policies, and the necessity of combining multiple measures to decrease the environmental burden. For the North China Plain, improving milking cow productivity and herd structure (i.e. increased proportion of milking cows), combining various manure management systems, and encouraging dairy farmers to return manure to nearby crop lands are promising measures to decrease multiple environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Investigation of the environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment plants through a Life Cycle Assessment software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Ferrara, C

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the total and per capita environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment in the function of the population equivalent (PE) with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach using the processes of the Ecoinvent 2.2 database available in the software tool SimaPro v.7.3. Besides the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the study also considers the sewerage system. The obtained results confirm that there is a 'scale factor' for the wastewater collection and treatment even in environmental terms, in addition to the well-known scale factor in terms of management costs. Thus, the more the treatment plant size is, the less the per capita environmental impacts are. However, the Ecoinvent 2.2 database does not contain information about treatment systems with a capacity lower than 30 PE. Nevertheless, worldwide there are many sparsely populated areas, where it is not convenient to realize a unique centralized WWTP. Therefore, it would be very important to conduct an LCA study in order to compare alternative on-site small-scale systems with treatment capacity of few PE.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of olive production using Life Cycle Assessment: A case study, Tarom county, Zanjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ehsan khodarezaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Horticulture industry consumes a significant part of the energy and materials and release pollutants into the environment. Olive (Olea europaea L. is one of the most cultivated plants in Iran, so the environmental impact assessment of these production systems is important. However, the consequences and environmental impacts of olive production systems have not been studied in Iran. Tarom County is one of the most important olive production centers in Iran. So, this study is performed to evaluate environmental impacts of olive production in Tarom region. Materials and Methods In this study, the LCA approach is used to assessment of environmental impacts of olive production. This study is conducted in Tarom County in 2012-2013. The aim of this study was to determine hot spots of olive life cycle and offering appropriate Solutions to reduce the related environmental impact in Tarom region. In this research, one ton of Olives was considered as functional unit. System boundary is defined as “from cradle to farm gate”. Primary data were collected through observation, sampling and questionnaires completing method. The climate and soil data were collected from the "Olive Research Center" located in the Tarom County. Data for the production of used inputs (Secondary data were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database, and SimaPro software was employed to analyze primary data. Impact categories were analyzed based on CML 2 baseline 2000 V2.04/ world, 1995/ characterization and SimaPro 7.2 software. CML 2 baseline 2000. Results and Discussion The obtained data from inventory are presented in the table 1. These data includes Inputs and outputs of olive production system in Tarom olive systems. Table 1- Inputs and outputs of olive production system (per 1 ton olive. Amount\tUnit\tInputs 48.04\tkg\tDiesel fuel Chemical fertilizer 62.8\tkg\tUrea 53.9\tkg\tTriple Super Phosphate 46.4\tkg\tPotassium sulphate 5.6\tkg\tPesticides 1222\tkg

  12. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication

  13. Life cycle environmental impacts of domestic solar water heaters in Turkey: The effect of different climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uctug, Fehmi Gorkem; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-05-01

    Solar water heating (SWH) systems could help reduce environmental impacts from energy use but their performance and impacts depend on the climate. This paper considers how these vary for residential SWH across four different climatic regions in Turkey, ranging from hot to cold climates. Life cycle assessment was used for these purposes. The results suggest that in the hotter regions, the impacts of SWH are 1.5-2 times lower than those of natural gas boilers. A similar trend was observed in the two colder regions except for acidification, which was four times higher than that of the boiler. The raw materials and electricity required for the manufacturing of the systems were found to be the most important contributors to the impacts. Recycling the major components instead of landfilling reduced human toxicity potential by 50% but had only a small effect (5%) on the other impacts. The impacts were highly sensitive to the type of material used for the construction of the hot storage tank, but were not affected by transport and end-of life recycling. The only exception to the latter is human toxicity potential which decreased significantly with greater recycling. Extrapolating the results at the national level showed that SWH systems could reduce the annual greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey by 790kt CO 2 -eq. and would save the economy $162.5millionperyear through the avoided imports of natural gas. All other impacts would also be reduced significantly (3-32 times), except for acidification which would double. Therefore, SWH systems should be deployed more extensively in Turkey but government incentives may be needed to stimulate the uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products : Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an

  15. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; S.A. Bowe

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Showing wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using Life-Cycle Inventory...

  16. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    ), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic...

  17. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Osiris: an object oriented software tool for modelling the logistics, economics and environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millington, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Osiris is a general purpose software tool which has been developed for performing studies of material usage, economics and environmental impacts associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. It is particularly suited to the analysis of complex multiple recycling scenarios featuring combinations of both existing and new reactor systems. A discrete event model is used to represent the movement of material batches around the fuel cycle due to the operations and timings of process plants. Nuclear materials are represented by state vectors, which undergo compositional changes due to radioactive decay and irradiation. A library of generic plant types is provided, which are declared and configured in order to represent specific plants. Reactors, front-end and back-end process plants, buffers, stores and material sources can be modelled. Fuel cycle scenarios are then constructed by defining the material flow paths between the plants. The plant parameters and flow paths can be altered dynamically over the course of a scenario in order to represent changes in recycling strategies and retirement and replacement of process plants. Discounted electricity costs can be determined by assigning unit costs to all capital investments, processes and raw materials. Radiotoxicity levels of waste streams can also be evaluated. The software was developed in C++ using objected oriented analysis and design methods. The use of abstraction and inheritance have enabled an open-ended fuel cycle modelling environment to be established, into which new reactor or plant models can readily be integrated. An overview of the object model, numerical modelling assumptions and the design and implementation of the software is presented. (author)

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Gao; Zach C. Winfield

    2012-01-01

    Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles:...

  20. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  1. Environmental impacts on the diversity of methane-cycling microbes and their resultant function

    OpenAIRE

    Emma eAronson; Emma eAronson; Steven eAllison; Steven eAllison; Brent R Helliker

    2013-01-01

    Methane is an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas that is produced and consumed in soils by microorganisms responding to micro-environmental conditions. Current estimates show that soil consumption accounts for 5-15% of methane removed from the atmosphere on an annual basis. Recent variability in atmospheric methane concentrations has called into question the reliability of estimates of methane consumption and call for novel approaches in order to predict future atmospheric methane trends....

  2. Environmental impacts on the diversity of methane-cycling microbes and their resultant function

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, Emma L; Allison, Steven D; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-01-01

    Methane is an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas that is produced and consumed in soils by microorganisms responding to micro-environmental conditions. Current estimates show that soil consumption accounts for 5?15% of methane removed from the atmosphere on an annual basis. Recent variability in atmospheric methane concentrations has called into question the reliability of estimates of methane consumption and calls for novel approaches in order to predict future atmospheric methane trends...

  3. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  4. Environmental impact from wet plumes in combined-cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, A.; Carnevale, E.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, we have carried out an investigation into some of the environmental effects of high energy efficiency power generation plants that produce electrical and thermal energy. The use of natural gas fuels may represent a success for the replacement of liquid or solid fuels, because of drastic reductions of sulphur oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates. An additional problem involves the study of the effects of vapour emissions from the combustion of fuels and from the cooling towers of the condenser device. Particularly, the problem of the analysis of vapour and drift diffusion, because of emissions from the wet cooling devices, is faced in terms of modelling the plume rise and mass loss of drift in the atmosphere, because of evaporation, in order to predict the increment of rain and the humidity effect. The results obtained show that the amount of water emitted in the forms of vapour and drift, in terms of local scale diffusion, do not create problems of high increments of relative humidity or dangerous rainfall phenomena; while the effects of vapour emission are shown as insignificant problems because of the deposition of a sensible amount of drift, correlated with the type of of separator devices chosen can appear, but only on very limited areas. (author)

  5. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  6. A study on the environmental impact analysis with life cycle assessment of O and M in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. S.; Kim, S. S.; Yoon, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. Z.

    2002-01-01

    In the modern times, characterized by mass-consumption, technologies have to evaluated not only in terms of usefulness but also in the aspects of resources exhaustion and environmental destruction. This study quantified environmental burdens from the stage of operation and maintenance in selected nuclear power plants. Four factors are evaluated, such as green house gas, hydrosphere, atmosphere and resources exhaustion for the selected PWR and PHWR with life cycle assessment(LCA)

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  8. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption

  9. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  10. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 10. Environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethington, J.A.; Razvi, J.; Grier, C.; Myrick, T.

    1981-12-01

    This educational module is devoted to the environmental considerations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Eight chapters cover: National Environmental Policy Act; environmental impact statements; environmental survey of the uranium fuel cycle; the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant; transport mechanisms; radiological hazards in uranium mining and milling operations; radiological hazards of uranium mill tailings; and the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel

  11. Quantifying the environmental impact of a Li-rich high-capacity cathode material in electric vehicles via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Yu, Yajuan; Huang, Kai; Chen, Bo; Deng, Wensheng; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A promising Li-rich high-capacity cathode material (xLi 2 MnO 3 ·(1-x)LiMn 0.5 Ni 0.5 O 2 ) has received much attention with regard to improving the performance of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. This study presents an environmental impact evaluation of a lithium-ion battery with Li-rich materials used in an electric vehicle throughout the life cycle of the battery. A comparison between this cathode material and a Li-ion cathode material containing cobalt was compiled in this study. The battery use stage was found to play a large role in the total environmental impact and high greenhouse gas emissions. During battery production, cathode material manufacturing has the highest environmental impact due to its complex processing and variety of raw materials. Compared to the cathode with cobalt, the Li-rich material generates fewer impacts in terms of human health and ecosystem quality. Through the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and sensitivity analysis, we found that the electricity mix and energy efficiency significantly influence the environmental impacts of both battery production and battery use. This paper also provides a detailed life cycle inventory, including firsthand data on lithium-ion batteries with Li-rich cathode materials.

  12. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  13. Using Life Cycle Assessment to identify potential environmental impacts of an agrifood sector: Application to the PDO Beaujolais and Burgundia wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penavayre Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of the production system of emblematic French product under official quality marks was investigated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The study looks at the PDO Beaujolais and Burgundy sector from a broad perspective, i.e. encompassing all steps linked with the products themselves but also complementary activities that belong to this wine sector. To build the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI, a methodology deriving from both product and organizational LCA was developed and applied. The LCI was built using a bottom-up approach. Inventories were first built for a sample of 17 representative companies. Then, these inventories were scaled-up to complete the global LCI at the agrifood sector level. Potential environmental impacts were assessed for 8 indicators. The LCA results show potential environmental impacts for each life cycle step: grape production, wine making and aging, packaging, distribution and activity of stakeholders belonging to the “close environment”. It provided two main outcomes: (i a methodology for the construction of an LCI adapted to the perimeter of an agrifood sector and composed by high quality data; and (ii the identification of potential environmental impacts of the studied agrifood sector, providing assistance for the definition of their strategic orientations for the future.

  14. Toward a life cycle-based, diet-level framework for food environmental impact and nutritional quality assessment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willett, Walter C

    2013-11-19

    Supplying adequate human nutrition within ecosystem carrying capacities is a key element in the global environmental sustainability challenge. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used effectively to evaluate the environmental impacts of food production value chains and to identify opportunities for targeted improvement strategies. Dietary choices and resulting consumption patterns are the drivers of production, however, and a consumption-oriented life cycle perspective is useful in understanding the environmental implications of diet choices. This review identifies 32 studies that use an LCA framework to evaluate the environmental impact of diets or meals. It highlights the state of the art, emerging methodological trends and current challenges and limitations to such diet-level LCA studies. A wide range of bases for analysis and comparison (i.e., functional units) have been employed in LCAs of foods and diet; we conceptually map appropriate functional unit choices to research aims and scope and argue for a need to move in the direction of a more sophisticated and comprehensive nutritional basis in order to link nutritional health and environmental objectives. Nutritional quality indices are reviewed as potential approaches, but refinement through ongoing collaborative research between environmental and nutritional sciences is necessary. Additional research needs include development of regionally specific life cycle inventory databases for food and agriculture and expansion of the scope of assessments beyond the current focus on greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application......A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  16. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans ? A Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified...

  17. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Ecobilan d'agents energetiques. Evaluation ecologique de biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  18. Using reclaimed lumber and wood flooring in construction : measuring environmental impact using life-cycle inventory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Robert H. Falk; Thomas R. Napier

    2010-01-01

    With green building concepts becoming widespread in the construction field, building practices and materials are being examined for their environmental impact. Reusing building materials has a distinct advantage over using newly manufactured materials because these reclaimed materials avoid greenhouse gas emissions associated with new (virgin) material manufacturing....

  19. Life cycle assessment (LCA) as a decision-suppport tool for the evaluation of environmental impacts of site remediation on the global, regional and local scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Bulle, C.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the environment al impacts of three alternatives for remediating a TCE-contaminated site: (i) enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD); (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) and (iii) excavation with off-site soil treatment. In addition......, the remediation alternatives were compared to a no action scenario, where only monitoring and natural attenuation takes place. A numerical reactive fracture model was used to predict the timeframes for the ERD and the no action scenarios. Moreover, the model was used to estimate the mass discharge of TCE...... of the LCA showed that of the three remediation methods compared, the ERD had the lowest total environmental impacts, even though it had significant primary impacts due to its long timeframe. The environmental impacts of ERD were comparable or only slightly higher than those of the no action scenario. ISTD...

  20. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: impacts of climate change, fine particulate matter formation, water consumption and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Antón, Assumpció; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    of water consumption on human health assesses the DALYs from malnutrition caused by lack of water for irrigated food production. Land use impacts: CFs representing global potential species loss from land use are proposed as interim recommendation suitable to assess biodiversity loss due to land use......Purpose: Guidance is needed on best-suited indicators to quantify and monitor the man-made impacts on human health, biodiversity and resources. Therefore, the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative initiated a global consensus process to agree on an updated overall life cycle impact assessment (LCIA...... are recommended: (a) The global warming potential 100 years (GWP 100) represents shorter term impacts associated with rate of change and adaptation capacity, and (b) the global temperature change potential 100 years (GTP 100) characterizes the century-scale long term impacts, both including climate-carbon cycle...

  1. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  2. Environmental Impact of End-of-Life Tires: Life Cycle Assessment Comparison of Three Scenarios from a Case Study in Valle Del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar O. Ortíz-Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been applied to estimate diverse environmental impacts of different usage alternatives for worn-out tires at the end of their useful life in a case study at the Department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Different real scenarios were compared, which allowed for the assessment of the best environmental option for the management of worn-out tires. A method developed in the Institute of Environmental Sciences at University of Leiden, better known as CML-2001, was used to calculate the environmental impact indicators. The results show that the incineration of whole tires in cement plants, and the activities of grinding and floor manufacturing from granulated rubber, exhibited the best indicators, especially in terms of environmental load avoidance through the recovery of materials. Finally, the categories of depletion of the ozone layer, acidification, global warming potential, depletion of abiotic resources, and photochemical ozone formation revealed that the strongest environmental impacts are associated with retreading and the production of multipart asphalt. This is due to the use of synthetic rubber in the former alternative, and of liquid asphalt, gravel, and diesel consumption in the latter.

  3. An Environmental Impact Analysis of Semi-Mechanical Extraction Process of Sago Starch: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, M. A.; Romli, M.; Suprihatin; Wiloso, E. I.

    2018-05-01

    Industrial activities use material, energy and water resources and generate greenhouse gas (GHG). Currently, various regulations require industry to measure and quantify the emissions generated from its process activity. LCA is a method that can be used to analyze and report the environmental impact of an activity that uses resources and generates waste by an industrial activity. In this work, LCA is used to determine the environmental impact of a semi-mechanical extraction process of sago industry. The data was collected through the sago industry in Cimahpar, Bogor. The extraction of sago starch consists of stem cutting, rasping, mixing, filtration, starch sedimentation, washing, and drying. The scope of LCA study covers the harvesting of sago stem, transportation to extraction site, and the starch extraction process. With the assumption that the average transportation distance of sago stem to extraction site is 200 km, the GHG emission is estimated to be 325 kg CO2 eq / ton of sundried sago starch. This figure is lower than that reported for maize starch (1120 kg CO2 eq), potato starch (2232 kg CO2 eq) and cassava starch (4310 kg CO2 eq). This is most likely due to the uncounted impact from the use of electrical energy on the extraction process, which is currently being conducted. A follow-up study is also underway to formulate several process improvement scenarios to derive the design of sago starch processing that generates the minimum emissions.

  4. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans – A Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein. PMID:23284661

  5. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; de Boer, Imke J M

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  6. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  7. Environmental challenges of anthropogenic metals flows and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voet, Ester; Salminen, Reijo; Eckelman, Matthew

    This report from the UNEP-hosted International Resource Panel, Environmental Risk and Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Flows and Cycles, gives a clear picture of the potential environmental impacts of metals at different stages of the life-cycle while linking with other areas of resource use...

