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Sample records for cyanogenic glucoside content

  1. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyejusa Kizito, Elizabeth; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Fregene, Martin; Westerbergh, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop grown in the tropics mainly by small-scale farmers even though agro-industrial processing is rapidly increasing. For this processing market improved varieties with high dry matter root content (DMC) is required. Potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the leaves and translocated to the roots. Selection for varieties with low cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and high DMC is among the principal objectives in cassava breeding programs. However, these traits are highly influenced by the environmental conditions and the genetic control of these traits is not well understood. An S(1) population derived from a cross between two bred cassava varieties (MCOL 1684 and Rayong 1) that differ in CNP and DMC was used to study the heritability and genetic basis of these traits. A broad-sense heritability of 0.43 and 0.42 was found for CNP and DMC, respectively. The moderate heritabilities for DMC and CNP indicate that the phenotypic variation of these traits is explained by a genetic component. We found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy and/or linkage of QTL. The two QTL for CNP showed additive effects while the six QTL for DMC showed additive effect, dominance or overdominance. This study is a first step towards developing molecular marker tools for efficient breeding of CNP and DMC in cassava.

  2. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Sánchez P., Raquel; Dicenta, Federico; Grané, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  3. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Arrázola; Raquel Sánchez P; Federico Dicenta; Nuria Grané

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  4. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  5. Insect Counter-Adaptations to Plant Cyanogenic Glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan

    Cyanogenic glucosides are ancient and widespread defence compounds that are used by plants to fend off non-adapted insect herbivores. After insect herbivory and plant tissue damage, cyanogenic glucosides come into contact with compartmentalised plant β-glucosidases, resulting in the release...... of toxic hydrogen cyanide. Such a binary system of components that are chemically inert when separated is also referred to as two-component plant defence. Since the co-evolution of cyanogenic plants and insect herbivores has continued for several hundred million years, some specialised herbivores have...... adapted and gained the ability to feed on cyanogenic plants. Moreover, a few specialists are even able to sequester cyanogenic glucosides into specialised tissues, often for use in their own defence. However, insect counter-adaptations to overcome plant cyanogenic glucosides are largely unknown...

  6. The cyanogenic glucoside composition of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) as effected by feeding on wild-type and transgenic lotus populations with variable cyanogenic glucoside profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2007-01-01

    Zygaena larvae sequester the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plants (Fabaceae) as well as carry out de novo biosynthesis of these compounds. In this study, Zygaena filipendulae were reared on wild-type Lotus corniculatus and wild-type and transgenic L. japonicus plants with differing content and ratios of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin and of the cyanoalkenyl glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D. LC-MS analyses, free choice feeding experiments and developmental studies were used to examine the effect of varying content and ratios of these secondary metabolites on the feeding preferences, growth and development of Z. filipendulae. Larvae reared on cyanogenic L. corniculatus developed faster compared to larvae reared on L. japonicus although free choice feeding trials demonstrated that the latter plant source was the preferred food plant. Larvae reared on acyanogenic L. corniculatus showed decelerated development. Analysis of different life stages and tissues demonstrate that Z. filipendulae strive to maintain certain threshold content and ratios of cyanogenic glucosides regardless of the composition of the food plants. Despite this, the ratios of cyanogenic glucosides in Z. filipendulae remain partly affected by the ratio of the food plant due to the high proportion of sequestering that takes place.

  7. Lessons learned from metabolic engineering of cyanogenic glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morant, Anne Vinther; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    or in concentrations too low to facilitate commercialization. In some cases their presence constitutes a health hazard and renders the crops unsuitable for consumption. Metabolic engineering is a powerful tool to alter and ameliorate the secondary metabolite composition of crop plants and gain new desired traits....... The interplay of a multitude of biosynthetic pathways and the possibility of metabolic cross-talk combined with an incomplete understanding of the regulation of these pathways, explain why metabolic engineering of plant secondary metabolism is still in its infancy and subject to much trial and error. Cyanogenic...... glucosides are ancient defense compounds that release toxic HCN upon tissue disruption caused e.g. by chewing insects. The committed steps of the cyanogenic glucoside biosynthetic pathway are encoded by three genes. This unique genetic simplicity and the availability of the corresponding cDNAs have given...

  8. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cueto, Jorge; Ionescu, Irina A.; Pičmanová, Martina; Gericke, Oliver; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Olsen, Carl E.; Campoy, José A.; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger L.; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species. PMID:28579996

  9. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  10. Oximes, nitriles and 2-hydroxynitriles as precursors in the biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, B. A.; Butler, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and prunasin, was investigated in linen-flax, peach and cherry-laurel shoots. It was shown that related 2-oximino acids, aldoximes, nitriles and 2-hydroxynitriles were generally good precursors of the aglycone moiety. Studies with double-labelled compounds confirmed the retention of the oximino nitrogen atom from 2-oximinoisovaleric acid and isobutyraldoxime in the biosynthesis of linamarin. A general pathway from amino acids to cyanogenic glucosides involving N-hydroxyamino acids, aldoximes, nitriles and 2-hydroxynitriles is proposed. PMID:5131015

  11. Souring and breakdown of cyanogenic glucosides during the processing of cassava into akyeke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilie, Eric Mantey; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi

    2004-05-15

    The population and composition of the lactic acid bacteria microbiota as well as the content of cyanogenic glucosides occurring at various stages of fermentation and subsequent processing of cassava roots into akyeke, a steamed sour cassava meal, were investigated. The number of lactic acid bacteria and percentage titratable acidity increased during 5 days of fermentation, but decreases were observed in the subsequent operations of 'washing' the dough with water followed by partial drying and steaming. In field and laboratory samples, Lactobacillus plantarum accounted for 59.3% and 52.3%, Lactobacillus brevis 23.3% and 22.8% and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris 14.5% and 15.8%, respectively, of all lactic acid bacteria isolated at various stages of fermentation and processing. A reduction of about 98% occurred in the total cyanogens (CN) content of cassava roots during processing, from 69.3 to 1.4 and 110.3 to 2.8 mg CN equivalent/kg dry weight for laboratory and field samples of akyeke, respectively.

  12. Interplay between De Novo Biosynthesis and Sequestration of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are phytoanticipins that are present in more than 2650 plant species. They play an important role in defense against generalist herbivory due to their bitter taste and their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption results in release of toxic hydrogen cyanide. Zygaena larv...

  13. β-d-Glucosidase as "key enzyme" for sorghum cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin) removal and beer bioflavouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokpohozin, Sedjro Emile; Fischer, Susann; Sacher, Bertram; Becker, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Sorghum malt used during African beer processing contains a high level of cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin), up to 1375 ppm. In traditional sorghum malting and mashing, dhurrin is not sufficiently hydrolyzed due to uncontrolled germination and a high gelatinization temperature. The cyanide content of traditional African beers (11 ppm) is higher than the minimum dose (1 ppm) required to form carcinogenic ethyl carbamate during alcoholic fermentation. In the detoxification process, aryl-β-d-glucosidase (dhurrinase) is the "key component". For significant dhurrin hydrolysis during mashing, optimizing dhurrinase synthesis during malting is a good solution to reduce dhurrin completely to below the harmful dose in the sorghum wort. Lactic acid bacteria which exhibit aryl-β-d-glucosidase prior to alcoholic fermentation may help to reduce ethyl carbamate content in alcoholic beverages. Moreover, some specific β-d-glucosidases have a dual property, being able to cleave and synthesize glucosides bonds and thereby generating good precursors for beer bioflavouring.

  14. Spatial separation of the cyanogenic β-glucosidase ZfBGD2 and cyanogenic glucosides in the haemolymph of Zygaena larvae facilitates cyanide release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Jensen, Mikael Kryger; Matthes, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    . Cyanogenic plants contain cyanogenic glucosides and release hydrogen cyanide due to such a well-characterized two-component system. Some arthropods are also cyanogenic, but comparatively little is known about their system. Here, we identify a specific β-glucosidase (ZfBGD2) involved in cyanogenesis from...... larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae), and analyse the spatial organization of cyanide release in this specialized insect. High levels of ZfBGD2 mRNA and protein were found in haemocytes by transcriptomic and proteomic profiling. Heterologous expression in insect cells showed that Zf......BGD2 hydrolyses linamarin and lotaustralin, the two cyanogenic glucosides present in Z. filipendulae. Linamarin and lotaustralin as well as cyanide release were found exclusively in the haemoplasma. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that ZfBGD2 clusters with other insect β...

  15. Sequestration, tissue distribution and developmental transmission of cyanogenic glucosides in a specialist insect herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Olsen, Carl Erik; Pentzold, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Considering the staggering diversity of bioactive natural products present in plants, insects are only able to sequester a small number of phytochemicals from their food plants. The mechanisms of how only some phytochemicals are sequestered and how the sequestration process takes place remains...... largely unknown. In this study the model system of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) and their food plant Lotus corniculatus is used to advance the knowledge of insect sequestration. Z. filipendulae larvae are dependent on sequestration of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin from...... their food plant, and have a much lower fitness if reared on plants without these compounds. This study investigates the fate of the cyanogenic glucosides during ingestion, sequestration in the larvae, and in the course of insect ontogeny. To this purpose, double-labeled linamarin and lotaustralin were...

  16. Metabolism of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche

    To navigate the different challenges faced, plants produce a large array of bioactive natural compounds. These specialized metabolites defend the plants against herbivores and pathogens, attract beneficial insects and enable communication between plants. Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are produced...... the grain maturation phase. The released ammonia may be utilized as a reduced source of nitrogen to fuel grain development and the production of storage proteins and starch. Combined, all results suggest a possible evolutionary progression of dhurrin from being a defense compound to additionally function...

  17. Interplay between De Novo Biosynthesis and Sequestration of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are phytoanticipins that are present in more than 2650 plant species. They play an important role in defense against generalist herbivory due to their bitter taste and their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption results in release of toxic hydrogen cyanide. Zygaena larvae....... Adult females are shown to transfer CNglcs to the eggs following emergence from the pupa, providing protection against predation at this vulnerable developmental stage. It is finally speculated that de novo biosynthesis of CNglcs enabled colonization of and subsequently sequestration from the food plant...

  18. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor additionally contains a gene, SbMATE2, encoding a transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which is co-expressed with the biosynthetic genes. The predicted localisation of SbMATE2 to the vacuolar membrane was demonstrated...

  19. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Lægdsmand, Mette; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2008-01-01

    and lotaustralin; CGs release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon hydrolysis which may be utilized for pest control. We demonstrate that applying CGs in the form of a liquid extract of white clover to large columns of intact agricultural soils can result in leaching of toxic cyanide species to a depth of at least 1......Use of crops for green manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides is an important approach towards more sustainable agricultural practices. Green manure from white clover is rich in nitrogen but white clover also produces the cyanogenic glucosides (CGs) linamarin...... degradable natural products present in crop plants as defense compounds pose a threat to the quality of groundwater and surface waters. This aspect needs consideration in assessment of the risk associated with use of crops as green manure to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well as in genetic...

  20. The multiple strategies of an insect herbivore to overcome plant cyanogenic glucoside defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds that release toxic hydrogen cyanide by plant bglucosidase activity after tissue damage. Specialised insect herbivores have evolved counter strategies and some sequester CNglcs, but the underlying mechanisms to keep CNglcs intact...... during feeding and digestion are unknown. We show that CNglc-sequestering Zygaena filipendulae larvae combine behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies at different time points during feeding and digestion to avoid toxic hydrolysis of the CNglcs present in their Lotus food......, a highly alkaline midgut lumen inhibited the activity of ingested plant b-glucosidases significantly. Moreover, insect b-glucosidases from the saliva and gut tissue did not hydrolyse the CNglcs present in Lotus. The strategies disclosed may also be used by other insect species to overcome CNglc-based plant...

  1. Dirigent Protein-Mediated Lignan and Cyanogenic Glucoside Formation in Flax Seed: Integrated Omics and MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye Won; Lee, Choonseok; Yang, Hong; Rübel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-06-26

    An integrated omics approach using genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics (MALDI mass spectrometry imaging, MSI), and bioinformatics was employed to study spatiotemporal formation and deposition of health-protecting polymeric lignans and plant defense cyanogenic glucosides. Intact flax (Linum usitatissimum) capsules and seed tissues at different development stages were analyzed. Transcriptome analyses indicated distinct expression patterns of dirigent protein (DP) gene family members encoding (-)- and (+)-pinoresinol-forming DPs and their associated downstream metabolic processes, respectively, with the former expressed at early seed coat development stages. Genes encoding (+)-pinoresinol-forming DPs were, in contrast, expressed at later development stages. Recombinant DP expression and DP assays also unequivocally established their distinct stereoselective biochemical functions. Using MALDI MSI and ion mobility separation analyses, the pinoresinol downstream derivatives, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and SDG hydroxymethylglutaryl ester, were localized and detectable only in early seed coat development stages. SDG derivatives were then converted into higher molecular weight phenolics during seed coat maturation. By contrast, the plant defense cyanogenic glucosides, the monoglucosides linamarin/lotaustralin, were detected throughout the flax capsule, whereas diglucosides linustatin/neolinustatin only accumulated in endosperm and embryo tissues. A putative biosynthetic pathway to the cyanogens is proposed on the basis of transcriptome coexpression data. Localization of all metabolites was at ca. 20 μm resolution, with the web based tool OpenMSI enabling not only resolution enhancement but also an interactive system for real-time searching for any ion in the tissue under analysis.

  2. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2016-01-01

    experimentally by transient expression of a SbMATE2-YFP fusion protein and confocal microscopy. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrate that SbMATE2 is able to transport dhurrin. In addition, SbMATE2 was able to transport non-endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, but not the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-O...

  3. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants: development of a Flow Injection Surface-Enhanced Raman Scatter (FI-SERS) method for determination of cyanide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2004-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of the crystal forms of linamarin, linustatin, neolinustatin, amygdalin, sambunigrin, and dhurrin were obtained using a Raman spectrograph microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser. The position of the signal from the CdropN triple...

  4. Metabolism of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Janniche

    as a nitrogen storage/buffer compound in the developing grain. The combination of transcriptomic-, phylogenetic- and cluster analyses revealed gene candidates for all enzymatic steps in the pathway involving the heteromeric nitrilase complex. Novel nitrilases were also discovered, which could be putatively...... sesquipedale. From the aldoximes and intermediates thereof detected and the knowledge from cyanogenic plants, pathways for the aldoxime metabolism were proposed. The knowledge gained from this project was applied to the investigation of aldoxime release from germinating grain of sorghum. No aldoximes or other...

  5. A simple analytical method for dhurrin content evaluation in cyanogenic plants for their utilization in fodder and biofumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Leoni, Onofrio; Malaguti, Lorena; Bernardi, Roberta; Lazzeri, Luca

    2011-08-10

    Cyanogenic plants have some potential as biocidal green manure crops in limiting several soilborne pests and pathogens. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. sudanense (P.) Stapf), in fact, contain the cyanogenic glucoside p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside (dhurrin) as a substrate of its secondary defensive system able to release hydrogen cyanide following tissue lesions due to biotic or abiotic factors. Given that dhurrin content is correlated with the biofumigant efficacy of the plants, a high dhurrin content could be a positive character for utilization of sorghum and Sudangrass as biocidal green manure plants. For chemical characterization of the available germplasm, a simple, safe, and accurate method is necessary. In this paper, a new method for dhurrin analysis, based on methanol extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, is reported and discussed. The feasibility of this analytical procedure was tested by evaluating dhurrin level in roots and stems during cultivation of four different sorghum and Sudangrass varieties in agronomic trials performed in 2008 in the Po valley (Italy). The dhurrin content ranged from 0.16 ± 0.04 to 7.14 ± 0.32 mg g(-1) on dried matter (DM) in stems and from 1.38 ± 0.02 to 6.57 ± 0.09 mg g(-1) on DM in roots, showing statistical differences among the tested germplasms that could be linked to the efficacy of their utilization as biofumigant plants. The method also opens new perspectives for the characterization of sorgum plants as fodder, for which the presence of dhurrin is considered to be negative for its well-known toxicity.

  6. The evolutionary appearance of non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides in the Lotus genus is accompanied by the substrate specialization of paralogous beta-glucosidases resulting from a crucial amino acid substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela; Abou Hachem, Maher; Robson, Fran

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, like several other legumes, biosynthesizes the cyanogenic alpha-hydroxynitrile glucosides lot-australin and linamarin. Upon tissue disruption these compounds are hydrolysed by a specific beta-glucosidase, resulting in the release of hydrogen cyanide. Lotus japonicus also produces...

  7. The evolutionary appearance of non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides in the Lotus genus is accompanied by the substrate specialization of paralogous β-glucosidases resulting from a crucial amino acid substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniela; Abou Hachem, Maher; Robson, Fran; Olsen, Carl Erik; Wang, Trevor L; Møller, Birger L; Takos, Adam M; Rook, Fred

    2014-07-01

    Lotus japonicus, like several other legumes, biosynthesizes the cyanogenic α-hydroxynitrile glucosides lotaustralin and linamarin. Upon tissue disruption these compounds are hydrolysed by a specific β-glucosidase, resulting in the release of hydrogen cyanide. Lotus japonicus also produces the non-cyanogenic γ- and β-hydroxynitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D using a biosynthetic pathway that branches off from lotaustralin biosynthesis. We previously established that BGD2 is the only β-glucosidase responsible for cyanogenesis in leaves. Here we show that the paralogous BGD4 has the dominant physiological role in rhodiocyanoside degradation. Structural modelling, site-directed mutagenesis and activity assays establish that a glycine residue (G211) in the aglycone binding site of BGD2 is essential for its ability to hydrolyse the endogenous cyanogenic glucosides. The corresponding valine (V211) in BGD4 narrows the active site pocket, resulting in the exclusion of non-flat substrates such as lotaustralin and linamarin, but not of the more planar rhodiocyanosides. Rhodiocyanosides and the BGD4 gene only occur in L. japonicus and a few closely related species associated with the Lotus corniculatus clade within the Lotus genus. This suggests the evolutionary scenario that substrate specialization for rhodiocyanosides evolved from a promiscuous activity of a progenitor cyanogenic β-glucosidase, resembling BGD2, and required no more than a single amino acid substitution.

  8. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  9. Effect of microwave heating on content of cyanogenic glycosides in linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linseed is a good source of linoleic (LA, 18:2, n-6 and especially α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3, ω6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, which are essential because mammals, and therefore humans, cannot endogenously synthesize them and must adopt them exogenously from dietary sources. In spite of its high nutritive value, linseed has not been effectively exploited in animal feeding, due to the fact that it contains antinutritive components, which are cyanogenic glycosides (CG and antivitamin B6 (linatine. CGs are a major limitation in application of linseed and its meal in animal nutrition. The objective of the study was to investigate effect of microwave heat treatment on the content of hydrogen cyanide, and consequently cyanogenic glycosides in linseed. Operating frequency of microwave oven was 2450 mHz, and working power was 240W, 400W, 560W and 800W. Samples were treated for 0, 3, 6 and 10 minutes for every working power. When microwave power of 560 W and 800 W was used for 6 min and longer, linseed samples were burned and damaged, therefore these treatments should not be used. Minimal time of heating with microwave power of 400W, which would provide reduction of HCN content under allowed limits (250 mg/kg of linseed, was determined graphically using three-dimensional contour plot graph and it was 290 s (4 minutes and 50 s. This regime is recommended for treating linseed before usage as a feed compound.

  10. Biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin in cassava: isolation, biochemical characterization, and expression pattern of CYP71E7, the oxime-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A K(S) of approximately 0.9 μm was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min(-1) for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex

  11. Genetic Screening Identifies Cyanogenesis-Deficient Mutants of Lotus japonicus and Reveals Enzymatic Specificity in Hydroxynitrile Glucoside Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takos, A.; Lai, D.; Mikkelsen, L.;

    2010-01-01

    content. L. japonicus produces two cyanogenic glucosides: linamarin (derived from Val) and lotaustralin (derived from Ile). Their biosynthesis may involve the same set of enzymes for both amino acid precursors. However, in one class of mutants, accumulation of lotaustralin and linamarin was uncoupled....... We developed a high-throughput screening method and used it to identify cyanogenesis deficient (cyd) mutants in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Mutants in both biosynthesis and catabolism of cyanogenic glucosides were isolated and classified following metabolic profiling of cyanogenic glucoside....... Catabolic mutants could be placed in two complementation groups, one of which, cyd2, encoded the beta-glucosidase BGD2. Despite the identification of nine independent cyd2 alleles, no mutants involving the gene encoding a closely related beta-glucosidase, BGD4, were identified. This indicated that BGD4...

  12. Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of β-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Noor M; Misra, Anurag; Singh, Somesh; Fatangare, Amol B; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidases are important enzymes that serve many diverse functions in plants including defense, whereby hydrolyzing the defensive compounds such as hydroxynitrile glucosides. A hydroxynitrile glucoside cleaving β-glucosidase gene (Llbglu1) was isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for this β-glucosidase were found to be 45 °C and 4.8, respectively. The purified Llbglu1 enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic glycosides, pNPGlucoside (pNPGlc) and pNPGalactoside (pNPGal). Also, the enzyme hydrolyzed amygdalin, a hydroxynitrile glycoside and a few of the tested flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides. The kinetic parameters K (m) and V (max) were found to be 38.59 μM and 0.8237 μM/mg/min for pNPGlc, whereas for pNPGal the values were observed as 1845 μM and 0.1037 μM/mg/min. In the present study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the Llbglu1 was built by MODELLER software to find out the substrate binding sites and the quality of the model was examined using the program PROCHEK. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues are Glu 199, Glu 413, His 153, Asn 198, Val 270, Asn 340, and Trp 462. Docking of rhodiocyanoside A with the modeled Llbglu1 resulted in a binding with free energy change (ΔG) of -5.52 kcal/mol on which basis rhodiocyanoside A could be considered as a potential substrate.

  13. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p

  14. A recycling pathway for cyanogenic glycosides evidenced by the comparative metabolic profiling in three cyanogenic plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pičmanová, Martina; Neilson, Elizabeth H.; Motawia, Mohammed S.

    2015-01-01

    and sorghum. In total, the endogenous formation of 36 different chemical structures related to the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin, lotaustralin, prunasin, amygdalin and dhurrin was discovered, including di- and triglycosides derived from these compounds. The relative abundance of the compounds was assessed...

  15. Colorimetric method for the estimation of total limonoid aglycones and glucoside contents in citrus juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breksa, Andrew P; Ibarra, Phil

    2007-06-27

    A method for estimating the total limonoid aglycone and glucoside concentrations in Citrus samples in terms of limonin and limonin glucoside equivalents is presented. The method consists of extraction followed by colorimetric quantification. The colorimetric quantification was based on the formation of red to orange colored derivatives resulting from the treatment of limonin, limonin glucoside, or a fruit extract with 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde (DMAB) in the presence of perchloric and acetic acids. Absorbance maxima for the limonin and limonin glucoside derivatives were found to be 470 and 503 nm, respectively. The influence of DMAB concentration, reaction time, and solvent composition on color development and sensitivity were investigated and optimal assay conditions established. With a microplate format under these conditions, the limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 0.25 and 0.50 microg/mL for limonin and 0.50 and 1.0 microg/mL for limonin glucoside.

  16. [Effect of algorithms for calibration set selection on quantitatively determining asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xue-yan; Zhao, Na; Lin, Zhao-zhou; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Yuan, Rui-juan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate algorithm for calibration set selection was one of the key technologies for a good NIR quantitative model. There are different algorithms for calibration set selection, such as Random Sampling (RS) algorithm, Conventional Selection (CS) algorithm, Kennard-Stone(KS) algorithm and Sample set Portioning based on joint x-y distance (SPXY) algorithm, et al. However, there lack systematic comparisons between two algorithms of the above algorithms. The NIR quantitative models to determine the asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides were established in the present paper, of which 7 indexes were classified and selected, and the effects of CS algorithm, KS algorithm and SPXY algorithm for calibration set selection on the accuracy and robustness of NIR quantitative models were investigated. The accuracy indexes of NIR quantitative models with calibration set selected by SPXY algorithm were significantly different from that with calibration set selected by CS algorithm or KS algorithm, while the robustness indexes, such as RMSECV and |RMSEP-RMSEC|, were not significantly different. Therefore, SPXY algorithm for calibration set selection could improve the predicative accuracy of NIR quantitative models to determine asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides, and have no significant effect on the robustness of the models, which provides a reference to determine the appropriate algorithm for calibration set selection when NIR quantitative models are established for the solid system of traditional Chinese medcine.

  17. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  18. Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Cyanogenic Glycosides of Organic and Mineral-base Fertilized Cassava Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian. The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K2O ha−1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.

  19. Effects of baking on cyanidin-3-glucoside content and antioxidant properties of black and yellow soybean crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Margaret; Lu, Yingjian; Kaplan, Nicholas; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-11-15

    Black soybean is a potential functional food ingredient with high anthocyanin content, but the ability to maintain anthocyanin content under dry heat processing has not been reported. This study investigated the effects of soybean seed coat colour and baking time-temperature combinations on the extractable antioxidant properties of a soy cracker food model. Crackers prepared with black soybeans had significantly higher TPC, total isoflavones, and peroxyl, hydroxyl, and ABTS(+) radical scavenging abilities than their yellow counterparts, at all time-temperature combinations. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was detected only in black soybean crackers, and all baking treatments significantly decreased C3G. The greatest losses occurred at the low temperature×long time and high temperature×short time, the smallest loss with moderate temperature×short/medium time. The high temperature treatment altered phenolic acid and isoflavone profiles; however, total isoflavones were unaffected. Overall results suggest that moderate baking temperature at minimal time may best preserve anthocyanin and other phenolics in baked black soybean crackers.