  8. Combination of equilibrium models and hybrid life cycle-input–output analysis to predict the environmental impacts of energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of

  9. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?. Three biorefinery systems were evaluated and compared: a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy of the integration was the exchange of useful energy necessary for biomass processing in the two standalone systems. The systems were compared against a common reference flow: "1MJ EtOH +1kg LA ", which was set on the basis of products delivered by the system C. Function of the reference flow was to provide service of both fuel (bioethanol) at 99.9% concentration (wt. basis) and biochemical (biobased lactic acid) in food industries at 90% purity; both products delivered at biorefinery gate. The environmental impacts of interest were global warming potential (GWP 100 ), eutrophication potential (EP), non-renewable energy (NRE) use and the agricultural land occupation (ALO). Regardless of the LCA approach adopted, system C performed better in most of the impact categories than both standalone systems. The process wise contribution to the obtained environmental impacts also showed similar impact pattern in both approaches. The study also highlighted that the recirculation of intermediate materials, e.g. C 5 sugar to boost bioethanol yield and that the use of residual streams in the energy

  10. Comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. General framework and preliminary results for the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostron, W; Schneider, T; Thieme, M; Dreicer, M

    1992-06-01

    The comparison of the effects of electricity producing systems is of growing importance in decision-making processes for energy planning. This report documents the preliminary results of a project for the CEC-DG XII Radiation Protection Programme on the comparative assessment and management of the health and environmental impacts of energy systems. The work reported in this document has also been supported by EDF - Mission Environnement. In order to profit from the comparative studies already existing, some of the most important ones were surveyed. The aim of these past energy comparison studies was mainly to obtain a global measure of the risks associated with an energy cycle, with a view to ranking the various electricity production systems; but this is now recognised as merely an academic exercise, with a limited impact in decision-making. For energy planning the development of a multi-dimensional approach seems more suitable, as this allows the different types of indicators and measures needed to assess the risks of different energy cycles to be compared. From the past studies it has been seen that health indicators are generally well established, but a weakness is noted with respect to indicators of environmental impacts. This remains a difficult subject, and until such indicators are established, surrogates like concentrations in the environment will have to be used, or qualitative comparisons must suffice. This report presents a general framework allowing for consistent comparisons between different energy systems. The key issues discussed are: assessment by fuel cycle, consideration of the dimensions of time and space, the impact pathway approach for assessing risk, and coherent indicators that can be used to measure the impacts. First results are presented for four activities of the nuclear fuel cycle according to the approach developed: (1) the construction and dismantling of a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor, (2) the transportation of materials between

  11. Life-cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental impact of an integrated food waste-based biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Chen, Xin; Yu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 47.76% of the energy consumption is from the primary treatment process. • The dominant environmental impact comes from GWP100 emission (96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t). • Increasing recycling rate of product can effectively reduce consumption and impact. - Abstract: Recycling food waste to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can both provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process affects the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions. By lifecycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the energy consumption (EC) and environmental impact (EI) of an integrated food waste-based biogas system and its subsystems. Data were collected from an actual plant in China that adopted a combination of wet-heat treatment and wet AD process at thermophilic condition. The EC of the system for processing 1 ton of waste was 663.89 MJ, among which 47.76% was from the primary treatment process (including pretreatment and AD). The GWP 100 (100-year global warming potential) emission of the system reached 96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t, and the AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTP inf (human toxicity potential) and FAETP inf (fresh water ecotoxicity) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the primary treatment and the secondary pollution control. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 40% increase of the feed fat content resulted in 38% increase in the net energy value output and 48% decrease in EP effect. The increase in oil content and biogas production rate could significantly reduce the EC and EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process and increasing the recycling rate of products will result in the reduction of EC and EI of the biogas system. In addition, a quantitative assessment model of EC and EI in integrated food waste-based biogas technology is established

  12. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  13. Environmental impact data for fuels. Part 1: Main report. Resource consumption and emissions from the entire life cycle (New revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Almemark, M.; Brandel, M.; Lindfors, L.G.; Marcus, H.O.; Stripple, H.; Wachtmeister, A.; Zetterberg, L.

    2001-05-01

    This report is a compilation of data concerning environmental impacts from the utilization of different fuels. The entire life cycle is studied, from the extraction of raw materials to combustion. The fuels under study are gasoline, gasoline with MTBE, diesel, fuel oil, LPG, coal, natural gas, peat, refuse, ethanol, RME, DME, methane and wood fuels (forestry residues, Salix, pellets/briquettes). Utilization areas studied are heating plants, cogeneration plants, power plants, domestic boilers, and light and heavy vehicles. In this new edition, the following changes were made: New life cycle analyses have been included, a few new fuels added, electricity from hydroelectric plants, wind power plants and nuclear power plants have been included and some other minor changes

  14. Environmental macroeconomics : Environmental policy, business cycles, and directed technical change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Heutel, Garth

    Environmental economics has traditionally fallen in the domain of microeconomics, but approaches from macroeconomics have recently been applied to studying environmental policy. We focus on two macroeconomic tools and their application to environmental economics. First, real-business-cycle models

  15. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O emission. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon and nitrogen balance, including the exchange of greenhouse gases, of European forests over the period 2010–2030, with a particular emphasis on the spatial variability of change. The analysis was carried out for two tree species: European beech and Scots pine. For this purpose, four different dynamic models were used: BASFOR, DailyDayCent, INTEGRATOR and Landscape-DNDC. These models span a range from semi-empirical to complex mechanistic. Comparison of these models allowed assessment of the extent to which model predictions depended on differences in model inputs and structure. We found a European average carbon sink of 0.160 ± 0.020 kgC m−2 yr−1 (pine and 0.138 ± 0.062 kgC m−2 yr−1 (beech and N2O source of 0.285 ± 0.125 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (pine and 0.575 ± 0.105 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (beech. The European average greenhouse gas potential of the carbon sink was 18 (pine and 8 (beech times that of the N2O source. Carbon sequestration was larger in the trees than in the soil. Carbon sequestration and forest growth were largest in central Europe and lowest in northern Sweden and Finland, N. Poland and S. Spain. No single driver was found to dominate change across Europe. Forests were found to be most sensitive to change in environmental drivers where the drivers were limiting growth, where changes were particularly large or where changes acted in concert. The models disagreed as to which environmental changes were most significant for the geographical variation in forest growth and as to which tree species showed the largest rate of carbon sequestration. Pine and beech forests were found to

  16. Environmental impact assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, K. S

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Environmental Impact Assessment Report which was made and submitted as one of the license documents for TRIGA Research Reactor D and D Project. The Environmental Impact Assessment Report includes introduction of decommissioning plan, status of reactors and environmental impact of surroundings. Also it was assessed and analyzed on radioactivity for environment, and the plan was established to minimize radioactive material release. Finally environmental monitoring plan was established to confirm whether contaminated or not from radioactivity during decommissioning period. According to the assessment results, the risk of excess exposure will be not on environment and public. The first Environmental Impact Assessment Report was submitted to the government for the license and reviewed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first Report was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

  17. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant; Analisis de la fase de impacto ambiental en el ciclo de vida de una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-07-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  18. System and scenario choices in the life cycle assessment of a building – changing impacts of the environmental profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Freja; Birgisdóttir, Harpa; Birkved, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) case study of an office building. The case study investigates how the setting of free parameters (adopted from the CEN/TC 350 standards) influences the results of the building’s LCA in the DGNB certification scheme for sustainable buildings...

  19. Comparing Green and Grey Infrastructure Using Life Cycle Cost and Environmental Impact: A Rain Garden Case Study in Cincinnati, OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is quickly gaining ground as a less costly, greener alternative to traditional methods of stormwater management. One popular form of green infrastructure is the use of rain gardens to capture and infiltrate stormwater in to the ground. We used life cycle asse...

  20. Environmental assessment of Smart City Solutions using a coupled urban metabolism—life cycle impact assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrecht Ipsen, Kikki; Zimmermann, Regitze Kjær; Sieverts Nielsen, Per

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to quantify the environmental performance of Smart City Solutions at urban system level and thus evaluate their contribution to develop environmentally sustainable urban systems. Further, the study illustrates how this quantification is conducted. Methods...... The case city chosen in our modeling is Copenhagen, where seven Smart City Solutions are introduced: Green Roofs, Smart Windows, Pneumatic Waste Collection, Sensorized Waste Collection, Smart Water Meters, Greywater Recycling, and Smart Energy Grid. The assessment is conducted using a fused urban...... by introducing SmartWindows. Furthermore, the GWP indicator shows an environmental improvement of 10% for a Smart Energy Grid solution. Introduction of Pneumatic Waste Collection or Greywater Recycling reveals a minor negative performance effect of 0.76 and 0.70%, respectively, for GWP. The performance changes...

  1. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans - A Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding

  2. Analyzing the Environmental Impacts of Laptop Enclosures Using Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment to Support Sustainable Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing amount of consumer electronics in service, it is essential industries and policy-makers work together to develop ways to manufacture more environmentally sustainable IT products which meet the needs of society. The objective of this study was to better un...

  3. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of wood products for bio-energy through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierobon, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The use of wood for energy has grown in the last years as an alternative to fossil fuels. National and international laws promote the use of wood in the policies for the mitigation of climate change, based on the assumption that wood has a neutral carbon balance because the combustion emissions are offset by the absorption in forest (assumption of carbon neutrality). However, this assumption does not take into account the emissions associated with the life cycle of the product, e.g. related t...

  4. Life cycle impacts of manufacturing redwood decking in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin; Han-Sup Han

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental footprint of building construction and use has led to increasing interest in green building. Defining a green building is an evolving process with life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) emerging as key tools in that evolution and definition process. This study used LCIA to determine the environmental footprint...

  5. Scenario Development and Delphi Application in Life Cycle Assessment for Assessing Environmental Impact of New Technology Case Study: Removal of Wind Turbines Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina Fitrika Dewi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain technology is intended to create eco-efficient products or process or is developed as answer to the recent challenge. This kind of technology consequently can also create another impact therefore it shall be assessed and analyzed.The focus of the study is on assessment method namely Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, Scenario development and Delphi application. The objective is to understand benefits and drawbacks of the combined methodology and observe practicality of its implementation for assessing new technology. The distinctive feature comes from the combination of social and technological foresight (as Delphi application and future studies (as Scenario development which are applied in the environmental assessment of a product (by Life Cycle Analysis.The utilization of LCA-Scenario-Delphi case study as an explanatory example is presented in the Removal Wind Turbines Project by the Danish Energy Agency. The wind turbine is considered new technology with some of it phases are yet to occur, for example: removal of turbines after phase out stage. Technology Assessment by LCA-Scenario-Delphi is complicated procedure, but necessary to validate the results. The drawbacks of this procedure are extensive time it consumes and the dependency on public participation and/or expert willingness to participate. Nonetheless, its advantages are due to its interactive feature; integration of knowledge from different areas of expertise and its assessment’s characteristic which focuses on process.

  6. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the ecological scarcity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After it is done, the inventory will be interpreted to the environmental impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Two LCIA methods identified were “midpoint and endpoint” approaches. The ecological scarcity (ecopoints) is an LCIA method using “midpoint” approach. From the analysis to both life cycle stages, analysis ...

  7. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  8. Impact of environmental auditing on environmental pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental auditing on environmental pollution, sustainable development and healthy environment of some organizations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ...

  9. Environment and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to in...

  10. Environmental impacts of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Eunice; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is increasingly common around the world. Its causes, dynamics, and socioeconomic impacts have been widely studied, but little research has addressed its environmental impacts. We found that average household size (number of people in a household) in divorced households (households with divorced heads) was 27–41% smaller than married households (households with married heads) in 12 countries across the world around the year 2000 (between 1998 and 2002). If divorced households had combi...

  11. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  12. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  13. Safety and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.; Kramer, W.

    1991-01-01

    By means of interpreting experimental results, and by means of conservative estimates, several fundamental statements can be made concerning the safety and environmental impacts of fusion plants. Relevant findings so far regarding normal operation and incidents as well as risks involved in raw material extraction and waste management are compiled. (DG) [de

  14. Environmental analysis of natural gas life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; D'Angelosante, S.; Trebeschi, C.

    2000-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a method aimed at identifying the environmental effects connected with a given product, process or activity during its whole life cycle. The evaluation of published studies and the application of the method to electricity production with fossil fuels, by using data from published databases and data collected by the gas industry, demonstrate the importance and difficulties to have reliable and updated data required for a significant life cycle assessment. The results show that the environmental advantages of natural gas over the other fossil fuels in the final use stage increase still further if the whole life cycle of the fuels, from production to final consumption, is taken into account [it

  15. Warm Water Entrainment Impacts and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Pilot Plant Offshore Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Whitney Blanchard

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology that uses the temperature difference of large volumes of cold deep and warm surface seawater in tropical regions to generate electricity. One anticipated environmental impact of OTEC operations is the entrainment and subsequent mortality of ichthyoplankton (fish eggs and larvae) from the withdrawal of cold and warm seawater. The potential ichthyoplankton loss from the warm water intake was estimated for a proposed 10 MW OTEC pilot plant offshore Oahu, HI based on ambient vertical distribution data. The estimated losses due to entrainment from the warm water intake were 8.418E+02 larvae/1000 m3, 3.26E+06 larvae/day, and 1.19E+09 larvae/year. The potential entrained larvae/year is 1.86 X greater than at the Kahe Generating Station (Kapolei, HI), a 582 MW oil-fired power plant. Extrapolating to age-1 equivalence (9.2E+02 and 2.9E+02 yellowfin and skipjack tuna, respectively), the estimated yearly losses from warm water entrainment of yellowfin and skipjack tuna fish eggs and larvae represent 0.25-0.26 % and 0.09-0.11 % of Hawaii's commercial yellowfin and skipjack tuna industry in 2011 and 2012. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) was developed for the proposed OTEC plant operating for 20 and 40 years with availability factors of 0.85, 0.95, and 1.0 to determine the global warming potential (GWP) and cumulative energy demand (CED) impacts. For a 20 year operational OTEC plant, the GWP, CED, energy return on investment (EROI), and energy payback time (EPBT) ranged from 0.047 to 0.055 kg CO2eq/kWh, 0.678 to 0.798 MJ/kWh, 4.51 to 5.31 (unitless), and 3.77 to 4.43 years, respectively. For a 40 year operational OTEC plant, the GWP, CED, EROI, and EBPT ranged from 0.036 to 0.043 kg CO2eq/kWh, 0.527 to 0.620 MJ/kWh, 5.81 to 6.83 (unitless), and 5.85 to 6.89 years, respectively. The GWP impacts are within the range of renewable energy technologies and less than conventional electricity

  16. Bridging Arctic environmental science and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Fredrik Moltu

    2014-01-01

    Current research aims to make the impact assessment module of life cycle assessment (LCA) less site-generic and thus more relevant to particular regions. The Arctic region attracts its share of interest when it comes to environmental issues, but little research has been performed with the explicit...

  17. Final environmental statement for selection of the preferred closed cycle cooling system at Indian Point Unit No. 3, Docket No. 50-286

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The environmental statement includes information concerning the alternative closed cycle cooling systems; schedule and permits; environmental impacts of feasible alternative closed cycle cooling systems; socio-economic impact of closed cycle cooling systems; and evaluation of proposed action

  18. Automobile - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, H.

    1993-01-01

    The way balances have been drawn up by business companies until now, they can be regarded as an attempt to develop an instrument for environmental management within the company that makes it possible to examine the ecological effects of the manufactured products during their life cycle. The strong points of such ecobalances can be put to use in the following areas in the future: Information on products and processes obtained through an analysis of the weakest points of the production process can be used for puposes of environmental management. With the aid of such examinations for weak points it then becomes possible to optimise products or processes. Comparative studies extending over years permit an assessment of corporate measures for environment protection and process adjustment. Moreover, ecobalances can serve as a guide for the selection of component concepts. The advantage of a balance related to the whole life cycle lies above all in the fact that the piecemeal studies on energy consumption and waste accumulation by stage can now be replaced by an integral, comprehensive registration of data and processes. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  20. Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Pek Yang; Henz, Martin; Weigl, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the environmental impact of the conversion of an internal combustion engine (ICE) sports motorcycle into a converted battery-powered electric vehicle (CBEV). Zero tailpipe emissions might lead to the assumption that such an ICE-to-BEV conversion will always yield net positive environmental benefits in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reductions, but energy inputs and materials impacts associated with the conversion of a CBEV are weighed against savings ...

  1. Assessment of the environmental impact of three types of fertilizers on the cultivation of coffee at the Las Delicias indigenous reservation (Cauca) starting from the life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Acevedo, Luz Dinora; Vélez-Henao, Johan Andrés; Marulanda-Grisales, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper aims to assess and to compare the environmental performance of three different types of fertilizers in the production of coffee using the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the Las Delicias indigenous reservation (located in the northern area of the State of Cauca) in order to standardize the process. In this sense, some coffee producers used chemical fertilizers; others used poultry manure, and most coffee producers, used compost. They also applied artisanal te...

  2. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. ► Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. ► The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. ► The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. ► Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The results may serve for monitoring, flow accounting and comparative eco-assessment of MCPs. They may be useful in identifying

  3. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment ... Ethiopia enacted the Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation in 2002 ... flora, fauna, soil, air, water, climate, natural or cultural heritage, other.

  5. Methodologies of environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroll, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction covering the objectives of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and sustainable development, before going on to describe the screening procedure to define the environmental and socio-economic impacts of projects. The EIA procedure outlined encompasses a description of the project, examination of all environmental effects (scoping), identification of existing and predicted environmental conditions and impacts, alternative measures and mitigating measures, co-ordination, with environmental regulations, public participation, and monitoring and approval of the EIA. (UK)

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  7. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Cherubini, Francesco; Strømman, Anders H.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface–atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo—and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO 2 and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: ► A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. ► Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. ► Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. ► Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  9. Outline of environmental impact of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This document presents background information on the environmental impacts from the management and disposal of radioactive waste for seven reference fuel cycles selected by INFCE Working Group 7, but excluding the health and safety impact on man. The main factors considered were: use of natural resources, land, water, energy, labour and materials; effects of chemical and thermal effluents; effects of meteorology, hydrology and natural hazards; and social effects. The environmental impacts are generally largest for the once-through fuel cycles and smallest for the FBR and HWR U/Th cycles, due to the impacts being correlated to uranium requirements. The main impact is the use of land which varies from 0.1 - 1.6 ha/GWa with the FBR strategy requiring the smallest use of land and the LWR once-through strategy the largest. The land use for mill tailings is, except for the FBR and U/Th cycles, dominant compared to the land use for the rest of the fuel cycle

  10. Environmental profile evaluations of piezoelectric polymers using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez Mahmud, M. A.; Huda, Nazmul; Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Lang, Candace

    2018-05-01

    Piezoelectric materials are indispensable to produce electricity, harvesting ambient mechanical energy through motion for sectors and products, from sensors, to biomedical systems, to tiny electronics. Nylon 66 and tetrafluoroethylene dominate the market among thousands of piezoelectric materials to provide an autonomous power supply. Emphasis has been given on investigating the environmental impacts of both materials due to the growing consciousness of the ecological and health risks of piezoelectric polymers. The fabrication steps of these polymers from raw materials are extremely hazardous to the environment in terms of toxicity and human health effects. However, no quantification of the possible environmental impacts for the manufacturing of nylon 66 and tetrafluoroethylene exists. This research paper addresses their comparative environmental effects, in terms of chemical constituents. Life cycle impact analysis has been carried out by ReCipe 2016 Endpoint, Ecopoints 97, Raw material flows and CML-IA baseline methods, using Australasian life cycle inventory database and SimaPro software. The impacts are considered in categories like global warming, eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, human carcinogenic toxicity, fine particulates, and marine ecotoxicity. The results show that there is a significant environmental impact caused by tetrafluoroethylene in comparison with nylon 66 polymer during the manufacturing process. These impacts occur due to the quantity of toxic chemical elements present as constituents of tetrafluoroethylene raw material and its fabrication periods. It can be anticipated that a better ecological performance can be attained through optimization, especially by cautiously picking substitute materials and machines, taking into account the toxicity aspects, and by minimizing the impacts related to designs, fabrication processes and usage.