  20. Cyanogenic glycosides: a case study for evolution and application of cytochromes P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Paquette, Susanne Michelle; Morant, Marc

    2006-01-01

    . In plants, two atypical multifunctional cytochromes P450 and a soluble family 1 glycosyltransferase form a metabolon to facilitate channelling of the otherwise toxic and reactive intermediates to the end product in the pathway, the cyanogenic glycoside. The glucosinolate pathway present in Brassicales...... and the pathway for cyanoalk(en)yl glucoside synthesis such as rhodiocyanosides A and D in Lotus japonicus exemplify how cytochromes P450 in the course of evolution may be recruited for novel pathways. The use of metabolic engineering using cytochromes P450 involved in biosynthesis of cyanogenic glycosides allows...

  1. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2009-01-01

    their ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin. The analyses were carried out during the entire growth season, from almond tree flowering to kernel ripening using the following tissues: leaves, petioles, and the fruit (endosperm and cotyledon). Four different genotypes were investigated......-mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase activity was detected in the vegetative part of the tree (leaves), and in fruit tissues (endosperm and in the cotyledon) of the homozygous genotypes. UDPG-prunasin glucosyltransferase activity was detected in all four genotypes and the activity was restricted to the cotyledons. The similar...

  2. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2009-01-01

    their ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin. The analyses were carried out during the entire growth season, from almond tree flowering to kernel ripening using the following tissues: leaves, petioles, and the fruit (endosperm and cotyledon). Four different genotypes were investigated......-mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase activity was detected in the vegetative part of the tree (leaves), and in fruit tissues (endosperm and in the cotyledon) of the homozygous genotypes. UDPG-prunasin glucosyltransferase activity was detected in all four genotypes and the activity was restricted to the cotyledons. The similar...

  3. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... types of adaptations enable plants to avoid the potential lethal effects of their own defence compounds. These adaptations include detoxification and stabilization by glycosylation and the genomic clustering of biosynthetic pathway genes. These two types are the main focus of this PhD thesis...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...

  4. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots. Studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A study into a

  5. β-Glucosidase Catalyzing Specific Hydrolysis of an Iridoid β-Glucoside from Plumeria obtusa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doungkamol BOONCLARM; Thakorn SORNWATANA; Dumrongkiet ARTHAN; Palangpon KONGSAEREE; Jisnuson SVASTI

    2006-01-01

    An iridoid β-glucoside, namely plumieride coumarate glucoside, was isolated from the Plumeria obtusa (white frangipani) flower. A β-glucosidase, purified to homogeneity from P. obtusa, could hydrolyze plumieride coumarate glucoside to its corresponding 13-O-coumarylplumieride. Plumeria β-glucosidase is a monomeric glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 60.6 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.90. The purified β-glucosidase had an optimum pH of 5.5 for p-nitrophenol (pNP)-β-D-glucoside and for its natural substrate.The Km values for pNP-β-D-glucoside and Plumeria β-glucoside were 5.04±0.36 mM and 1.02±0.06 mM,respectively. The enzyme had higher hydrolytic activity towards pNP-β-D-fucoside than pNP-β-D-glucoside.No activity was found for other pNP-glycosides. Interestingly, the enzyme showed a high specificity for the glucosyl group attached to the C-7" position of the coumaryl moiety of plumieride coumarate glucoside. The enzyme showed poor hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-glucoside and esculin, and did not hydrolyze alkyl-β-glucosides, glucobioses, cyanogenic-β-glucosides, steroid β-glucosides, nor other iridoid β-glucosides.In conclusion, the Plumeria β-glucosidase shows high specificity for its natural substrate, plumieride coumarate glucoside.

  6. Determine the content of Apigenin 7-glucoside in Matricaria Chamomile%洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰卫; 郭玉婷; 耿直; 倪健

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量。方法在美国药典收载的 HPLC 方法基础上,适当调整色谱条件,采用 UPLC 法,测定新疆洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷的含量。结果两批洋甘菊样品中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量分别为5.2、5.8 mg/g。结论UPLC 方法,可作为洋甘菊中芹苷元-7-葡萄糖苷含量测定。%Objective To determine the content of Apigenin 7-glucoside in Matricaria Chamomile.Method HPLC method which was recorded in the United States Pharmacopoeia was used.Results The content of Apigenin 7-glucoside in two batches of Chamomile samples were 5.2,5.8 mg/g respectively.Conclusion The HPLC method recorded in USP is simple and accurate.It could be used for simultaneous determination of apigenin 7-glucoside in Chamomile.

  7. Assessment of extraction parameters on antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside of agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) young leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Pei Yin; Tan, Chin Ping; Abas, Faridah; Yim, Hip Seng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2014-08-14

    The effects of ethanol concentration (0%-100%, v/v), solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10-1:60, w/v) and extraction time (30-180 min) on the extraction of polyphenols from agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total flavanol (TF) assays and HPLC-DAD were used for the determination and quantification of polyphenols, flavanol gallates (epigallocatechin gallate--EGCG and epicatechin gallate--ECG) and a benzophenone (iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside) from the crude polyphenol extract (CPE) of A. crassna. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the CPE. Experimental results concluded that ethanol concentration and solid-to-solvent ratio had significant effects (pantioxidant capacity. Extraction time had an insignificant influence on the recovery of EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside, as well as radical scavenging capacity from the CPE. The extraction parameters that exhibited maximum yields were 40% (v/v) ethanol, 1:60 (w/v) for 30 min where the TPC, TFC, TF, DPPH, EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside levels achieved were 183.5 mg GAE/g DW, 249.0 mg QE/g DW, 4.9 mg CE/g DW, 93.7%, 29.1 mg EGCG/g DW, 44.3 mg ECG/g DW and 39.9 mg iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside/g DW respectively. The IC50 of the CPE was 24.6 mg/L.

  8. Assessment of Extraction Parameters on Antioxidant Capacity, Polyphenol Content, Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG, Epicatechin Gallate (ECG and Iriflophenone 3-C-β-Glucoside of Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna Young Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yin Tay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol concentration (0%–100%, v/v, solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10–1:60, w/v and extraction time (30–180 min on the extraction of polyphenols from agarwood (Aquilaria crassna were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and total flavanol (TF assays and HPLC-DAD were used for the determination and quantification of polyphenols, flavanol gallates (epigallocatechin gallate—EGCG and epicatechin gallate—ECG and a benzophenone (iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside from the crude polyphenol extract (CPE of A. crassna. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the CPE. Experimental results concluded that ethanol concentration and solid-to-solvent ratio had significant effects (p < 0.05 on the yields of polyphenol and antioxidant capacity. Extraction time had an insignificant influence on the recovery of EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside, as well as radical scavenging capacity from the CPE. The extraction parameters that exhibited maximum yields were 40% (v/v ethanol, 1:60 (w/v for 30 min where the TPC, TFC, TF, DPPH, EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside levels achieved were 183.5 mg GAE/g DW, 249.0 mg QE/g DW, 4.9 mg CE/g DW, 93.7%, 29.1 mg EGCG/g DW, 44.3 mg ECG/g DW and 39.9 mg iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside/g DW respectively. The IC50 of the CPE was 24.6 mg/L.

  9. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2004-11-01

    Cassava is the major root crop for a quarter billion subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. It is valued for its ability to grow in adverse environments and the food security it provides. Cassava contains potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin) which protect the plant from herbivory and theft. The cyanogens, including linamarin and its deglycosylated product, acetone cyanohydrin, can be efficiently removed from the root by various processing procedures. Short-cuts in processing, which may occur during famines, can result in only partial removal of cyanogens. Residual cyanogens in cassava foods may cause neurological disorders or paralysis, particularly in nutritionally compromised individuals. To address this problem and to further understand the function of cyanogenic glycosides in cassava, we have generated transgenic cassava in which cyanogenic glycoside synthesis has been selectively inhibited in leaves and roots by antisense expression of CYP79D1/D2 gene fragments. The CYP79D1/D2 genes encode two highly similar cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first-dedicated step in cyanogenic glycoside synthesis. Transgenic plants in which the expression of these genes was selectively inhibited in leaves had substantially reduced (60- 94% reduction) linamarin leaf levels. Surprisingly, these plants also had a greater than a 99% reduction in root linamarin content. In contrast, transgenic plants in which the CYP79D1/D2 transcripts were reduced to non-detectable levels in roots had normal root linamarin levels. These results demonstrate that linamarin synthesized in leaves is transported to the roots and accounts for nearly all of the root linamarin content. Importantly, transgenic plants having reduced leaf and root linamarin content were unable to grow in the absence of reduced nitrogen (NH3) . Cassava roots have previously been demonstrated to have an active cyanide assimilation pathway leading to the synthesis of amino acids. We propose that

  10. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2015-01-01

    Flowers and leaves of Lotus japonicus contain α-, β-, and γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside (HNG) defense compounds, which are bioactivated by β-glucosidase enzymes (BGDs). The α-HNGs are referred to as cyanogenic glucosides because their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption leads to release of toxic hydro...... specialisation in HNG based defence in L. japonicus flowers is discussed in the context of balancing the attraction of pollinators with the protection of reproductive structures against herbivores....

  11. Determination of cyanogenic compounds in edible plants by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN(-)/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements.

  12. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    Amongst the vast multitude of plant secondary metabolites, cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) occupy an important place as sophisticated defence compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon herbivore attack – a process known as cyanogenesis. Beside this wellestablished function, there is st...

  13. A recycling pathway for cyanogenic glycosides evidenced by the comparative metabolic profiling in three cyanogenic plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pičmanová, Martina; Neilson, Elizabeth H.; Motawia, Mohammed S.;

    2015-01-01

    nitrogen at specific developmental stages. To investigate the presence of putative turnover products of cyanogenic glycosides, comparative metabolic profiling using LC-MS/MS and HR-MS complemented by ion-mobility mass spectrometry was carried out in three cyanogenic plant species: cassava, almond...... products in cyanogenic plants open entirely new insights into the multiplicity of biological roles cyanogenic glycosides may play in plants.......Cyanogenic glycosides are phytoanticipins involved in plant defence against herbivores by virtue of their ability to release toxic HCN upon tissue disruption. In addition, endogenous turnover of cyanogenic glycosides without the liberation of HCN may offer plants an important source of reduced...

  14. Natural variation in synthesis and catabolism genes influences dhurrin content in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in over 1,000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucos...

  15. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2015-01-01

    Flowers and leaves of Lotus japonicus contain α-, β-, and γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside (HNG) defense compounds, which are bioactivated by β-glucosidase enzymes (BGDs). The α-HNGs are referred to as cyanogenic glucosides because their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption leads to release of toxic...... hydrogen cyanide gas, which can deter herbivore feeding. BGD2 and BGD4 are HNG metabolizing BGD enzymes expressed in leaves. Only BGD2 is able to hydrolyse the α-HNGs. Loss of function mutants of BGD2 are acyanogenic in leaves but fully retain cyanogenesis in flowers pointing to the existence...

  16. Mild method for removal of cyanogens from cassava leaves with retention of vitamins and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J Howard; Denton, Ian C

    2014-09-01

    A mild method was developed to remove cyanogens from cassava leaves that involved three consecutive steps (1) pounding, (2) standing for 2h in the sun or 5h in the shade in the tropics and (3) washing three times in water. Four cassava cultivars were used and the mean residual total cyanide content after steps 1, 2 and 3 was 28%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The pounded cassava leaves retained their bright green colour and texture. The traditional method for removing cyanogens from pounded cassava leaves is by boiling in water which removed all cyanogens in 10 min. However this method caused the pounded leaves to become dull green in colour and would cause considerable losses of vitamins, protein and methionine, which are already in short supply in the diet of poor village people in tropical Africa.

  17. Contents of all forms of vitamin B6, pyridoxine-β-glucoside and 4-pyridoxic acid in mature milk of Japanese women according to 4-pyridoxolactone-conversion high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Toshiharu; Iwamoto, Saya; Mizuseki, Rie; Furuya, Michi; Nakayama, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    The contents of six vitamin B6 forms, pyridoxine-β-glucoside, and 4-pyridoxic acid in mature milk of 20 Japanese lactating women consuming ordinary Japanese foods were determined by a 4-pyridoxolactone-conversion HPLC method. These compounds were determined with the average recovery rate of 83.9% or more. The average total content of vitamin B6 forms was 1.01 ± 0.32 (µmol/L). Pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were found in all of the samples, and their average contents were 0.71 ± 0.28 (µmol/L) and 0.16 ± 0.07 (µmol/L), respectively. Pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxine-β-glucoside were found in 15, 14, 13, 9, and 7 samples, respectively. The presence of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate was for the first time found in human milk. A method for the determination of 4-pyridoxic acid, which is the excretion form of vitamin B6, was modified to quantitate it by isocratic HPLC. 4-Pyridoxic acid was found in all samples, and its average content was 0.094 ± 0.040 (µmol/L), which was only 12% of its content in cow (Holstein) milk. The total content of vitamin B6 forms, and predominant presence of pyridoxal among other vitamin B6 forms in the Japanese women's milk samples shared similar characteristics with American women's milk samples.

  18. Rate of hydrolysis and degradation of the cyanogenic glycoside - dhurrin - in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Henrik; Damgaard, Lars Holm; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2007-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are common plant toxins. Toxic hydrogen cyanide originating from cyanogenic glycosides may affect soil processes and water quality. In this study, hydrolysis, degradation and sorption of dhurrin (4-hydroxymandelonitrile-b-D-glucoside) produced by sorghum has been studied...... in order to assess its fate in soil. The log Kow of dhurrin was 1.18 ± 0.08 (22 C). Hydrolysis was a first-order reaction with respect to dhurrin and hydroxyl ion concentrations. Half lives ranged from 1.2 h (pH 8.6; 25 C) to 530 d (pH 4; 25 C). The activation energy of hydrolysis was 112 + 9 kJ. At pH 5.......8 and room temperature, addition of humic acids (50 g l1) increased the rate of hydrolysis tenfold, while addition of kaolinite or goethite (100–250 g l1) both decreased the rate considerably. No significant sorption to soil components could be observed. The degradation rates of dhurrin in top and subsoils...

  19. The Stimulated Raman Spectrum of Cyanogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo; Escribano; Santos

    1997-11-01

    The Raman spectrum of cyanogen 12C214N2 has been investigated at nearly Doppler resolution by means of the Stimulated Raman technique. The regions around the Q branches of the nu1 (2330 cm-1) and nu2 (845 cm-1) vibrations have been recorded. Besides the fundamentals, hot bands arising from v5 = 1, v5 = 2, and v4 = 1 have been observed. The spectra have been analyzed, and rotational constants for the excited states have been obtained. Computer simulations of the Raman contours have been carried out as a test of the assignments. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  20. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    Amongst the vast multitude of plant secondary metabolites, cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) occupy an important place as sophisticated defence compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon herbivore attack – a process known as cyanogenesis. Beside this wellestablished function, there is st......Amongst the vast multitude of plant secondary metabolites, cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) occupy an important place as sophisticated defence compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon herbivore attack – a process known as cyanogenesis. Beside this wellestablished function...... through the formation of β- cyanoalanine, or, potentially, in an alternative endogenous turnover pathway circumventing the release of HCN. The investigation of the latter is the primary focus of this PhD project. Scattered data from the literature indicated that CNglcs co-occur in plants...... revealed the formation of glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and "anitriles", including their di- and triglycosides, evidently derived from CNglcs. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated plant species, a recycling endogenous turnover pathway for CNglcs was suggested in which...

  1. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  2. Toxicity of cyanogen to insects of stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jacqueline L; Desmarchelier, James M; Ren, Yonglin; Allen, Sylvia E

    2003-03-01

    Range-finding studies on the toxicity of cyanogen to all stages of five species of stored product Coleoptera are reported. The species were Rhyzopertha dominica (F), Sitophilus granarius (L), Sitophilus Oryzae (L), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val and Ephestia cautella (Walker). Exposures for 24 h to cyanogen at 1.3 mg litre(-1) controlled all external stages. Control of internal stages of Sitophilus species was achieved by a 5-day exposure to initial concentrations between 13.7 and 27.4 mg litre(-1), whereas R. dominica was controlled at 13.7 mg litre(-1). Cyanogen showed similar toxicity to all tested external stages and, in this respect, was more similar to methyl bromide than to phosphine. Its toxicity to insects increased with both relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide. Cyanogen was toxic to insects whether applied as a gas or in an aqueous solution.

  3. Iridoid glucosides from Angelonia integerrima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Damtoft, Søren; Schripsema, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Angelonia integerrima gave the known iridoid glucosides galiridoside, harpagide, ajugol, 6-hydroxy-antirrhide, antirrhide, daunoside, aucubin and stegioside II, together with a new compound, named angelo-side. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  4. Iridoid Glucosides from Eremostachys moluccelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calis, Ihsan; Güvenc, Aysegül; Armagan, Metin;

    2007-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Eremostachys moluccelloides, a new iridoid glucoside, lamalbidic acid (7), was isolated together with six known iridoid glucosides, 5-desoxysesamoside (1), 6β-hydroxy-7-epi-loganin (2), lamalbide (3), shanzhiside methyl ester (4), sesamoside (5) and 5-deoxypulchelloside I...... (6). Lamalbidic acid was isolated as its choline salt. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS) methods....

  5. Iridoid glucosides from Caryopteris mongholica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y H; Yang, L; Cheng, D L

    2000-11-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, 8-acetyl-6'-O-(p-coumaroyl) harpagide and 6'-O-(p-coumaroyl) antirrinoside, were isolated from the Caryopteris mongholica, together with two known iridoid glucosides, 8-acetylharpagide and harpagide. Their structures were elucidated, mainly by interpretation of their spectroscopic data (UV, IR, MASS, 1H, 13C, 1H/1H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY NMR) and chemical methods.

  6. Formation of cyanogen iodide by lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlorke, Denise; Flemmig, Jörg; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The haem protein lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an important component of the anti-microbial immune defence in external secretions and is also applied as preservative in food, oral care and cosmetic products. Upon oxidation of SCN(-) and I(-) by the LPO-hydrogen peroxide system, oxidised species are formed with bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal activity. Here we describe the formation of the inter(pseudo)halogen cyanogen iodide (ICN) by LPO. This product is formed when both, thiocyanate and iodide, are present together in the reaction mixture. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we could identify this inter(pseudo)halogen after applying iodide in slight excess over thiocyanate. The formation of ICN is based on the reaction of oxidised iodine species with thiocyanate. Further, we could demonstrate that ICN is also formed by the related haem enzyme myeloperoxidase and, in lower amounts, in the enzyme-free system. As I(-) is not competitive for SCN(-) under physiologically relevant conditions, the formation of ICN is not expected in secretions but may be relevant for LPO-containing products.

  7. Phenolic Glucosides from Gentiana piasezkii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Quan-Xiang; SHI,Yan-Ping; YANG,Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) contains about 400 species, which distribute almost all over the world. Some species have been investigated on phytochemistry and they could be characterized by the presence of some secoiridoid glucosides (bitter principles), flavone-C-glucosides and xanthone aglycones and glucosides,[1] but nothing is known, up to now, about the chemical constitutents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim. Members of the genus Gentiana have been used as traditional Chinese herbal medicines to treat hepatitis.[2] In order to find active compounds as lead molecule for medicine, we have studied on constituents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim and found two new natural occurring,6'-O-(4-hydroxy-veratroyloxy)-arbutin (1) and luteolin 7-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamoyl)-8-C-glucoside (2) from n-BuOH soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). So we describe herein the structures of two new phenolic glucosides.

  8. Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Bala

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (100 μg CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 μg/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 μg CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem.

  9. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan N Narayanan

    Full Text Available Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  10. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  11. Chemical Attribution Signatures of Cyanogen Chloride from Commercial Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    HP GAS, LLC .........................................15  C: LISTING OF IMPURITIES DETECTED IN CYANOGEN CHLORIDE CYLINDERS FROM SEMICONDUCTOR ...most recent spectra in the front. Spectra were normalized to the H2O resonance at 2.17 ppm: (top) HP Gas, (middle) Semiconductor Resources, and...LLC (Baytown, TX), including Stillwater Consultants (Stillwater, MN), LMTG (Roanoke, LA), and TL2 Gases (Sulphur, LA); 28 from   4 Semiconductor

  12. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J Ballhorn; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation...

  13. Coevolution of Cyanogenic Bamboos and Bamboo Lemurs on Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny Patrika; Kautz, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Feeding strategies of specialist herbivores often originate from the coevolutionary arms race of plant defenses and counter-adaptations of herbivores. The interaction between bamboo lemurs and cyanogenic bamboos on Madagascar represents a unique system to study diffuse coevolutionary processes between mammalian herbivores and plant defenses. Bamboo lemurs have different degrees of dietary specialization while bamboos show different levels of chemical defense. In this study, we found variation in cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and nutritive characteristics among five sympatric bamboo species in the Ranomafana area, southeastern Madagascar. The HCNp ranged from 209±72 μmol cyanide*g-1 dwt in Cathariostachys madagascariensis to no cyanide in Bambusa madagascariensis. Among three sympatric bamboo lemur species, the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) has the narrowest food range as it almost exclusively feeds on the highly cyanogenic C. madagascariensis. Our data suggest that high HCNp is the derived state in bamboos. The ancestral state of lemurs is most likely "generalist" while the ancestral state of bamboo lemurs was determined as equivocal. Nevertheless, as recent bamboo lemurs comprise several "facultative specialists" and only one "obligate specialist" adaptive radiation due to increased flexibility is likely. We propose that escaping a strict food plant specialization enabled facultative specialist bamboo lemurs to inhabit diverse geographical areas.

  14. Pathogenesis, clinical signs and epidemiology of the poisoning by cyanogenic plants in the Brazilian northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the mechanisms of action of cyanogenic plants and provides clinical signs and distribution of outbreaks in Northeastern Brazil. Cyanogenic plants causing reported outbreaks of poisoning are Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Piptadenia macrocarpa, Cnidoscolus quercifolias (C. phyllacanthus, M. carthaginensis var glaziovii, Passiflora foetida, Piptadenia viriflora, Sorghum halepense and S. bicolor. Findings summarized herein emphasize the great importance and wide distribution of cyanogenic plant poisoning in the Northeastern Brazil. Displaying information of animal poisoning outbreaks in cities with little knowledge of the species causing cyanogenic poisoning is primordial as a preventive measure.

  15. Immunochemical approach for zearalenone-4-glucoside determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, N V; De Boevre, M; Goryacheva, I Yu; Werbrouck, S; Guo, Y; De Saeger, S

    2013-03-15

    Zearalenone-4-β-D-glucopyranoside (zearalenone-4-glucoside) detection techniques, based on a combination of acidic or enzymatic hydrolysis of the masked mycotoxin to the parent form (i.e. zearalenone), and immunochemical determination of zearalenone-4-glucoside as a difference between the zearalenone concentration after and before cleavage of the glycosidic bond were developed. The limit of detection for zearalenone-4-glucoside, achieved for the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, was 3 μg kg(-1); the cut-off level for the sum of zearalenone and zearalenone-4-glucoside determination by a qualitative gel-based immunoassay was 50 μg kg(-1). Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid was checked for acidic hydrolysis and resulted in approximately 70% of glycosidic bond cleavage in optimal conditions. Seven different glycoside hydrolases were tested during the design of the enzymatic hydrolysis technique. Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and gel-based immunoassay determinations was applied for the determination of zearalenone-4-glucoside or the sum of zearalenone and zearalenone-4-glucoside in cereal samples. The chosen enzyme (glucosidase from Aspergillus niger) allowed to cleave 102% of zearalenone-4-glucoside in standard solutions and 85% in cereal samples. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used as confirmatory method. As a result, good correlations between immunochemical techniques and the chromatographic data were obtained. The developed technique is suitable for simultaneous immunochemical determination of zearalenone and its masked form, zearalenone-4-glucoside. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Terpenoid Glucosides from Aster Smithianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shou-jun; ZHAO Xin-hua; YANG Yong-li; CHENG Dong-liang

    2005-01-01

    A diterpenoid trisaccharide, smithoside A, and a saponin, smithoside B, as well as six known compounds, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, daucosterol, shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester and acteoside, were isolated from Aster smithianus. On the basis of spectral evidence and chemical analytical results, smithosides A and B were identified as pimar-15(16)-β-ene-8β,11α-diol-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-[β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2β,3β,16β,21β,23-pentahydroxy-12-ene-28 oleanoic acid lactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  17. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    , the defense capability of these compounds requires the activity of a specific β-glucosidase, and this β-glucosidase is not found in barley leaf tissue. Therefore, the role of hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley leaves is unclear. In contrast to acting as defense compounds, it has been suggested......) has been reported in the literature. In this thesis, the role of hydroxynitrile glucosides in the interaction between barley and Bgh is investigated. It is shown that the hydroxynitrile glucoside levels increase over time in barley leaves upon Bgh infection. In addition, isolation of fungal hyphae...

  19. Bioavailabilities of quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside do not differ in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Olthof, M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Vree, T. B.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The flavonoid quercetin is an antioxidant which occurs in foods mainly as glycosides. The sugar moiety in quercetin glycosides affects their bioavailability in humans. Quercetin-3-rutinoside is an important form of quercetin in foods, but its bioavailability in humans is only 20␘f that of quercetin-4'-glucoside. Quercetin-3-rutinoside can be transformed into quercetin-3-glucoside by splitting off a rhamnose molecule. We studied whether this 3-glucoside has the same high bioavailability as the...

  20. Two New Iridoid Glucosides from Clerodendrum serratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, named 7β-coumaroyloxyugandoside (1) and 7β-cinnamoyloxyugandoside (2) were isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum serratum, and their structures were elucidated by spectral means.