  11. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Our analyses indicate that more in-depth research should be done on 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 232 U, especially because of their presence in nonproliferative fuel cycles. For increased 3 H production by fast reactors, we can only speculate that such research could show that environmental releases might be significantly greater than for LWRs. Carbon-14 will likely not be a problem if a suitable decontamination factor can be agreed upon for reprocessing facilities and if a satisfactory regulatory limit can be established for global populations. Additional experimental research is urgently needed to determine the uptake of low levels of 99 Tc by plants. These data are essential before an accurate assessment of 99 Tc releases can be made. Finally, we recommend that investigators take a closer look at the potential problems associated with 232 U and daughters. This radionuclide could contribute a significant portion of the dose in both environmental and occupational exposures from the nonproliferative fuels

  12. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  13. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS/EIS) for the Upper Truckee River Restoration and Marsh Restoration Project (Project). The California Tahoe Conservancy and the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, the other lead agencies for the Project, made the EIR/EIS/EIS available to the public on February 8, 2013.

  15. A framework for social life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. To enhance the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool in business decision-making, a methodology for Social life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is being developed. Social LCA aims at facilitating companies to conduct business in a socially responsible manner...... by providing information about the potential social impacts on people caused by the activities in the life cycle of their product. The development of the methodology has been guided by a business perspective accepting that companies, on the one hand, have responsibility for the people affected...... in the life cycle rather than to the individual industrial processes, as is the case in Environmental LCA. Inventory analysis is therefore focused on the conduct of the companies engaged in the life cycle. A consequence of this view is that a key must be determined for relating the social profiles...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  18. A life-cycle comparison of the energy, environmental and economic impacts of coal versus wood pellets for generating heat in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Chang, Yuan; Zhang, Lixiao; Pang, Mingyue; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether wood pellets were more sustainable than coal for heating buildings in China by presenting a “fuel-to-heat” energy, environmental and economic comparison for both energy sources. Pellet and coal heating systems were modeled using a process-based life cycle inventory modeling approach, and the energy consumption and air pollutant emissions were calculated in Gigajoules (GJ). Wood pellets were also analyzed for their costs and market competitiveness against coal and other fossil fuel heating alternatives. The results showed that the energy saving potential from using pellets instead of coal was 1382 MJ for every 1-GJ of heat generated. Greenhouse gas emissions from pellets were 11.76 kg CO_2-eq GJ"−"1 heat, which were approximately 94% less than emissions from coal heating systems. Also, the wood pellet systems reduced SO_2, NO_x and PM emissions by 86%, 56% and 33%. However, the cost of pellets is significantly higher than the cost for coal, and is the primary impediment for the transition from coal to pellets in China. In addition, multiple consumers of wood residue, unstable heat values of pellet, limited supplies, and the lack of product and heating equipment standards also render the transition from coal to pellets impractical. - Highlights: • Process-based LCI modeling method was used for fuel-to-heat environmental assessment. • A coal-to-pellet shift for heat generation enables notable environmental benefits. • An average subsidy of 5.80 $ is needed for 1-GJ heat generation from the PTH system. • Low coal price and high feedstock cost hinder the wood pellet industry's development.

  19. Life cycle assessment Part 2 : Current impact assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennington, D.W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T.; Rebitzer, G.

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse,

  20. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient cycling in agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, L.

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of agricultural production to meet global food demands has led to excessive nutrient leaching from agricultural areas. These losses have negative environmental impacts and pose a waste of valuable fertilizer. Soil biota are essential for nutrient cycling in soil and thus could be

  1. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described [it

  2. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  3. Life-cycle environmental and economic impacts of energy-crop fuel-chains: an integrated assessment of potential GHG avoidance in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines life-cycle analyses and economic analyses for Miscanthus and willow heat and electricity fuel-chains in Ireland. Displaced agricultural land-uses and conventional fuels were considered in fuel-chain permutations. Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 7.7 to 35.2 t CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 . Most fuel-chain permutations exhibited positive discounted financial returns, despite losses for particular entities at a farm-gate processed-biomass price of Euro 100 t -1 dry-matter. Attributing a value of Euro 10 t -1 CO 2 eq. to avoided GHG emissions, but subtracting financial returns associated with displaced fuel supplies, resulted in discounted annual national economic benefits (DANEBs) ranging from -457 to 1887 Euro ha -1 a -1 . Extrapolating a plausible combination of fuel-chains up to a national indicative scenario resulted in GHG emission avoidance of 3.56 Mt CO 2 eq. a -1 (5.2% of national emissions), a DANEB of 167 M Euro , and required 4.6% of national agricultural land area. As cost-effective national GHG avoidance options, Miscanthus and willow fuel-chains are robust to variation in yields and CO 2 price, and appear to represent an efficient land-use option (e.g. compared with liquid biofuel production). Policies promoting utilisation of these energy-crops could avoid unnecessary, and environmentally questionable, future purchase of carbon credits, as currently required for national Kyoto compliance

  4. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental

  5. Life Cycle Thinking in Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life...

  6. Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vegt, O.M.; Haije, W.G.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare and quantify the environmental impact of three rotorblades made of different materials and to establish which stage in the life cycle contributes most. The life cycle of a product can be represented by the production phase, including depletion of raw materials (mining) and production (machining) of products, the utilisation phase, including use of energy, maintenance and cleaning, and the disposal phase, including landfill, incineration, recycling, etc. The environmental impact of a product is not only determined by the materials selected but also by the function of the product itself. E.g. when natural fibres are applied in vehicles as a substitution for metals the environmental impact in the use phase will be reduced due to a lower energy consumption caused by a lower car weight. The influence on the environmental impact of the production phase must also be taken into account. The material relation between the production phase and the use phase and the disposal phase is complicated. In general the lifetime of a product use phase can be extended (positive aspect), e.g. by application of a coating onto the surface. Due to the coating the product can not easily be recycled, which is a negative aspect. The three types of composites used in the rotorblade of the wind energy converter considered in this study are: flaxfibre reinforced epoxy, carbon fibre reinforced epoxy and glassfibre reinforced polyester. The assessment is performed using the computer program Simapro 3, which is based on the Dutch CML method for the environmental life-cycle assessment of products using the Eco-Indicator 95 evaluation method. The CML method defines five phases for an LCA: goal definition and scoping; inventory; classification; impact assessment; and improvement analysis. The improvement analysis is not part of this work. Performing an LCA is a time-consuming process due to the detailed information that is required. In chapter five some

  7. Risks and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In environmental matters as in other fields, managing a crisis is always more perilous and the results more uncertain than taking preventive measures beforehand. Prevention in environmental matters involves far more than border controls, although those are essential. In New Caledonia perhaps more than elsewhere, an appropriate strategy would also involve monitoring contamination within the territory, particularly island-to-island transfers. Some species may be inoffensive in one part of the t...

  8. Evaluation Tools of nanomaterials environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, Grazia; Scalbi, Simona; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Righi, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology show an increasing spread thanks to the special properties of nanomaterials (NM). Knowledge of the NM behavior and interactions with the environment and human health is still insufficient to assess the impact of the NM. A multidisciplinary, multidimensional and systemic such as that of the life cycle (Life Cycle Thinking - LCT), applied through the tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is essential in environmental sustainability assessment of technologies, with some limitations that can be overcome through integration with other instruments such as, for example, non-linear models, analysis of flows of material, Risk Assessment (RA). This article offers a detailed analysis of the state and the main problems related to the application of LCA and RA to NM both separately and in combined use; They will then discuss the strategies and integrations needed to overcome the limitations of both methods and obtain robust assessments of the impacts on health and the environment [it

  9. Environmental impacts of coal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, W.B.D. de; Souza, J.A.M. de

    1981-01-01

    The present work analyses the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear power plants. A comparison is made on a common basis considering the various activities involving the complete fuel cycle for both cases. (Author) [pt

  10. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  11. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Health Impacts of Environmental Mycobacteria†

    OpenAIRE

    Primm, Todd P.; Lucero, Christie A.; Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The health impacts of human-mycobacterial interactions are complex and likely much broader than currently recognized. Environmental mycobacteria preferentially survive chlorination in municipal water, using it as a vector to infect humans. Widespread chlorination of water has likely selected more resistant environmental mycobacteria species and potentially explains the shift from M. scrof...

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    This publication focuses on the instrument of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that has been developed within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) as one of the tools to promote environmental protection. The states involved in the ATS already recognized the importance of this instrument in 1975

  14. Quantitative assessment of the environmental footprint of the French nuclear fuel cycle by life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Christophe; Bourg, Stephane; Ouvrier, Noel; Serp, Jerome

    2015-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy contributes to most than 75% of the French electricity thanks to the operation of 58 generation 2 reactors located on 19 sites built from the 70's to the end of the 90's. France also developed for a long time a fully integrated nuclear industry covering the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the ore mining to the fabrication of the fuel for the front-end, from the reprocessing up to the MOX fuel fabrication and storage facility and in the near-future geological repository for the back-end. This investment allows France to produce a low-carbon electricity with the second lowest GHG emissions intensity, in the range of 90 g CO 2 /KWh. Such a very beneficial figure is directly related to the high contribution of nuclear in the electricity mix combined with renewables energies, in particular hydro. Greenhouse gases emissions are very relevant to assess the respective influence on the global climate change, but they do not address the whole potential environmental impact of any activity. However, such a question is crucial for assessing the respective sustainability of such an activity, in particular nuclear energy which is thought to be very detrimental by a large part of the public opinion. In order to address this question, we developed a dedicated life cycle assessment (LCA) tools referred to as NELCAS, the specificity of which is to focus on the first order parameters and avoiding any 'black-box' effect which can exist in commercial LCA tool. Thanks to the recent transparency and nuclear safety law (2006), in- and out- fluxes of matter and energy for any of the fuel cycle facilities are now publicly available. We hence used this significant set of measured data to feed our model and assess the most usual environmental indicators such as land use, different types of atmospheric emissions (GHG, SOx, NOx, particles...) and aqueous release (chemical effluents, eutrophication potential,...)... We also

  15. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  16. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  17. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared....... It is suggested that passive and semi-active fishing methods such as Danish seine, purse seine, gillnet and long line represent a significant improvement potential compared to trawl. And it is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced with a factor 15 by substituting beam trawl with Danish seine...

  18. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities. 2 figs. 7 refs.

  19. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  20. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use of various materials in laptop enclosures (excluding mounting hardware, internal components, and insulation) using screening-level life cycle assessment. The baseline material, is a fossil plastic blend of polycarbonate-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Alternative materials include polylactic acid, bamboo, aluminum, and various combinations of these materials known to be currently used or being considered for use in laptops. The flame retardants considered in this study are bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, and borax-boric acid-phosphorous acid. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts v2.1 was used for the assessment of impacts related to climate change, human and ecological health, and resource use. The assessment demonstrates that plastics, relative to the other materials, are currently some of the better performing materials in terms of having the lowest potential environmental impact for a greater number of impact categories based on product life cycle models developed in this study. For fossil plastics, the material performance increases with increasing post-con

  1. Environmental Performance of Kettle Production: Product Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Zych, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach) where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4-year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g). The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste scenario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix) which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some improvements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF KETTLE PRODUCTION: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej MARCINKOWSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4- year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g. The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste sce-nario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some im-provements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  3. Environmental impact statement law and environmental impact statement administration regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution does not deal with the question - as might be suggested by the heading - that the execution of the environmental impact statement law might be uncertain if there are no further accompanying legal transformatory acts. Putting the environmental impact statements into action is concerned in partiuclar with procedural provisions regarding the Federal Act on Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Act. The author deals with aspects of the environmental impact statement law and the state-of-the-art achieved so far. He also deals with legislative intent, with further points of putting the law into practice, i.e. the information requirements in the administrative provisions and the integrating aspect, the amalgamating aspect, the requirements made on the state of the environment, and the significance of administrative provisions. Also treated are legal procedures in the Federal Laender and on an international level. (RST) [de

  4. Safety, health and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles. Key issue paper no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overall perspective of the health and environmental consequences of the nuclear fuel cycle. This is done using surveys of the performances of nuclear installations worldwide and results of recent studies on the impacts on health and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle. 23 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Safety, health and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles. Key issue paper no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overall perspective of the health and environmental consequences of the nuclear fuel cycle. This is done using surveys of the performances of nuclear installations worldwide and results of recent studies on the impacts on health and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle. 23 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  6. Trading away damage. Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghertner, D. Asher; Fripp, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This research quantifies the extent to which the US has shifted the environmental impact associated with the goods it consumes to other countries through trade. To achieve this, we use a life-cycle, consumption-based approach to measure the environmental impacts embodied in US trade activities for global warming potential (GWP), energy, toxics, and the criteria air pollutants. We use these values to determine the amount of environmental impact 'leaked' from current, production-based approaches to analyzing national environmental trends for the years 1998-2004. We find that in 2004, with reasonable assumptions about the environmental intensity of imports and exports, this leakage exceeds 10% for all studied impacts, exceeds 20% for GWP, energy, and most criteria air pollutants, and exceeds 80% for lead emissions and toxics. By including the environmental impacts embodied in trade activities into national environmental accounts, we provide consumption-based, US per capita, environmental impacts, which we use to evaluate the relationship between income and environmental impact. We find evidence for rising per capita environmental impacts over time in the US, contra the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for international environmental policy of increasing embodied emissions in trade. (author)

  7. Trading away damage. Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghertner, D. Asher; Fripp, Matthias [Energy and Resources Group University of California, Berkeley 310 Barrows Hall 3050 Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2007-08-01

    This research quantifies the extent to which the US has shifted the environmental impact associated with the goods it consumes to other countries through trade. To achieve this, we use a life-cycle, consumption-based approach to measure the environmental impacts embodied in US trade activities for global warming potential (GWP), energy, toxics, and the criteria air pollutants. We use these values to determine the amount of environmental impact 'leaked' from current, production-based approaches to analyzing national environmental trends for the years 1998-2004. We find that in 2004, with reasonable assumptions about the environmental intensity of imports and exports, this leakage exceeds 10% for all studied impacts, exceeds 20% for GWP, energy, and most criteria air pollutants, and exceeds 80% for lead emissions and toxics. By including the environmental impacts embodied in trade activities into national environmental accounts, we provide consumption-based, US per capita, environmental impacts, which we use to evaluate the relationship between income and environmental impact. We find evidence for rising per capita environmental impacts over time in the US, contra the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for international environmental policy of increasing embodied emissions in trade. (author)

  8. A methodology for assessing the environmental and health impact of options for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, G.H.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Devin, P.; Lioure, A.; Mouney, H.; Le Boulch, D.

    2001-01-01

    Research programs conducted in France in the framework of the 1991 act offer various options for management of the back- end of the fuel cycle. Proposals to be debated in 2006 will rely not only on broad scientific and technical knowledge, but also on the compilation and integration of results, with syntheses and analyses intended to highlight the advantages and the limitations of each of the waste management paths. This presentation introduces a methodology derived from the life cycle analysis as well as some preliminary results. (author)

  9. The methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities and activities. The stages of evaluation of environmental impacts are proved. The algorithm and technology of decision-making in the system of environmental impact assessments based on a multi-criteria utility theory are proposed.

  10. Life Cycle Based Environmental Approach in the Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Thrane, Mikkel

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for industries to extend the focus from environmental impacts in their own production, towards considerations of impacts and improvement potentials in the whole product chain.......This paper discusses the need for industries to extend the focus from environmental impacts in their own production, towards considerations of impacts and improvement potentials in the whole product chain....

  11. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  12. Assessment of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Comparison between closed and open fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.; Combernoux, N.; Rostaing, C.; Vargas-Gonzalez, M.; Bruno, J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy perspectives for the current century are dominated by the anticipated significant increase of energy needs. Particularly, electricity consumption is anticipated to increase by a factor higher than two before 2050. Energy choices are considered as structuring political choices that implies a long-standing and stable policy based on objective criteria. LCA (life cycle analysis) is a structured basis for deriving relevant indicators which can allow the comparison of a wide range of impacts of different energy sources. Among the energy-mix, nuclear power is anticipated to have very low GHG-emissions. However, its viability is severely addressed by the public opinion after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, a global LCA of the French nuclear fuel cycle was performed as a reference model. Results were compared in terms of impact with other energy sources. It emphasized that the French nuclear energy is one of the less impacting energy, comparable with renewable energy. In a second, part, the French scenario was compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle scenario. It demonstrates that an open fuel cycle would require about 16% more natural uranium, would have a bigger environmental footprint on the “non radioactive indicators” and would produce a higher volume of high level radioactive waste. - Highlights: • A life cycle analysis of the French close nuclear fuel cycle is performed. • The French nuclear energy is one of the less environmental impacting energy. • The French close fuel cycle is compared to an equivalent open fuel cycle. • An open fuel cycle would have a bigger environmental impact than the French fuel cycle. • Spent nuclear fuel recycling has a positive impact on the environmental footprint

  13. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  14. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  15. How environmental costs impact DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of environmental costs of electricity generation into utility planning of demand side management (DSM) programs. The topics include approach and assumptions, overview of spreadsheet approach, results of the analyses, and the application of this approach to other areas of utility management such as new generation projects, sales of new generation capacity, and utility liability and management prudency

  16. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  17. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the site and proposed facility are described in this report

  18. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J X; Nielsen, P H

    2001-04-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization references for each region were calculated on the basis of an inventory of all of the region's environmental emissions in 1990. The normalization reference was determined as the total environmental impact potential for the area in question in 1990 (EP(j)90) divided by the population. The weighting factor was determined as the normalization reference (ER(j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 based on Chinese political reduction plans, ER(j)T2000. This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation and generation of bulk waste, hazardous waste and slag and ashes.

  19. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries management in lower ... Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of ... Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had ...

  20. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  1. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  2. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  3. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  4. Element Cycles: An Environmental Chemistry Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippins, Tracy; Anderson, Cody M.; Poindexter, Eric F.; Sultemeier, S. Whitney; Schultz, Linda D.

    2011-01-01

    "Element Cycles" is an activity designed to reinforce correlation of essential elements and their different forms in the ecosystem. Students are assigned essential elements to research as homework, then share results, and construct game boards with four ecosphere sections: geosphere (earth), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere…

  5. EPD--environmental product declarations for wood products : an application of life cycle information about forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Adam Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Transparent and credible environmental labeling of products is vital for a sustainable future. Ecolabeling shows information on the environmental performance of products, processes, and services. This article focuses on one type of ecolabeling referred to as environmental product declarations (EPDs) that provide environmental impact information based on life cycle...

  6. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  7. Health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to give a generic description of health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Primarily the report is meant to stand alone; however, because of the content of the publication and in the context of the DECADES project, it may serve as a means of introducing specialists in other fuel cycles to the nuclear fuel cycle. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. A Regional Analysis of the Life Cycle Environmental and Economic Tradeoffs of Different Economic Growth Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Different economic development strategies may result in varied socioeconomic and environmental synergies or tradeoffs, suggesting an opportunity for environmentally conscious planning. To understand such synergies or tradeoffs, a dynamic environmental life cycle assessment was conducted for eleven groups of New Hampshire industries. Historical state level Gross Domestic Product (GDP-by-industry data was combined with economic input-output analysis to calculate the direct and life cycle energy use, freshwater use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential of each industry on a yearly basis for the period of 1997–2012. The future development of agriculture, traditional manufacturing, high tech, and tourism industries were investigated based on government projections. Total life cycle impacts of the 11 industries were found to represent around three to seven times those of direct impacts, indicating the significance of the supply chain impacts. Traditional manufacturing has the highest life cycle impacts even though it contributes to less than 10% of the state GDP. Future development of high tech was found to be the best strategy to increase GDP while imposing the least additional environmental impacts. Tourism presents relatively high impacts in terms of freshwater use and eutrophication potential, and a change in recreational style might be able to reduce its impacts.

  9. The combination of an Environmental Management System and Life Cycle Assessment at the territorial level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzi, Anna; Toniolo, Sara; Catto, Stella; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Scipioni, Antonio, E-mail: scipioni@unipd.it

    2017-03-15

    A framework to include a Life Cycle Assessment in the significance evaluation of the environmental aspects of an Environmental Management System has been studied for some industrial sectors, but there is a literature gap at the territorial level, where the indirect impact assessment is crucial. To overcome this criticality, our research proposes the Life Cycle Assessment as a framework to assess environmental aspects of public administration within an Environmental Management System applied at the territorial level. This research is structured in two parts: the design of a new methodological framework and the pilot application for an Italian municipality. The methodological framework designed supports Initial Environmental Analysis at the territorial level thanks to the results derived from the impact assessment phase. The pilot application in an Italian municipality EMAS registered demonstrates the applicability of the framework and its effectiveness in evaluating the environmental impact assessment for direct and indirect aspects. Through the discussion of the results, we underline the growing knowledge derived by this research in terms of the reproducibility and consistency of the criteria to define the significance of the direct and indirect environmental aspects for a local public administration. - Highlights: • The combination between Environmental Management System and LCA is studied. • A methodological framework is elaborated and tested at the territorial level. • Life Cycle Impact Assessment supports the evaluation of aspects significance. • The framework assures consistency of evaluation criteria on the studied territory.

  10. The combination of an Environmental Management System and Life Cycle Assessment at the territorial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, Anna; Toniolo, Sara; Catto, Stella; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A framework to include a Life Cycle Assessment in the significance evaluation of the environmental aspects of an Environmental Management System has been studied for some industrial sectors, but there is a literature gap at the territorial level, where the indirect impact assessment is crucial. To overcome this criticality, our research proposes the Life Cycle Assessment as a framework to assess environmental aspects of public administration within an Environmental Management System applied at the territorial level. This research is structured in two parts: the design of a new methodological framework and the pilot application for an Italian municipality. The methodological framework designed supports Initial Environmental Analysis at the territorial level thanks to the results derived from the impact assessment phase. The pilot application in an Italian municipality EMAS registered demonstrates the applicability of the framework and its effectiveness in evaluating the environmental impact assessment for direct and indirect aspects. Through the discussion of the results, we underline the growing knowledge derived by this research in terms of the reproducibility and consistency of the criteria to define the significance of the direct and indirect environmental aspects for a local public administration. - Highlights: • The combination between Environmental Management System and LCA is studied. • A methodological framework is elaborated and tested at the territorial level. • Life Cycle Impact Assessment supports the evaluation of aspects significance. • The framework assures consistency of evaluation criteria on the studied territory.

  11. The radiological impact of electronuclear cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Tort, V.

    1997-01-01

    For the whole cycle during exploitation, the impacts on workers are the most important., in individual and collective term with radiations doses reaching several milli-sieverts for individual doses. For the public exposure during the exploitation phase, the radiations doses coming from releases, are very small with a corresponding risk considered as insignificant (if admitted as hypothesis a linear relation without threshold at low doses). For the exposure in the long term for future generations, the individual impacts stay negligible ( for releases or wastes storage). In term of global impact, the collective doses can be estimated and never exceed some man-sievert by generation. In term of very long term, uncertainties coming from the difficulties to control environment are still to be studied. (N.C.)

  12. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  13. The environmental impact of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummery, P.W.; Howells, H.; Scriven, A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; basis of hazard assessment (dose limits - ICRP recommendations; biological radiation effects); comparison of standards and practice in the UK and USA in the limitation of exposure of the public as a consequence of discharges of radioactive effluent to the environment; nature of reprocessing operations (Thermal Oxide Fuel Reprocessing Plant (THORP); storage ponds; fuel shearing; leaching; clarification; solvent extraction; finishing); waste management (liquids, solids, gases); waste discharges; environmental impact of normal operations (identification of the critical groups; exposure of critical groups; risks and exposures, occupational and collective); environmental impact of accidents (risk - probability multiplied by consequence of the event; types of accident considered); conclusion. (U.K.)

  14. Evaluating Environmental, Health and Safety Impacts from Two Nuclear Fuel Cycles: A Comparative Analysis of Once-Through Uranium Use and Plutonium Recycle in Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bethan L.

    The work presented in this dissertation represents a systems-level approach to investigate potential net impacts with respect to human health and the environment associated with transitioning to the MOC for the U.S. In Chapter 2, an updated systems-level conceptual model of the OTC is presented to more accurately portray the OTC as currently implemented in the U.S. The conceptual model is the basis for estimating the worker collective doses at each operational stage, and the first demonstration of a quantitative comparative radiological impact assessment from expected normal operations is presented. In the course of evaluating worker collective dose associated with modern OTC practices, it was found that the relative contributions from the two grouped operations (front-end operations for preparing reactor fuel and reactor operations) were substantially different from historical data and conventional wisdom. As a bookend to Chapter 2, a summary is provided that describes the nature of the differences and factors that led to these differences. Detailed information of the work as part of the published journal article based off of this corollary work is included as an Appendix (C). In Chapter 3, the study of worker collective doses from the phased introduction of reprocessing in the MOC scenario, and is presented similarly to the results in Chapter 2. MOC performance was also estimated by evaluating the radioactive waste generated that can be disposed and managed through known disposal practices in shallow-land burial. Relative to the OTC, MOC performance with respect to worker collective dose was not discernibly different; while the volume of radioactive waste generated decreased. It was found that although the sheer volume of radioactive waste avoided is large, the waste disposition pathway is known for the majority of this waste. The radioactive waste that requires disposal at a licensed off-site facility is examined in closer detail. The verification process for

  15. Evaluation of environmental impact predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.A.; Adams, S.M.; Kumar, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of the ecological monitoring program at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant showed that predictions of potential environmental impact made in the Final Environmental Statement (FES), which were based on generally accepted ecological principles, were not completely substantiated by environmental monitoring data. The Surry Nuclear Power Plant (Units 1 and 2) was chosen for study because of the facility's relatively continuous operating history and the availability of environmental data adequate for analysis. Preoperational and operational fish monitoring data were used to assess the validity of the FES prediction that fish would congregate in the thermal plume during winter months and would avoid the plume during summer months. Analysis of monitoring data showed that fish catch per unit effort (CPE) was generally high in the thermal plume during winter months; however, the highest fish catches occurred in the plume during the summer. Possible explanations for differences between the FES prediction and results observed in analysis of monitoring data are discussed, and general recommendations are outlined for improving impact assessment predictions

  16. Differences in environmental preferences towards cycling for transport among adults: a latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Mertens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing cycling for transport can contribute to improve public health among adults. Micro-environmental factors (i.e. small-scaled street-setting features may play an important role in affecting the street’s appeal to cycle for transport. Understanding about the interplay between individuals and their physical environment is important to establish tailored environmental interventions. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether specific subgroups exist based on similarities in micro-environmental preferences to cycle for transport. Methods Responses of 1950 middle-aged adults (45–65 years on a series of choice tasks depicting potential cycling routes with manipulated photographs yielded three subgroups with different micro-environmental preferences using latent class analysis. Results Although latent class analysis revealed three different subgroups in the middle-aged adult population based on their environmental preferences, results indicated that cycle path type (i.e. a good separated cycle path is the most important environmental factor for all participants and certainly for individuals who did not cycle for transport. Furthermore, only negligible differences were found between the importances of the other micro-environmental factors (i.e. traffic density, evenness of the cycle path, maintenance, vegetation and speed limits regarding the two at risk subgroups and that providing a speed bump obviously has the least impact on the street’s appeal to cycle for transport. Conclusions Results from the current study indicate that only negligible differences were found between the three subgroups. Therefore, it might be suggested that tailored environmental interventions are not required in this research context.

  17. Differences in environmental preferences towards cycling for transport among adults: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Lieze; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Ghekiere, Ariane; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-08-12

    Increasing cycling for transport can contribute to improve public health among adults. Micro-environmental factors (i.e. small-scaled street-setting features) may play an important role in affecting the street's appeal to cycle for transport. Understanding about the interplay between individuals and their physical environment is important to establish tailored environmental interventions. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether specific subgroups exist based on similarities in micro-environmental preferences to cycle for transport. Responses of 1950 middle-aged adults (45-65 years) on a series of choice tasks depicting potential cycling routes with manipulated photographs yielded three subgroups with different micro-environmental preferences using latent class analysis. Although latent class analysis revealed three different subgroups in the middle-aged adult population based on their environmental preferences, results indicated that cycle path type (i.e. a good separated cycle path) is the most important environmental factor for all participants and certainly for individuals who did not cycle for transport. Furthermore, only negligible differences were found between the importances of the other micro-environmental factors (i.e. traffic density, evenness of the cycle path, maintenance, vegetation and speed limits) regarding the two at risk subgroups and that providing a speed bump obviously has the least impact on the street's appeal to cycle for transport. Results from the current study indicate that only negligible differences were found between the three subgroups. Therefore, it might be suggested that tailored environmental interventions are not required in this research context.

  18. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, B.C.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Hill, G.S.; Kitts, F.G.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-10-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as reasonably achievable in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs, and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. This report is a revision of the original study

  19. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of recycle uranium to UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-04-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from a model recycle uranium conversion and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released radioactive materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist the US NRC in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of a licensable UF 6 production plant and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of uranium. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments is calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. The methodology used in estimating the costs is presented

  20. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little consideration has been given to the environmental impact of anaesthetic gas .... our practice to select gases with a lower environmental impact is also ... is used as raw material for new anaesthetics. ... none in the pipeline.1. Conclusion.

  1. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the ... considered where water is used in the manufacturing sector of South Africa, and to identify ... The boosting requirements attribute most to the electricity dependency of the ...

  2. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  3. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact...) for the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the disposition of the Bureau of Mines property...

  4. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact. 266.19 Section 266.19... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.19 Environmental impact. (a) General. The Administrator has determined that providing..., or other significant adverse environmental impact on any mode of transportation; (6) The action is...

  5. Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using 15 N tracer additions of NHG 4 + , NO 2 - , and NO 3 - . Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured 15 N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH 4 + , while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N 2 O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased

  6. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beginning LCA. A guide into environmental life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, N.W. [ed.; Huppes, G. [Centre of Environmental Science CLM, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Dutilh, C.E. [Unilever, Van den Bergh Netherlands, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    The main goal of this document is to provide practical guidance for those who want to start with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The document has been set up in the form of modules. Module 1 provides arguments to decide whether or not LCA is the right tool to use in a particular case. In this module other ways to study interactions with the environment will be mentioned as well. Module 2 explains the process of formulating the purpose and scope of the study. The results will give a general picture of the characteristics of the LCA. The next step, which is called the inventory analysis, represents the largest amount of work and is split up into four parts, i.e. Modules 3,4,5, and 6. Module 3 gives guidelines and detailed examples on how to construct a flowchart of the study. Module 5 describes how to collect the required data and Module 4 how to define the system boundaries. Finally, the processing of data is described in Module 6. The result of the inventory is a list of emissions and extractions for all processes involved in manufacturing and required for the functioning of a product, service or activity during the entire life cycle. Sometimes results are so clear that you may decide to stop after the inventory stage. Usually however, it is useful to carry out the impact assessment, which is split up into two parts (Modules 7 and 8). Instructions are given on how to translate the list of environmental interventions of the entire life cycle of the product into a table with scores on environmental themes: the classification/characterization. A basic substance list that might be used is added (Module 7). Also a description showing how to evaluate the results of the classification/characterization is given, so that conclusions may be drawn on the information that has been generated (Module 8). Module 9, the last module, describes how to complete the LCA. It provides suggestions on how to present the results and indications about the improvement analysis.

  8. Chinese life cycle impact assessment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jianxin; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2001-01-01

    The methodological basis and procedures for determination of Chinese normalization references and weighting factors according to the EDIP-method is described. According to Chinese industrial development intensity and population density, China was divided into three regions and the normalization...... was determined as the normalization reference (ER ( j)90) divided by society's target contribution in the year 2000 abased on Chinese political reduction plans, ER ( j)(T2000). This paper presents and discuss results obtained for eight different environmental impact categories relevant for China: global warming...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ROAD TRANSPORT IN A PASSENGER CAR USING THE LIFE CYCLE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are an increasingly important aspect of management in the transport sector; new methods have been developed for assessment of the environment in the transport sector using the life cycle approach. The paper presents the application of Well to Wheel (WTW and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in the transport sector. The WTW method focuses on energy analysis and greenhouse gas emissions during the life cycle of fuels. WTW is used to support decision-making on the environmental aspects of transport, particularly with regard to fuel life cycle management, but this method omits important stages in the life cycle, particularly the ones regarding important circular economy guidelines such as reduction of natural resource consumption, impact on human health, etc. The LCA method provides a much broader approach to environmental assessment than WTW. LCA takes into consideration environmental impact in the whole life cycle of the vehicle, from the stage of production, through the period of exploitation, and finally its disposal.

  10. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E E

    1978-04-01

    The radioactivity released from the products of nuclear fission is the main focus of public concern about the expansion in the use of nuclear power despite stringent control measures and precautions taken. Environmental impacts associated with all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle are examined. Discussed are: uranium mining and milling, manufacture of fuel elements for the reactor, transport and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, reactor operation, and management of wastes produced in the cycle. Environmental impacts of a coal-fired power plant are compared with impacts of three nuclear plants with the same generating capacities. Impacts compared are thermal heat waste, effluent radioactivity, air pollution, radioactive and ash waste products, and land used for the plant. The environmental advantages of the nuclear reactors occur in the categories of air pollutant effluents and land used for plants. (45 references, 3 tables)

  11. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  12. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Majid Solat; Du, Guangli; Pacoste, Costin

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to integrate environmental impact optimization in the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges in order to determine the most environmental-friendly design. The case study bridge used in this work was also investigated in a previous paper...... focusing on the optimization of the investment cost, while the present study focuses on environmental impact optimization and comparing the results of both of these studies. Optimization technique based on the pattern search method was implemented. Moreover, a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......) methodology of ReCiPe and two monetary weighting systems were used to convert environmental impacts into monetary costs. The analysis showed that both monetary weighting systems led to the same results. Furthermore, optimization based on environmental impact generated models with thinner construction elements...

  13. Impact of Environmental Auditing on Environmental Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    and sustainable development, environmental pollution and healthy environment. To achieve the desired sustainable ... Dates: Received: 12February 2018; Revised: 08 April: 2018; Accepted: 16 April 2018 ..... Commerce (ICC), Paris. Lynn, R ...

  14. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  16. Opportunities for biomaterials : economic, environmental and policy aspects along their life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Little was known at the start of these studies regarding the environmental impacts of bulk chemicals production from biomass and whether they could be produced economically. We have therefore analysed the entire life cycle of biomaterials: the production of bio-based chemicals, the application of

  17. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...... improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend...

  18. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  19. Life cycle environmental implications of residential swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Nigel; Williams, Eric

    2010-07-15

    Ownership of private swimming pools in the U.S. grew 2 to 4% per annum from 1997 to 2007. The environmental implications of pool ownership are analyzed by hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) for nine U.S. cities. An operational model is constructed estimating consumption of chemicals, water, and energy for a typical residential pool. The model incorporates geographical climatic variations and upstream water and energy use from electricity and water supply networks. Results vary considerably by city: a factor of 5-6 for both water and energy use. Water use is driven by aridness and length of the swimming season, while energy use is mainly driven by length of the swimming season. Water and energy impacts of pools are significant, particularly in arid climates. In Phoenix for example pools account for 22% and 13% of a household's electricity and water use, respectively. Measures to reduce water and energy use in pools such as optimizing the pump schedule and covering the pool in winter can realize greater savings than many common household efficiency improvements. Private versus community pools are also compared. Community pools in Phoenix use 60% less swimming pool water and energy per household than subdivisions without community pools.

  20. Environmental sustainability assessment of hydropower plant in Europe using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. A. P.; Huda, N.; Farjana, S. H.; Lang, C.

    2018-05-01

    Hydropower is the oldest and most common type of renewable source of electricity available on this planet. The end of life process of hydropower plant have significant environmental impacts, which needs to be identified and minimized to ensure an environment friendly power generation. However, identifying the environmental impacts and health hazards are very little explored in the hydropower processing routes despite a significant quantity of production worldwide. This paper highlight the life-cycle environmental impact assessment of the reservoir based hydropower generation system located in alpine and non-alpine region of Europe, addressing their ecological effects by the ReCiPe and CML methods under several impact-assessment categories such as human health, ecosystems, global warming potential, acidification potential, etc. The Australasian life-cycle inventory database and SimaPro software are utilized to accumulate life-cycle inventory dataset and to evaluate the impacts. The results reveal that plants of alpine region offer superior environmental performance for couple of considered categories: global warming and photochemical oxidation, whilst in the other cases the outcomes are almost similar. Results obtained from this study will take part an important role in promoting sustainable generation of hydropower, and thus towards environment friendly energy production.