  1. Aragoside and iridoid glucosides from Aragoa cundinamarcensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, Nina; Bello, Maria Angelica; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2003-01-01

    From the water-soluble part of an extract of Aragoa cundinamarcensis were isolated seven iridoid glucosides, namely aucubin, catalpol, rehmannioside D, globularin, gardoside methyl ester, epiloganin and mussaenoside. The main glycoside isolated, however, was a new caffeoyl phenylethanoid triglyco...

  2. Cyanogenic polimorphysm in brackens, Pteridium arachnoideum and P. caudatum, from the northern Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de J. Oliveros-Bastidas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenesis in Pteridium caudatum and P. arachnoideum has been examined. Samples of the Andes of South America furnished from 0 to 4.63 mg of prunasin g-1 of frond dry weight (dw in P. caudatum and from 0 to 103 mg of g-1 dw in P. arachnoideum. In both fern species the continuous distribution of prunasin suggested cyanogenic polymorphism. The frequency of cyanogenic morphs was 84.7% for P. caudatum and 98.6% for P. arachnoideum. Cyanogenic activity was highest in the young crozier and waned rapidly with frond growth. The crozier head was found to yield HCN much more than the stipe.

  3. Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PierGuido

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Health Organization (WHO) has set the safe level of cyanogens in cassava flour ..... the cyanide content of cassava chips. Int. J. Food Technol. 13: 299 ... Tropical root and tuber crops : cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids.

  4. Quercetin Glucuronides but Not Glucosides Are Present in Human Plasma after Consumption of Quercetin-3-Glucoside or Quercetin-4'-Glucoside 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.A.; O'Leary, K.A.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of quercetin conjugates present in blood after consumption of quercetin glucosides is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed plasma of volunteers that had consumed 325 ?mol of either quercetin-3-glucoside or quercetin-4'-glucoside as an oral solution. Quercetin metabolites were extract

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Hapten-Protein Conjugates for Antibody Production against Cyanogenic Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat Folashade

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cyanogenic plants can cause serious health problems for humans. The ability to detect and quantify cyanogenic glycosides, capable of generating cyanide, could contribute to prevention of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of improperly processed cyanogenic plants. Hapten-protein conjugates were synthesized with amygdalin and linamarin by using a novel approach. Polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing four New Zealand White rabbits with synthesized amygdalin-bovine serum albumin and linamarin-bovine serum albumin immunogen. This is the first time an antibody was produced against linamarin. Antibody titer curves were obtained from all the four rabbits by using a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High antibody titer was obtained at dilutions greater than 1:50,000 from both immunogens. This new method is an important step forward in preventing ingestion of toxic cyanogenic glycosides.

  6. NATURAL PLANT TOXICANT – CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE AMYGDALIN: CHARACTERISTIC, METABOLISM AND THE EFFECT ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Kolesár; Marek Halenár; Adriana Kolesárová; Peter Massányi

    2015-01-01

    The amount of cyanogenic glycosides, as natural plant toxicants, in plants varies with plant species and environmental effects. Cyanogenic glycoside as an amygdalin was detected in apricot kernels, bitter almonds and peach, plum, pear and apple seeds. Amygdalin itself is non-toxic, but its HCN production decomposed by some enzymes is toxic substance. Target of this review was to describe the characteristic, metabolism and possible effects of amygdalin on reproductive processes. Previous studi...

  7. A male gift to its partner? Cyanogenic glycosides in the spermatophore of longwing butterflies (Heliconius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Márcio Zikán; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    Males of several insect species transfer nuptial gifts to females during mating, typically in the form of a protein-rich spermatophore. In chemically defended species, males could potentially enhance such a gift with chemicals that help protect the female, her eggs, or both. This was shown for lepidopteran species that accumulate pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Most Heliconius butterflies are presumably protected from predators by virtue of de novo synthesized and/or sequestered cyanogenic glycosides. Males of Heliconius species are known to transfer nutritional gifts to the females but whether defensive chemicals could also be transferred is not known. To ascertain whether transfer of cyanogens occurs, we dissected freshly mated females from nine different Heliconius species and analyzed spermatophores for cyanogenic glycosides. We found cyanogens in the spermatophores of all nine species. This is the first time cyanogenic glycosides are reported in the spermatophores of arthropods. We discuss the implications of these findings for Heliconius biology and for other cyanogenic insects as well. We suggest that chemically defended species commonly lace their nuptial gifts with defensive chemicals to improve gift quality.

  8. A New Phenolic Glucoside from Paeonia lactiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-yan; HAN Li; HUANG Xue-shi

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from EtOAc extracts of Paeonia lactiflora. Methods Compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Results Seventeen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as l,2,6-benzenetriol-l-O-α-D-glucoside (1), paeoniflorin (2), 4-methylpaeoniflorin (3), albiflorin (4), paeonidanin (5), benzoylpaeoniflorin (6), 4-methylbenzoylpaeoniflorin (7), benzoylalbiflorin (8), paeonidanin A (9), galloylalbiflorin (10), debenzoylalbiflorin (11), 4',5-dihydroxyflavanone-7-O-β-D-glucoside (12), 5,7-dihydroxy flavanone-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (13), (+)-catechin (14), gallic acid (15), vanillic acid (16), and 1,2,3-benzenetriol (17). Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound named paeoniphenoside. Compounds 12 and 13 are firstly obtained from genus Paeonia L., and compounds S and 9 are isolated from P. lactiflora for the first time.

  9. Original Communications - Iridoid Glucosides from Turkish Phlomis tuberosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calis, Ihsan; Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Ersoz, Tayfun

    2005-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Phlomis tuberosa a new iridoid glucoside, chlorotuberoside was isolated together with five known iridoid glucosides, lamalbide, shanzhiside methyl ester, 7-epi-phlomiol (= phloyoside I), sesamoside and 5-deoxysesamoside. Two known phenylethanoid glycosides, forsythoside B...

  10. Fate of dietary pyridoxine-beta-glucoside in the lactating rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbo, P.R.; Gregory, J.F. III

    1989-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)5'-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) pyridoxine (PN-glucoside) and (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (PN) were orally administered to lactating rats. Milk was collected from the dam, and the stomach contents and liver were collected from the suckling pups 24 and 48 h after administration. Analysis of the isotopic ratio (/sup 3/H//sup 14/C) in the milk and stomach contents indicated that the secretion of /sup 3/H in the milk was 20-25% as great as the secretion of /sup 14/C. The only labeled form of /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C in the stomach contents was pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), indicating that PN-glucoside was hydrolyzed to PN and subsequently metabolized prior to secretion by the mammary gland. The isotopic ratio in the livers of the pups was similar to that of the stomach contents. Furthermore, the relative distribution of the two isotopes among the hepatic metabolites of the pups was similar. The results of this study indicate that intact PN-glucoside is not secreted in milk, although vitamin B-6 derived from the limited hydrolysis and metabolism of PN-glucoside is delivered to the mammary gland for secretion.

  11. New secoiridoid glucosides from Jasminum lanceolarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y C; Lin, S L

    1996-12-01

    Two new secoiridoid glucosides, the trans-P-coumaroyl and trans-feruloyl esters of 10-hydroxyoleoside, jaslanceosides A (2) and B (3), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Jasminum lanceolarium (Oleaceae) in addition to jasminoside (1) and 10-hydroxyoleoside dimethyl ester (8). The structures of these compounds have been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical methods.

  12. Oligomeric secoiridoid glucosides from Jasminum abyssinicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Francesca Romana; Palazzino, Giovanna; Federici, Elena; Iurilli, Raffaella; Monache, Franco Delle; Chifundera, Kusamba; Galeffi, Corrado

    2006-03-01

    From the root bark of Jasminum abyssinicum (Oleaceae) collected in Congo was isolated tree oligomeric secoiridoid glucosides named craigosides A-C. The three compounds are esters of a cyclopentanoid monoterpene with an iridane skeleton, esterified with three, two and two, respectively, units of oleoside 11-methyl ester. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations.

  13. Three secoiridoid glucosides from Jasminum nudiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, T; Takenaka, Y; Nagakura, N; Nishi, T

    1999-09-01

    Phytochemical study of the leaves and stems of Jasminum nudiflorum has led to the isolation of three secoiridoid glucosides, jasnudiflosides A-C (1-3). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  14. Nine new secoiridoid glucosides from Jasminum nudiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Taguchi, Hiromi; Nagakura, Naotaka; Nish, Toyoyuki

    2002-03-01

    Phytochemical study of the leaves of Jasminum nudiflorum has led to the isolation of nine new secoiridoid glucosides, jasnudiflosides F-L (1-7), nudifloside D (8) and isooleoacteoside (9). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  15. Two new benzophenone glucosides from Cratoxylon Cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yang Yu; San Lin Jin; Xue Zhang; Yuan Liu; Yang Fu Ou; Nai Li Wang; Xin heng Yao

    2009-01-01

    Two new benzophenone glucosides were isolated from the 60%ethanol extract of the dried stems of Cratoxylum cochinchinense.The structures were elucidated as 3-O-/3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2',4,6'-trihydroxy-benzophenone and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2',5.6'-trihydroxybenzophenone on the basis of spectral and chemical methods.

  16. Content of nutrient and antinutrient in edible flowers of wild plants in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Angela; López-García, Semeí; Basurto-Peña, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Nutrient and antinutritional/toxic factors present in some edible flowers consumed in Mexico were determined. The edible flowers were: Agave salmiana, Aloe vera, Arbutus xalapensis, Cucurbita pepo (cultivated), Erythrina americana, Erythrina caribaea, Euphorbia radians benth and Yucca filifera. The nutrient content in the flowers studied is similar to that of the edible leaves and flowers studied mainly in Africa. The moisture content of the flowers varied from 860 to 932 g kg(-1). Crude protein (CP) was between 113 to 275 g kg(-1) DM, crude fiber, 104 to 177 g kg(-1) DM and the nitrogen free extract, between 425 to 667 g kg(-1) DM. The highest chemical score (CS) was found in E. americana and A. salmiana; in five samples the limiting amino acid was lysine, and in three of them it was tryptophan. Trypsin inhibitors and hemaglutinnins had a very low concentration. Alkaloids were present in both the Erythrina species and the saponins in A. salmiana and Y. filifera. Cyanogenic glucosides were not found in the studied flowers. The traditional process of preparing these specific flowers before consumption is by cooking them and discarding the broth; in this way the toxic substances are diminished or eliminated. These edible flowers from wild plants consumed in local areas of the country play an important role in the diet of the people at least during the short time of the season where they are blooming.

  17. Oviposition choice of Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) depends on host plants cyanogenic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The choice of insect females as to where to lay their eggs strongly affects progeny survival and, thus, fitness. We conducted choice experiments with female Mexican bean beetles, which were offered lima bean plants differing in their cyanogenic capacity (HCNc), i.e., in the intensity of hydrogen cyanide release per time unit from damaged plant tissue. Females preferred to lay their eggs on plants with low HCNc. In contrast, the mere concentration of cyanide-containing precursors (the cyanogenic potential, HCNp) did not affect oviposition choices. Plant cyanogenesis occurs after tissue damage, which brings specific beta-glucosidases in contact with their substrates, cyanogenic glycosides, from which they are separated by compartmentation in the intact plant tissue. Plants commonly store toxic compounds in an inactive form. Our results demonstrate that for cyanogenesis, which is widespread in plants, it is the toxic product itself rather than the precursor that affects oviposition choices of a specialized herbivore.

  18. Iridoid Glucosides from Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayfun, Ersöz; Kaya, Duygu; Yalcin, Funda Nuray;

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β-hydroxyipola......-hydroxyipolamiide (4), lamalbide (5), dehydropenstemoside (6), and sesamoside (7). The structure of the iridoids was elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS) evidence....

  19. A new flavonoid glucoside from Cassia angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ping Wu; Zhu Ju Wang; Li Ying Tang; Mei Hong Fu; Yan He

    2009-01-01

    A new flavonoid glucoside with a known one was isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. Based on the spectral analysis,including MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1HCOSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOSEY, their chemical structures were determined as kaempferol-3-O-[(6"-O-trans-sinnapoyl)-B-D-glucopyranosyl (1 -6)]-B-D-glucopyranoside 1 and apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside 2.

  20. MARKER BASED STANDARDIZATION OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS AND EXTRACTS CONTAINING BETA-SITOSTEROL D- GLUCOSIDE USING HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirge Supriya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, precise, rapid and selective high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC method has been developed for determination of beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside in Karela (Momordica charantia Linn. extracts as well as in plant based formulations containing Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal. The mobile phase consisted of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5: 5: 0.5 (v/v and TLC plates precoated with 60F254 silica gel were used as the stationary phase. Detection was carried out densitometrically using a UV detector at 540 nm after spraying with Anisaldehyde – Sulphuric acid Reagent (ASR. The retention factor of beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside was 0.47. Linearity was obtained in the range of 1.0 to 3.5 µg per spot for beta sitosterol -D-glucoside. The method was précise and accurate as the RSD was < 2 %. The method was found to be sensitive, selective and robust. The developed and validated HPTLC method was employed for standardization of methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Karela and seven different formulations containing Ashwagandha for the content of the beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside..

  1. Aromatic compound glucosides, alkyl glucoside and glucide from the fruit of anise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimatu, Eiko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2003-07-01

    From the polar portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, four aromatic compound glucosides, an alkyl glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 24 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were clarified as (E)-3-hydroxyanethole beta-D-glucopyranoside, (E)-1'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)propane beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-hydroxyestragole beta-D-glucopyranoside, methyl syringate 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, hexane-1,5-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 1-deoxy-L-erythritol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by spectral investigation.

  2. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified, and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. Significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with α-d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol: resveratrol 3-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4′-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratr...

  3. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified, and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. Significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with α-d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol: resveratrol 3-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4′-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratr...

  4. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  5. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Meagher, Robert L; Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2011-12-01

    The generalist moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) consists of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that differ in their distribution among host plant species. The corn strain prefers crop plants such as corn, sorghum, and cotton, while the rice strain is found in small grasses such as Cynodon spp. and rice. Little is known about the physiological factors that drive this host preference. Here, we report a feeding study with natural host plants and an artificial diet containing cyanide. We found that corn, two Cynodon spp. (bermudagrass C. dactylon (L.) Persoon, 'NuMex Sahara', and stargrass C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis Vanderyst, 'Florona'), and a hybrid between bermudagrass and stargrass, 'Tifton 85', exhibited differences in the concentration of the cyanogenic precursors or cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and the release of hydrogen cyanide per unit time or cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Corn plants released low levels of hydrogen cyanide, while stargrass had greater HCNp/HCNc than bermudagrass and 'Tifton 85'. Feeding studies showed that corn strain larvae experienced higher mortality than the rice strain when fed stargrass or artificial diet supplemented with cyanide. Also, corn strain larvae excreted higher levels of cyanogenic compounds than the rice strain when fed Cynodon spp. These differences in excretion suggest potential disparities in cyanide metabolism between the two strains. We hypothesize that differences in the susceptibility to cyanide levels in various host plants could play a role in driving strain divergence and what appears to be the incipient speciation of this moth.

  6. Cassava cyanogens and free amino acids in raw and cooked leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngudi, D Diasolua; Kuo, Y-H; Lambein, F

    2003-08-01

    Cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) constitute the main daily source of protein as supplement to the major staple food, the processed cassava roots in remote rural areas of Africa. Konzo, an upper motoneurone disease with permanent spastic paralysis of both legs, has been reported among populations consuming this unbalanced diet. In commercial pounded cassava leaves residual cyanogens and the presence of inherent potentially toxic non-protein amino acids were analysed to check their safety. The initial total cyanogens before cooking ranged from 35.9+/-0.4 to 107.5+/-0.8 mg HCN (hydrogen cyanide) equivalent kg(-1) dry weight. After cooking, the residual cyanogens were significantly reduced (Pcassava leaves. The non-protein amino acids gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and alpha-amino butyric acid (alpha-ABA) were detected. No known potentially toxic non-protein amino acid was found. In konzo-affected areas, cassava leaves with inadequate preparation and cooking can be a non-negligible source of dietary exposure to cyanogens apart from the cassava roots that are suggested to be involved in the aetiology of konzo.

  7. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.;

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  8. New acylated flavone and cyanogenic glycosides from Linum grandiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.

    2009-01-01

    The first investigation of Linum grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of one new acylated flavone O-diglycoside known as luteolin 7-O-a-D-(6000-E-feruloyl)glucopyranosyl (1!2)--D-glucopyranoside, and one new cyanogenic glycoside known as 2-[(30-isopropoxy-O--D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-methylbutane...

  9. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  10. Two New Phenolic Glucosides from Lagerstroemia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janggyoo Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic glucosides, 1-O-benzyl-6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and 1-O-(7S,8R-guaiacylglycerol-(6-O-E-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lagerstroemia speciosa, along with ten known compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on 1D- and 2D-NMR, Q-TOF MS and optical rotation spectroscopic data. All of the compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells, with IC50 values of 69.5–83.3 μM.

  11. Chemical Synthesis of Deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-[13C6]-glucoside and Application in Stable Isotope Dilution Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Habler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified mycotoxins have been gaining importance in recent years and present a certain challenge in LC-MS/MS analysis. Due to the previous lack of a labeled isotopologue of the modified mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, in our study we synthesized the first 13C-labeled internal standard. Therefore, we used the Königs-Knorr method to synthesize deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-[13C6]-glucoside originated from unlabeled deoxynivalenol and [13C6]-labeled glucose. Using the synthesized isotopically-labeled standard deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-[13C6]-glucoside and the purchased labeled standard [13C15]-deoxynivalenol, a stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was firstly developed for deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and deoxynivalenol in beer. The preparation and purification of beer samples was based on a solid phase extraction. The validation data of the newly developed method gave satisfying results. Intra- and interday precision studies revealed relative standard deviations below 0.5% and 7%, respectively. The recoveries ranged for both analytes between 97% and 112%. The stable isotope dilution assay was applied to various beer samples from four different countries. In summary, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and deoxynivalenol mostly appeared together in varying molar ratios but were quantified in rather low contents in the investigated beers.

  12. ANDROECHIN, A NEW CHALCONE GLUCOSIDE FROM ANDROGRAPHIS ECHIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.JAYAPRAKASAM; D.GUNASEKAR; K.V.RAO; A.BLOND; B.BODO

    2001-01-01

    A new chalcone glucoside, androechin, and a known flavone glucoside, echioidinin 5-O-gluco side, were isolated from the whole plant of Andrographis echioides. Androechin was character ized as 2,2',6'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone 2'-O-,β-D-glucopyranoside by spectral and chemical studies.

  13. Sesinoside, a new iridoid glucoside from sesame (Sesamum indicum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Ryo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Kosumi; Hasegawa, Koji; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    A new iridoid glucoside, sesinoside (1), was isolated from the seedlings of Sesamum indicum. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and by methanolysis of 1, which produced the known compounds, phlorigidosides C (2) and (6Z)-foliamenthic acid methyl ester (3). This is the first report of an iridoid glucoside with 3.

  14. The Preliminary Detection of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai NGAMRIABSAKUL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume are normally fermented and eaten by local villagers in Southern Thailand, especially in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. It is well known that fresh seeds can make the person who eats them even in small amounts feel dizzy. The amounts and types of cyanogenic glycosides in the seeds and the effect of heat and fermentation on the amount of the substances have never been reported before. Amygdalin, a type of cyanogenic glycoside, was detected in this preliminary study. It was found that fresh leaves contained 30 ppm of amygdalin, while fresh seeds contained much more amygdalin; 660 ppm, equivalent to a small amount of HCN, 0.005 ppm. Cooked and later fermented seeds had considerably less amygdalin than the fresh ones, 100 ppm and 25 ppm, respectively. It is clearly shown that heat (boiling and fermentation can reduce the amount of amygdalin in the seeds.

  15. NATURAL PLANT TOXICANT – CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE AMYGDALIN: CHARACTERISTIC, METABOLISM AND THE EFFECT ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kolesár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cyanogenic glycosides, as natural plant toxicants, in plants varies with plant species and environmental effects. Cyanogenic glycoside as an amygdalin was detected in apricot kernels, bitter almonds and peach, plum, pear and apple seeds. Amygdalin itself is non-toxic, but its HCN production decomposed by some enzymes is toxic substance. Target of this review was to describe the characteristic, metabolism and possible effects of amygdalin on reproductive processes. Previous studies describe the effects of natural compound amygdalin on female and male reproductive systems focused on process of steroidogenesis, spermatozoa motility and morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa. In accordance to the previous studies on amygdalin its benefit is controversial.

  16. [Acute encephalopathy caused by cyanogenic fungi in 2004, and magic mushroom regulation in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonmori, Kunio; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    2009-03-01

    Two topics, related to mushroom poisoning of recent interest in Japan, have been presented. In autumn 2004, 59 cases of acute encephalopathy were reported across 9 prefectures in Japan (24 from Akita Prefecture with 8 deaths; age 48-93, average 70; female 14, male 10). Of 24 cases, 20 had kidney dysfunction. Four poisoned subjects showed no kidney trouble. Of the 24 poisoning cases, 23 people ate Pleurocybella porrigens, and one ate Grifola frondosa. The latter subject (female, late 40's) was receiving dialysis for more than 35 years. In August, she felt dizziness, headache and tinnitus. She visited hospital and asked to stay there. In the hospital she ate 5g of stewed G. frondosa and 10g of the same fungus boiled with chicken and taro on different days. Fourteen to 18 days after the eatings, she developed cramps and lost consciousness, and fell into a coma. Her cramp and coma continued for about 10 days almost until her death. Her symptoms caused by G. frondosa were similar to those observed for the above 23 cases of P. porrigens ingestion. Therefore, we concluded that encephalopathy experienced in Akita Prefecture caused by was the cyanogenic fungi such as P. porrigens , G. frondosa, Pleurotus eringii etc. Although the amounts of mushrooms eaten by poisoned subjects were not so clear, we estimated that the amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) taken into human bodies exceeded the detoxication limit of HCN, resulting in HCN poisoning. However, it has not been proved that the encephalopathy is directly or indirectly caused by the HCN poisoning. Many typhoons came across Japan and landed 10 times in 2004, and mushroom size was larger than usual one, and HCN contents in fruit-bodies seemed to be increased especially in the late-stage of their growth. Thirteen species of magic mushrooms were prohibited by the law from 2002 in Japan. They include Copelandia (Panaeolus) cyanescens, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Psilocybe argentipes

  17. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; de Vicente, P; Marcelino, N; Roueff, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Guelin, M; Albo, C; Barcia, A; Barbas, L; Bolano, R; Colomer, F; Diez, M C; Gallego, J D; Gomez-Gonzalez, J; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Lopez-Fernandez, J A; Lopez-Perez, J A; Malo, I; Serna, J M; Tercero, F

    2015-01-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J=5-4 and J=10-9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6+/-4.4)e10 cm-2 in TMC-1 and (3.9+/-1.8)e10 cm-2 in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10)e-12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated ...

  18. Zearalenone-16-O-glucoside: a new masked mycotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalsky Paris, Maria Paula; Schweiger, Wolfgang; Hametner, Christian; Stückler, Romana; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Varga, Elisabeth; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2014-02-05

    This paper reports the identification of a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase, HvUGT14077, which is able to convert the estrogenic Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone into a near-equimolar mixture of the known masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-O-β-glucoside and a new glucose conjugate, zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside. Biocatalytical production using engineered yeast expressing the HvUGT14077 gene allowed structural elucidation of this compound. The purified zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside was used as an analytical calibrant in zearalenone metabolization experiments. This study confirmed the formation of this new masked mycotoxin in barley seedlings as well as in wheat and Brachypodium distachyon cell suspension cultures. In barley roots, up to 18-fold higher levels of zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside compared to the known zearalenone-14-O-β-glucoside were found. Incubation of zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside with human fecal slurry showed that this conjugate can also be hydrolyzed rapidly by intestinal bacteria, converting the glucoside back to the parental mycotoxin. Consequently, it should be considered as an additional masked form of zearalenone with potential relevance for food safety.

  19. Variation in cyanogenic glycosides across populations of wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) has no apparent effect on bruchid beetle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, J Gwen; Glauser, Gaetan; Benrey, Betty

    2014-05-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) act as feeding or oviposition deterrents and are toxic after enzymatic hydrolysis, thus negatively affecting herbivore performance. While most studies on CNGs focus on leaf herbivores, here we examined seeds from natural populations of Phaseolus lunatus in Mexico. The predominant CNGs, linamarin and lotaustralin, were quantified for each population by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also examined whether there was a correlation between the concentration of CNGs and the performance of the Mexican bean beetle, Zabrotes subfasciatus, on seeds from each population(.) The concentrations of CNGs in the seeds were relatively high compared to the leaves and were significantly variable among populations. Surprisingly, this had little effect on the performance of the bruchid beetles. Zabrotes subfasciatus can tolerate high concentrations of CNGs, most likely because of the limited β-glucosidase activity in the seeds. Seed herbivory does not appear to liberate hydrogen cyanide due to the low water content in the seed. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying the natural variation and activity of toxic compounds in order to make relevant biological inferences about their role in defense against herbivores.

  20. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  1. The use of methemoglobin complex in estimating cyanogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... ketone or aldehyde, a sugar and highly toxic cyanide ion. (McMahon et .... charge on the species Hb+ OH2 refers to the net positive charge which the iron ... load, heavy metals and cyanide contents of water sources, effluents.