  1. 76 FR 21345 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8996-4] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/04/2011 Through 04...

  2. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9010-5] Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal Activities, General Information (202) 564-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through...

  3. Integrated approach for characterizing and comparing exposure-based impacts with life cycle impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ions that involve burden shifting or that result in only incremental improvement. Focusing in the life cycle impacts on widely accepted and applied impact categories like global warming potential or cumulative energy demand aggregating several impact categories will lead to underestimations of life...... to the environment from product-related processes along the product life cycle. We build on a flexible mass balance-based modeling system yielding cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific Product Intake Fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical...... in a product. When combined chemical masses in products and further with toxicity information, this approach is a resourceful way to inform CAA and minimize human exposure to toxic chemicals in consumer products through both product use and environmental emissions. We use an example of chemicals in consumer...

  4. Environmental life cycle assessments for water treatment processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to generate information on the environmental profile of the life cycle of water, including treatment, distribution and collection and disposal (including recycling), in an urban context. As a case study the eThekwini Municipality (with its main city Durban) in South Africa was used. Another aim of ...

  5. Optimising environmental product life cycles: A case study of the European pulp and paper sector

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Paul M.; Gabel, H. Landis; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Van Wassenhove, Luk N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a methodology, based on materials accounting and operational research techniques, to assess different industry configurations according to their life cycle environmental impacts. Rather than evaluating a specific technology, our methodology searches for the feasible configuration with the minimum impact. This approach allows us to address some basic policy-relevant questions regarding technology choice, investment priorities, industrial structures, and international ...

  6. The environmental accounting in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Cintia Nagako; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates how accountancy can contribute to conservation, protection and the recovery of the environment. Firstly, the appearance of accountancy, its performance fields, its terminologies and even the Environmental Accounting Definition is approached, bringing the social balance as a tool for making decisions in the social field. Environmental Accounting is a very useful tool to apply to any entity including the nuclear area by calculating the use in order for the environmental passive to be zero, especially in the activity of the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  7. The use of the droppings for the reduction environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Ara, Alice; Sangiorgi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The use of by-products of livestock such as poultry manure, obtained from the manure of poultry farming, in substitution of chemical formulations, generates benefits of economic nature but especially impact environmental. Subject of this paper is the use manure in the cycle of tanning hides and that of the production of fertilizers. [it

  8. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The

  9. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  10. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  11. Environmental impacts of energy gases. A factual handbook. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This handbook gives a thorough review of gas fuels, their properties, production, environmental impacts, uses as well as comparisons with other fuels (Biofuels, Petroleum, Coal, Peat). Legislation and rules for Sweden and the European Union are also treated. The book is made up of the following chapters: Introduction, Pollutants, Facts on liquid and solid fuels, Facts on gas fuels, Environmental impacts, Regulations, Air quality, Emission limits, Licensing and permits, Economic incentives, Pollution control technology, Appliances, boilers, engines and power plants, Environmental impacts of the full fuel cycle (LCA), Case studies: heating plants, cogeneration, power plants, power production systems, heavy vehicles, Environmental advantages from introduction of gas fuels, R and D needs, Energy and environmental statistics

  12. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  13. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  14. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  15. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  16. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  17. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of microalgal biodiesel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yanfen; Huang Zehao; Ma Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    The entire life cycle of biodiesel produced by microalgal biomasses was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impact loading of the system. The life cycle considers microalgae cultivation, harvesting, drying, oil extraction, anaerobic digestion, oil transportation, esterification, biodiesel transportation and biodiesel combustion. The investigation results show that the fossil energy requirement for the biodiesel production is 0.74 MJ/MJ biodiesel, indicating that 1 MJ of biodiesel requires an input of 0.74 MJ of fossil energy. Accordingly, biodiesel production is feasible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgal biodiesel is 3.69 PET 2010 (Person Equivalents, Targeted, in 2010) and the GWP is 0.16 kg CO 2-eq /MJ biodiesel. The effects of photochemical ozone formation were greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The fossil energy requirement and GWP in this operation were found to be particularly sensitive to oil content, drying rate and esterification rate. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the cultivation of microalgae has the potential to produce an environmentally sustainable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Do energy analysis and environmental impacts of algal biodiesel in China. ► GWP and energy consumption are sensitive to lipid content and drying rate. ► Fossil energy consumption for algal biodiesel is 0.74 MJ/MJ. ► Microalgae are an environmentally sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  18. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  19. Ports Primer: 7.1 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  20. Ports Primer: 7.0 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  1. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects...

  2. Analysis of environmental friendliness of DUPIC fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2001-07-01

    Some properties of irradiated DUPIC fuels are compared with those of other fuel cycles. It was indicated that the toxicity of the DUPIC option based on 1 GWe-yr is much smaller than those of other fuel cycle options, and is just about half the order of magnitude of other fuel cycles. From the activity analysis of 99 Tc and 237 Np, which are important to the long-term transport of fission products stored in geologic media, the DUPIC option, was being contained only about half of those other options. It was found from the actinide content estimation that the MOX option has the lowest plutonium arising based on 1 GWe-year and followed by the DUPIC option. However, fissile Pu content generated in the DUPIC fuel was the lowest among the fuel cycle options. From the analysis of radiation barrier in proliferation resistance aspect, the fresh DUPIC fuel can play a radiation barrier part, better than CANDU spent fuels as well as fresh MOX fuel. It is indicated that the DUPIC fuel cycle has the excellent resistance to proliferation, compared with an existing reprocessing option and CANDU once-through option. In conclusions, DUPIC fuel cycle would have good properties on environmental effect and proliferation resistance, compared to other fuel cycle cases

  3. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  4. Printed and tablet e-paper newspaper from an environmental perspective - A screening life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, Asa; Johansson, Martin; Finnveden, Goeran; Jonsson, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Viable alternatives to conventional newspapers, such as electronic papers, e-papers or e-readers, are intended to have many of the qualities of paper, such as reading using reflective light, high resolution, 180 deg. viewing angle. It has been suggested that the environmental impact of e-paper can be lower than for printed and internet-based newspapers. However, in order to find the facts of the matter, a thorough life cycle perspective covering raw material acquisition, production, use and disposal should preferably be used to study the environmental performance of the different products. A screening life cycle assessment was performed to describe the potential environmental impacts of two product systems; printed on paper and tablet e-paper newspapers. Results show that the most significant phase of the life cycle for both product systems was the production of substrate or platform. Accordingly, key aspects that may affect the resulting environmental performance of newspaper product systems were for the printed newspaper number of readers per copy and number of pages per issue and for the tablet e-paper newspaper lifetime and multi-use of the device. The printed newspaper in general had a higher energy use, higher emissions of gases contributing to climate change and several other impact categories than the tablet e-paper newspaper. It was concluded that tablet e-paper has the potential to decrease the environmental impact of newspaper consumption. However, further studies regarding the environmental impact of production and waste management of electronic devices and internet use, as well as more comprehensive assessment of toxicological impacts are needed. As the data on the electronic devices becomes more comprehensive this may prove to be a major limitation of electronic newspaper systems. Developers are suggested to strive towards minimisation of toxic and rare substances in production.

  5. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ?models? can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks ? one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact ? that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  6. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  7. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D.; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D.; Durão, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards. PMID:28773516

  8. Insulation Cork Boards-Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D; Durão, Vera

    2016-05-20

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A "cradle-to-cradle" environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows ( i.e. , uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage-the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation-the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date "cradle-to-cradle" environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  9. Measures of the Environmental Footprint of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Brett; Tavrides, Emily; Schneider, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Previous estimates of environmental impacts associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle have focused primarily on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Results have varied widely. Section 2 of this report provides a summary of historical estimates. This study revises existing empirical correlations and their underlying assumptions to fit to a more complete set of existing data. This study also addresses land transformation, water withdrawals, and occupational and public health impacts associated with the processes of the front end of the once-through nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium mining, milling, refining, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication. Metrics are developed to allow environmental impacts to be summed across the full set of front end processes, including transportation and disposition of the resulting depleted uranium.

  10. Measures of the Environmental Footprint of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Emily Tavrides; Erich Schneider

    2010-08-01

    Previous estimates of environmental impacts associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle have focused primarily on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Results have varied widely. Section 2 of this report provides a summary of historical estimates. This study revises existing empirical correlations and their underlying assumptions to fit to a more complete set of existing data. This study also addresses land transformation, water withdrawals, and occupational and public health impacts associated with the processes of the front end of the once-through nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium mining, milling, refining, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication. Metrics are developed to allow environmental impacts to be summed across the full set of front end processes, including transportation and disposition of the resulting depleted uranium.

  11. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  12. Comparison of the radiological impacts of thorium and uranium nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.; McBride, J.P.; Frederick, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report compares the radiological impacts of a fuel cycle in which only uranium is recycled, as presented in the Final Generic Environmental Statement on the Use of Recycle Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Fuel in Light Water Cooled Reactors (GESMO), with those of the light-water breeder reactor (LWBR) thorium/uranium fuel cycle in the Final Environmental Statement, Light Water Breeder Reactor Program. The significant offsite radiological impacts from routine operation of the fuel cycles result from the mining and milling of thorium and uranium ores, reprocessing spent fuel, and reactor operations. The major difference between the impacts from the two fuel cycles is the larger dose commitments associated with current uranium mining and milling operations as compared to thorium mining and milling. Estimated dose commitments from the reprocessing of either fuel type are small and show only moderate variations for specific doses. No significant differences in environmental radiological impact are anticipated for reactors using either of the fuel cycles. Radiological impacts associated with routine releases from the operation of either the thorium or uranium fuel cycles can be held to acceptably low levels by existing regulations

  13. Managing environmental and health impacts of uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.E.; Cameron, R., E-mail: robert.vance@oecd.org, E-mail: ron.cameron@oecd.org [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (France)

    2014-07-01

    As the raw material that fuels nuclear power plants that generate significant amounts of electricity with full life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources, uranium is a valuable commodity. Yet uranium mining remains controversial, principally because of environmental and health impacts created when mining was undertaken by governments to meet Cold War strategic requirements. Uranium mining is conducted under significantly different circumstances today. Since the era of military production, societal expectations of environmental protection and the safety of workers and the public have evolved as the outcomes of the early era of mining became apparent, driving changes in regulatory oversight and mining practices. Key aspects of leading practice uranium mining are presented (conventional worker health and safety, worker radiation protection, public health and safety, water quality, tailings and waste rock management) and compared with historic practices to demonstrate the scale of differences. The application of additional aspects of uranium mine life cycle management (public consultation, environmental impact assessment, analysis of socio-economic impacts/benefits, environmental monitoring, financial assurance, product transport, security and safeguards, emergency planning and knowledge transfer), introduced as the industry matured, enhance overall management practices for the long term. Results from several case studies show that improved management of key aspects of uranium mining, combined with the incorporation of new life cycle parameters, have transformed the industry into the most regulated and arguably one of the safest and environmentally responsible types of mining in the world. (author)

  14. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  15. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  16. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  17. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  18. Public understanding of environmental impacts of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Branden B.; Frank, Pamela G.

    2006-01-01

    Electricity deregulation has aroused concern that environmental quality might be harmed by consumer preferences for cheap, 'dirty' (e.g., coal) electricity products, despite the perhaps stronger influence of supply side policy on environmental impacts. This outcome depends on public understanding of the environmental impacts of their decisions, which this study explored with interviews, focus groups, and surveys in New Jersey. People had thought little about the topic, were unable to articulate how electricity production might affect the environment except in very general terms, and were mostly unwilling to guess whether deregulation's impacts would be negative, neutral or positive. Those who did guess expected negative impacts less than any other kind. Reactions to specific 'reasons' for expecting no, positive or negative impacts suggested that consumers had little structure to their mental models in this area; for example, people who thought positive-impact reasons were probably true were not necessarily likely to see negative-impact reasons as probably false. However, in the aggregate, people seemed to have a fairly consistent ranking of energy sources by expected negative environmental impacts. Earlier research found that consumers comparing two electricity products on environmental impacts reached different decisions if they had energy-source-only or energy-source-plus-emissions information. Although regulator-required 'environmental labels' for electricity products provide both source and emissions data, it is not clear that they do an adequate job of both alerting consumers to the possibility of negative environmental impacts and identifying the relative life-cycle impacts of different products so as to produce informed consumer decisions

  19. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has been using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a tool for predicting and assessing the impact of development projects on the environment. This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. Desktop study of ...

  20. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Poroddsson, P.

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  1. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Santos, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  2. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)/Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 13, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, Maria J., E-mail: M.J.FerreiraDosSantos@uu.nl [Department of Innovation, Environmental and Energy Sciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3572 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  3. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Diets with Improved Omega-3 Fatty Acid Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R V Coelho

    Full Text Available A high incidence of cardiovascular disease is observed worldwide, and dietary habits are one of the risk factors for these diseases. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet help to prevent cardiovascular disease. We used life cycle assessment to analyse the potential of two strategies to improve the nutritional and environmental characteristics of French diets: 1 modifying diets by changing the quantities and proportions of foods and 2 increasing the omega-3 contents in diets by replacing mainly animal foods with equivalent animal foods having higher omega-3 contents. We also investigated other possibilities for reducing environmental impacts. Our results showed that a diet compliant with nutritional recommendations for macronutrients had fewer environmental impacts than the current average French diet. Moving from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet further reduced environmental impacts. Increasing the omega-3 contents in animal rations increased Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA in animal food products. Providing these enriched animal foods in human diets increased their EPA and DHA contents without affecting their environmental impacts. However, in diets that did not contain fish, EPA and DHA contents were well below the levels recommended by health authorities, despite the inclusion of animal products enriched in EPA and DHA. Reducing meat consumption and avoidable waste at home are two main avenues for reducing environmental impacts of diets.

  4. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management.

  5. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  6. Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment : An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  7. Environmental impact of manufacturing softwood lumber in northeastern and north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Finding the environmental impact of building materials is becoming increasingly more important because of public environmental awareness. Accurate and precise life-cycle inventory data on wood products are needed to meet this demand. This study examined softwood lumber manufacturing in the northeastern and north central US using life-cycle inventory methods. Material...

  8. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental management throughout the mining cycle: a proactive and integrated approach - 5288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, E.; Rayot, V.; Descostes, M.; Luquet de Saint Germain, V.; Recoche, G.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities such as mining generate environmental impacts. The purpose of AREVA Mines is to avoid and/or to minimize them as much as possible in order to improve its integration into its environment. In this article AREVA environmental strategy is illustrated by 3 case studies: -) project and exploration works in Mongolia, -) the post-mining remediation in Mongolia and Kazakhstan, and -) the closing of the Bellezane (France) site. In conclusion, AREVA environmental strategy for its mining activities is: -) assuming a proactive approach to prevent potential risks and impacts on environment, -) developing a scientific and detailed knowledge of the impacts on environment and implementing appropriate mitigation measures, -) monitoring the environment at the earliest stages of the mining cycle, -) investing in research and development to improve our practices, and -) taking into account the concerns and the knowledge of our stakeholders, and the social and cultural aspects directly linked to the site environment

  10. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under 23 CFR part 771, the repair or reconstruction of... unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on environmental... the action normally has significant environmental impacts either individually or cumulatively and may...

  11. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land......Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated...

  13. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  14. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    The code of practice of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the recent international standards and technical reports from ISO are widely accepted as general frameworks for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) but they are not detailed methodological references, since international...... between modelled impact and the occurrence of actual impact. This technical report aims to contribute to a solution of the poor accuracy of the assessed impact in typical LCA resulting from the present disregard of spatial information in LCA....

  15. A life cycle multi-objective economic and environmental assessment of distributed generation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lifecycle optimization model for distributed energy systems is developed. • Model estimates costs and environmental impacts of meeting the building energy demand. • Design and operating strategies to reduce costs and environmental impacts are discussed. • Pareto frontiers of costs vis-à-vis environmental impacts are presented. • Distributed generation can reduce the environmental impacts of the building sector. - Abstract: Distributed generation, namely cogeneration and solar technologies, is expected to play an important role in the future energy supply mix in buildings. This calls for a methodological framework to assess the economic and environmental performance of the building sector when such technologies are employed. A life-cycle model has been developed, combining distributed generation and conventional sources to calculate the cost and environmental impacts of meeting the building energy demand over a defined planning period. Three type of cogeneration technologies, solar photovoltaic and thermal, as well as conventional boilers along with the Portuguese electricity generation mix comprise the energy systems modeled. Pareto optimal frontiers are derived, showing the trade-offs between different types of impacts (non-renewable cumulative energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication) and cost to meet the energy demand of a commercial building. Our analysis shows that according to the objective to employ distributed generation (reducing cost or environmental impacts), a specific design and operational strategy for the energy systems shall be adopted. The strategies to minimize each type of impact and the associated cost trade-offs by exploring the solutions located on the Pareto optimal frontiers are discussed

  16. Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) 1 and Integral Fast Reactor (IF) 2 technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle

  17. Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle-based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Valentina; Sala, Serenella; Mirabella, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In the context of a circular economy, sustainable consumption is often seen as the antithesis of current consumption patterns, which have led to the definition of the so-called throwaway society. Reuse may provide a preferred alternative to other waste management options, because it promotes resource efficiency and may significantly reduce environmental impacts. To appraise the environmental benefits related to reuse of goods, a methodology adopting life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed. A standardized procedure has been developed, identifying reference products within product category subject to reuse, and collecting reliable inventory data as a basis for calculating environmental impact through LCA. A case study on a second-hand shop is presented, and the avoided impacts are quantified. Inventory data were taken both from the literature and directly from sales and surveys submitted to customers. The results are presented, highlighting: 1) for each product category, the average avoided impacts for 1 unit of reused product considered; and 2) for the overall activities of the second-hand shop, the cumulative avoided impacts in 1 yr. In the case study, the higher contribution to avoided impacts comes from the apparel sector, due to the high amount of items sold, followed by the furniture sector, because of the high amount of environmental impacts avoided by the reuse of each single item. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Comparison of the Overall Environmental Footprint between Current and Future Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is anticipated to be one of the possible energy sources which can allow the production of energy at high load with a high level of reliability without significant impact on the environment. Nowadays, most of the countries have chosen an open fuel cycle which basically considers spent nuclear fuel as a waste, whereas others like France, the United Kingdom, Japan and soon China reprocess their spent fuel to recover the plutonium (and partially U) to produce mixed oxide fuel to be irradiated in a second cycle. In a second step, considering the possibility of fertilising 238 U to 239 Pu in fast reactors, recycling major actinides is thought to be a major improvement towards the global sustainability of the nuclear energy: It will indeed allow the natural resource efficiency to be increased by orders of magnitude by consuming quantitatively the natural uranium resource involved. Driven by the Fukushima accident, nuclear energy is currently questioned about its overall environmental impact and footprint. However, very little information is available on the actual footprint of current and future nuclear systems. In order to bring insights on this issue, a life cycle assessment simulation tool NELCAS was developed based on the French nuclear closed fuel cycle. It allows the calculation of representative key environmental indicators and potential impact indicators for the whole nuclear systems. The very good consistency of the results with the literature data confirms the relevance and robustness of NELCAS. It was subsequently used to derive representative indicators for open and future potential fuel cycles, i.e. mixed GEN3 and GEN4 reactors fleet and full GEN4 reactors fleet. The results demonstrate the very significant improvement brought by the actinides recycling and the future fuel cycle. Most of the indicators are very significantly decreased with the implementation of long-term recycling strategies. This paper will

  19. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  20. Environmental and economic life cycle analysis of plastic waste management options. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, C. A.; Simões, Carla L.; Pinto, Lígia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, rising worldwide plastic consumption led to the generation of increasing amounts of plastic waste and to the awareness of the importance of its management. In that framework, the present work describes how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic assessment methodologies can be used for evaluating environmental and economic impacts of alternative plastic waste management systems. The literature on LCA of plastic waste management systems is vast and the results reported are ge...

  1. Bioturbation: impact on the marine nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, Bonnie; Gilbert, Jack A; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Sediments play a key role in the marine nitrogen cycle and can act either as a source or a sink of biologically available (fixed) nitrogen. This cycling is driven by a number of microbial remineralization reactions, many of which occur across the oxic/anoxic interface near the sediment surface. The presence and activity of large burrowing macrofauna (bioturbators) in the sediment can significantly affect these microbial processes by altering the physicochemical properties of the sediment. For example, the building and irrigation of burrows by bioturbators introduces fresh oxygenated water into deeper sediment layers and allows the exchange of solutes between the sediment and water column. Burrows can effectively extend the oxic/anoxic interface into deeper sediment layers, thus providing a unique environment for nitrogen-cycling microbial communities. Recent studies have shown that the abundance and diversity of micro-organisms can be far greater in burrow wall sediment than in the surrounding surface or subsurface sediment; meanwhile, bioturbated sediment supports higher rates of coupled nitrification-denitrification reactions and increased fluxes of ammonium to the water column. In the present paper we discuss the potential for bioturbation to significantly affect marine nitrogen cycling, as well as the molecular techniques used to study microbial nitrogen cycling communities and directions for future study.

  2. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer, E-mail: mchester@cal.berkeley.edu, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.edu, E-mail: madanat@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM{sub 10} (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO{sub 2}e by 6-23 g CO{sub 2}e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  3. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  4. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  5. Life Cycle Impact Assessment in the Arctic: Challenges and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Berg Pettersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is increasingly used for environmental assessment of products and production processes to support environmental decision-making both worldwide and in the Arctic. However, there are several weaknesses in the impact assessment methodology in LCA, e.g., related to uncertainties of impact assessment results, absence of spatial differentiation in characterization modeling, and gaps in the coverage of impact pathways of different “archetypal” environments. Searching for a new resource base and areas for operation, marine and marine-based industries are continuously moving north, which underlines the need for better life cycle impact assessment in the Arctic, particularly to aid in industrial environmental management systems and stakeholder communications. This paper aims to investigate gaps and challenges in the application of the currently available impact assessment methods in the Arctic context. A simplified Arctic mining LCA case study was carried out to demonstrate the relevance of Arctic emissions at the midpoint and endpoint levels, as well as possible influences of the Arctic context on the impact assessment results. Results of this study showed that significant research gaps remain in Arctic-dependent life cycle impact assessment, particularly on: (i the possible influences of the Arctic-specific features on characterization factors for impact assessment (such as seasonality, cold climate, precipitation, and marine dependence; and (ii the coverage of impact pathways, especially on the under-addressed marine impacts and marine/near-shore dispersion processes. Addressing those identified research gaps and demand for future Arctic life cycle impact assessment could increase the credibility of LCA as an environmental decision-making support tool for Arctic industries and better support sustainable Arctic development.

  6. Environmental life cycle assessment of grain maize production: An analysis of factors causing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Lieselot; Van Linden, Veerle; De Meester, Steven; Vandecasteele, Bart; Muylle, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Nemecek, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-05-15

    To meet the growing demand, high yielding, but environmentally sustainable agricultural plant production systems are desired. Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess the environmental impact of these agricultural systems. However, the impact results are very diverse due to management decisions or local natural conditions. The impact of grain maize is often generalized and an average is taken. Therefore, we studied variation in production systems. Four types of drivers for variability are distinguished: policy, farm management, year-to-year weather variation and innovation. For each driver, scenarios are elaborated using ReCiPe and CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment) to assess the environmental footprint. Policy limits fertilisation levels in a soil-specific way. The resource consumption is lower for non-sandy soils than for sandy soils, but entails however more eutrophication. Farm management seems to have less influence on the environmental impact when considering the CEENE only. But farm management choices such as fertiliser type have a large effect on emission-related problems (e.g. eutrophication and acidification). In contrast, year-to-year weather variation results in large differences in the environmental footprint. The difference in impact results between favourable and poor environmental conditions amounts to 19% and 17% in terms of resources and emissions respectively, and irrigation clearly is an unfavourable environmental process. The best environmental performance is obtained by innovation as plant breeding results in a steadily increasing yield over 25 years. Finally, a comparison is made between grain maize production in Flanders and a generically applied dataset, based on Swiss practices. These very different results endorse the importance of using local data to conduct LCA of plant production systems. The results of this study show decision makers and farmers how they can improve the

  7. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  8. Environmental impacts on technical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between an object and its environment is examined by methods of environment simulation. With regard to possible synergisms, technical considerations and holistic thinking are essential. Environmental simulation is mainly concerned with questions of ability to function and the service life of technical products in their environment. The environmental simulation is used to discover cause/effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Questions of artificial ageing and speeded up time tests play a great part here. (orig.) [de

  9. Influence of Geographic Factors on the Life Cycle Climate Change Impacts of Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, M. O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool to measure the cradle-to-grave climate change impacts of the sustainable energy systems that are planned to replace conventional fossil energy-based systems. The recent inclusion of geographic specificity in bioenergy LCAs has shown that the relative sustainability of these energy sources is often dependent on geographic factors, such as the climate change impact of changing the land cover and local resource availability. However, this development has not yet been implemented to most LCAs of energy systems that do not have biological feedstocks, such as wind, water, and solar-based energy systems. For example, the tidal velocity where tidal rotors are installed can significantly alter the life cycle climate change impacts of electricity generated using the same technology in different locations. For LCAs of solar updraft towers, the albedo change impacts arising from changing the reflectivity of the land that would be converted can be of the same magnitude as other life cycle process climate change impacts. Improvements to determining the life cycle climate change impacts of renewable energy technologies can be made by utilizing GIS and satellite data and by conducting site-specific analyses. This practice can enhance our understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of technologies that are aimed to reduce the impacts of our current energy systems, and it can improve the siting of new systems to optimize a reduction in climate change impacts.

  10. Environmental correlates of cycling: Evaluating urban form and location effects based on Danish micro-data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the environmental correlates of cycling based on Danish transportation and urban form micro-data. The results show that established walkability factors such as density, connectivity and diversity are related to cycling, but access to retail concentrations/centres, public...... and the distance cycled. A high probability of cycling generally implies short cycling distances leading to non-uniform, non-monotonous relationship between environmental indicators such as walkability and cycling....

  11. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Messagie, M.; Mertens, J.; Laget, H.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  12. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  13. Environmental impact of Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2005-01-01

    Environmental impact of the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) has been quantitatively evaluated in terms of the radiotoxicity of transuranic (TRU) and fission-product radionuclides existing in the environment after released from failed packages. Inventory abstraction has been made based on the data published in Final Environmental Impact Statement published by US DOE. Mathematical model and computation code have been developed based on analytical solutions. Environmental impact from the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) packages is about 90% of the total impact including the contribution from defense waste (DW) packages. Impacts due to isotopes of Cm, Am, Pu and Np, and their decay daughters are dominant, compared with those from fission-product nuclides. Numerical results show that reduction of the TRU nuclides by a factor of 100 makes the impact from CSNF smaller than that from DW. (author)

  14. Advanced coal combustion technologies and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic, Maja; Feretic, Danilo; Tomsic, Zeljko

    1997-01-01

    Estimations of world energy reserves show that coal will remain the leading primary energy source for electricity production in the foreseeable future. In order to comply with ever stricter environmental regulations and to achieve efficient use of limited energy resources, advanced combustion technologies are being developed. The most promising are the pressurised fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). By injecting sorbent in the furnace, PFBC removes more than 90 percent of SO 2 in flue gases without additional emission control device. In addition, due to lower combustion temperature, NO x emissions are around 90 percent lower than those from pulverised coal (PC) plant. IGCC plant performance is even more environmentally expectable and its high efficiency is a result of a combined cycle usage. Technical, economic and environmental characteristics of mentioned combustion technologies will be presented in this paper. Comparison of PFBC, IGCC and PC power plants economics and air impact will also be given. (Author)

  15. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  16. Impacts of Environmental Discourse on Environmental Art and its Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Plešivčnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the field of environmental art and assesses the impacts of the prevailing environmental discourse on environmental and ecological topics in the development of art. It shows how the popularization of environmental discourse and environmental themes encouraged the growth of art that is entirely focused on its ecological and environmental contexts. In the context of researching art in terms of promoting deep and positive changes in the appreciation of the environment and nature, this research also stresses the importance of the aesthetic experience of the environment in artistic creation. Exploring this approach reveals key differences between artists who focus on solving ecological problems and aesthetically engaged artists who adopt a deep and inclusive focus on the environment itself.

  17. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  18. Assigment of environmental aspect and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management system (EMS is a part of the management system that includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy. The EMS provides the order and consistency for organizations to adress environmental cocerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibilities, and the ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. The ISO 14001 requires the implementation of the EMS in accordance with defined, internationally recognized standards. The ISO standard specifies requirements for establishing an environmental policy, determining environmental aspects & impacts of products (activities services, planning environmental objectives and measurable targets, implementation & operation of programs to meet objectives and targets, checking &corrective action, and management review. The Environmental aspect is an element of organization’s activities, product or services that can interact with the environment. A significant environmental aspect is that with a significant environmental impact. The environmental impact is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial wholly or partially resulting from an oranization’s activities, products or services.

  19. Combined nutritional and environmental life cycle assessment of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    -LCA) framework that compares environmental and nutritional effects of foods in a common end -point metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In the assessment, environmental health impact categories include green house gases, particulate matter (PM), and pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables, while......; 35 μDALY/serving fruit benefit compared to a factor 10 lower impact. Replacing detrimental foods, such as trans-fat and red meat, with fruits or vegetables further enhances health benefit. This study illustrates the importance of considering nutritional effects in food-LCA.......Nutritional health effects from the ‘use stage’ of the life cycle of food products can be substantial, especially for fruits and vegetables. To assess potential one-serving increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe, we employ the Combined Nutritional and Environmental LCA (CONE...

  20. Environmental assessment of contaminated site remediation in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte

    is an environmental assessment tool that compiles a very wide array of environmental exchanges (emissions to air, water, and soil, and resource consumption) associated with the life cycle of a product or service .and translates them to impacts (global warming, acidification, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, etc...... fate and transport models. This made it possible to account for important processes, such as the formation of chlorinated degradation products and to include the site-specific exposure of humans via ingestion of groundwater used for drinking water. The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental......-cleaning and industries. Chloroethenes are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) with high density and viscosity and low solubility in water. These characteristics allow a spill to migrate deep into the subsurface, where it can act as long-term source of dissolved-phase groundwater contamination. Due to the longevity...

  1. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni–MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA–MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni–MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  2. Minimization of the LCA impact of thermodynamic cycles using a combined simulation-optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, Robert; Cortés, Daniel; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Boer, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: ► Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. ► Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. ► Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. ► Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.

  3. Minimization of the LCA impact of thermodynamic cycles using a combined simulation-optimization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Robert; Cortes, Daniel [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Guillen-Gosalbez, Gonzalo [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Jimenez, Laureano [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Boer, Dieter [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades, Avinguda Paisos Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    This work presents a computational approach for the simultaneous minimization of the total cost and environmental impact of thermodynamic cycles. Our method combines process simulation, multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment (LCA) within a unified framework that identifies in a systematic manner optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Our approach takes advantages of the complementary strengths of process simulation (in which mass, energy balances and thermodynamic calculations are implemented in an easy manner) and rigorous deterministic optimization tools. We demonstrate the capabilities of this strategy by means of two case studies in which we address the design of a 10 MW Rankine cycle modeled in Aspen Hysys, and a 90 kW ammonia-water absorption cooling cycle implemented in Aspen Plus. Numerical results show that it is possible to achieve environmental and cost savings using our rigorous approach. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel framework for the optimal design of thermdoynamic cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined use of simulation and optimization tools. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal design and operating conditions according to several economic and LCA impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design of a 10MW Rankine cycle in Aspen Hysys, and a 90kW absorption cycle in Aspen Plus.

  4. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of long-term organic rice production in a Subtropical area of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xueqing, He; Qiao, Yuhui; Liang, Long

    2018-01-01

    a considerable environmental impact and changing from conventional to organic rice cultivation might therefore have a potentially great impact. Meanwhile, it takes time for the organic farming systems to reach a new steady state after conversion to organic. Thus, the environmental profile of the organic products...... will change over time and it is therefore important to examine whether the difference to conventional will be reduced (and disappear) or be increased over time. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the environmental impact of organic rice production 5 (OR5), 10 (OR10) and 15 (OR15) years since...... conversion and compare it to conventional rice (CR) in subtropical China. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to assess environmental impact of rice production systems with regard to nine environmental impact categories: Non-renewable Energy Depletion (NED), Water Depletion (WD), Land Occupation...

  5. Impact assessment modelling of matter-less stressors in the context of Life Cycle Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In the last three decades, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework has grown to establish itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impacts of product systems.LCA studies are now conducted globally both in and outside the academia and also used as a basis for policy

  6. Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility impact gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Alpha Fuels Environmental Test Facility (AFETF) impact gun is a unique tool for impact testing 238 PuO 2 -fueled heat sources of up to 178-mm dia at velocities to 300 m/s. An environmentally-sealed vacuum chamber at the muzzle of the gun allows preheating of the projectile to 1,000 0 C. Immediately prior to impact, the heat source projectile is completely sealed in a vacuum-tight catching container to prevent escape of its radioactive contents should rupture occur. The impact velocity delivered by this gas-powered gun can be regulated to within +-2%

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During project study and design, major environmental impacts of water ... should be identified and made available for decision makers and the public. ... remotely sensed data can be analysed in GIS environment to generate data and map the ...

  8. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  9. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  10. Environmental impacts of Proalcool: production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Nassi, C.D.; Barcellos, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by the Programa Nacional do Alcool -PROALCOOL - Brazil, are analysed. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States are studied, comparing the regional differences. The production and the consumption phases are analysed separately. (L.J.C.)

  11. Biomass burning: Its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the following topics are discussed: global estimates of amounts of biomass burning; kinds and amounts of emissions to the atmosphere; environmental transport and atmospheric chemistry of these emissions; and environmental impacts. These impacts include acid deposition, climate changes, disruption of nutrient cycles, soil degradation, perturbation of stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer

  12. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Hong, Jingmin; Otaki, Masahiro; Jolliet, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion. Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. The global warming potential (GWP) generated from incineration and melting processes can be significantly reduced through the reuse of waste heat for electricity and/or heat generation. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible. In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost. Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method.

  13. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  14. The environmental impact of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, N; Langley, R; Reuter, G

    1998-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of disposable medical devices and other medical products brings major benefits to mankind. Furthermore there are potential opportunities to use the irradiation process to significantly improve our environment. Careful examination of the environmental impact of both electron beam and gamma irradiators confirms that these major benefits are not achieved at any significant environmental cost

  15. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  16. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  17. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  18. Environmental sustainability: plastic's evolving role in the automotive life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jekel, L.; Tam, E.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    One method of assessing the sustainability of manufactured products involves performing a life cycle analysis for a product and comparing it to alternative ones, or else examining if individual stages of the product can be modified. LCA applications are being used more extensively, especially in the automotive and related industries. Automotive plastics in particular are being scrutinized with much greater care. Plastic components have replaced metal ones in vehicle manufacturing to improve vehicle fuel efficiency and aesthetics. However, at the end of a vehicle's life, recycling rates for plastic are negligible when compared to those of steel. In order to gain the full environmental benefits of using plastic as a vehicle material, plastics must be recycled at the end of a vehicle's life, especially given their increasing use. While a variety of processes have been developed for the recycling of automotive plastics, the challenges of sorting, processing, and finally recycling a heterogeneous mixture of used plastics have yet to be effectively solved. A preliminary life cycle assessment of a plastic automotive fascia demonstrates the usefulness of this eco-balance technique in evaluating potential improvements to manufacturing and end-of-life processes. Improving the manufacturing process may reduce environmental burdens to a larger extent than just recycling the plastic. (author)

  19. Environmental impact assessment - a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography of literature relevant to the environmental impact assessment process is essentially a list of material dealing with the environmental impact assessment process held by Griffith University Library. The list is however well supplemented with citations of material not held in the Griffith University Library. Some economic and social impact assessment citations have been included in the bibliography, as the the environmental impact assessment concept has been interpreted very broadly. The citations are arranged according to broad subject areas, such as methodology, critical reviews, social impacts etc. Citations in each of these subject areas, which are listed in the table of contents, are identified by prefixes which are given in parentheses before the subjects headings. Within each subject area the citations are arragend in alphabetic author sequence

  20. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Camille; Seconda, Louise; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Langevin, Brigitte; Pointereau, Philippe; Lairon, Denis; Baudry, Julia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED), and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA) at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age. Participants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile) were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissions Q5vsQ1  = 838/1,664 kg CO 2eq /year, -49.6%, P  impacts but only among participants with diets rich in plant-based products. Future field studies should endeavor to integrate all the components of a sustainable diet, i.e., both diet composition and production methods.