  2. In field damage of high and low cyanogenic cassava due to a generalist insect herbivore Cyrtomenus bergi (Hemiptera: Cydnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Bellotti, Anthony Charles; Castaño, Oscar

    2003-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanogenic potential in cassava roots deters polyphagous insects in the field is relevant to current efforts to reduce or eliminate the cyanogenic potential in cassava. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted in the field under natural selection pressure of the polyphagous root feeder Cyrtomenus bergi Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). A number of cassava varieties (33) as well as 13 cassava siblings and their parental clone, each representing a determined level of cyanogenic potential (CNP), were scored for damage caused by C. bergi and related to CNP and nonglycosidic cyanogens, measured as hydrogen cyanide. Additionally, 161 low-CNP varieties (Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) were screened for resistance/tolerance to C. bergi. Low root damage scores were registered at all levels of CNP. Nevertheless, CNP and yield (or root size) partly explained the damage in cassava siblings (r2 = 0.82) and different cassava varieties (r2 = 0.42), but only when mean values of damage scores were used. This relation was only significant in one of two crop cycles. A logistic model describes the underlying negative relation between CNP and damage. An exponential model describes the underlying negative relation between root size and damage. Damage, caused by C. bergi feeding, released nonglycosidic cyanogens, and an exponential model fits the underlying positive relation. Fifteen low-CNP clones were selected for potential resistance/tolerance against C. bergi.

  3. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats and their response to oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R; Satpute, R M; Hariharakrishnan, J; Tripathi, H; Saxena, P B

    2009-09-01

    Oral toxicity of several cyanogens and their reversal by alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG; oral) were studied in rats. LD(50) of acetonitrile (ATCN), acrylonitrile (ACN), malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and succinonitrile (SCN) was 4891, 143.3, 69.8, 122.9, 69.8 and 488.7 mg/kg, respectively while the protection index of A-KG (ratio of LD(50) of cyanogens in the presence or absence of A-KG) was>2.0 against MCN (7.6), PCN (2.7) and SNP (3.6) only. We further studied the efficacy of A-KG against acute toxicity of these three cyanogens (0.75 LD(50)) on various hematological and biochemical variables in blood and soft tissues 24h post-exposure. We observed increase in white blood cells (SNP), plasma alanine (PCN, SNP) and aspartate (PCN) aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), Na(+) (MCN, PCN) and cyanide (PCN), and decrease in K(+) (MCN, SNP) accompanied by an increase in brain, kidney and liver malondialdehyde (PCN), decrease in brain glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (PCN, SNP), reduced glutathione (MCN, PCN, SNP) and cytochrome oxidase (PCN), liver rhodanese (PCN, SNP), and kidney cytochrome oxidase (PCN). The study indicates that (i) PCN was most toxic among all the cyanogens and (ii) beside cyanide, A-KG could be considered as an effective antidote for cyanogens.

  4. The spectrum and spatial distribution of cyanogen in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) at large heliocentric distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R M; Schleicher, D G

    1997-03-28

    Optical spectra of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) at a heliocentric distance of 6.45 astronomical units showed emission from cyanogen gas. The spatial distribution of cyanogen was considerably more diffuse and extended compared to the spatial profile of the dust or grains which were sharply peaked near the center. This behavior is consistent with comets at smaller heliocentric distances suggesting the same or a similar formation mechanism. A cyanogen gas production rate of (1.2 +/- 0.3) x10(26) molecules per second was derived. A model band profile derived from fluorescence equilibrium calculations for the comet's heliocentric velocity and distance agrees with the observed band profile.

  5. Mechanisms of Apigenin-7-glucoside as a Hepatoprotective Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU-SHENG ZHENG; XI-LING SUN; BO XU; GANG LI; MENG SONG

    2005-01-01

    Objective Ixeris chinesis (Thunb.) Ankai has been used as a Chinese folk medicine, but only scanty information is available on the physiological and biochemical functions of the compounds extracted from I. Chinesis. In the present study the effects of apigenin -7-glucoside (APIG) isolated from I. Chinesis against liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated. Methods The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated by spectrophotography. The content of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with electrochemical and UV detection methods. The antioxidant activity of APIG was evaluated using chemiluminescence single photon counting technology. Results CCl4 significantly increased the enzyme activities of GPT and GOT in blood serum, as well as the level of MDA and 8-OHdG in liver tissue, and decreased the levels of GSH. Pretreatment with APIG was able not only to suppress the elevation of GPT, GOT, MDA and 8-OHdG, and inhibit the reduction of GSH in a dose-dependent manner in vivo, but also to reduce the damage of hepatocytes in vitro. On the other hand, we also found that APIG had strong antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The hepatoprotective activity of APIG is possibly due to its antioxidant properties, acting as scavengers of ROS. These results obtained in vivo and in vitro suggest that APIG has protective effects against hepatic oxidative injury induced by chemicals. Further studies on the pharmaceutical functions and immunological responses of APIG may help its clinical application.

  6. REDUCING NONSELECTIVE PROTEIN ADSORPTION AND CELL ADHESION ON POLYACRYLONITRILE FILMS BY COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE WITH α-ALLYL GLUCOSIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-qiang Kou; Chao Qu; Zhi-kang Xu; You-yi Xu; Ke Yao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the surface properties of novel sugar-containing polymers, α-allyl glucoside (AG)/acrylonitrile (AN)copolymers, were studied by contact angle, protein adsorption and cell adhesion measurements. It was found that the contact angle of the copolymer films decreased from 68° to 30° with the increase of AG content in the copolymer. The adsorption amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the adhesive macrophage onto the film surface also decreased significantly with increasing α-allyl glucoside content from 0 to 42 wt% in the copolymer. These preliminary results reveal that both the hydrophilicity and the biocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes could be improved by copolymerizing acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  7. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  8. Nicotinamide metabolism in ferns: formation of nicotinic acid glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Watanabe, Shin

    2011-03-01

    The metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in 9 fern species, Psilotum nudum, Angiopteris evecta, Lygodium japonicum, Acrostichum aureum, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium subsinuatum, Thelypteris acuminate, Blechnum orientale and Crytomium fortune. All fern species produce a large quantity of nicotinic acid glucoside from [(14)C]nicotinamide, but trigonelline formation is very low. Increases in the release of (14)CO(2) with incubation time was accompanied by decreases in [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid glucoside. There was slight stimulation of nicotinic acid glucoside formation by 250 mM NaCl in mature leaves of the mangrove fern, Acrostichum aureum, but it is unlikely that this compound acts as a compatible solute. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid salvage for pyridine nucleotide synthesis was detected in all fern species, although this activity was always less than nicotinic acid glucoside synthesis. Predominant formation of nicotinic acid glucoside is characteristic of nicotinic acid metabolism in ferns. This reaction appears to act as a detoxication mechanism, removing excess nicotinic acid.

  9. Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are cyanogenic under biofilm and colonial growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Saiko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is a collection of nine genotypically distinct but phenotypically similar species. They show wide ecological diversity and include species that are used for promoting plant growth and bio-control as well species that are opportunistic pathogens of vulnerable patients. Over recent years the Bcc have emerged as problematic pathogens of the CF lung. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another important CF pathogen. It is able to synthesise hydrogen cyanide (HCN, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We have recently shown that HCN production by P. aeruginosa may have a role in CF pathogenesis. This paper describes an investigation of the ability of bacteria of the Bcc to make HCN. Results The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia has 3 putative HCN synthase encoding (hcnABC gene clusters. B. cenocepacia and all 9 species of the Bcc complex tested were able to make cyanide at comparable levels to P. aeruginosa, but only when grown surface attached as colonies or during biofilm growth on glass beads. In contrast to P. aeruginosa and other cyanogenic bacteria, cyanide was not detected during planktonic growth of Bcc strains. Conclusion All species in the Bcc are cyanogenic when grown as surface attached colonies or as biofilms.

  10. Microporous Zeolites as Catalysts for the Preparation of Decyl Glucoside from Glucose with 1-Decanol by Direct Glucosidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hwan Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of microporous zeolite catalysts were evaluated in the synthesis of decyl glucoside from glucose with 1-decanol by direct glucosidation. The effects of the acidic properties and pore structure of the zeolite catalysts on the glucose conversions and decyl glucoside yields were investigated. The conversions of glucose on the H+ ion-exchanged FAU, MFI, and BEA zeolite catalysts were above 70%. The conversion increased with decreasing acid strength of the catalysts. The highest conversion and yield of decyl glucoside were exhibited on the H-FAU(3 zeolite catalyst. The catalytic activities were enhanced with increasing amounts of acid sites. The selectivity of decyl glucopyranoside increased with decreasing Si/Al values for the same zeolite catalysts. The pore structure of H-FAU zeolite would allow sufficient spatial restriction to produce decyl glucopyranoside through the isomerization of decyl glucofuranoside into decyl glucopyranoside in its extensive pore channels. The selectivities of the decyl glucoside isomers relied significantly on the restricted transition state to the primary products due to their pore topologies.

  11. Cyanidin 3-O-β-D-Glucoside Improves Bone Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaume, Lydia; Gilbert, William; Smith, Breda J; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) promotes bone loss after menopause, and there is evidence that dietary antioxidants may reduce the level of OS in vivo. This study examined dose-dependent effects of blackberries (BBs) containing mainly cyanidin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (C3G) in preventing bone loss in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat model. Nine-month-old female (N=38) Sprague-Dawley rats were scanned using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for baseline whole body, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD). One group was sham operated (Sham) and three groups were ovariectomized (Ovx). The groups and corresponding diets were Sham+control diet (n=12), Ovx+control diet (n=12), Ovx+5% BB (n=7), and Ovx+10% BB (n=7). Control diet was AIN-93M rodent diet, and the Ovx+5% BB and Ovx+10% BB were a diet modified to contain powdered, freeze-dried BB at levels of 5% and 10% (w/w). Following 100 days of treatment, whole body BMC and BMD were reassessed and bone specimens, blood, and 24-h urine samples were collected for analyses. Findings indicate that ovariectomy (Ovx) compromised whole body BMC and trabecular microarchitecture of the proximal tibia and fourth lumbar vertebra. C3G-rich BB at the level of 5% modestly protected BMDs, loss of the tibia, lumbar vertebra, and femur by 2.4%, 2.7%, and 4.3% (Pbone volume and trabecular number by 37% and 21%, respectively (Pbone loss evident by improved tibial, vertebral, and femoral BMD values, and tibial bone microstructural parameters. Bone protective effects may be as a result of the synergistic effects of phenolic compounds; however, further work is required to determine BBs' specific mechanisms of action.

  12. Iridoid Glucosides from Phlomis tuberosa L. and Phlomis herba-ventis L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipieva, Kalina A.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Franzyk, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    A new iridoid glucoside, 5-deoxysesamoside, was isolated from Phlomis tuberosa together with three known iridoid glucosides sesamoside, shanzhiside methyl ester and lamalbid. Lamiide was found in Ph. herba-ventis ssp. pungens. in high concentrations....

  13. Research Advances on Cyanogenic Glycoside in Cassava%木薯生氰糖苷研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹良平; 起登凤; 孙建波; 彭明

    2013-01-01

    木薯是世界上第五大粮食作物。但由于含有生氰糖苷,食用处理不完全的木薯产品会对人体产生危害,这在某种程度上限制了其在食品中的广泛应用。因此,对木薯生氰糖苷的研究具有重要的现实意义。本文对木薯生氰糖苷的生物合成以及人们在降低生氰糖苷含量方面的研究工作进行阐述,并对未来获得没有或低含量生氰糖苷的木薯产品提出展望。%Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) is the fifth largest food crop in the world. Various health disorders are associated with the consumption of poorly processed cassava due to the presence of residual cyanogens, on some level, which is the bottleneck constraining its applications in the food. As a conse-quence, it is very significant to address this problem by understand the cyanogen metabolism in cassava. This review focuses on advance in pathway of cyanogenic glycosides synthesis and breakdown which play an important in developing cyanogen-free cassava cultivars.

  14. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  15. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  17. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  18. Antibacterial galloylated alkylphloroglucinol glucosides from myrtle (Myrtus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Maxia, Lucia; Bettoni, Piergiorgio; Locatelli, Monica; Valdivia, Carola; Ballero, Mauro; Stavri, Michael; Gibbons, Simon; Sterner, Olov

    2006-02-01

    An investigation of the polar glycosidic fraction from the leaves of myrtle afforded four galloylated nonprenylated phloroglucinol glucosides (3a-d) related to the endoperoxide hormone G3 (4) in terms of structure and biogenesis. Despite their close similarity, significant antibacterial activity was shown only by one of these compounds (3b, gallomyrtucommulone B), while the G3 hormone (4) was inactive.

  19. Isoconiferoside, a New Phenolic Glucoside from Seeds of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic glucoside, isoconiferoside (1, was isolated from the seeds of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae. The structure was determined to be 9-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-coniferyl alcohol based on spectroscopic analyses (1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC and acid hydrolysis.

  20. A New Sesquiterpene Lactones Glucoside from Notoseris psilolepis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone glucoside, notoserolide C (1), was isolated from the whole plant of Notoseris psilolepis Shih. By means of spectral analysis including MS, NMR (1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC) and X-ray diffraction, the structure of notoserolide C was established as cichorioside B angelate.

  1. Chlorinated Iridoid Glucosides from Veronica longifolia and their Antioxidant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Harput, U. Sebnem;

    2010-01-01

    From Veronica longifolia were isolated three chlorinated iridoid glucosides, namely asystasioside E (6) and its 6-O-esters 6a and 6b, named longifoliosides A and B, respectively. The structures of 6a and 6b were proved by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by conversion to the catalpol este...

  2. Water-soluble constituents of cumin: monoterpenoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of cumin (fruit of Cuminum cyminum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, sixteen monoterpenoid glucosides, including twelve new compounds, were isolated. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation.

  3. 2'-apiosylgardoside, an iridoid glucoside from Verbenoxylum reitzii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Poser, Gilsane L.; Schripsema, Jan; Olsen, Carl Erik

    1998-01-01

    A new iridoid glucoside, 2'-apiosylgardoside together with the known compounds theviridoside, ipolamiide and verbascoside were isolated from leaves of Verbenoxylum reitzii. The structure of the new compound was determined mainly by NMR spectroscopy. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All...... rights reserved....

  4. A novel dimeric procyanidin glucoside from Polygonum aviculare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jian Cong; Shu Wei Zhang; Chong Zhang; Yu Jie Huang; Li Jiang Xuan

    2012-01-01

    A novel dimeric procyanidin glucoside,catechin 3-O-acetate-(4α→8)-catechin 3-O-acetate-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1),along with five flavonoids and one lignan were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygonum aviculare.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 1D,2D NMR,MS and CD methods.

  5. Three phenylethanoid glucosides of unusual structure from Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damtoft, S; Jensen, S R

    1994-09-01

    From Chirita sinensis (Gesneriaceae) was isolated six phenylethanoid glucosides, namely the previously known positional isomers plantainoside A, calceolarioside A and calceolarioside B together with three new compounds named chiritoside A, B and C. It was proved by analysis of the NMR data that the chiritosides were the 4"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-derivatives of the first three compounds.

  6. A New Flavan-3-ol Glucoside from Daphniphyllum oldhami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yu SHAO; Da Yuan ZHU; Yue Wei GUO

    2003-01-01

    A new flavan-3-ol glucoside, (-)-afzelechin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), has beenisolated from the stem of Daphniphyllum oldhami. The structure of the new compound waselucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with related compounds.

  7. Two new C-glucoside oxanthrones from Rumex gmelini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Yue Wang; Hai Peng Zhao; Yue Ming Zuo; Zong Quan Wang; Xian Ming Tang

    2009-01-01

    Two new C-glucoside oxanthrones, 6-methoxyl-10-hydroxyaloin A (1) and 6-methoxyl-10-hydroxyaloin B (2), were isolated from the roots of Rumex gmelini Turcz. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical means.

  8. Iridoid glucosides in the genus Veronica (Plantaginaceae) from New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll-Møller, Phillip; Pedersen, Katja D; Gousiadou, Chrysoula

    2017-01-01

    Four simple iridoid glucosides, three known esters of catalpol, seven esters of aucubin, and two phenylethanoids were isolated from Veronica hookeri (syn. Hebe ciliolata; Plantaginaceae). Of these, none of four aromatic (p-methoxybenzoyl, isovanilloyl, veratroyl, caffeoyl) 6-O-esters of aucubin a...

  9. Loganin and new iridoid glucosides in Gentiana pedicellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J; Chulia, A J

    1986-08-01

    2'- P-Coumaroyl-loganin, 2'-feruloyl-loganin, 2'-caffeoyl-loganin, and the known iridoid loganin have been isolated from flowers and leaves of Gentiana pedicellata (Gentianaceae). This is the first occurrence of iridoid glucosides being reported in this species.

  10. Further iridoid glucosides in the genus Manulea (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chryssoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held;

    2015-01-01

    verbascoside was isolated. In addition two previously unknown terpenoid esters of 6β-hydroxy 8-epi-boschnaloside, named manucoside A and B were isolated from a formerly obtained fraction from the work-up of Manulea corymbosa. The distribution of iridoid glucosides in the Scrophulariaceae is discussed....

  11. A new angelol-type coumarin glucoside from Angelica pubescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Fei Ding; Xu Feng; Yun Fa Dong; Xing Zeng Zhao; Yu Chen; Ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    A new angelol-type coumarin glucoside,6-[(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-β-D-glucosyloxy-3-methylbutyl]-7-methoxycoumarin,wag isolated from the roots of Angelica pubescens.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis.

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Acylphloroglucinol 3-C-Glucosides from 2-O-Glucosides using a C-Glycosyltransferase from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Sun, Lili; Chen, Ridao; Xie, Kebo; Yang, Lin; Dai, Jungui

    2016-04-18

    A green and cost-effective process for the convenient synthesis of acylphloroglucinol 3-C-glucosides from 2-O-glucosides was exploited using a novel C-glycosyltransferase (MiCGTb) from Mangifera indica. Compared with previously characterized CGTs, MiCGTb exhibited unique de-O-glucosylation promiscuity and high regioselectivity toward structurally diverse 2-O-glucosides of acylphloroglucinol and achieved high yields of C-glucosides even with a catalytic amount of uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP). These findings demonstrate for the first time the significant potential of a single-enzyme approach to the synthesis of bioactive C-glucosides from both natural and unnatural acylphloroglucinol 2-O-glucosides.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Strong cyanogen stars (McClure 1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    A cyanogen index for late-type giants, insensitive to surface gravity but sensitive to metallicity, is presented in the David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) photometric system. Observations were made using conventional single-channel photometers with 1P21 photomultiplier tubes on the 40cm and 90cm telescopes of Kitt Peak National Observatory. The original DDO filter set C was used (see Paper I, 1968AJ.....73..313M). Table 1 contains DDO photometry on 52 bright late-type giants for calibration. Most G8 to M0 stars, luminosity class III, VTaylor (1967AJ.....72S.320S). Reddening values were computed using the method of McClure and Racine (1969AJ.....74.1000M). (2 data files).

  14. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside and Cyanogenic Glycosides in Gluten-free Bread Fortified with Flaxseed Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn Young; Olivia, Clara M; Liu, Jun; Boonen, Rineke; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T

    2016-12-21

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) meal contains cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) and the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (1). Gluten-free (GF) doughs and baked goods were produced with added flaxseed meal (20%, w/w) then 1, and CGs were determined in fortified flour, dough, and bread with storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (-18, 4, and 22-23 °C). 1 was present in flour, dough, and GF bread after baking. 1 was stable with extensive storage (up to 4 weeks) and was not affected by storage temperature. CGs in flaxseed meal and fortified GF samples were analyzed by (1)H NMR of the cyanohydrins. Linamarin and/or linustatin were the primary CGs in both flaxseed meal and fortified flour. CGs decreased with storage in dough fortified with flaxseed meal or GF bread after baking. GF bakery food products fortified with flaxseed meal had reduced CGs but remained a good source of dietary 1.

  15. Production of a cyanogenic secretion by a thyridid caterpillar (Calindoea trifascialis, Thyrididae, Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Christopher; Schroeder, Frank; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

    2001-06-01

    The thyridid caterpillar, Calindoea trifascialis, when disturbed, emits a defensive secretion from two sac-like glands that open dorsolaterally on the first abdominal segment. The larva has two arm-like protuberances that project outward from the body just in front of the gland openings. These "arms", which are wetted by secretion when the larva activates its glands, appear to function specifically for administration of the fluid. A primary component of the secretion is mandelonitrile, a cyanogenic compound, but the fluid also contains other potential deterrents, including benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and 3-methylbutyl-3-methylbutanoate. Tests done in the field in Vietnam, where the species is native, showed the secretion to be protective against ants.

  16. Purity analysis of hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and phosgene by quantitative (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Terry J; Cullinan, David B

    2007-11-01

    Hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and phosgene are produced in tremendously large quantities today by the chemical industry. The compounds are also particularly attractive to foreign states and terrorists seeking an inexpensive mass-destruction capability. Along with contemporary warfare agents, therefore, the US Army evaluates protective equipment used by warfighters and domestic emergency responders against the compounds, and requires their certification at > or = 95 carbon atom % before use. We have investigated the (13)C spin-lattice relaxation behavior of the compounds to develop a quantitative NMR method for characterizing chemical lots supplied to the Army. Behavior was assessed at 75 and 126 MHz for temperatures between 5 and 15 degrees C to hold the compounds in their liquid states, dramatically improving detection sensitivity. T(1) values for cyanogen chloride and phosgene were somewhat comparable, ranging between 20 and 31 s. Hydrogen cyanide values were significantly shorter at 10-18 s, most likely because of a (1)H--(13)C dipolar contribution to relaxation not possible for the other compounds. The T(1) measurements were used to derive relaxation delays for collecting the quantitative (13)C data sets. At 126 MHz, only a single data acquisition with a cryogenic probehead gave a signal-to-noise ratio exceeding that necessary for certifying the compounds at > or = 95 carbon atom % and 99% confidence. Data acquired at 75 MHz with a conventional probehead, however, required > or = 5 acquisitions to reach this certifying signal-to-noise ratio for phosgene, and >/= 12 acquisitions were required for the other compounds under these same conditions. In terms of accuracy and execution time, the NMR method rivals typical chromatographic methods.

  17. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  18. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P H; Nielsen, K F; Ghorbani, F; Spliid, N H; Nielsen, G C; Jørgensen, L N

    2012-08-01

    correlated to the DON content. When the DON concentration is high, then the content of DON-3-glucoside will most probably also be high and vice versa.

  19. Urinary excretion of bile acid glucosides and glucuronides in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholtz, H; Marschall, H U; Reuschenbach, R; Matern, H; Matern, S

    1991-04-01

    Recently the formation of bile acid glucosides has been described as a novel conjugation mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In 10 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis caused by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas we investigated excretion rates and profiles of urinary bile acid glucosides. Urinary bile acid glucosides and, for comparison, bile acid glucuronides were extracted and characterized according to established methods. In controls total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- S.E.M.)-in the range of bile acid glucuronide excretion (0.41 +/- 0.06 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- S.E.M.). A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-characterized trihydroxy bile acid glucoside of still-unknown hydroxyl positions accounted for 65% of total urinary bile acid glucosides. In extrahepatic cholestasis total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.52 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- SEM), yet significantly lower than bile acid glucuronide excretion (1.53 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001). In cholestasis the primary bile acid derivatives cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid glucosides amounted to 90%, whereas the trihydroxy bile acid glucoside had decreased to 5% of total bile acid glucoside excretion, indicating its alteration during enterohepatic circulation. The data establish the composition and quantity of urinary bile acid glucosides in healthy controls and cholestasis and constitute a quantitative comparison with another glycosidic conjugation reaction, bile acid glucuronidation.

  20. The Metabolic Fate of Deoxynivalenol and Its Acetylated Derivatives in a Wheat Suspension Culture: Identification and Detection of DON-15-O-Glucoside, 15-Acetyl-DON-3-O-Glucoside and 15-Acetyl-DON-3-Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Schmeitzl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a protein synthesis inhibitor produced by the Fusarium species, which frequently contaminates grains used for human or animal consumption. We treated a wheat suspension culture with DON or one of its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON, 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON and 3,15-diacetyl-DON (3,15-diADON, and monitored the metabolization over a course of 96 h. Supernatant and cell extract samples were analyzed using a tailored LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of DON metabolites. We report the formation of tentatively identified DON-15-O-β-D-glucoside (D15G and of 15-acetyl-DON-3-sulfate (15-ADON3S as novel deoxynivalenol metabolites in wheat. Furthermore, we found that the recently identified 15-acetyl-DON-3-O-β-D-glucoside (15-ADON3G is the major metabolite produced after 15-ADON challenge. 3-ADON treatment led to a higher intracellular content of toxic metabolites after six hours compared to all other treatments. 3-ADON was exclusively metabolized into DON before phase II reactions occurred. In contrast, we found that 15-ADON was directly converted into 15-ADON3G and 15-ADON3S in addition to metabolization into deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (D3G. This study highlights significant differences in the metabolization of DON and its acetylated derivatives.

  1. Flavonoid glucosides from the hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Ali, Mohd; Lee, Oh-Kyu; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee; Yoon, Do-Young; Peebles, Christie A M; San, Ka Yiu

    2009-04-01

    Four new flavonoid glucosides, 3',4'-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-[(4''-->13''')-2''',6''',10''',14'''-tetramethylhexadec-13'''-ol-14'''-enyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4'-O-methylkaempferol-3-O-[(4''-->13''')- 2''',6''',10''',14'''-tetramethylhexadecan-13'''-olyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3',4'-di-O-methylbutin-7-O-[(6''-->1''')-3''',11'''-dimethyl-7'''-methylenedodeca-3''',10'''-dienyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and 4'-O-methylbutin-7-O-[(6''-->1''')-3''',11'''-dimethyl-7'''-hydroxymethylenedodecanyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), along with the three known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus hairy roots. Their structures were elucidated spectroscopically. The new flavonoid glucosides inhibited both MMP-9 activity and TNF-alpha production in THP-1 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide.

  2. Iridoid glucosides in the endemic Picconia azorica (Oleaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chryssoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Martins, José

    2015-01-01

    In our continued investigation of plants from the family Oleaceae we have now investigated Picconia azorica endemic to the Azores. Like most species within the family it contains the oleoside-based secoiridoid glucosides ligstroside and oleuropein as the main compounds and in addition verbascosid...... of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside A and B. In addition were found the two 7-O-E/Z-cinnamoyl esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside C and D....... and echinacoside. As with the previously investigated Picconia excelsa, it also contained the carbocyclic iridoid glucosides involved in the biosynthetic pathway to the oleoside derivatives. However, while P. excelsa contained loganin esterified with some monoterpenoid acids, P. azorica contains similar esters...

  3. Iridoid glucosides in the endemic Picconia azorica (Oleaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Martins, José; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Jensen, Søren R

    2015-07-01

    In our continued investigation of plants from the family Oleaceae we have now investigated Picconia azorica endemic to the Azores. Like most species within the family it contains the oleoside-based secoiridoid glucosides ligstroside and oleuropein as the main compounds and in addition verbascoside and echinacoside. As with the previously investigated Picconia excelsa, it also contained the carbocyclic iridoid glucosides involved in the biosynthetic pathway to the oleoside derivatives. However, while P. excelsa contained loganin esterified with some monoterpenoid acids, P. azorica contains similar esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside A and B. In addition were found the two 7-O-E/Z-cinnamoyl esters of 7-epi-loganic acid named Picconioside C and D.

  4. [Mechanism of amylase action on glucoside starch bonds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebtsov, N A; Zabelina, L F; Ektoba, A I

    1976-12-01

    Functional groups of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase from Asp. awamori, alpha-amylase from Asp. oryzae and alpha- and beta-amylases from barley malt are identified. Kinetic curves of the activity dependency on pH, values of ionization heats and photooxidative inactivation draw to the conclusion that carboxyl-imidazole system enters into the active site of the enzymes. A hypothetic mechanism of hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucoside bond in starch molecule by alpha- and beta-amylases and of alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucoside bonds by glucoamylase is given. A theory of induced correspondence of enzyme and substrate satisfactorily explains the specificity of the enzyme action and the cause of complete starch convertion into glucose under glucoamylase action and of terminal starch hydrolysis by alpha- and beta-amylases.

  5. In vitro evaluation of the effects of protein-polyphenol-polysaccharide interactions on (+)-catechin and cyanidin-3-glucoside bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-11-01

    The bioaccessibility of cyanidin-3-glucoside and (+)-catechin in model solutions when β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and pectin/chitosan are present was investigated using an in vitro model simulating gastrointestinal conditions. In the mouth, the free cyanidin content increased (+) 90 and 14% while the (+)-catechin content decreased (-) 23 and 13%, respectively for mixtures with -pectin and -β-LG-pectin. Under gastric conditions, the cyanidin content decreased 85 and 28% for mixtures with -pectin and -β-LG-pectin. On the contrary, after gastric digestion, (+)-catechin bioaccessibility increased and exhibited values similar to the original samples for all the systems tested. The transition to the intestinal environment induced a significant alteration on both polyphenols and this effect was more marked for cyanidin. Systems with pectin allowed obtaining a higher content of bioaccessible cyanidin. The gastric conditions promoted an increase in the antioxidant capacity, followed by a decrease of it in the intestine. The free (+)-catechin and cyanidin-3-glucoside contents decreased when exposed to the gastrointestinal tract conditions. However, when incorporated in food matrix components, the gastrointestinal tract may act positively on the extraction of polyphenols, since they are progressively released from protein and polysaccharide bonds, being available for the absorption and to exert their biological effects.

  6. The chain length of lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls is determined by the incorporation of coumaric acid glucosides and ferulic acid glucosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Doeswijk, T.G.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls is composed of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) moieties ester-linked by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMGA), and of p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG) moieties ester-linked directly t

  7. Oldhamioside, A New Phenolic Glucoside from Daphniphyllum oldhamii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yu SHAO; Da Yuan ZHU; Yue Wei GUO

    2004-01-01

    Further phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem of Daphniphyllum oldhamii afforded a new phenolic glucoside, named oldhamioside 1, together with eleven known compounds, koaburaside 2, betulin, 28-hydroxyl-3-lupenone, pineresinol, syringaresinol, 4-O-methyl-cedrusin, narigenin, eriodictyol, apigenin, loureirin C, and asperuloside. The structures of new and known compounds were characterized by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison of their spectral data with reported values.

  8. A New Acylated Iridoid Glucoside from Avicennia marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan FENG; Xiao Ming LI; Xiao Juan DUAN; Bin Gui WANG

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated iridoid glucoside, namely, 2'-O-(5-phenyl-2E, 4E-pentadienoyl)-mussaenosidic acid, was isolated from the aerial parts of the mangrove plant Avicennia marina.The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and HR-FAB-MS.This compound displayed moderate antioxidant activity.

  9. Prenylated xanthone glucosides from Ural's lichen Umbilicaria proboscidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Jáchymová, Jitka; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2003-02-01

    Two new compounds isolated from an extract of a Central Asian lichen [Umbilicaria proboscidea (L.) Schrader=Syn.: Gyrophora proboscidea (L.) Ach.] are glucosides with mono- and di-prenylated xanthones as the aglycones and a saccharide moiety from two glucoses linked at C-7. The structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR and UV) and by hydrolysis.

  10. Structural revision of some recently published iridoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Søren R; Caliş, Ihsan; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Søtofte, Inger

    2007-01-01

    The structures of six different iridoid glucosides have been revised. Three compounds isolated from Eremostachys glabra and designated 6,9-epi-8-O-acetylshanziside (1), 5,9-epi-penstemoside (2), and 5,9-epi-7,8-didehydropenstemoside (3) have been shown to be identical to the known iridoids barlerin (4, 8-O-acetylshanziside), penstemoside (5), and 7,8-didehydropenstemoside (6), respectively. Another compound named harpagoside-B, isolated from Scrophularia deserti and proposed to be 9-epi-6-O-methylharpagoside (11), was demonstrated from the spectroscopic data given to be the known harpagoside (10b). Finally, two alleged iridoid galactosides from Buddleja crispa named buddlejosides A and B (12a and 12b) have been shown to be the corresponding glucosides; the former is identical to agnuside (13a), while the latter is 3,4-dihydroxybenzoylaucubin (13b), an iridoid glucoside not previously published. This clearly showed that care should be taken with the interpretation of NOEs involving bridgehead protons in iridoid structures because they can be capricious and lead to erroneous structural assignments.

  11. A new 5-alkylresorcinol glucoside derivative from Cybianthus magnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Vásquez-Ocmín, P; Zebiri, I; Rengifo, E; Sauvain, M; Le, H L; Vaisberg, A; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, L; Haddad, M

    2016-01-01

    One new 5-alkylresorcinol glucoside (1) was isolated from leaves of Cybianthus magnus, along with 12 known compounds (2-13), isolated from four plants belonging to Myrsinaceae family. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their spectral data with those reported in the literature. Among the tested molecules, only compound 2 displayed a strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging between 22 and 100 μM for all cell lines tested. One new 5-alkylresorcinol glucoside (1) was isolated from leaves of Cybianthus magnus, along with 12 known compounds, isolated from four plants belonging to Myrsinaceae family (2, 3 isolated from C. magnus; 4-7, 10 and 11 isolated from Myrsine latifolia; 4, 8 and 9 isolated from Myrsine sessiflora; 6, 7, 10, 12 and 13 isolated from Myrsine congesta). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their spectral data with those reported in the literature. So far, only nine 5-alkylresorcinol glucosides were isolated from leaves of Grevillea robusta. Since resorcinols are known to exhibit strong cytotoxic activity, compounds 1 and 2 were tested against cell lines 3T3, H460, DU145 and MCF-7 for cytotoxicity in vitro and compounds 3-13 were tested for their antileishmanial activity. Compound 2 displayed a strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging between 22 and 100 μM for all tested cell lines. Compounds 3-13 were not active against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes.

  12. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 焦化酚氰废水深度处理工艺的改进%Improvement of Coking Phenol Cyanogen Wastewater Advanced Treatment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹英

    2015-01-01

    焦化废水中含有大量的氨氮、酚类及油分物质,其中以酚氰类化合物为主。由于浓度高,有毒及生物抑制性物质较多,成分复杂,生化处理难以实现有机污染物的完全降解,对环境造成了严重污染,随着环保工作要求的逐年提高,酚氰废水的处理效果问题愈发凸显。本文针对目前焦化行业水处理现状,对国内焦化废水处理与利用情况进行了调研,采用新技术“初级电催化氧化+中和曝气池+强化沉淀池+二级电催化氧化+电絮凝+电气浮+超滤系统+反渗透系统”的工艺进行深度处理回用,经过生产实践,取得了良好的社会和经济效益。%Coking wastewater contains large amounts of ammonia nitrogen,phenols an d oil content material, which is given priority to with phenol cyanogen compounds.Because of high concentration,the toxic and biological inhibitory substances are more,composition is complex,biochemical treatment is difficult to realize the complete deg-radation of organic pollutants,it causes serious pollution to the environment,as the requirement of environmental pro-tection increase year by year,phenol cyanogen waste water treatment effect problem is increasingly protruding.In view of the present situation of coking industry water treatment,domestic coking wastewater treatment and utilization for the research,adopt new technology primary electric catalytic oxidation +neutralization aeration tank +strengthen sedimentation basin +secondary electric catalytic oxidation +electric flocculation tank +electric floating +ultra-filtration system +reverse osmosis system for advanced treatment and recycling.Through production practice,it a-chieves good social and economic benefits.

  14. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  15. Separation of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from hawthorn leaves extracts using macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Ying; Jin, Haizhu; Liu, Sujing; Fang, Shengtao; Wang, Chunhua; Xia, Chuanhai

    2015-12-15

    Vitexin-4″-O-glucoside and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside are the major flavonoids of hawthorn leaves. In this work, the adsorption and desorption characteristics of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside on seven macroporous resins were evaluated. Among the tested resins, the HPD-400 resin showed the best adsorption and desorption capacities. Adsorption isotherms were constructed for the HPD-400 resin and well fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were performed on column packed with the HPD-400 resin to optimize the chromatographic parameters. After one run treatment with the HPD-400 resin, the contents of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside in the product were increased 8.44-fold and 8.43-fold from 0.720% and 2.63% to 6.08% and 22.2% with recovery yields of 79.1% and 81.2%, respectively. These results show that the developed method is a promising basis for the large-scale purification of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from hawthorn leaves and other plant materials.

  16. Hydrolysis of Toxic Natural Glucosides Catalyzed by Cyclodextrin Dicyanohydrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Nielsen, Erik Holm; Bols, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolysis of toxic 7-hydroxycoumarin glucosides and other aryl and alkyl glucosides, catalyzed by modified a- and ß-cyclodextrin dicyanohydrins, was investigated using different UV, redox, or HPAEC detection assays. The catalyzed reactions all followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and an impre......The hydrolysis of toxic 7-hydroxycoumarin glucosides and other aryl and alkyl glucosides, catalyzed by modified a- and ß-cyclodextrin dicyanohydrins, was investigated using different UV, redox, or HPAEC detection assays. The catalyzed reactions all followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics......, and an impressive rate increase of up to 7569 (kcat/kuncat) was found for the hydroxycoumarin glucoside substrate 4-MUGP. Good and moderate degrees of catalysis (kcat/kuncat) of up to 1259 were found for the natural glucosides phloridzin and skimmin. By using a newly developed catechol detection UV-assay, a weak...

  17. Long-term cultured hairy roots of chicory-a rich source of hydroxycinnamates and 8-deoxylactucin glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, Janusz; Stojakowska, Anna; Kisiel, Wanda

    2013-12-01

    A 12-year-old hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus L., a callus culture of the plant as well as roots and leaves of a wild plant of chicory, and roots of two C. intybus L. var. sativum cultivars were examined in respect of their hydroxycinnamate and sesquiterpene lactone compositions and contents. Total phenolics and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of the examined plant tissues were also analyzed. The most active in radical scavenging were extracts from the hairy roots and leaves of chicory. 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid was the major antioxidant present in the hairy roots. Its content in the root biomass reached 5.5 %, calculated on a dry weight basis. 8-Deoxylactucin glucoside (crepidiaside A) was the major sesquiterpene lactone in the hairy roots. Its content reached 1.4 %, calculated on a dry weight basis, and was nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that in the roots of wild chicory plant. The glucosidic derivative of 8-deoxylactucin constituted over 85 % of the total sesquiterpene lactone content in the long-term cultured hairy roots of chicory. Aglycone of this compound was reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of hydroxycinnamates in callus and hairy root cultures of C. intybus were undertaken for the first time.

  18. Straightforward rapid spectrophotometric quantification of total cyanogenic glycosides in fresh and processed cassava products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivana, Lucas Daniel; Da Cruz Francisco, Jose; Zelder, Felix; Bergenståhl, Bjorn; Dejmek, Petr

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we extend pioneering studies and demonstrate straightforward applicability of the corrin-based chemosensor, aquacyanocobyrinic acid (ACCA), for the instantaneous detection and rapid quantification of endogenous cyanide in fresh and processed cassava roots. Hydrolytically liberated endogenous cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides (CNp) reacts with ACCA to form dicyanocobyrinic acid (DCCA), accompanied by a change of colour from orange to violet. The method was successfully tested on various cassava samples containing between 6 and 200 mg equiv. HCN/kg as verified with isonicotinate/1,3-dimethylbarbiturate as an independent method. The affinity of ACCA sensor to cyanide is high, coordination occurs fast and the colorimetric response can therefore be instantaneously monitored with spectrophotometric methods. Direct applications of the sensor without need of extensive and laborious extraction processes are demonstrated in water-extracted samples, in acid-extracted samples, and directly on juice drops. ACCA showed high precision with a standard deviation (STDV) between 0.03 and 0.06 and high accuracy (93-96%). Overall, the ACCA procedure is straightforward, safe and easily performed. In a proof-of-concept study, rapid screening of ten samples within 20 min has been tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hexaconazole induces antioxidant protection and apigenin-7-glucoside accumulation in Matricaria chamomilla plants subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojati, Mostafa; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Panahi, Mehdi

    2011-05-15

    In this experiment, the possibility of enhancing the water deficit stress tolerance of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) during two growth stages by the exogenous application of hexaconazole (HEX) was investigated. To improve water deficit tolerance, HEX was applied in three concentrations during two different stages (50 and 80 days after sowing). After HEX applications, the plants were subjected to water deficit stress. Although all HEX concentrations improved the water deficit stress tolerance in chamomile plants, the application of 15 mg L(-1) provided better protection when compared to the other concentration. The exogenous application of HEX provided significant protection against water deficit stress compared to non-HEX-treated plants, significantly affecting the morphological characteristics and aspects of productivity, the relative water, protein and proline contents; non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; and the flower's apigenin-7-glucoside content. These results suggest that the HEX-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in chamomile was related to the changes in growth variables, antioxidants and the apigenin-7-glucoside content.

  20. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase inhibition in soft tissues after sub-lethal oral intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Gujar, Niranjan L; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    Cyanogens include complex nitrile-containing compounds that can generate free cyanide of toxicological significance. Acute toxicity, time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX) inhibition in soft tissues, and urinary thiocyanate levels were measured after acute cyanogen intoxication in rats. Order of cyanogens in terms of LD₅₀ was: malononitrile (MCN)>propionitrile (PCN)≈sodium nitroprusside (SNP)>acrylonitrile (ACN)>succinonitrile (SCN)>acetonitrile (ATCN) for oral, and SNP>MCN>ACN>PCN>SCN>ATCN for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. MCN was most toxic by oral (LD₅₀=66.4 mg/kg) and SNP by intraperitoneal (LD₅₀=16.7 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (LD₅₀=11.9 mg/kg) routes. Minimum survival time (25 min) was recorded after 4.0 LD₅₀ ATCN. Order of cyanogens (0.75 LD₅₀; oral) on the basis of maximum blood cyanide and time of peak cyanide generation were: ATCN>SNP>SCN>PCN>MCN>ACN, and MCN (30 min)PCN≈ACN (8h)cyanogens, suitable therapeutic windows can be designed for their management.

  1. Iridoid glucosides with insecticidal activity from Galium melanantherum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzakou, Olga; Mylonas, Philippos; Vagias, Constantinos; Petrakis, Panos V

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of the endemic species Galium melanantherum was evaluated against Crematogaster scutellaris ants and Kalotermes flavicollis termites. Iridoid glucosides 1-7 were isolated for the first time as metabolites of the investigated plant, along with the coumarin scopolin. The main components of the extract were found to be the non-acetylated iridoids: geniposidic acid (1), 10-hydroxyloganin (2), deacetyldaphylloside (3), monotropein (4), deacetylasperulosidic acid (5) and scandoside (6), while asperulosidic acid (7) was present only in minute quantities. All isolated metabolites were identified on the basis of their spectral data. Laboratory bioassays revealed significant levels of toxicity for 1-4 against Kalotermes flavicollis termites and Crematogaster scutellaris ants.

  2. A new 2-alkylhydroquinone glucoside from Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchar, Hanene; Lehbili, Meriem; Berrehal, Djemaa; Morjani, Hamid; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Kabouche, Ahmed; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-09-25

    A new 2-alkylhydroquinone glucoside, 1-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,4-dihydroxy-2-((E) 2-oxo-3-butenyl)benzene (1), in addition to nine known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass. (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), UV spectral analyses and by comparison with literature data. The cytotoxic activity of three isolated compounds (1-3) was evaluated against fibrosarcoma (HT1080), human lung cancer (A549) and breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines.

  3. Nitrile glucosides and serotobenine from Campylospermum glaucum and Ouratea turnarea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouem à Zintchem, Auguste; Bikobo, Dominique Ngono; de Théodore Atchadé, Alex; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Gangoue-Pieboji, Joseph; Tih, Raphael Ghogomu; Blond, Alain; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Bodo, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    Two nitrile glucosides (1S,3S,4S,5R)-4-benzoyloxy-2-cyanomethylene-3,5-dihydroxycyclohexyl-1-O-beta-glucopyranoside (campyloside A) and (1S,3S,4S,5R)-5-benzoyloxy-2-cyanomethylene-3-hydroxy-4-(2-pyrrolcarboxyloxy)cyclohexyl-1-O-beta-glucopyranoside (campyloside B) were isolated from the stem roots of Campylospermum glaucum, whereas serotobenine was isolated from Ouratea turnarea. The structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic evidence. The biological assays of compounds and crude extract of plant species showed good antimicrobial activity of crude extracts against Gram-positive cocci.

  4. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside: Physical-Chemistry, Foodomics and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Olivas-Aguirre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins (ACNs are plant secondary metabolites from the flavonoid family. Red to blue fruits are major dietary sources of ACNs (up to 1 g/100 g FW, being cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3G one of the most widely distributed. Cy3G confers a red hue to fruits, but its content in raspberries and strawberries is low. It has a good radical scavenging capacity (RSC against superoxide but not hydroxyl radicals, and its oxidative potential is pH-dependent (58 mV/pH unit. After intake, Cy3G can be metabolized (phases I, II by oral epithelial cells, absorbed by the gastric epithelium (1%–10% and it is gut-transformed (phase II & microbial metabolism, reaching the bloodstream (<1% and urine (about 0.02% in low amounts. In humans and Caco-2 cells, Cy3G’s major metabolites are protocatechuic acid and phloroglucinaldehyde which are also subjected to entero-hepatic recycling, although caffeic acid and peonidin-3-glucoside seem to be strictly produced in the large bowel and renal tissues. Solid evidence supports Cy3G’s bioactivity as DNA-RSC, gastro protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic chemo-preventive and as an epigenetic factor, exerting protection against Helicobacter pylori infection, age-related diseases, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and oral cancer. Most relevant mechanisms include RSC, epigenetic action, competitive protein-binding and enzyme inhibition. These and other novel aspects on Cy3G’s physical-chemistry, foodomics, and health effects are discussed.

  5. The reaction of HOCl and cyanocobalamin: corrin destruction and the liberation of cyanogen chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Soud, Husam M; Maitra, Dhiman; Byun, Jaeman; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Banerjee, Jashoman; Saed, Ghassan M; Diamond, Michael P; Andreana, Peter R; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2012-02-01

    Overproduction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been associated with the development of a variety of disorders such as inflammation, heart disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and cancer through its ability to modify various biomolecules. HOCl is a potent oxidant generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system. Recently, we have provided evidence to support the important link between higher levels of HOCl and heme destruction and free iron release from hemoglobin and RBCs. Our current findings extend this work and show the ability of HOCl to mediate the destruction of metal-ion derivatives of tetrapyrrole macrocyclic rings, such as cyanocobalamin (Cobl), a common pharmacological form of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an essential role as an enzyme cofactor and antioxidant, modulating nucleic acid metabolism and gene regulation. It is widely used as a therapeutic agent and supplement, because of its efficacy and stability. In this report, we demonstrate that although Cobl can be an excellent antioxidant, exposure to high levels of HOCl can overcome the beneficial effects of Cobl and generate proinflammatory reaction products. Our rapid kinetic, HPLC, and mass spectrometric analyses showed that HOCl can mediate corrin ring destruction and liberate cyanogen chloride (CNCl) through a mechanism that initially involves α-axial ligand replacement in Cobl to form a chlorinated derivative, hydrolysis, and cleavage of the phosphonucleotide moiety. Additionally, it can liberate free Co, which can perpetuate metal-ion-induced oxidant stress. Taken together, these results are the first report of the generation of toxic molecular products through the interaction of Cobl with HOCl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Jasamplexosides A, B and C: Novel Dimeric and Trimeric Secoiridoid Glucosides from Jasminum amplexicaule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, T; Shimada, A; Nagakura, N; Nayeshiro, H

    1992-12-01

    Three new secoiridoid glucosides, jasamplexosides A, B and C, were isolated from the crude drug "Niu du teng", the leaves and stems of JASMINUM AMPLEXICAULE, together with the known secoiridoid glucosides, 10-hydroxyligstroside and jasminoside. Their structural elucidation by spectroscopic studies is described.

  7. Iridoid glucosides of Paederota bonarota and the relationships between Paederota and Veronica. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Pierce, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In a chemical investigation of the water soluble compounds in Paederota bonarota five known iridoid glucosides were isolated together with a compound with an 8,9-double bond, namely bonarotoside (10-O-benzoyl arborescosidic acid). The known iridoid glucosides were aucubin, catalpol and the 6-O-es...

  8. Anomericity of T-2 toxin-glucoside: masked mycotoxin in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Susan P; Kato, Takayuki; Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall-Asta, Chiara; Crich, David; Price, Neil P J; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2015-01-21

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when Fusarium fungi infect grains, especially oats and wheat. Ingestion of T-2 toxin contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal in livestock. Cereal crops infected with mycotoxin-producing fungi form toxin glycosides, sometimes called masked mycotoxins, which are a potential food safety concern because they are not detectable by standard approaches and may be converted back to the parent toxin during digestion or food processing. The work reported here addresses four aspects of T-2 toxin-glucosides: phytotoxicity, stability after ingestion, antibody detection, and the anomericity of the naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside found in cereal plants. T-2 toxin-β-glucoside was chemically synthesized and compared to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with Blastobotrys muscicola cultures and the T-2 toxin-glucoside found in naturally contaminated oats and wheat. The anomeric forms were separated chromatographically and differ in both NMR and mass spectrometry. Both anomers were significantly degraded to T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin under conditions that mimic human digestion, but with different kinetics and metabolic end products. The naturally occurring T-2 toxin-glucoside from plants was found to be identical to T-2 toxin-α-glucoside prepared with B. muscicola. An antibody test for the detection of T-2 toxin was not effective for the detection of T-2 toxin-α-glucoside. This anomer was produced in sufficient quantity to assess its animal toxicity.

  9. Isolation of Some Glucosides as Aroma Precursors from Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiwa, Y; Mizuno, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A; Koshino, H

    1999-01-01

    A glycosidically bound fraction was prepared by adsorbing a 80% methanol extract from fresh rhizomes of ginger onto a column of Amberlite XAD-2 resin and successively eluting with ethyl acetate or methanol. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this fraction with an acetone powder prepared from fresh ginger and commercial glycosidase liberated such alcohols as geraniol, 2-heptanol, α-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and citronellol, suggesting that fresh ginger included glycosides and glycosidase. The ethyl acetate eluate was chromatographed by an ODS flash column and then HPLC to isolate the β-glucopyranosides of 5-hydroxyborneol, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthan-3-ol, (2E, 6E)- and (2E, 6Z)-3,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyoctadien-1-ol, 2-heptanol, geraniol, nerol, (R)-linalool, and citronellol. All the glucosides, except for 5-hydroxybornyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, were identified for the first time in the rhizome of ginger, and many of their aglycons were major constituents of the essential oil. The results indicate that these glucosides are aroma precursors of fresh ginger.

  10. Phenolic Glucosides from Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new 8,4¢-oxyneolignane glucoside 1 has been isolated from the stems of Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum together with six known phenolic glucosides 2-7. The structure of the new compound, including its absolute configuration, was determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (–-(7S,8R,7¢E-4-hydroxy-3,3¢,5,5¢-tetramethoxy-8,4¢-oxyneolign-7¢-ene-7,9,9¢-triol 7,9¢-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1. In the in vitro assays, compound 1 and (--syringaresinol-4,4¢-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 showed evident activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Shashenoside I (4 showed a selective cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 4.17 μM against the acute myeloid leukemia cell line MV4-11, while it was inactive against 10 other human tumor cell lines.

  11. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ovando-Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection.