  1. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King... prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed...

  2. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement...: The FHWA is issuing this notice of intent to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement... the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS...

  3. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement... Columbia, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact... agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) will be prepared to assess the...

  4. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts

  5. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  6. Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Eckard; Marx, Patrick [Trier University of Applied Sciences, Birkenfeld (Germany). Institut fuer Angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)

    2012-12-15

    Electric vehicles have been identified as being a key technology in reducing future emissions and energy consumption in the mobility sector. The focus of this article is to review and assess the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of battery electric cars (BEV), which is the only technical alternative on the market available today to vehicles with internal combustion engine (ICEV). Electricity onboard a car can be provided either by a battery or a fuel cell (FCV). The technical structure of BEV is described, clarifying that it is relatively simple compared to ICEV. Following that, ICEV can be 'e-converted' by experienced personnel. Such an e-conversion project generated reality-close data reported here. Practicability of today's BEV is discussed, revealing that particularly small-size BEVs are useful. This article reports on an e-conversion of a used Smart. Measurements on this car, prior and after conversion, confirmed a fourfold energy efficiency advantage of BEV over ICEV, as supposed in literature. Preliminary energy efficiency data of FCV are reviewed being only slightly lower compared to BEV. However, well-to-wheel efficiency suffers from 47% to 63% energy loss during hydrogen production. With respect to energy efficiency, BEVs are found to represent the only alternative to ICEV. This, however, is only true if the electricity is provided by very efficient power plants or better by renewable energy production. Literature data on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by ICEV compared to BEV suffer from a 25% underestimation of ICEV-standardized driving cycle numbers in relation to street conditions so far. Literature data available for BEV, on the other hand, were mostly modeled and based on relatively heavy BEV as well as driving conditions, which do not represent the most useful field of BEV operation. Literature data have been compared with measurements based on the converted Smart, revealing a distinct GHG emissions

  7. Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, Alejandro; Aguado, Antonio; Cardim, Arnaldo; Byars, Ewan

    2007-01-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content

  8. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  9. Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

  10. Environmentally important radionuclides in non-proliferative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Increased emphasis in energy research is being given to the development of nonproliferative nuclear fuel cycles and to the assessment of potential release of radionuclides to the environment from these new cycles. Four radionuclides, 14 C, 3 H, 99 Tc, and 232 U, due to lack of adequate knowledge or anticipated increased production in nonproliferative fuel cycles, may require renewed consideration. Our projections indicate that releases of 14 C by the global nuclear industry could exceed the natural production rate of 3.8 x 10 4 Ci/y by the year 2000 and could eventually stabilize at 2.3 times that rate. Tritium may become increasingly important, because recent data from fast reactors (of the nonproliferative type) have confirmed production rates up to 13 times greater than previous estimates. Present radwaste systems do not remove tritium. Recent experiments on the uptake of 99 Tc reveal that soil-to-plant concentration factors for technetium appear to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the value of 0.25 which has been adopted routinely in radiological assessments. Research is needed to determine reliable 99 Tc soil-to-plant concentration factors because this radionuclide could be released at reprocessing and enrichment facilities. New calculations for certain reactors indicate that 232 U may be formed in concentrations up to 4000 ppm. If accurate, such data will require careful analysis of possible releases of 232 U because of external and food chain exposures. The environmental health aspects of these four radionuclides are discussed, as well as the potential for their release to the environment from nonproliferative fuel cycles. (author)

  11. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, ‘resources’ and ‘climate change’ categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  12. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Limestone Quarrying Operations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2017-11-01

    Environmental impacts of the mineral extraction have been a public concern. Presently, there is widespread global interest in the area of mining and its sustainability that focused on the need to shift mining industry to a more sustainable framework. The aim of this study was to systematically assess all possible environmental and climate change related impacts of the limestone quarrying operation in Thailand. By considering the life cycle assessment method, the production processes were divided into three phases: raw material extraction, transportation, and comminution. Both IMPACT 2002+ and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol methods were used. Results of IMPACT 2002+ analysis showed that per 1 ton crushed limestone rock production, the total depletion of resource and GHGs emissions were 79.6 MJ and 2.76 kg CO2 eq., respectively. Regarding to the four damage categories, `resources' and `climate change' categories were the two greatest environmental impacts of the limestone rock production. Diesel fuel and electricity consumption in the mining processes were the main causes of those impacts. For climate change, the unit of CO2 eq. was expressed to quantify the total GHGs emissions. Estimated result was about 3.13 kg CO2 eq. per ton limestone rock product. The results obtained by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol were also similar to IMPACT 2002+ method. Electrical energy consumption was considered as the main driver of GHGs, accounting for approximately 46.8 % of total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. A final point should be noted that data uncertainties in environmental assessment over the complete life cycle of limestone quarrying operation have to be carefully considered.

  13. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Alvaro; Diaz Sierra, R.; Martin-Aranda, Rosa; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship

  14. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  15. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a...

  16. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  17. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: Incineration and base catalyzed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xintao; Zhu Jianxin; Ding Qiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the environmental impacts of two kinds of remediation technologies including Infrared High Temperature Incineration(IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition(BCD). → Combined midpoint/damage approaches were calculated for two technologies. → The results showed that major environmental impacts arose from energy consumption. → BCD has a lower environmental impact than IHTI in the view of single score. - Abstract: Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and

  18. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  19. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  20. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the alternative sources for meeting the increasing world requirements for energy production. The world's nuclear electrical power production has been increasing at a rapid rate and is expected to reach about 620 GWe by 1985 and about 3300 GWe by the year 2000. This continuing increase would be impossible without an equivalent expansion of available fuel supplies, enrichment capacity, fuel fabrication capacity, irradiated fuel reprocessing capacity, and finally appropriate facilities for dealing with the nuclear wastes which will arise in due course. The present report reviews the environmental impacts encountered at each step of the nuclear fuel cycle which consists of the processes of mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to fuel material and fabrication of fuel elements, reactor design and operation, reprocessing of spent fuel, and disposal of radioactive wastes. It also includes a review of the environmental impact of transportation of radioactive material between installations handling different steps of the cycle. Although the environmental impacts arising at certain stages in the nuclear fuel cycle are similar to some of those encountered in the fossil-fuel cycle (for example, the ecological effects of strip mining of ores and/or thermal discharges), there are some unique impacts related to nuclear power generation. Perhaps the most important of these is the radioactivity released from the decay products of nuclear fission. Although most of the radionuclides released into the environment are of local or regional concern, because their half-lives are short compared to the time involved in their dispersion, some radionuclides have long half-lives and can, therefore, become widely distributed. This has been the main focus of public concern and debate with respect to the expansion in nuclear power utilisation, in spite of the strict regulations and safety measures undertaken

  1. Evaluation of the environmental impact in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, O.

    2004-01-01

    The present work, shows the origin and development of the evaluation of the environmental impact in Mexico, like juridical-environmental instrument, it is the environmental politics' s instrument that is relatively new, with the time it has suffered modifications of technical, administrative, law and conceptual nature. It has changed in substantial form, its importance inside the general outline of protection of the natural resources of Mexico, which is reflected in the structure of the organisms that are responsible for applying it. The objectives of the work embrace describing the antecedents of the evaluation of the environmental impact, to provide a reference mark, and to observe the evolution of this juridical instrument, as well as to summarize more outstanding aspects of the evaluation of the environmental impact; making emphasis in the form like it has been related with the environmental politics' s instruments; and to point out the changes that the procedure of evaluation of the environmental impact has fomented in the development outlines, in the technology and even in the human thought. The results of the evaluation and dictamination of the projects that entered to the procedure of environmental impact in the period 1995-2000 are observed that of the 6,100 entered projects, 5,533 were resolved, which means that answer was given to 91% of the total of projects that entered; of the work it can be concluded that this juridical-environmental instrument, it has evolved with the step of the time and it has left adapting according to the juridical, administrative procedures, technicians and of sustainable development of Mexico

  2. Environmental impacts of a lignocellulose feedstock biorefinery system: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uihlein, Andreas; Schebek, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is a sustainable alternative to fossil energy carriers which are used to produce fuels, electricity, chemicals, and other goods. At the moment, the main biobased products are obtained by the conversion of biomass to basic products like starch, oil, and cellulose. In addition, some single chemicals and fuels are produced. Presently, concepts of biorefineries which will produce a multitude of biomass-derived products are discussed. Biorefineries are supposed to contribute to a more sustainable resource supply and to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, biobased products and fuels may also be associated with environmental disadvantages due to, e.g. land use or eutrophication of water. We performed a Life Cycle Assessment of a lignocellulose feedstock biorefinery system and compared it to conventional product alternatives. The biorefinery was found to have the greatest environmental impacts in the three categories: fossil fuel use, respiratory effects, and carcinogenics. The environmental impacts predominantly result from the provision of hydrochloric acid and to a smaller extent also from the provision of process heat. As the final configuration of the biorefinery cannot be determined yet, various variants of the biorefinery system were analysed. The optimum variant (acid and heat recoveries) yields better results than the fossil alternatives, with the total environmental impacts being approx. 41% lower than those of the fossil counterparts. For most biorefinery variants analysed, the environmental performance in some impact categories is better than that of the fossil counterparts while disadvantages can be seen in other categories.

  3. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report contains supplemental information to the Environmental Impact Statement that was issued on the proposed second nuclear generating station Point Lepreau-2 in New Brunswick, Canada. Some issues dealt with here are the terrestrial and aquatic impacts of radioactive and thermal releases to the environment, radiation safety for the human population, socio-economic impacts on the region in regards to housing, social services and employment, and monitoring programs for all aspects of the development, construction and operation of the plant

  4. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlson, Mårten; Mörtberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  5. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  6. Environmental impact of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, Joel N.; McAlpin, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring of electric utilities affects environmental quality primarily through its effect on airborne emissions. We examine emissions from 1993 to 2002 and discuss possible explanatory factors. Annual NOx and SO 2 emissions fell nationally, mostly due to decreases in emission limits driven by state and Federal regulations. CO 2 emissions have increased almost proportionately with increased generation. Generation increased more than it would have, partly due to energy efficiency spending reductions that accompanied deregulation. The fuel mix shifted slightly from coal to gas, offsetting some CO 2 emissions increases and contributing to SO 2 and NOx emissions decreases. While the percentage share of generation from renewable sources remained at about 2%, recent and expected future increases in wind generating capacity promise future emissions reductions. Although deregulation lacks clear environmental advantages, the deregulation process creates an opportunity for implementation of state policies to reduce emissions. Regulated and deregulated states with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have a higher average percent of generation from renewable sources. Average energy efficiency savings are higher in regulated states, but slightly higher in deregulated states with a system benefits charge (SBC) than in regulated states without a SBC

  7. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A. Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    The EPSPEX system is a distribution system for district heat with media pipes of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) insulated by blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS). In this low-pressure distribution system two pipes are used for a space heating circuit, having layers of EVAL to hinder oxygen diffusion, whereas two pipes without diffusion barrier are used for delivery of hot tap water and warm water circulation. The four pipes are placed in the insulating blocks of EPS. Environmental impacts from production, laying and use of an EPSPEX district heat distribution system have been investigated using life cycle methodology. The distribution system is a secondary system developed specially for areas with low heat density. The case studied is the installation and use of an EPSPEX system in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden. The environmental impacts are described in four categories: climate change, acidification, eutrophication and use of finite resources. Four weighting methods have also been used in the evaluation: EPS2000, Ecoscarcity, ExternE and EcoIndicator99. While carefully considering the precise circumstances of this study, the findings can be adapted for using the EPSPEX district heat distribution systems in other areas. During this study the question was raised of how this district heat delivery system compares with systems that use conventional district heating pipes. This has been further investigated and is reported in the second part of this report. In the second part the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system have been compared with the impacts from conventional twin pipes (polyurethane insulated steel media pipes) used in a comparable setting. A discussion on the environmental choice between media pipes of PEX and steel can also be found in the second part. It should be noted that the two systems for district heat distribution are not fully comparable in function. The EPSPEX system has stricter limitations regarding pressure and temperature compared with

  8. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 1. Life-cycle analysis of a District Heating System with PEX-pipes insulated by expanded polystyrene; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 1: Livscykelanalys av Polystyrenisolerat Fjaerrvaermesytem med PEX-mediaroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    The EPSPEX system is a distribution system for district heat with media pipes of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) insulated by blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS). In this low-pressure distribution system two pipes are used for a space heating circuit, having layers of EVAL to hinder oxygen diffusion, whereas two pipes without diffusion barrier are used for delivery of hot tap water and warm water circulation. The four pipes are placed in the insulating blocks of EPS. Environmental impacts from production, laying and use of an EPSPEX district heat distribution system have been investigated using life cycle methodology. The distribution system is a secondary system developed specially for areas with low heat density. The case studied is the installation and use of an EPSPEX system in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden. The environmental impacts are described in four categories: climate change, acidification, eutrophication and use of finite resources. Four weighting methods have also been used in the evaluation: EPS2000, Ecoscarcity, ExternE and EcoIndicator99. While carefully considering the precise circumstances of this study, the findings can be adapted for using the EPSPEX district heat distribution systems in other areas. During this study the question was raised of how this district heat delivery system compares with systems that use conventional district heating pipes. This has been further investigated and is reported in the second part of this report. In the second part the environmental impacts from the EPSPEX system have been compared with the impacts from conventional twin pipes (polyurethane insulated steel media pipes) used in a comparable setting. A discussion on the environmental choice between media pipes of PEX and steel can also be found in the second part. It should be noted that the two systems for district heat distribution are not fully comparable in function. The EPSPEX system has stricter limitations regarding pressure and temperature compared with

  9. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malai, Marius

    1996-01-01

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  10. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, André; Brito, Jorge de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environmental impacts of different demolition practices. ► “Top-down” approach to the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. ► Results based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities. ► Not every type of selective demolition brings about environmental benefits. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is “top-down” rather than “bottom-up”, which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred).

  11. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts of...

  12. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  13. Final generic environmental impact statement on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This final generic environmental impact statement was prepared as part of the requirement for considering changes in regulations on decommissioning of commercial nuclear facilities. Consideration is given to the decommissioning of pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, research and test reactors, fuel reprocessing plants (FRPs) (currently, use of FRPs in the commercial sector is not being considered), small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, uranium hexafluoride conversion plants, uranium fuel fabrication plants, independent spent fuel storage installations, and non-fuel-cycle facilities for handling byproduct, source and special nuclear materials. Decommissioning has many positive environmental impacts such as the return of possibly valuable land to the public domain and the elimination of potential problems associated with increased numbers of radioactively contaminated facilities with a minimal use of resources. Major adverse impacts are shown to be routine occupational radiation doses and the commitment of nominally small amounts of land to radioactive waste disposal. Other impacts, including public radiation doses, are minor. Mitigation of potential health, safety, and environmental impacts requires more specific and detailed regulatory guidance than is currently available. Recommendations are made as to regulatory decommissioning particulars including such aspects as decommissioning alternatives, appropriate preliminary planning requirements at the time of commissioning, final planning requirements prior to termination of facility operations, assurance of funding for decommissioning, environmental review requirements. 26 refs., 7 figs., 68 tabs

  14. Energetic technologies and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This monograph is a collective work by scientist from CIEMAT (Spanish centre for research on energy, environment and technology). By reviewing the central topics of their own work, the authors present a world-wide update of the state of the arts of the different technologies involved in energy production. The chapters fo through the more promising technologies related to the diverse energy sources, from the nuclear to the renewable and chemical a large gamut of energy supply ways is revised. The analysis of the production technologies is accompanied by considerations of the environmental implications, an aspect to wich a whole part of the volume is devoted. The book begins with a foreword by Dr. Felix Yndurain, former General Director of CIEMAT and follows with a general introduction to the main topics, that are presented in three parts, with specific introductions. There is also a closing fourth part that includes some additional activities where more basic and technical developments are included. The first part is devoted to energy of nuclear origin. In two separate sections, fission and fusion technologies are covered. The fission section points towards the present day problems of nuclear plants (ageing, accidents, risk analysis, etc.), reprocessing of the nuclear fuel, radioactive wastes and environmental radioactivity. The fusion section contains a critical account of the present and expected developments of the fusion reactors together with an exposition of the related plasma physics problems. The second part comprises two sections devoted to energy generation of renewable and chemical origin, respectively. Tehcnologies for solar, wind and biomass energies are thoroughly exposed along the renewable energy section whereas the chemical energy section is devoted to the modern technologies of clean fossil fuel combustion and gasification, as well as to the new appealing subject of direct electric generation with fuel cells. The main environmental and social

  15. Environmental impact of population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Rosamond; Matson, Pamela

    Earth's population currently numbers 5.4 billion; even given optimistic assumptions for reduction in growth rates, the number will double by the middle of the next century with most of the increase in the developing countries. Rapid population growth in the developing world raises the fundamental dilemma of how to alleviate chronic hunger and poverty in the short run while preserving the atmosphere and ecosystem services required for long-term human and biospheric sustenance. This dilemma, and the compromises required to solve it, were discussed by twenty-five researchers from five countries at the Aspen Global Change Institute 1992 Summer Science Session III, Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible?, held from August 16 to 28, in Aspen, Colo.