  12. A new abietic acid-type diterpene glucoside from the needles of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mee Jung; Jung, Hyun Ah; Kang, Sam Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2009-12-01

    From the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of the needles of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae), a new diterpenoid glucoside [9alpha,13alpha-epoxy-8beta,14beta-dihydroxy-abietic acid-18-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside] (1), two flavonoid glucosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (2) and 6-C-methyl kaempferol 3-O-beta-D: -glucoside (3)], and two monoterpenoid glucosides [bornyl 6-O-alpha-Larabinofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (4) and bornyl 6-O-beta-D: -apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (5)] were isolated and characterized on the basis of spectral analysis. Of all the compounds, 2 and 3 showed peroxynitrite scavenging activity.

  13. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and its major conjugate, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, in beer and some brewing intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelanska, Marta; Hajslova, Jana; Zachariasova, Milena; Malachova, Alexandra; Kalachova, Kamila; Poustka, Jan; Fiala, Jaromir; Scott, Peter M; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf

    2009-04-22

    Since deoxynivalenol (DON), the main representative of Fusarium toxic secondary metabolites, is a relatively common natural contaminant in barley, its traces can be detected in many commercial beers. Our previous study reporting for the first time the occurrence of relatively high levels of DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) in malt and beer prepared from relatively "clean" barley (semiscale experimental conditions) induced a follow-up investigation focused on this DON conjugate in commercial beers. The current survey involving in total 176 beers, representing different brands, and collected at various markets, has documented a ubiquitous occurrence of DON-3-Glc in this product. Its levels even exceeded that of free DON in some samples; the highest level found was 37 microg/L. In addition to glucosylated DON, its acetylated forms (ADONs) were also common contaminants in most of the beers. Generally, stronger beers (higher alcohol content) tended to contain higher levels of DON and its conjugates. No distinct relationship between the contamination of malt and beer was observed in samples collected from several breweries. Attention was also paid to comparison of data on malts obtained by LC-MS/MS and ELISA DON-dedicated kits. The latter provided apparently higher levels of DON, the most distinct difference being observed for malts processed at higher temperatures (caramel and roasted malts). The nature of this phenomenon has not yet been explained; in addition to cross-reacting species, other factors, such as the higher content of dark pigment, can also be the cause.

  14. Proanthocyanidin profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) reveals catechin-O-glucoside as the dominant compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Awika, Joseph

    2013-08-15

    Proanthocyanidin (PA) profile and content can have important nutritional and health implications on plant foods. Six diverse cowpea phenotypes (black, red, green, white, light-brown and golden-brown) were investigated for PA composition using normal-phase HPLC and reversed-phase UPLC-TQD-MS. Catechin and (epi)afzelechin were the major flavan-3-ol units. Unusual composition was observed in all cowpea phenotypes with significant degrees of glycosylation in the monomers and dimers. The PA content of cowpea (dry basis) ranged between 2.2 and 6.3 mg/g. Monomeric flavan-3-ols were the largest group of PA (36-69%) in cowpea, with catechin-7-O-glucoside accounting for most (about 88%) of the monomers. The oligomers with degree of polymerization (DP) 2-4 ranged from 0.41 to 1.3 mg/g (15-20%), whereas DP>10 polymers accounted for only 13.5% of PA. Future studies that highlight the impact of the unusual cowpea PA profile on nutritional and bioactive properties of this important legume are warranted.

  15. Acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides in Matthiola incana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, N; Tatsuzawa, F; Nishiyama, A; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1995-03-01

    Four acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides were isolated from purple-violet flowers of Matthiola incana and their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Three acylated anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-acyl-2-O-(2-O-sinapyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosides)-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides), in which the acyl group is p-coumaryl, caffeyl or ferulyl, respectively. The remaining pigment is free from malonic acid and was identified as cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-trans-ferulyl-2-O-(2- O-trans-sinapyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O- (beta-D-glucopyranoside). Analysis of the anthocyanin constituents in 16 purple-violet cultivars revealed that they contained the above triacylated anthocyanins in variable amounts as main pigments. An aromatic pair of pigments containing sinapic and ferulic acids are considered to produce an important intramolecular effect, making bluish colours in these flowers.

  16. Four new neolignan glucosides from the fruits of Arctium lappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Four new neolignan glucosides named (7S, 8R)-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan-9'-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (8R)-4,9,9'-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7-oxo-8-O-4'-neolignan-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-7'-oxo-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and (7'S, 8'R, 8S)-4,4',9'-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-7',9-epoxylignan-7-oxo-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) were isolated from the fruits of Arctium lappa L. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, CD), as well as by comparison with known analogues in the literature.

  17. Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: ameliorative effect of α-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Upadhyay, Preeti; Malla, Sandhya; Gujar, Niranjan Laxman; Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with α-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure.

  18. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these

  19. Scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot kernels and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. Cyanide is of high acute toxicity in humans. The lethal dose is reported to be 0.5–3.5 mg/kg body weight (bw). An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg bw was derived from...

  20. Retargeting a maize β-glucosidase to the vacuole--evidence from intact plants that zeatin-O-glucoside is stored in the vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Nagavalli S; Benková, Eva; Reková, Alena; Dubová, Jaroslava; Malbeck, Jiří; Palme, Klaus; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2012-07-01

    Cytokinin (CK) activity is regulated by the complex interplay of their metabolism, transport, stability and cellular/tissue localization. O-glucosides of zeatin-type CKs are postulated to be storage and/or transport forms. Active CK levels are determined in part by their differential distribution of CK metabolites across different subcellular compartments. We have previously shown that overexpressing chloroplast-localized Zm-p60.1, a maize β-glucosidase capable of releasing active cytokinins from their O- and N3-glucosides, perturbs CK homeostasis in transgenic tobacco. We obtained tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv Petit Havana SR1) plants overexpressing a recombinant Zm-p60.1 that is targeted to the vacuole. The protein is correctly processed and localized to the vacuole. When grown on medium containing exogenous zeatin, transgenic seedlings rapidly accumulate fresh weight due to ectopic growths at the base of the hypocotyl. The presence of the enzyme in these ectopic structures is shown by histochemical staining. CK quantification reveals that these transgenic seedlings are unable to accumulate zeatin-O-glucoside to levels similar to those observed in the wild type. When crossed with tobacco overexpressing the zeatin-O-glucosyltransferase gene from Phaseolus, the vacuolar variant shows an almost complete reversion in the root elongation assay. This is the first evidence from intact plants that the vacuole is the storage organelle for CK O-glucosides and that they are available to attack by Zm-p60.1. We propose the use of Zm-p60.1 as a robust molecular tool that exploits the reversibility of O-glucosylation and enables delicate manipulations of active CK content at the cellular level.

  1. A New Monoterpene Glucoside from the Leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpene glucoside, (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-8-b-D-glucosyloxy-2,6-octadien- oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk. The structure was established by spectroscopic data.

  2. Hypoglycaemic activity of an HMG-containing flavonoid glucoside, chamaemeloside, from Chamaemelum nobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, G M; Wright, A D; Keller, W J; Judd, R L; Bates, S; Day, C

    1998-10-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) containing flavonoid glucoside chamaemeloside, has been determined to have in vivo hypoglycaemic activity comparable to that of free HMG. An improved isolation scheme for obtaining chamaemeloside from Chamaemelum nobile is presented.

  3. New Eugenol Glucoside-based Derivative Shows Fungistatic and Fungicidal Activity against Opportunistic Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thiago Belarmino; Brito, Keila Mercês de Oliveira; Silva, Naiara Chaves; Rocha, Raissa Prado; de Sousa, Grasiely Faria; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Dias, Amanda Latércia Tranches; Veloso, Marcia Paranho; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    A new series of glucosides modified in their saccharide units were synthesized, evaluated against Candida sp., and compared to prototype 1, an eugenol tetracetyl glucoside previously synthesized and shown to be active against Candida glabrata. Among the new glucosides, benzyl derivative 5 was the most promising, showing fungistatic activity at IC50 18.1 μm against Candida glabrata (threefold higher than fluconazole) and fungicidal activity with a low IC90 value of 36.2 μm. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of compound 5 (CC50 : 580.9 μm), tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggests its potential as an agent to treat Candida glabrata infections, with a selectivity index of 32. The new eugenol glucoside 5 may be considered as a novel structural pattern in the development of new anti-Candida drugs.

  4. Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Krista M; Dearing, M Denise; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosides are a major group of plant secondary compounds characterized by one or more sugars conjugated to a lipophilic, possibly toxic aglycone, which is released upon hydrolysis. We compared small intestinal homogenate hydrolysis activity of three rodent and two avian species against four substrates: amygdalin and sinigrin, two plant-derived glucosides, the sugar lactose, whose hydrolysis models some activity against flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides, and the disaccharide sugar maltose (from starch), used as a comparator. Three new findings extend our understanding of physiological processing of plant glucosides: (1) the capacity of passerine birds to hydrolyze plant glucosides seems relatively low, compared with rodents; (2) in this first test of vertebrates' enzymic capacity to hydrolyze glucosinolates, sinigrin hydrolytic capacity seems low; (3) in laboratory mice, hydrolytic activity against lactose resides on the enterocytes' apical membrane facing the intestinal lumen, but activity against amygdalin seems to reside inside enterocytes.

  5. A new C9 nor-isoprenoid glucoside from Rantherium suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, M Habib; Ben Jannet, H; Mighri, Zine; Matthew, Susan; Abreu, Pedro M

    2007-08-01

    The new C(9) nor-isoprenoid 3-methyl-octa-1,5-diene-7-one-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, named as ranthenone glucoside (1), together with the previously known 9-hydoxylinaloyl glucoside (2), sitosterol-3beta-O-[6'-palmitoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (3), scopoletin (4), fraxetin (5), and scopolin (6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rantherium suaveolens. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  6. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.

  7. Bioconversion of apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside in aqueous two-phase system

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić Sanja M.; Đaković Sanja D.; Cvejić Jelena H.; Antov Mirjana G.; Zeković Zoran P.

    2005-01-01

    The study is concerned with the conversion of apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside into apigenin in polyethylene glycol 6000 / dextran 20000 aqueous two-phase system by β-glucosidase. Apigenin was separated from apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside and β-glucosidase by their partition into opposite phases. In 14% PEG / 22.5% DEX aqueous two-phase system obtained yield of apigenin in top phase was 108%.

  8. Bioconversion of apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside in aqueous two-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is concerned with the conversion of apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside into apigenin in polyethylene glycol 6000 / dextran 20000 aqueous two-phase system by β-glucosidase. Apigenin was separated from apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside and β-glucosidase by their partition into opposite phases. In 14% PEG / 22.5% DEX aqueous two-phase system obtained yield of apigenin in top phase was 108%.

  9. COMPLEX REACTIONS OF ETHYL-GLUCOSIDES SYNTHESIS OVER ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionEthyl-glucoside was a tasty component of sakeand mirin, which was effective in deodorizing badsmell from fish and animal meats ['], softening saltytaste and improving all-around taste for food cooking.Sake has been used as cosmetic for skin treatment fora long time in Japan. Ethyl-glucoside, a typicalingredient in the sake, can reduce the hUrt of exposureto ultraviolat [z]. In addition, alkylglucoside was a newclass of nonionic suthetant, which was oftenapplicable in cosmetics, food emulsifier a...

  10. A Novel Flavonoid Glucoside from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate- and n-butanol-soluble fractions of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Anoectochilus roxburghii(Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic methods,the structures of these compounds were elucidated as quercetin-7-O-β-D-[6"-O-(trans-feruloyl)]-glucopyranoside (compound 1), 8-C-p-Hydroxybenzylquercetin (compound 2), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (compound 6), 5-hydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavonol-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 7), and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound 8). Of the compounds isolated, compound 1 was a new flavonoid glucoside and exhibited strong scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, whereas the ethanolic extract showed weak activity. Compounds 2-8 were obtained from this family for the first time.

  11. In vitro effects of cholesterol β-D-glucoside, cholesterol and cycad phytosterol glucosides on respiration and reactive oxygen species generation in brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Alexander; Kubalik, Nataliya; Brooks, Benjamin R; Shaw, Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    The cluster of neurodegenerative disorders in the western Pacific termed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS-PDC) has been repeatedly linked to the use of seeds of various species of cycad. Identification and chemical synthesis of the most toxic compounds in the washed cycad seeds, a variant phytosteryl glucosides, and even more toxic cholesterol β-D-glucoside (CG), which is produced by the human parasite Helicobacter pylori, provide a possibility to study in vitro the mechanisms of toxicity of these compounds. We studied in detail the effects of CG on the respiratory activities and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nonsynaptic brain and heart mitochondria oxidizing various substrates. The stimulatory effects of CG on respiration and ROS generation showed strong substrate dependence, suggesting involvement of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). Maximal effects on ROS production were observed with 1 μmol CG/1 mg mitochondria. At this concentration the cycad toxins β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-β-D-glucoside had effects on respiration and ROS production similar to CG. However, poor solubility precluded full concentration analysis of these toxins. Cholesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol had no effect on mitochondrial functions studied at concentrations up to 100 μmol/mg protein. Our results suggest that CG may influence mitochondrial functions through changes in the packing of the bulk membrane lipids, as was shown earlier by Deliconstantinos et al. (Biochem Cell Biol 67:16-24, 1989). The neurotoxic effects of phytosteryl glucosides and CG may be associated with increased oxidative damage of neurons. Unlike heart mitochondria, in activated neurons mitochondria specifically increase ROS production associated with succinate oxidation (Panov et al., J Biol Chem 284:14448-14456, 2009).

  12. Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside, in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-07-09

    Amygdalin is a member of the cyanogenic glycoside group of plant secondary metabolites capable of generating hydrogen cyanide under certain conditions. As a consequence, the cyanogenic glycosides have been associated with incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning. Specific antibodies were raised against an amygdalin-bovine serum albumin immunogen synthesized using a novel approach. The antibodies were used in a microtitration plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification, for the first time, of amygdalin in commercially available foods. Correlation of results with high-performance liquid chromatography was very high (r = 0.983). The limit of detection of the immunoassay was 200 ± 0.05 pg mL(-1), and the 50% inhibitory concentration of amygdalin was 50 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1), making the ELISA particularly sensitive.

  13. The Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Twelve Galloyl Glucosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve galloyl glucosides 1–12, showing diverse substitution patterns with two or three galloyl groups, were synthesized using commercially available, low-cost D-glucose and gallic acid as starting materials. Among them, three compounds, methyl 3,6-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (9, ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (11 and ethyl 2,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (12, are new compounds and other six, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1, 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (3, 1,3-di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (4, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranose (6 and methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (10, were synthesized for the first time in the present study. In in vitro MTT assay, 1–12 inhibited human cancer K562, HL-60 and HeLa cells with inhibition rates ranging from 64.2% to 92.9% at 100 μg/mL, and their IC50 values were determined to be varied in 17.2–124.7 μM on the tested three human cancer cell lines. In addition, compounds 1–12 inhibited murine sarcoma S180 cells with inhibition rates ranging from 38.7% to 52.8% at 100 μg/mL in the in vitro MTT assay, and in vivo antitumor activity of 1 and 2 was also detected in murine sarcoma S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice using taxol as positive control.

  14. Scientific opinion : Acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot kernels and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. Cyanide is of high acute toxicity in humans. The lethal dose is reported to be 0.5–3.5 mg/kg body weight (bw). An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg bw was derived from an

  15. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside, a water-soluble antioxidant isolated from Gentiana arisanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, F N; Chu, C C; Lin, C N; Chang, C C; Teng, C M

    1998-01-15

    The antioxidant activities of isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside were studied using various models. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside was more potent than Trolox, probucol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It also scavenged superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. The IC50 value, stoichiometry factor and second-order rate constant were 9.0+/-0.8 microM, 1.8+/-0.1 and 2.6 X 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) for superoxide generation, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. However, isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), carbon radical or 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile) (AMVN)-derived peroxyl radical in hexane. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside inhibited Cu2+-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation and electrophoretic mobility. Since isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not possess pro-oxidant activity, it may be an effective water-soluble antioxidant that can prevent LDL against oxidation.

  16. Effects of total glucosides of peony on immunological hepatic fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Wang; Wei Wei; Ni-Ping Wang; Cheng-Yi Wu; Shang-Xue Yan; Li Yue; Ling-Ling Zhang; Shu-Yun Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on immunological hepatic fibrosis induced by human albumin in rats.METHODS: Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into: Normal group, model group, TGP (60 and 120 mg/kg) treatment groups and colchicines (0.1 mg/kg) treatment group. On the day before the rats were killed, those in TGP or colchicine groups received TGP or colchicine as above from the first day of tail vein injection of human albumin. The rats in normal and model groups were only administered with the same volume of vehicle. At the end of the 16th wk, rats in each group were killed. Blood and tissue specimens were taken. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO), content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), were measured by biochemical methods. Serum procollagen type Ⅲ (PC Ⅲ) and laminin (LN) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Liver collagen level was determined by measuring hydroxyproline content in fresh liver samples. Hepatic tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined under a light microscope.RESULTS: Histological results showed that TGP improved the human albumin-induced alterations in the liver structure, alleviated lobular necrosis and significantly lowered collagen content. The antifibrotic effect of TGP was also confirmed by decreased serum content of LN and PCⅢ in TGP-treated group. Moreover, the treatment with TGP effectively reduced the hydroxyproline contentin liver homogenates. However, the level of ALT and AST increased in fibrotic rat but had no significance compared with normal control, whereas the ratio of A/G decreased without significance. TGP had no effect on level of ALT, AST and the ratio of A/G. Furthermore, TGP treatment significantly blocked the increase in MDA and NO, associated with a partial elevation in liver total antioxidant capacity including

  17. Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle fruit - new acyl β-sitosteryl glucoside and in vitro pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sohail; Hussain, Aftab; Mehmood, Ansar; Mehmood, Rashad; Perveen, Shagufta; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-01-21

    β-Sitosterol-3-O-(6'-O-13"-octadecenoyl)-β-D-glucoside (1), a new acyl β-sitosteryl glucoside, along with three known compounds β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (2), β-sitosterol (3) and methyl gallate (4) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima fruits. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR, ESI-MS, methanolysis and oxidative cleavage of double bond. Antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities were evaluated of compound 1, crude extract and its fractions so far for the first time. Pharmacological activities results showed that n-butanol fraction was good active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi bacteria, and moderate active against Microsporum canis fungus. Crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed good cytotoxicity. Moreover, compound 1, extract and all fractions showed notable phytotoxicity at higher concentrations, whereas all inactive against assayed insects.

  18. DNA-support coupling for transcription factor purification. Comparison of aldehyde, cyanogen bromide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Priya Sethu; Gadgil, Himanshu; Jarrett, Harry W

    2002-01-04

    Purification of transcription factor IIIA on internal control region DNA coupled to aldehyde-silica is described and compared with purification on cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose and Bio-Rad Affi-Gel-10. The Affi-Gel support results in mixed-mode chromatography; both ion-exchange and affinity modes contribute. Coupling DNA to aldehyde-silica is advantageous in that it has no ion-exchange properties and performs as well as DNA coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose. Purification of lac repressor on aldehyde-silica, and CAAT enhancer binding protein on Affi-Gel also shows the advantages of a neutral support and the disadvantages of mixed-mode chromatography for transcription factor purification. Aldehyde-silica couples to alkylamines and to the amines of adenine, guanine, and cytosine nucleoside bases. Reaction occurs with either single- or double-stranded DNA, although it is less efficient with the latter. Overall, the results demonstrate that predominantly neutral coupling chemistries, such as aldehyde or CNBr-mediated coupling, have distinct advantages for transcription factor purification. Since the CNBr chemistry has not yet been applied to silica supports, aldehyde-silica coupling is currently the most attractive method for DNA affinity HPLC.

  19. On the biomarkers and mechanisms of konzo, a distinct upper motor neuron disease associated with food (cassava) cyanogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Roman M; Kasensa, Nyamabo L; Monterroso, Victor H; Kayton, Robert J; Klimek, John E; David, Larry L; Lunganza, Kalala R; Kayembe, Kazadi T; Bentivoglio, Marina; Juliano, Sharon L; Tshala-Katumbay, Desire D

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a self-limiting central motor-system disease associated with food dependency on cassava and low dietary intake of sulfur amino acids (SAA). Under conditions of SAA-deficiency, ingested cassava cyanogens yield metabolites that include thiocyanate and cyanate, a protein-carbamoylating agent. We studied the physical and biochemical modifications of rat serum and spinal cord proteins arising from intoxication of young adult rats with 50-200mg/kg linamarin, or 200mg/kg sodium cyanate (NaOCN), or vehicle (saline) and fed either a normal amino acid- or SAA-deficient diet for up to 2 weeks. Animals under SAA-deficient diet and treatment with linamarin or NaOCN developed hind limb tremors or motor weakness, respectively. LC/MS-MS analysis revealed differential albumin carbamoylation in animals treated with NaOCN, vs. linamarin/SAA-deficient diet, or vehicle. 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/MS-MS analysis of the spinal cord proteome showed differential expression of proteins involved in oxidative mechanisms (e.g. peroxiredoxin 6), endocytic vesicular trafficking (e.g. dynamin 1), protein folding (e.g. protein disulfide isomerase), and maintenance of the cytoskeleton integrity (e.g. α-spectrin). Studies are needed to elucidate the role of the aformentioned modifications in the pathogenesis of cassava-associated motor-system disease.

  20. Isolation of a novel carotenoid, OH-chlorobactene glucoside hexadecanoate, and related rare carotenoids from Rhodococcus sp. CIP and their antioxidative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Ayako; Kasahara, Asami; Mastuoka, Shoko; Gassel, Sören; Sandmann, Gerhard; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    In the course of screening for antioxidative carotenoids from bacteria, we isolated and identified a novel carotenoid, OH-chlorobactene glucoside hexadecanoate (4), and rare carotenoids, OH-chlorobactene glucoside (1), OH-γ-carotene glucoside (2) and OH-4-keto-γ-carotene glucoside hexadecanoate (3) from Rhodococcus sp. CIP. The singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching model of these carotenoids showed potent antioxidative activities IC(50) 14.6 µM for OH-chlorobactene glucoside hexadecanoate (4), 6.5 µM for OH-chlorobactene glucoside (1), 9.9 µM for OH-γ-carotene glucoside (2) and 7.3 µM for OH-4-keto-γ-carotene glucoside hexadecanoate (3).

  1. Iridoid glucosides from the aerial parts of Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Khlifi, Samira; Kollmann, Albert; Kerhoas, Lucien; El Abbouyi, Ahmed; Ducrot, Paul-Henri

    2006-01-01

    From the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Globularia alypum grown in Morocco, a new chlorinated iridoid glucoside, globularioside has been isolated beside 5 known iridoid glycosides, globularin, globularicisin, globularidin, globularinin and globularimin. This is the first report of a chlorinated iridoid in G. alypum and in the Globulareaceae. Unlike all other known 7-chlorinated iridoid glucosides where the chlorine atom exhibits an alpha configuration, globularioside incorporate the chlorine atom as a 7beta substituent. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of ESI-MS, MS-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

  2. Probe the Binding Mode of Aristololactam-β-D-glucoside to Phenylalanine Transfer RNA in Silico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xingqing; Zhao, Binwu; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interactions of drug molecules with biomacromolecules at a micro-scale level is essential to design potent drugs for the treatments of human genome diseases. To unravel the mechanism of binding of aristololactam-β-D-glucoside (ADG) and phenylalanine transfer RNA (tRNAPhe), an in......Understanding the interactions of drug molecules with biomacromolecules at a micro-scale level is essential to design potent drugs for the treatments of human genome diseases. To unravel the mechanism of binding of aristololactam-β-D-glucoside (ADG) and phenylalanine transfer RNA (t...

  3. Benchmarking two commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for heterologous vanillin-β-glucoside production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Magdenoska, Olivera; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    factories for production of specific compounds. To examine this possibility, we have reconstructed a de novo vanillin-β-glucoside pathway in an identical manner in S288c and CEN.PK strains. Characterization of the two resulting strains in two standard conditions revealed that the S288c background strain...... produced up to 10-fold higher amounts of vanillin-β-glucoside compared to CEN.PK. This study demonstrates that yeast strain background may play a major role in the outcome of newly developed cell factories for production of a given product....

  4. Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, K; Furukawa, H; Hirono, I

    1995-03-01

    Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol-beta-glucoside, is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound. The genotoxicity of cycasin was assayed in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cycasin induced small single and large single spots on feeding at 10 mumol/g medium. The presence of these spots indicates that cycasin is genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. Microorganisms which showed beta-glucosidase activity for cleaving cycasin to toxic aglycon were isolated from gut flora of the Drosophila larvae. Consequently, the Drosophila wing spot test would be useful for mutagenicity screening of other naturally occurring glucosides.

  5. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  6. Megastigmane Glucosides and Megastigmanes from the Leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuka; Iwami, Mio; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata, megastigmane glucosides with spiro-structures and megastigmanes were isolated. Their structures were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses and spectroscopic investigation. The absolute structures of the megastigmanes were determined by the modified Mosher's method.

  7. Five secoiridoid glucosides esterified with a cyclopentanoid monoterpene unit from Jasminum nudiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, T; Takenaka, Y; Nagakura, N; Nishi, T

    2000-08-01

    Phytochemical study of the stems of Jasminum nudiflorum has led to the isolation of five new secoiridoid glucosides, jasnudiflosides D (1) and E (2) and nudiflosides A-C (3-5). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  8. A new coumarin glucoside, coumarins and alkaloids from Ruta corsica roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Cédric; Fabre, Nicolas; Moulis, Claude

    2004-03-01

    A new coumarin glucoside, 3'(S)-hydroxy-2',2'-dimethyl-dihydropyranocoumarin-8-beta-d-glucopyranosyl, one coumarin, five furanocoumarins, three bicoumarins, three quinoline alkaloids and one sinapoyl sucrose derivative have been isolated from the roots of Ruta corsica.