  16. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental performance of straw-based pulp making: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxing; Wang, Yutao; Shi, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural straw-based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw-based pulp has scarcely been studied. A life cycle assessment on wheat straw-based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw-based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential (GWP), GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are 2299kg CO 2 -eq, 4550kg CO 2 -eq, 16.43kg SO 2 -eq and 2.56kg Phosphate-eq respectively. The dominant factors contributing to environmental impacts are coal consumption, electricity consumption, and chemical (NaOH, ClO 2 ) input. Chemical input decrease and energy recovery increase reduce the total environmental impacts dramatically. Compared with wood-based and recycled pulp making, wheat straw-based pulp making has higher environmental impacts, which are mainly due to higher energy and chemical requirements. However, the environmental impacts of wheat straw-based pulp making are lower than hemp and flax based pulp making from previous studies. It is also noteworthy that biogenic carbon emission is significant in bio industries. If carbon sequestration is taken into account in pulp making industry, wheat straw-based pulp making is a net emitter rather than a net absorber of carbon dioxide. Since wheat straw-based pulp making provides an alternative for agricultural residue management, its evaluation framework should be expanded to further reveal its environmental benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  19. Environmental impact of ongoing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-07-01

    Present technology in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes, coupled with appropriate site selection, quality construction and good operating procedures, can ensure that impacts on health, safety and the environment will be acceptably low over the period of operation. The methods of chemical and physical stabilization of the tailings and retention structures are also compatible with close-out procedures and will ensure that any releases to the environment will continue to be within the requirements, assuming the continued availability of surveillance

  20. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  1. Life-cycle energy optimisation : A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Göransson, Peter; Funazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Edlund, Stefan; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lundow, Jan-Olov; Cerin, Pontus; Cameron, Christopher J.; Wennhage, Per; Potting, José

    2016-01-01

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately...

  2. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  3. Environmental impact statements: new legal technique for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M F

    1975-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has required Federal agencies to re-examine all their programs affecting the environment, to consider alternative policies, to coordinate their actions with other agencies, and to disclose their environmental analyses to the public. In short, it has attempted to change decision processes markedly, in order to respond to wide-spread public concern about a deteriorating natural and human environment. The mandates of the policy are listed, but knowing that these were not sufficient to change existing agency practices, Congress established what has been called an ''action-forcing mechanism.'' Each federal agency must ''include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, a detailed statement by the responsible official.'' This statement must cover the following five points as specified in Section 102(2)(c): the environmental impact of the proposed action; any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented; alternatives to the proposed action; the relationship between local and short-term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented. Section 102 has been considered the heart of the National Environmental Policy Act. The specific five-point environmental report--known as an environmental impact statement--is the visible evidence of an agency's compliance with the environmental policy articulated by Congress. (MCW)

  4. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  5. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  6. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  7. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  8. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  9. 76 FR 57720 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ...The Department of the Navy published a document in the Federal Register (76 FR 174) on September 8, 2011, concerning public scoping meetings to support the development of an Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement for the Mariana Islands Training and Testing Study Area. The document contained an incorrect scoping date.

  10. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  11. 76 FR 55703 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Notice of Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ..., and physical and cyber security systems. The new JOC also must meet State essential service criteria... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Notice of Public Meetings for the Joint Operations Center Relocation Project...

  12. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... to environmental impacts suggesting the need for investigat-ing the balance between dietary public health advantages and disadvantages in comparison to environmental impacts....

  13. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohocki, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Soldat, J. K.; McNeese, J. A.; Watson, E. C.

    1977-07-01

    This report describes the methodology for determining where environmental control technology is required for the nuclear fuel cycle. The methodology addresses routine emission of chemical and radioactive effluents, and applies to mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors (LWR and BWR) and fuel reprocessing. Chemical and radioactive effluents are evaluated independently. Radioactive effluents are evaluated on the basis of maximum exposed individual dose and population dose calculations for a 1-year emission period and a 50-year commitment. Sources of radionuclides for each facility are then listed according to their relative contribution to the total calculated dose. Effluent, ambient and toxicology standards are used to evaluate the effect of chemical effluents. First, each chemical and source configuration is determined. Sources are tagged if they exceed existirrg standards. The combined effect of all chemicals is assessed for each facility. If the additive effects are unacceptable, then additional control technology is recommended. Finally, sources and their chemicals at each facility are ranked according to their relative contribution to the ambient pollution level. This ranking identifies those sources most in need of environmental control.

  15. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  16. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  17. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Foteinis, S.; Chatzisymeon, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.

    2016-01-01

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1 m"3 of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. - Highlights: • The environmental sustainability of an

  18. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Foteinis, S. [Nireas-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Chatzisymeon, E. [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Fatta-Kassinos, D., E-mail: dfatta@ucy.ac.cy [Nireas-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2016-10-15

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1 m{sup 3} of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. - Highlights: • The environmental sustainability of

  19. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. McNeill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before an accurate model of transformations and transport of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  20. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...... pesticide-crop combination-specific characterization factors normalized to pesticide mass applied and provide default data for application times and loss due to post-harvest food processing. When using our data, we emphasize the need to consult current pesticide regulation, since each pesticide...

  1. 77 FR 14416 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Proposed California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan Amendment (PA)/Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Ocotillo Express Wind Energy Facility (OWEF) and by this notice is announcing the availability of the Proposed PA and Final EIS/EIR.

  2. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  3. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Bosker, Thijs; Rodrigues, João F D; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold

    2017-12-19

    Dietary choices drive both health and environmental outcomes. Information on diets come from many sources, with nationally recommended diets (NRDs) by governmental or similar advisory bodies the most authoritative. Little or no attention is placed on the environmental impacts within NRDs. Here we quantify the impact of nation-specific NRDs, compared with an average diet in 37 nations, representing 64% of global population. We focus on greenhouse gases (GHGs), eutrophication, and land use because these have impacts reaching or exceeding planetary boundaries. We show that compared with average diets, NRDs in high-income nations are associated with reductions in GHG, eutrophication, and land use from 13.0 to 24.8%, 9.8 to 21.3%, and 5.7 to 17.6%, respectively. In upper-middle-income nations, NRDs are associated with slight decrease in impacts of 0.8-12.2%, 7.7-19.4%, and 7.2-18.6%. In poorer middle-income nations, impacts increase by 12.4-17.0%, 24.5-31.9%, and 8.8-14.8%. The reduced environmental impact in high-income countries is driven by reductions in calories (∼54% of effect) and a change in composition (∼46%). The increased environmental impacts of NRDs in low- and middle-income nations are associated with increased intake in animal products. Uniform adoption of NRDs across these nations would result in reductions of 0.19-0.53 Gt CO 2 eq⋅a -1 , 4.32-10.6 Gt [Formula: see text] eq⋅a -1 , and 1.5-2.8 million km 2 , while providing the health cobenefits of adopting an NRD. As a small number of dietary guidelines are beginning to incorporate more general environmental concerns, we anticipate that this work will provide a standardized baseline for future work to optimize recommended diets further. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  6. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  7. Environmental impact assessment of CCS chains – Lessons learned and limitations from LCA literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsten, M.A.M.; Ramirez, C.A.; Shen, L.; Koornneef, A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study performs an assessment of existing LCA literature to obtain insights into potential environmental impacts over the complete life cycle of fossil fuel fired power plants with CCS. CCS results in a net reduction of the GWP of power plants through their life cycle in the order of 65–84%

  8. An Interactive Environmental Economy Model for Energy Cycle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shafie-Pour Motlagh, MM Farsiabi, HR Kamalan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing world economy calls for saving natural resources with sustainable development framework. This paper intends to look at the environment-energy interface (impacts on the environment stemming form the energy sector and to propose measures for reducing this impact without trying to impede economic development. In addition, this paper estimates the amounts of energy subsidies about 20% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in 2019 if the conditions do not change. Meanwhile, environmental damage from air pollution has been assessed by scaling according to GDP per capita measured in purchase power parity (PPP terms. Using this approach, the total damage from air pollution in 2001 was assessed about $7billion; equivalent to 8.4% of nominal GDP. Lacking price reform and control policies, the authors estimate that damage in Iran will grow to 10.9% of GDP by 2019. In line with difficulties of eliminating subsidies, a list of 25 measures has been analyzed, using the environmental cost-benefit analysis and based on cost-effectiveness of the policies to verify which ones would be implemented. Finally the financial effects of implementing different combinations of price reform and carrying out those policies on the state budget, damage costs and subsidies have been calculated.

  9. Environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-08-01

    The author introduces the subject with an overview of the regulatory requirments and philosophy applied to uranium mines and mills. The special attention given to tailings management is highlighted, and a discussion of the basic environmental concerns is concluded with an itemizing of the main tasks facing the AECB. The extent of the environmental impact of uranium mining, milling and waste management is illustrated with specific details pertaining to mines in the Elliot Lake area. The author concludes that the impact on the ground and surface water system is not alarming, and the impact on air quality is not significant beyond a few hundred metres from the mining facilities. The publicly perceived impact is discussed, followed by a rationale for the continued licensing of new uranium mining operations complete with tailings management facilities

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  11. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These include...

  12. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  13. Are stormwater pollution impacts significant in life cycle assessment? A new methodology for quantifying embedded urban stormwater impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa; Apul, Defne

    2018-09-15

    Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models do not explicitly incorporate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution. To address this issue, a framework to estimate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution over the lifetime of a system has been developed, laying the groundwork for subsequent improvements in life cycle databases and LCA modelling. The proposed framework incorporates urban stormwater event mean concentration (EMC) data into existing LCA impact categories to account for the environmental impacts associated with urban land occupation across the whole life cycle of a system. It consists of five steps: (1) compilation of inventory of urban stormwater pollutants; (2) collection of precipitation data; (3) classification and characterisation within existing midpoint impact categories; (4) collation of inventory data for impermeable urban land occupation; and (5) impact assessment. The framework is generic and can be applied to any system using any LCA impact method. Its application is demonstrated by two illustrative case studies: electricity generation and production of construction materials. The results show that pollutants in urban stormwater have an influence on human toxicity, freshwater and marine ecotoxicity, marine eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Among these, urban stormwater pollution has the highest relative contribution to the eutrophication potentials. The results also suggest that stormwater pollution from urban areas can have a substantial effect on the life cycle impacts of some systems (construction materials), while for some systems the effect is small (e.g. electricity generation). However, it is not possible to determine a priori which systems are affected so that the impacts from stormwater pollution should be considered routinely in future LCA studies. The paper also proposes ways to incorporate stormwater pollution burdens into the life cycle databases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... project comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation...

  15. Application of a life cycle assessment to compare environmental performance in coal mine tailings management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiansyah, Joni Safaat; Haque, Nawshad; Rosano, Michele; Biswas, Wahidul

    2017-09-01

    This study compares coal mine tailings management strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and land-use area metrics methods. Hybrid methods (the Australian indicator set and the ReCiPe method) were used to assess the environmental impacts of tailings management strategies. Several strategies were considered: belt filter press (OPT 1), tailings paste (OPT 2), thickened tailings (OPT 3), and variations of OPT 1 using combinations of technology improvement and renewable energy sources (OPT 1A-D). Electrical energy was found to contribute more than 90% of the environmental impacts. The magnitude of land-use impacts associated with OPT 3 (thickened tailings) were 2.3 and 1.55 times higher than OPT 1 (tailings cake) and OPT 2 (tailings paste) respectively, while OPT 1B (tailings belt filter press with technology improvement and solar energy) and 1D (tailings belt press filter with technology improvement and wind energy) had the lowest ratio of environmental impact to land-use. Further analysis of an economic cost model and reuse opportunities is required to aid decision making on sustainable tailings management and industrial symbiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Oil fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.; Runte, K.-H.; Kortum, G.; Weltschev, M.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988), Ottinger et al. (1990) and Friedrich and Voss (1993) provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. It is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  17. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Lignite fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.; Trukenmueller, A.; Gressmann, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. They include damage to health, forests, crops, natural ecosystems and the built environment. Traditional assessment of fuel cycles has ignored these effects and the energy sector is consequently distorted in favor of technologies with significant environmental burdens. Concern over widespread degradation of the environment resulting from fuel cycle emissions has mounted since the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the potential for long range atmospheric transport of certain pollutants was recognized. The effects of acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and greenhouse gases have caused particular concern. This is reflected in recent trends in economic thought, particularly the emphasis on sustainable development and the use of market mechanisms for environmental regulation. It has thus become increasingly clear that the external impacts of energy use are significant and should be considered by energy planners. Although the theoretical basis for including external costs in decision making processes has been generally agreed, an acceptable methodology for their calculation and integration has not been established. The studies of Hohmeyer (1988] and Ottinger et al. [1990] provide the background for such work, though they are of a somewhat preliminary nature [Friedrich, Voss, 1993]. We need to improve the methods employed and the quality of models and data used so that planning decisions can be based at least partly on the results. If is particularly important that the site and project specificity of many impacts is recognized. In consequence of this a collaborative project between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy has been established to identify the most appropriate methodology for this type of work. The current study has three

  18. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  19. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  20. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO 2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO 2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  1. Environmental impact statement analysis: dose methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Standardized sections and methodologies are being developed for use in environmental impact statements (EIS) for activities to be conducted on the Hanford Reservation. Five areas for standardization have been identified: routine operations dose methodologies, accident dose methodology, Hanford Site description, health effects methodology, and socioeconomic environment for Hanford waste management activities

  2. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  3. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to be small when compared to gaseous emissions from industrial and agricultural sources, the actual percentage contribution to climate change is small. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  5. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generate...... highlight the challenges related to modelling and methodological choices. Particularly, food production datasets should be chosen and used carefully, to avoid double counting and overestimation of the final impacts.......Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated...... by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land...

  6. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental impact...

  7. Beverley project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Beverley deposit is located on the northern Lake Frome Plains, South Australia, 520km north of Adelaide. It is proposed to mine the deposit by in-situ leaching and to process the solution on the surface to produce an estimated 11,600t of yellowcake from about 6 million tonnes of 0.27% ore over approximately 23 years. The draft environmental impact statement is intended to cover all stages of the development from the pilot plant to final rehabilitation. Sections include the existing environment (geology, climate and meteorology, soils, hydrology, ecology, radionuclide base levels, land use, population and sites of Aboriginal and archaeological significance), the proposed development (solution mining, waste management, water management and mining and processing options), rehabilitation, environmental impact and environmental management and monitoring

  8. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the proposed facility are described in this report

  9. Impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, Stan; Cavedon, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    OECD/NEA has performed a study on the impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies with 33 experts from 12 member countries, 1 non-member country and 2 international organizations. The study extends a series of previous ones on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) issues, focusing on the performance assessments for repositories of high-level waste (HLW) arising from advanced fuel cycles. This study covers a broader spectrum than previous studies, from present industrial practice to fully closed cycles via partially closed cycles (in terms of transuranic elements); 9 fuel cycle schemes and 4 variants. Elements of fuel cycles are considered primarily as sources of waste, the internal mass flows of each scheme being kept for the sake of mass conservation. The compositions, activities and heat loads of all waste flows are also tracked. Their impact is finally assessed on the waste repository concepts. The study result confirms the findings from the previous NEA studies on P and T on maximal reduction of the waste source term and maximal use of uranium resources. In advanced fuel cycle schemes the activity of the waste is reduced by burning first plutonium and then minor actinides and also the uranium consumption is reduced, as the fraction of fast reactors in the park is increased to 100%. The result of the repository performance assessments, analysing the effect of different HLW isotopic composition on repository performance and on repository capacity, shows that the maximum dose released to biosphere at any time in normal conditions remains, for all schemes and for all the repository concepts examined, well below accepted radiation protection thresholds. The major impact is on the detailed concept of the repositories, through heat load and waste volume. Advanced fuel cycles could allow a repository to cover waste produced from 5 to 20 times more electricity generation than PWR once-through cycle. Given the flexibility of the advanced fuel

  10. Life cycle impact assessment of biodiesel using the ReCiPe method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Ferenc E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA results of biodiesel produced from rapeseed oil. The functional unit (FU is defined as 3750 km of distance traveled by a truck fuelled with biodiesel. The reference flow is 1000 kg of biodiesel. The LCIA method used in the study is the ReCiPe method. At midpoint level the ReCiPe method addresses environmental issues within 18 impact categories. Most of these midpoint impact categories are further converted and aggregated into 3 endpoint categories (damage to human health, damage to ecosystem diversity, damage to mineral resource availability. The total impact of biodiesel’s life cycle was estimated at 540 Pt/FU. The damage to ecosystem diversity (1.48E-04 species•year/FU, the damage to human health (7.48E-03 DALY/FU and the damage to mineral resource availability (8.11E+03 US$/FU are responsible for 63%, 27% and 10% of the total negative impact in the life cycle of biodiesel, respectively. The results have revealed that only 4 impact categories are responsible for most of the impacts within the specific endpoint categories. These are impacts associated with global warming (3000 kg CO2 ekv./FU, particulate matter formation (12.4 kg PM ekv./FU, agricultural land occupation (6710 m2a./FU and fossil fuel depletion (21168 MJ/FU. Greenhouse gases emitted in the life cycle of biodiesel (mainly N2O, CO2 are responsibly for 56% of the damage caused to human health and for 16% of the damage caused to ecosystem diversity. Airborne emissions which contribute to particulate matter formation (NOx, NH3, PM, SO2 are responsible for 43% of the damage caused to human health. Agricultural land occupation is responsible for 82% of the damage caused to the ecosystem diversity. Damage to mineral resource availability is almost entirely related to the depletion of fossil energy sources. The production chain of biodiesel and the combustion of biodiesel are responsible for 69% and 31% of the total impact of

  11. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA); the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended; and the California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA); the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Bishop Field Office, Bishop, California; the United States Forest Service (USFS) Inyo National Forest; and the Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (GBUAPCD) (a California state agency) have prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the proposed Casa Diablo IV Geothermal Development Project near the Town of Mammoth Lakes in Mono County, California. This notice announces the opening of the public comment period.

  12. 76 FR 381 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) have prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and Draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) as a joint environmental analysis document for the Iberdrola Renewable/Pacific Wind Development Tule Wind Project (Tule Project) and the San Diego Gas and Electric's (SDG&E) East County Substation Project (ECO Project) and by this notice are announcing the opening of the comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR.

  13. Interfirm cooperation in life-cycle oreinted environmental management: examples and a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharfman, Mark P.; Shaft, Teresa; Anex, Robert

    Firms are under pressure to manage their environmental "footprint" throughout the life-cycle of their products. Integral to this is that suppliers and customers become part of the environmental management process through interorganizational collaboration. We present a conceptual framework...

  14. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  15. Reducing the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt: a scenario approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankendaal, T.; Schuur, Peter; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, measures are evaluated to reduce the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt. Several composition scenarios are designed for these materials and are evaluated based on their environmental performance using life-cycle assessment (LCA). The effect of low-energy production

  16. Economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Harry; Cavill, Nick; Racioppi, Francesca; Dinsdale, Hywell; Oja, Pekka; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the "value of a statistical life." The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. USEtox: The UNEP-SETAC consensus model for life-cycle impacts on human health and ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McKone, Tom; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterizes emissions for the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a product by translating these emissions into their potential impacts on human health, ecosys