  9. Effects of tetrahydroxystilbene - glucoside on Animal Models of Dementia or Brain Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinLi; JinChu; LiLiu; LingZhao; LanZhang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside(TSG) from a Chinese Medicinal Herb polygonum multiflorum on dementia or brain aging. Methods. The brain aging model of mice was developed by s. c. injection of D-galactose (50mg/kg/day) for 60 days. The Alzheimer disease (AD) model of mice

  10. Serotonin 5-O-β-Glucoside and Its N-Methylated Forms in Citrus Genus Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Ferrari, Giovanna; Cautela, Domenico; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2015-04-29

    Citrus genus is characterized by a specific presence of indole metabolites deriving from the N-methylation of tryptamine and its hydroxylated form, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), which are likely involved in plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we identified for the first time the occurrence in Citrus plants of serotonin 5-O-β-glucoside and all its N-methylated derivatives, that is, N-methylserotonin 5-O-β-glucoside, N,N-dimethylserotonin (bufotenine) 5-O-β-glucoside, and N,N,N-trimethylserotonin (bufotenidine) 5-O-β-glucoside. The identification of the glucosylated compounds was based on mass spectrometric studies, hydrolysis by glucosidase, and in some cases, comparison to authentic compounds. Beside leaves, the distribution of the glucosylated forms and their aglycones in some Citrus species was evaluated in flavedo, albedo, juice, and seeds. The simultaneous presence of serotonin and its N-methylated derivatives, together with the corresponding glucosylated forms, is consistent with the occurrence of a metabolic pathway, specific for Citrus, aimed at potentiating the defensive response to biotic stress through the optimization of the production and use of the most toxic of such metabolites.

  11. Occurrence and fate of the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA) in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Cavoski, Ivana; Costi, Roberta; Sarais, Giorgia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Miano, Teodoro M.; Lattanzio, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, one of the most common plant species on Earth, produces a wide range of secondary metabolites including the norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside (PTA). This bracken constituent causes acute poisoning, blindness and cancer in animals, and can be transferred to man when bracken is utilized as food. Also milk from cows eating bracken is thought to be the vector for the transfer of PTA to humans, as well as PTA-contaminated drinking waters. Although some studies on the effect of growth conditions and soil properties on the production and mobility of PTA have been carried out (mainly in the North of Europe), results are sometimes conflicting and further investigations are needed. The aim of the present work is to study the occurrence and the fate of PTA in soils showing different physico-chemical features, collected in different pedoclimatic areas (from the South of Italy), but having the extensive ("wild") livestock farming as common denominator. The PTA content was determined in both soil and fern samples by GC-MS; both the extraction protocol and recovery were previously tested through incubation studies. Soils samples were also characterizes from the physical and chemical point of view (pH, EC, texture, total carbonates, cation exchange capacity, organic C, total N, available nutrients and heavy metal concentration) in order to correlate the possible influence of soil parameters on PTA production, occurrence and mobility. PTA concentration in soil samples was always content (ranging from 3.4 to 22.8%), iii) the soil pH (ranging from 5.9 to 6.6), iv) the soil texture, v) the depth (0-10 cm; 10-20 cm), and vi) precipitations (ranging from 780 to 960 mm/a). This seems to suggest the degradation of the PTA by indigenous microbial community

  12. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonseng Opas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN. This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. Results The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm and less CN (15 ppm than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm. The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl. of 26%. Conclusions Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait.

  13. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting cyanogenic potential of cassava root in an outbred population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) can produce cyanide, a toxic compound, without self-injury. That ability was called the cyanogenic potential (CN). This project aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the CN in an outbred population derived from 'Hanatee' × 'Huay Bong 60', two contrasting cultivars. CN was evaluated in 2008 and in 2009 at Rayong province, and in 2009 at Lop Buri province, Thailand. CN was measured using a picrate paper kit. QTL analysis affecting CN was performed with 303 SSR markers. Results The phenotypic values showed continuous variation with transgressive segregation events with more (115 ppm) and less CN (15 ppm) than either parent ('Hanatee' had 33 ppm and 'Huay Bong 60' had 95 ppm). The linkage map consisted of 303 SSR markers, on 27 linkage groups with a map that encompassed 1,328 cM. The average marker interval was 5.8 cM. Five QTL underlying CN were detected. CN08R1from 2008 at Rayong, CN09R1and CN09R2 from 2009 at Rayong, and CN09L1 and CN09L2 from 2009 at Lop Buri were mapped on linkage group 2, 5, 10 and 11, respectively. Among all the identified QTL, CN09R1 was the most significantly associated with the CN trait with LOD score 5.75 and explained the greatest percentage of phenotypic variation (%Expl.) of 26%. Conclusions Five new QTL affecting CN were successfully identified from 4 linkage groups. Discovery of these QTL can provide useful markers to assist in cassava breeding and studying genes affecting the trait. PMID:21609492

  14. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  15. Cycad toxins, Helicobacter pylori and parkinsonism: cholesterol glucosides as the common denomenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J D; Hawkes, E L; Shaw, C A

    2006-01-01

    Understanding sporadic cases of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases such as parkinsonism requires the evaluation of potential environmental factors. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS-PDC), a neurological disorder in which features of parkinsonism are present and for which no consistent genetic explanation has been found, has been linked to the consumption of cycad (Cycas micronesica). Similarly, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between parkinsonism and gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. While common immunological and inflammatory changes have been proposed to account for the link between parkinsonism and H. pylori infection, we propose an alternate explanation based on our work on the "cycad theory" of ALS-PDC. Recent experiments in our laboratory have identified several sterol glucosides in cycad that have neurotoxic properties in vitro and that appear to be linked to the development of neurodegenerative disease in vivo. Specifically, mice fed cycad display behavioural symptoms of parkinsonism such as reduced gait length, as well as neuropathological signs such as a loss of striatal dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals and an upregulation of the dopamine D2 receptor. These cycad-derived sterol glucosides are structurally similar to cholesterol glucosides that account for a significant part pf the lipid profile of H. pylori. We hypothesize that cholesterol glucosides arising from H. pylori infection may act as neurotoxins, promoting the degeneration of the DAergic neurons affected in parkinsonism, in a similar reaction to that which is thought to link cycad consumption and ALS-PDC. This hypothesis will be tested in future studies that will include exposing mice to purified sterol or cholestorol glucosides derived from cycad and comparing these mice behaviourally and neuropathologically to ones chronically infected with H. pylori.

  16. Effect of oversulfated chondroitin-6-sulfate or oversulfated fucoidan in the activation of glutamic plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator: role of lysine and cyanogen bromide-fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Yaneth E; Anderson, Dorian; Doctor, Vasant

    2008-01-01

    Fucoidan and chondroitin-6-sulfate were oversulfated using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine complex and were isolated as the sodium salt. Infrared analysis of oversulfated compounds showed introduction of sulfate groups in new positions, and in-vitro studies of the compounds showed a significant increase in the anticoagulant property. Addition of 28.6 microg/ml oversulfated compound gave a two-fold to four-fold increase in the rate of enhancement of activation of glutamic plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator using 0.05 mol/l Tris buffer (pH 7.35) containing physiological concentrations of NaCl (0.9%). Under these conditions, unfractionated heparin was not active and the native compounds gave less than 30% enhancement. In the present study, the effect of lysine or cyanogen bromide-treated fibrinogen, alone or in combination with the oversulfated compounds, on the activation of glutamic plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator was investigated. Addition of 16.2 mmol/l L-lysine gave three-fold to four-fold enhancement of activation, which was further enhanced to five-fold to six-fold by addition of 2.86 microg/ml oversulfated chondroitin-6-sulfate or oversulfated fucoidan. Cyanogen bromide-treated fibrinogen (50 microg/ml) gave a 10-fold enhancement of activation by itself, and addition of 2.86 microg/ml oversulfated compounds amplified this to 15-fold. A 25-fold to 35-fold enhancement of activation of glutamic plasminogen was obtained when 2.86 microg/ml oversulfated compounds were combined with 16.2 mmol/l lysine and 50 microg/ml cyanogen bromide-treated fibrinogen. Dilution studies showed that the amplification of the enhancement of lysine by 2.86 microg/ml oversulfated compound was related to interaction of the cofactors with both glutamic plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator.

  17. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  18. Restriction fragment differential display of pediocin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes 412 mutants shows consistent overexpression of a putative beta-glucoside-specific PTS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, A; Warthoe, P; Knochel, S; Thirstrup, K

    2000-06-01

    Pediocin PA-1, which is a bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria, has potential as a biopreservative of food. However, such use may lead to the development of resistance in the target organism. Gene expression in two independent pediocin-resistant mutants of Listeria monocytogenes 412 was compared to the original isolate by restriction fragment differential display PCR (RFDD-PCR). This method amplifies cDNA restriction fragments under stringent PCR conditions, enabled by the use of specific primers complementary to ligated adaptor sequences. RFDD-PCR was very well suited for analysis of listerial gene expression, giving reproducible PCR product profiles. Three gene fragments having increased expression in both resistant mutants were identified. All three had homology to components of beta-glucoside-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS), one fragment having homology to enzyme II permeases, and the two others to phospho-beta-glucosidases. Overexpression of the putative PTS system was consistently observed in 10 additional pediocin-resistant mutants, isolated at different pH, salt content and temperature. The results suggest that RFDD-PCR is a strong approach for the analysis of prokaryotic gene expression and that the putative beta-glucoside-specific PTS system is involved in mediating pediocin resistance.

  19. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside protects against ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibition of expression of inflammatuion-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊章鄂

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside(TSG)against acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice and to explore the possible mechanisms involved.Methods Kunming mice were

  20. Exclusive accumulation of Z-isomers of monolignols and their glucosides in bark of Fagus grandifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. G.; Inciong, E. J.; Ohashi, H.; Towers, G. H.; Yamamoto, E.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to Z-coniferyl and Z-sinapyl alcohols, bark extracts of Fagus grandifolia also contain significant amounts of the glucosides, Z-coniferin, Z-isoconiferin (previously called faguside) and Z-syringin. The corresponding E-isomers of these glucosides do not accumulate to a detectable level. The accumulation of the Z-isomers suggests that either they are not lignin precursors or that they are reservoirs of monolignols for subsequent lignin biosynthesis; it is not possible to distinguish between these alternatives. The co-occurrence of Z-coniferin and Z-isoconiferin demonstrate that glucosylation of monolignols can occur at either the phenolic or the allylic hydroxyl groups.

  1. [Surface modification of poly methyl methacrylate intraocular lens by alpha-allyl glucoside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chao; Yao, Ke; Kou, Ruiqiang; Xu, Zhikang

    2004-02-01

    A method for improving the biocompatibility of the intraocular lens (IOL) and reducing the cell attachment was adopted in this study. The alpha-Allyl glucoside was used for the surface modification of the poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) IOL by way of plasma-induced in situ polymerization. The surfaces of the control and treatment IOLs were characterized by contact angle estimation and ESCA techniques. The resolution, diopter and anti-fatigue of loops were determined by physical and optical methods. Cell attachment on the surfaces was examined by light microscopy. The results indicated that all of the treatment groups had excellent physical and optical properties. The modification with the use of alpha-Allyl glucoside could improve the hydrophilicity of the anterior surface of the PMMA IOLs and reduce the cell attachment.

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M.

  3. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generotti, Silvia; Cirlini, Martina; Malachova, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Berthiller, Franz; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Suman, Michele

    2015-07-24

    In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range.

  4. The chain length of lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls is determined by the incorporation of coumaric acid glucosides and ferulic acid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijs, Karin; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Doeswijk, Timo G; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls is composed of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) moieties ester-linked by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMGA), and of p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG) moieties ester-linked directly to SDG. The linker molecule HMGA was found to account for 11% (w/w) of the lignan macromolecule. Based on the extinction coefficients and RP-HPLC data, it was determined that SDG contributes for 62.0% (w/w) to the lignan macromolecule, while CouAG, FeAG, and HDG contribute for 12.2, 9.0, and 5.7% (w/w), respectively. Analysis of fractions of lignan macromolecule showed that the higher the molecular mass, the higher the proportion of SDG was. An inverse relation between the molecular mass and the proportion (%) CouAG+FeAG was found. Together with the structural information of oligomers of lignan macromolecule obtained after partial saponification, it is hypothesized that the amount of CouAG+FeAG present during biosynthesis determines the chain length of lignan macromolecule. Furthermore, the chain length was estimated from a model describing lignan macromolecule based on structural and compositional data. The average chain length of the lignan macromolceule was calculated to be three SDG moieties with CouAG or FeAG at each of the terminal positions, with a variation between one and seven SDG moieties.

  5. Two new coumarin glucosides biosynthesized by transgenic hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min Yu; Liang Bin Zhou; Chun Yan Yan; Guo Yan Duan; Yu Zhao

    2008-01-01

    The glycosylation of hydroxylcoumarin was investigated by using suspension cultures of hairy roots of Polygonum multiflorum,Two new coumarin glucosides (3 and 4) were biosysthesized by regioselectively glycosylation of corresponding substrates (1 and 2)in the system. The structures of two products were identified as 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 7-hydroxy-3,4-dimethylcoumarin 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the ground of chemical and spectroscopic methods, respectively.

  6. Separation and identification of Taxifolin 3-O-glucoside isomers from Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cupressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakushima, Akiyo; Ohno, Kosei; Coskun, Makusut; Seki, Koh-Ichi; Ohkura, Kazue

    2002-12-01

    Taxifolin 3-O-glucoside isomers, [(2R, 3R)-, (2R, 3S)-, (2S, 3R)- and (2S, 3S)-] were isolated from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtuse (Cupressaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of UV, MS, CD, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data, including 2D shift correlation. It was found that the compounds could be distinguished by the use of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data.

  7. Determintation of sulfor containing glucosides in Brassica nepus L. and Sinappis alba L. tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Afsharypuor

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hypocotyls of 5 day old seedlings of Brassica nepus L. and Sinappis alba L.. were explanted onto Murashige and Skoog's revised Tobaco Medium(lcontaining different concentrations of suitable plant growth regulators (a cytokinin and an auxin. In addition to the plant growth regulators, potassium sulfate(in a concentration of 3 m. eq./liter was added to some solid and liquid media in an attempt to raise available sulfate levels, to other medium, L - B- Phenylalanine was added (in a concentration of 30 m. eq./liter to act possibly as a precursor for the biosynthesis of sulfor containing glucoside (glucosinolate. Suspension cell cultures were initiated from callus and grown in the same medium without agar. Calli which were harvested at 20 weeks and cells at 6 weeks after subculture, were dried and examined by capillary GC for the presences of sulfor containing glucosides. The obtained results indicated the absence of such glucosides in the cells and calli.

  8. Protective effect of tetrahydroxy stilbene glucoside on learning and memory by regulating synaptic plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bo Luo; Yun Li; Zun-jing Liu; Li Cao; Zhi-qiang Zhang; Yong Wang; Xiao-yan Zhang; Zhao Liu; Xiang-qun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Damage to synaptic plasticity induced by neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta is regarded to be one of the pathological mechanisms of learning and memory disabilities in Alzheimer’s disease patients. This study assumed that the damage of amyloid-beta to learning and memory abilities was strongly associated with the changes in the Fyn/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) expression. An APP695V7171 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used and treatment with tetrahydroxy-stilbene glucoside was administered intragas-trically. Results showed that intragastric administration of tetrahydroxy-stilbene glucoside improved the learning and memory abilities of the transgenic mice through increasing NR2B receptors and Fyn expression. It also reversed parameters for synaptic interface structure of gray type I. These ifndings indicate that tetrahydroxy stilbene glucoside has protective effects on the brain, and has prospects for its clinical application to improve the learning and memory abilities and treat Alzheimer’s disease.

  9. Regulation of gene expression: cryptic β-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside) operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s) apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP) phenotype to Bgl(+) cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  10. Regulation of gene expression: Cryptic β-glucoside (bgl operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh Harwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP phenotype to Bgl+ cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  11. Metabolically active glucosides in oleaceae seeds: I. The effects of germination, growth, and hormone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondheimer, E; Blank, G E; Galson, E C; Sheets, F M

    1970-06-01

    The seeds of six woody species of Oleaceae representing three genera, contain high concentrations of water-soluble glucosides, with major absorption maxima below 240 nanometers. In Fraxinus americana seeds three of these compounds, designated GL-3, GL-5, and GL-6, account for almost 10% of the dry weight. They are found in the endosperm and embryo but not in the pericarp. While the level of GL-5 is not particularly influenced by the physiological state of the embryo, that of GL-3 and GL-6 decreases as a result of germination and growth during a 10-day period. As the concentrations of GL-3 and GL-6 decrease, new ultraviolet-absorbing compounds are formed. The changes in the concentration of the ultraviolet-absorbing glucosides during cold temperature after-ripening, prior to germination, are small. When germination of dormant embryos is induced with gibberellic acid, the concentrations of GL-3 and GL-6 decrease in a manner similar to that observed with nondormant embryos. In the presence of abscisic acid no losses of GL-3 and GL-6 were observed. It is suggested that GL-3 and GL-6 fulfill some definite functions in the germination and growth of F. americana embryos, and that gibberellic acid and abscisic acid can exert a regulatory effect on the metabolism of these glucosides.

  12. Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Cathy; Allum, Allison J. [Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Aizawa, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Toyo Sugar Refining Co. Ltd., Tokyo 103-0046 (Japan); Kato, Takamitsu A., E-mail: Takamitsu.Kato@Colostate.edu [Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-D-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHO to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%–40% (v/v). For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%. In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG. Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. -- Highlights: •Glyceryl Glucoside is low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

  13. [Pharmacokinetics of loganin, ferulic acid and stilbene glucoside in Bushen Tongluo formula in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-dan; Huang, Pan; Lu, Yue-hua; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Ri-bao; Yuan, Lin-xiang; Peng, Xin-jun

    2015-06-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics characteristic of loganin, ferulic acid and stilbene glucoside in rat plasma after oral administration of Bushen Tongluo formula. The plasma samples were treated by using liquid-liquid extraction technique, the concentrations were determined by HPLC-UV. Johnson spherigel C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was adopted and eluted with the of mobile phase of methanol-water containing 0.01% glacial acetic acid in a gradient mode, with the flow rate at 1.0 mL x min(-1), column temperature at 30 degrees C and injection volume of 10 μL. According to the findings, loganin was determined at 235 nm, ferulic acid and stilbene glucoside were determined at 320 nm, with the sample size of 10 μL. The pharmacokinetic parameters of loganin, ferulic acid and stilbene glucoside were calculated by DAS 2. 0 software as follows: C(max) was (0.369 ± 0.042), (0.387 ± 0.071), (0.233 ± 0.044) mg x L(-1); t(max) was (0.226 ± 0.022), (0.282 ± 0.031), (0.233 ± 0.044) h; t(½β) was (6.89 ± 0.20), (10.73 ± 0.11), (6.93 ± 0.09) h; AUC(0-∞) was (1.91 ± 0.36), (3.22 ± 0.52), (1.52 ± 0.33) mg x h x L(-1); AUCO(0-t) was (1.62 ± 0.33), (2.58 ± 0.43), (1.30 ± 0.30) mg x h x L(-1); CL was (20.2 ± 4.0), (1.39 ± 0.23), (31.7 ± 6.9) L x h(-1) x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that after the oral administration with Bushen Tongluo formula, loganin, ferulic acid and stilbene glucoside showed concentration-time curves in conformity with the two compartment model, with a rapid absorption, loganin and stilbene glucoside was excreted at a moderate speed, and ferulic acid was excreted slowly (but with the highest bioavailability). Bushen Tongluo formula can main maintain plasma concentration with three administrations everyday and so is suitable to be made into common oral preparation.

  14. Transfer of Fusarium mycotoxins and 'masked' deoxynivalenol (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside) from field barley through malt to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancova, K; Hajslova, J; Poustka, J; Krplova, A; Zachariasova, M; Dostalek, P; Sachambula, L

    2008-06-01

    The fate of five Fusarium toxins--deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing the main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) during the malting and brewing processes--was investigated. In addition to these 'free' mycotoxins, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was monitored for the first time in a beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley, naturally infected and artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp. during the time of flowering, were used as a raw material for processing experiments. A highly sensitive procedure employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was validated for the analysis of 'free' Fusarium mycotoxins and DON-conjugate in all types of matrices. The method was also able to detect nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X) and T-2 toxin (T-2); nevertheless, none of these toxins was found in any of the samples. While steeping of barley grains (the first step in the malting process) apparently reduced Fusarium mycotoxin levels to below their quantification limits (5-10 microg kg(-1)), their successive accumulation occurred during germination. In malt, the content of monitored mycotoxins was higher compared with the original barley. The most significant increase was found for DON-3-Glc. During the brewing process, significant further increases in levels occurred. Concentrations of this 'masked' DON in final beers exceeded 'free' DON, while in malt grists this trichothecene was the most abundant, with the DON/DON-3-Glc ratio being approximately 5:1 in both sample series. When calculating mass balance, no significant changes were observed during brewing for ADONs. The content of DON and ZON slightly decreased by a maximum of 30%. Only traces of HT-2 were detected in some processing intermediates (wort after trub removal and green beer).

  15. Enhancement of water soluble wheat bran polyphenolic compounds using different steviol glucosides prepared by thermostable β-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-jung Lim

    2016-10-01

    -galactosidase was dependent on the lactose concentration and the highest activity was obtained with the conditions of 5 mM lactose in E. coli Rosetta(DE3pLysS, 53.3 ± 1.5 U/mL. 78% of the mesophilic proteins was eliminated by heating at 70°C for 15 min with 89% β-galactosidase activity recovery. The total polyphenol content of WB extracted by water, Ru, Ste, rebaudioside A (RebA, and steviol glucosides (SG were 533.8 ± 9.6 µg/mL, 633.3 ± 1.25 µg/mL, 604.4 ± 10.1 µg/mL, 654.8 ± 26.5 µg/mL, and 601.2 ± 33.4 µg/mL, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity prepared by water, Ru, Ste, RebA, and SG extraction were 8.76 ± 0.3 mg/mL, 4.87 ± 0.3 mg/mL, 5.34 ± 0.22 mg/mL, 7.27 ± 0.1 mg/mL, and 7.82 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively. Conclusions: To increase soluble extraction of polyphenol compounds of WB using Ru, the expression of β-galactosidase from T. thermophilus was optimized using different E. coli hosts and a different concentration of lactose inducer rather than isopropyl-1- thio-β-D- galactopyranoside (IPTG for industrial production of the enzyme. The highest antioxidant activity was shown in WB extracted by Ru. The number of glucosyl units attached to steviol can possibly affect the efficiency of antioxidant activity of WB extracted by steviol glucosides.

  16. On the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. Does the mask truly hide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Perotti, Alessio; Galaverna, Gianni; Buschini, Annamaria; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    In the matter of foodborne mycotoxins, beside a number of regulated compounds, regulations are totally missing for phase-II plant metabolites--the toxicological knowledge of which is still in its infancy. Currently, zearalenone-14-glucoside is in the pipeline and its toxicological role is under a glowing scientific debate. In our work it clearly showed high toxicological concerns as it is prone to conversion to well-known toxic compounds (i.e. zearalenone and both zearalenol isomers) when exposed to breast cancer cells culture. The need of future risk assessment studies has been pointed out accordingly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Niranjan; Achari, Basudev; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Dinda, Biswanath

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the dried aerial parts of Sida glutinosa has led to the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, glutinoside (1), along with seven known compounds, 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (2), 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]-quinazolin-3-amine (3), docosanoic acid, 1-triacontanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS analysis (for sterols) and comparison with the literature data. All these seven known compounds are reported from this plant for the first time.

  18. Water-soluble constituents of anise: new glucosides of anethole glycol and its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, twelve new and five known glucosides of phenylpropanoids, including four stereoisomers of anethole glycol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and four stereoisomers of 1'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1',2'-diol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated together with anethole glycols and guaiacyl glycerol. The structures of the new compounds were clarified by spectral investigation.

  19. Conversion of the Iridoid Glucoside Antirrhinoside into 3-Azabicyclo[3.3.0]-octane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Frederiksen, Signe Maria; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2000-01-01

    The iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside (1) was transformed into polysubstituted 3-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octanes 3, 12 and 13 in 4-5 steps. Ozonolysis of the diacetonide of 1 and of its 7-deoxy-derivative 8 afforded cyclopentanoids 2 and 10, respectively. Conditions for the selective conversion of 2 and 10...... into the corresponding ditosylates 4 and 11 were investigated. Cyclization of 4 and 11 was achieved with benzylamine and 2-methoxybenzylamine to yield bicyclic pyrrolidines 3, 12 and 13. Additional building blocks 14 and 15 were obtained by selective deprotection of the N-benzyl and isopropylidene moieties in 12 and 13...

  20. New Iridoid Glucosides from Caryopteris incana (Thunb. Miq. and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Mao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our continued investigations of the plant Caryopteris incana, five new iridoid glucosides 1–5, including two cis-trans-isomers, 3 and 4, along with six known compounds 6–11, were isolated from the n-butyl alcohol (n-BuOH soluble fraction of whole dried material of Caryopteris incana. Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS. Furthermore, all isolates were evaluated for their yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Among these compounds, 4–8 and 10 exhibited potent inhibition of α-glucosidase.

  1. Expression pattern of NMDA receptors reveals antiepileptic potential of apigenin 8-C-glucoside and chlorogenic acid in pilocarpine induced epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Suryakala, U; Doulethunisha; Sundaram, S; Bose, P Chandra; Sivasudha, T

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of apigenin 8-C-glucoside (Vitexin) and chlorogenic acid on epileptic mice induced by pilocarpine and explored its possible mechanisms. Intraperitonial administration of pilocarpine (85mg/kg) induced seizure in mice was assessed by behavior observations, which is significantly (p>0.05) reduced by apigenin 8-C-glucoside (AP8CG) (10mg/kg) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (5mg/kg), similar to diazepam. Seizure was accompanied by an imbalance in the levels of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in the pilocarpine administered group. Moreover, convulsion along with reduced acetylcholinesterase, increased monoamine oxidase and oxidative stress was observed in epileptic mice brain. AP8CG and CA significantly restored back to normal levels even at lower doses. Further, increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite content was also significantly attenuated by AP8CG and CA. However, CA was found to be more effective when compared to AP8CG. In addition, the mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), mGluR1 and mGlu5 was significantly (P≤0.05) inhibited by AP8CG and CA in a lower dose. The mRNA expression of GRIK1 did not differ significantly in any of the group and showed a similar pattern of expression. Our result shows that AP8CG and CA selectively inhibit NMDAR, mGluR1 and mGlu5 expression. Modification in the provoked NMDAR calcium response coupled with neuronal death. Hence, these findings underline that the polyphenolics, AP8CG and CA have exerted antiepileptic and neuroprotective activity by suppressing glutamate receptors.

  2. Specific accumulation and revised structures of acridone alkaloid glucosides in the tips of transformed roots of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovkina, Inna; Al'terman, Irina; Schneider, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    The root tips of Ruta graveolens (common rue) show strong autofluorescence of acridone alkaloids, which are characteristic secondary metabolites of this plant. To study the specific distribution and accumulation of acridone alkaloids in various root segments of Ruta graveolens, root material was harvested from genetically transformed root cultures and extracts were investigated by chromatographic techniques and HPLC-(1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cells of the elongation and differentiation zones contained acridone glucosides and large amounts of acridone alkaloids, mainly rutacridone. Gravacridondiol glucoside was identified as the dominant secondary compound of the root tips and its structure revised by means of spectroscopic methods. In addition, minor acridones, including the structurally revised gravacridontriol glucoside and unknown natural products, were found in the root tip.

  3. Synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched aryl-C-glucosides via desulfurization of carbohydrate based hemithioacetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok H. Kinfe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-C and 2-C-branched carbohydrates are present as substructures in a number of biologically important compounds. Although the synthesis of such carbohydrate derivatives is extensively studied, the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched C-, S-, and N-glycosides is less explored. In this article a synthetic strategy for the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched-aryl-C-glucosides is reported via a hydrogenolytic desulfurization of suitably orientated carbohydrate based hemithioacetals. 1,2-cis-2-Hydroxymethyl and 2-carbaldehyde of aryl-C-glucosides have been synthesized using the current strategy in very good yields. The 2-carbaldehyde-aryl-C-glucosides have been identified as suitable substrates for the stereospecific preparation of 2,3-unsaturated-aryl-C-glycosides (Ferrier products.

  4. Chemical behavior of methylpyranomalvidin-3-O-glucoside in aqueous solution studied by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana; Petrov, Vesselin; Parola, A Jorge; Pina, Fernando; Azevedo, Joana; Teixeira, Natércia; Brás, Natércia F; Fernandes, Pedro A; Mateus, Nuno; Ramos, Maria João; de Freitas, Victor

    2011-02-17

    In the present work, the proton-transfer reactions of the methylpyranomalvidin-3-O-glucoside pigment in water with different pH values was studied by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopies. The results showed four equilibrium forms: the methylpyranomalvidin-3-O-glucoside cation, the neutral quinoidal base, the respective anionic quinoidal base, and a dianionic base unprotonated at the methyl group. According to the NMR data, it seems that for methylpyranomalvidin-3-O-glucoside besides the acid-base equilibrium between the pyranoflavylium cation and the neutral quinoidal base, a new species is formed at pD 4.88-6.10. This is corroborated by the appearance of a new set of signals in the NMR spectrum that may be assigned to the formation of hemiketal/cis-chalcone species to a small extent. The two ionization constants (pK(a1) and pK(a2)) obtained by both methods (NMR and UV-visible) for methylpyranomalvidin-3-O-glucoside are in agreement (pK(a1) = 5.17 ± 0.03; pK(a2) = 8.85 ± 0.08; and pK(a1) = 4.57 ± 0.07; pK(a2) = 8.23 ± 0.04 obtained by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopies, respectively). Moreover, the fully dianionic unprotonated form (at the methyl group) of the methylpyranomalvidin-3-O-glucoside is converted slowly into a new structure that displays a yellow color at basic pH. On the basis of the results obtained through LC-MS and NMR, the proposed structure was found to correspond to the flavonol syringetin-3-glucoside.

  5. Protective Effect of Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Cell Damage in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunfeng; Ma, Yuetang; Wu, Shi; Chen, Tianfeng; He, Yong; Sun, Jianxia; Jiao, Rui; Jiang, Xinwei; Huang, Yadong; Deng, Liehua; Bai, Weibin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is the major environmental harmful factor that has emotional impact on human skin. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of protection of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage to human HaCaT keratinocytes. Our results show that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by UVB treatment. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside also decreased the UVB-augmented levels of the DNA damage indicators phospho-p53 and phospho-ATM/ATR. In addition, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protected keratinocytes from UVB-induced injury by overturning the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and reversing apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was attenuated in UVB-exposed cells but restored in UVB/cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-treated cells. Furthermore, expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and the key apoptosis executer cleaved caspase-3 were increased in UVB-irradiated cells and decreased in UVB/cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-treated cells. For these reasons, the results demonstrate that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our study provides a theoretical basis for the use of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the fight against light damage.

  6. Protective effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside against ultraviolet B radiation-induced cell damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation is the major environmental harmful factor that has emotional impact on human skin. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of protection of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside against ultraviolet B (UVB -induced damage to human HaCaT keratinocytes. Our results show that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by UVB treatment. cyanidin-3-O-glucoside also decreased the UVB-augmented levels of the DNA damage indicators phospho-p53 and phospho-ATM/ATR. In addition, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protected keratinocytes from UVB-induced injury by overturning the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and reversing apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 was attenuated in UVB-exposed cells but restored in UVB/cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-treated cells. Furthermore, expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bcl-2-associated X (Bax and the key apoptosis executer cleaved caspase-3 were increased in UVB-irradiated cells and decreased in UVB/cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-treated cells. For these reasons, the results demonstrate that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our study provides a theoretical basis for the use of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the fight against light damage .

  7. Glucosylation of Steviol and Steviol-Glucosides in Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hitoshi; Sonoke, Satoru; Ochiai, Hideo; Nishihashi, Hideji; Yamada, Masaharu

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate and characterize stevioside biosynthetic pathway in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni cv Houten, two enzyme fractions that catalyze glucosylation of steviol (ent-13-hydroxy kaur-16-en-19-oic acid) and steviol-glucosides (steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside, steviolbioside and stevioside), utilizing UDP-glucose as the glucose donor, were prepared from the soluble extracts of S. rebaudiana leaves. Enzyme fraction I, passed through DEAE-Toyopearl equilibrated with 50 millimolar K-phosphate pH 7.5, catalyzed the glucosylation to steviol and 19-O-methylsteviol, but not to iso-steviol and 13-O-methylsteviol, indicating that 13-hydroxyl group of the steviol skeleton is glucosylated first from UDP-glucose to produce steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside. Enzyme fraction II, eluted from the DEAE-Toyopearl column with 0.15 molar KCI, catalyzed the glucose transfer from UDP-glucose to steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside, steviolbioside and stevioside, but not to rubusoside (13, 19-di-O-glucopyranoside) and rebaudioside A. The reaction products glucosylated from steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside, steviolbioside and stevioside were identified to be steviolbioside, stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These results indicate that in the steviol-glucoside biosynthetic pathway, steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside produced from the steviol glucosylation is successively glucosylated to steviolbioside, then to stevioside producing rebaudioside A. PMID:16667943

  8. Benchmarking two commonly used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for heterologous vanillin-β-glucoside production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Strucko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used eukaryotic model organism and a key cell factory for production of biofuels and wide range of chemicals. From the broad palette of available yeast strains, the most popular are those derived from laboratory strain S288c and the industrially relevant CEN.PK strain series. Importantly, in recent years these two strains have been subjected to comparative “-omics” analyzes pointing out significant genotypic and phenotypic differences. It is therefore possible that the two strains differ significantly with respect to their potential as cell factories for production of specific compounds. To examine this possibility, we have reconstructed a de novo vanillin-β-glucoside pathway in an identical manner in S288c and CEN.PK strains. Characterization of the two resulting strains in two standard conditions revealed that the S288c background strain produced up to 10-fold higher amounts of vanillin-β-glucoside compared to CEN.PK. This study demonstrates that yeast strain background may play a major role in the outcome of newly developed cell factories for production of a given product.

  9. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2015-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. Sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance...

  10. Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Lupi, Francesca; Malachová, Alexandra; Hametner, Christian; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s−1·mM−1) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s−1·mM−1, respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases. PMID:28208765

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Photo-Protective Effects of Soy Isoflavones in Their Aglycone and Glucoside Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Iovine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones exist in nature predominantly as glucosides such as daidzin or genistin and are rarely found in their corresponding aglycone forms daidzein and genistein. The metabolism and absorption of isoflavones ingested with food is well documented, but little is known about their use as topical photo-protective agents. The aim of this study was to investigate in a comparative analysis the photo-protective effects of isoflavones in both their aglycone and glucoside forms. In human skin fibroblasts irradiated with 60 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet B (UVB, we measured the expression levels of COX-2 and Gadd45, which are involved in inflammation and DNA repair, respectively. We also determined the cellular response to UVB-induced DNA damage using the comet assay. Our findings suggest that both the isoflavone glucosides at a specific concentration and combination with an aglycone mixture exerted an anti-inflammatory and photo-protective effect that prevented 41% and 71% of UVB-induced DNA damage, respectively. The advantages of using either isoflavone glucosides or an aglycone mixture in applications in the field of dermatology will depend on their properties and their different potential uses.

  12. Sulfated Glucosides of an Aliphatic Alcohol and Monoterpenes, and Megastigmanes from the Leaves of Meliosma pinnata spp. arnottiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical study of the leaves of Meliosma pinnata spp. arnottiana afforded five sulfated glucosides of oct-1-en-3-ol (1) and cyclic linalool derivatives (2-5), and two megastigmanes (6, 7). Their structures were elucidated by extensive investigation of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute structures of the megastigmanes were determined by the modified Mosher's method.

  13. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and

  14. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Dan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. Methods This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. Results The in vitro digestion alone significantly decreased quercetin aglycone recovery from the shallot digestate (p p > 0.05. Digestion increased the Caco-2 cell uptake of shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside by 2-fold when compared to the non-digested shallot. Despite the loss of quercetin from the digested shallot, the bioavailability of quercetin aglycone to the Caco-2 cells was the same in both the digested and non-digested shallot. Treatment with lactase increased quercetin recovery from the shallot digestate nearly 10-fold and decreased quercetin-4'-glucoside recovery by more than 100-fold (p p Conclusions The increase in quercetin uptake following treatment with lactase suggests that dietary supplementation with lactase may increase quercetin bioavailability in lactose intolerant humans. Combining the digestion, the lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell culture model may provide a reliable in vitro model for examining flavonoid glucoside bioavailability from foods.

  15. A UDP-glucosyltransferase functions in both acylphloroglucinol glucoside and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Zhao, Shuai; Hong, Xiaotong; Liu, Jingyi; Schulenburg, Katja; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-03-01

    Physiologically active acylphloroglucinol (APG) glucosides were recently found in strawberry (Fragaria sp.) fruit. Although the formation of the APG aglycones has been clarified, little is known about APG glycosylation in plants. In this study we functionally characterized ripening-related glucosyltransferase genes in Fragaria by comprehensive biochemical analyses of the encoded proteins and by a RNA interference (RNAi) approach in vivo. The allelic proteins UGT71K3a/b catalyzed the glucosylation of diverse hydroxycoumarins, naphthols and flavonoids as well as phloroglucinols, enzymatically synthesized APG aglycones and pelargonidin. Total enzymatic synthesis of APG glucosides was achieved by co-incubation of recombinant dual functional chalcone/valerophenone synthase and UGT71K3 proteins with essential coenzyme A esters and UDP-glucose. An APG glucoside was identified in strawberry fruit which has not yet been reported in other plants. Suppression of UGT71K3 activity in transient RNAi-silenced fruits led to a loss of pigmentation and a substantial decrease of the levels of various APG glucosides and an anthocyanin. Metabolite analyses of transgenic fruits confirmed UGT71K3 as a UDP-glucose:APG glucosyltransferase in planta. These results provide the foundation for the breeding of fruits with improved health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive natural products.

  16. Biochemical and catalytic properties of two intracellular beta-glucosidases from the fungus Penicillium decumbens active on flavonoid glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamma, D.; Hatzinikolaou, D.G.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    flavonoids glycosylated at the 7 position but G(II) hydrolyzed them 5 times more efficiently than G(I). Of the flavanols tested, both enzymes were incapable of hydrolyzing quercetrin and kaempferol-3-glucoside. The main difference between G(I) and G(II) as far as the hydrolysis of flavanols is concerned...

  17. Flavonoid C-glucosides derived from flax straw extracts reduce human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and induce apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a byproduct which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7. The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT and sulforhodamine B (SRB assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

  18. Flavonoid C-glucosides Derived from Flax Straw Extracts Reduce Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth In vitro and Induce Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a by product which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore, its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin, and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine B assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic toward MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:27630565

  19. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activities of kaempferol and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside isolated from Securigera securidaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, M; Sayedipour, S; Pourazar, A; Shanehsazzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that the kaempferol and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside isolated from Securigera securidaca showed potent anti-HSV activity. In the present study the anti-HIV-1 activities of kaempferol and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside are investigated at different concentrations (100, 50, 25 and 10 μg/ml) using HIV-1 p24 Antigen kit. Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was also used for quantification of full range of virus load observed in treated and untreated cells. According to the results of RT- PCR, tested compounds at a concentration of 100 μg/ml exerted potent inhibitory effect. Time of drug addition experiments demonstrated that these compounds exerted their inhibitory effects on the early stage of HIV infection. The results also showed potent anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity. Antiviral activity of kaempferol-7-O-glucoside was more pronounced than that of kaempferol. These findings demonstrate that kaempferol-7-O-glucoside could be considered as a new potential drug candidate for the treatment of HIV infection which requires further assessments.

  20. Biochemical evidence for the presence of two α-glucoside ABC-transport systems in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sonja M.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus can utilize different carbohydrates, such as starch, maltose and trehalose. Uptake of α-glucosides is mediated by two different, binding protein-dependent, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transport systems. The maltose transporter also transports tr

  1. Risk assessment of chronic dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.M.; Sprong, R.C.; Wester, P.W.; Boevre, de M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a risk assessment of dietary exposure to the conjugated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-β-glucoside (DON-3G) in the Dutch population was conducted. Data on DON-3G levels in food products available in the Netherlands are scarce. Therefore, data on co-occurring levels of DON-3G and deoxyn

  2. Boronate affinity-based surface molecularly imprinted polymers using glucose as fragment template for excellent recognition of glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mijun; Xiang, Haiyan; Hu, Xin; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2016-11-25

    Rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive glycosides from complex natural origins poses a difficult challenge, and then is often inherent bottleneck for their highly utilization. Herein, we propose a strategy to fabricate boronate affinity based surface molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for excellent recognition of glucosides. d-glucose was used as fragment template. Boronic acid, dynamic covalent binding with d-glucose under different pH conditions, was selected as functional monomer to improve specificity. Fe3O4 solid core for surface imprinting using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as crosslinker could control imprinted shell thickness for favorable adsorption capacity and satisfactory mass transfer rate, improve hydrophilicity, separate easily by a magnet. Model adsorption studies showed that the resulting MIPs show specific recognition of glucosides. The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir equation and the adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second order model. Furthermore, the MIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of three flavonoid glucosides (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin) from soybean. Results indicated that selective extraction of glucosides from complex aqueous media based on the prepared MIPs is simple, rapid, efficient and specific. Moreover, this method opens up a universal route for imprinting saccharide with cis-diol group for glycosides recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavonoid C-glucosides Derived from Flax Straw Extracts Reduce Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth In vitro and Induce Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a by product which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore, its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin, and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine B assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic toward MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

  4. Two New C-glucoside Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E.Br.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new C-glucoside flavonoids,namely 8-C-(-D-(2(-O-acetyl) glucofuranosyl apigenin and 3(-O-acetylvitexin,were isolated from leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E.Br..Their structures were elucidated by the spectroscopic means and chemical evidence.

  5. Production of bioavailable flavonoid glucosides in fruit juices and green tea by use of fungal a-L-rhamnosidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Barrio, R.; Trindade, L.M.; Manzanares, P.; Graaff, de L.H.; Tomas-Barberan, F.A.; Espin, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoid glucosides have been reported to be more bioavailable than their rutinoside counterparts. The aim of this study is to describe a first step in the use of alpha-L-rhamnosidases (RhaA and RhaB) from Aspergillus aculeatus as a way to produce functional beverages based on their potentially inc

  6. Helicobacter pylori Cholesteryl α-Glucosides Contribute to Its Pathogenicity and Immune Response by Natural Killer T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Vela, Jose Luis; Matsumura, Fumiko; Hoshino, Hitomi; Tyznik, Aaron; Lee, Heeseob; Girardi, Enrico; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Liddington, Robert; Kobayashi, Motohiro; Bao, Xingfeng; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Jin, Rongsheng; Zong, Yinong; Seeberger, Peter H.; Nakayama, Jun; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Fukuda, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10–15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer), while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT), which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18−/−) or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18−/− compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18−/− compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis. PMID:24312443

  7. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl α-glucosides contribute to its pathogenicity and immune response by natural killer T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Approximately 10-15% of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori will develop ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal ulcer, while most people infected with H. pylori will be asymptomatic. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic partly due to the inhibition of synthesis of cholesteryl α-glucosides in H. pylori cell wall by α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin O-glycans, which are expressed in the deeper portion of gastric mucosa. However, it has not been determined how cholesteryl α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT, which forms cholesteryl α-glucosides, functions in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Here, we show that the activity of αCgT from H. pylori clinical isolates is highly correlated with the degree of gastric atrophy. We investigated the role of cholesteryl α-glucosides in various aspects of the immune response. Phagocytosis and activation of dendritic cells were observed at similar degrees in the presence of wild-type H. pylori or variants harboring mutant forms of αCgT showing a range of enzymatic activity. However, cholesteryl α-glucosides were recognized by invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells, eliciting an immune response in vitro and in vivo. Following inoculation of H. pylori harboring highly active αCgT into iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18(-/- or wild-type mice, bacterial recovery significantly increased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, cytokine production characteristic of Th1 and Th2 cells dramatically decreased in Jα18(-/- compared to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that cholesteryl α-glucosides play critical roles in H. pylori-mediated gastric inflammation and precancerous atrophic gastritis.

  8. Sequestration of glucosinolates and iridoid glucosides in sawfly species of the genus Athalia and their role in defense against ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian E W; Jensen, Søren R; Müller, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the larval sequestration abilities and defense effectiveness of four sawfly species of the genus Athalia (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) that feed as larvae either on members of the Brassicaceae or Plantaginaceae were investigated. Brassicaceae are characterized by glucosinolates (GLSs), whereas Plantaginaceae contain iridoid glucosides (IGs) as characteristic secondary compounds. Athalia rosae and A. liberta feed on members of the Brassicaceae. Larvae of A. rosae sequester aromatic and aliphatic GLSs of Sinapis alba in their hemolymph, as shown previously, but no indolic GLSs; A. liberta larvae with a narrower host range sequester aliphatic as well as indolic GLSs from their host plant Alliaria petiolata. Larvae of A. circularis and A. cordata are specialized on members of the Plantaginaceae. Athalia circularis utilizes mainly Veronica beccabunga as host plant, whereas A. cordata feeds additionally on Plantago lanceolata. Both sawfly species sequester the IGs aucubin and catalpol. In V. beccabunga, catalpol esters and carboxylated IGs also occur. The high catalpol concentrations in hemolymph of A. circularis can only be explained by a metabolization of catalpol esters and subsequent uptake of the resulting catalpol. The carboxylated IGs of the plant are excreted. The IG-sequestering sawfly species are able to accumulate much higher glucoside concentrations in their hemolymph than the GLS-sequestering species, and the concentration of IGs in hemolymph increases constantly during larval development. The defensive effectiveness of hemolymph that contains GLSs or IGs and of the respective glucosides was tested in feeding-bioassays against a potential predator, the ant Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Hemolymph of IG-sequestering cryptic A. cordata larvae has a higher deterrence potential than hemolymph of the GLS-sequestering conspicuous A. rosae larvae. The results show that glucoside sequestration is widespread in the genus Athalia, but that the

  9. Isolation of new flavan-3-ol and lignan glucoside from Loropetalum chinense and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Kong, Lingbao; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2013-10-01

    Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity study on the ethanol extract of the leaves and stems of Loropetalum chinense led to the isolation of a new flavan-3-ol compounds, 8-[1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl]-catechin (loropetaliside A) (1) and a new lignan glucoside, 1-(5-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-β-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-5-(1-(E)propen-3-ol)-phenyl)-propane-3-ol (loropetaliside B) (3) and several known compounds manglieside D (2), quercetin (4), kaempferol-3-O-D-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin-3-O-β-L-rhamnoside (6) and tiliroside (7). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides and alkyl glycosides from the fruit of cumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2003-06-01

    From the polar portion of the methanolic extract of cumin (fruit of Cuminum cyminum L.), two sesquiterpenoid glucosides, cuminoside A and B, and two alkyl glycosides were isolated together with five known compounds. Their structures were established as (1S,5S,6S,10S)-10-hydroxyguaia-3,7(11)-dien-12,6-olide beta-D-glucopyranoside, (1R,5R,6S,7S,9S,10R,11R)-1,9-dihydroxyeudesm-3-en-12,6-olide 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, methyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and ethane-1,2-diol 1-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  11. Mozambioside Is an Arabica-Specific Bitter-Tasting Furokaurane Glucoside in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roman; Klade, Stefan; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a roasted coffee beverage revealed a highly polar, bitter-tasting subfraction, from which the furokaurane glucoside mozambioside was isolated and identified in its chemical structure by means of HDMS and NMR spectra. Sensory evaluation revealed a bitter taste recognition threshold of 60 (± 10) μmol/L. UPLC-HDMS quantitation of raw coffee beans showed that Arabica coffees contained 396-1188 nmol/g mozambioside, whereas only traces (coffees, thus suggesting that mozambioside can be used as an analytical marker for Arabica coffee. Roasted Arabica contained a substantially reduced concentration (232 ± 37 nmol/g), indicating partial degradation of mozambioside during coffee roasting. Mozambioside was nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous brew during coffee-making (86-98%).

  12. Decyl glucoside as a corrosion inhibitor for magnesium-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyab, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this research, the effects of decyl glucoside (DG) on the corrosion inhibition and battery performance of Mg-air battery have been investigated. Chemical and electrochemical techniques have been used to evaluate the corrosion rate and inhibitor efficiency. Mg surface has been characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A significant reduction in the corrosion rate of Mg in battery electrolyte (3.5% NaCl solution) has been observed in the presence of DG surfactant. Maximum inhibition efficiency (>94%) is achieved at critical micelle concentration of DG surfactant (CMC = 2.5 mM). The presence of DG surfactant increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Physisorption mechanism has been suggested for the inhibition action of DG surfactant. The Mg-air battery containing DG surfactant offers higher operating voltage, discharge capacity and anodic utilization than in its absence.

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 6-triazolo-6-deoxy eugenol glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thiago Belarmino; Raimundo, Paulo Otávio Botelho; Andrade, Saulo Fernandes; Hipólito, Taciane Maira Magalhães; Silva, Naiara Chaves; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Veloso, Marcia Paranho; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira

    2015-06-17

    A new series of 1,2,3-triazole eugenol glucosides were synthesized. The new compound structures were confirmed by MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. All of the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Five compounds exerted significant activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium with low IC50 values (49.73-68.53 μΜ), and seven compounds were active against the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus (42.89-210.94 μM). In vitro cytotoxicity on mouse spleen cells was also evaluated. One compound bearing a phenyl substituent at the triazole ring showed good activity against Salmonella typhimurium (49.73 μM) and low toxicity to normal cells (CC50=157.83 μM). Thus, the compounds herein can be considered for further modification for improving their antibacterial activity or obtaining novel antibacterial drug candidates.

  14. Anxiolytic potential of ursolic acid derivative-a stearoyl glucoside isolated from Lantana camara L. (verbanaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imran Kazmi; Muhammad Afzal; Babar Ali; Zoheir A Damanhouri; Aftab Ahmaol; Firoz Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of newly isolated compound by our lab called ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) from the leaves of Lantana camara (L. camara). Methods:Column chromatography was used to isolate UASG. Anxiolytic potential was experimentally proved and demonstrated through Elevated plus-maze, Open field and light and dark test.Results:The UASG showed marked increased in time spent (%) and number of frequent movements made by animals in open arm of elevated plus-maze apparatus. In light and dark model, UASG produced marked increase in time spent by animal, number of crossing and reduced duration of immobility in light box. Conclusions: UASG showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and number of square crossed in open field established test model. UASG showed its anxiolytic effect in dose dependent manner.

  15. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl-(6″→1‴)-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl-6‴-n-octadec-9‴',11‴'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means.

  16. Evaluation of microwave irradiation for analysis of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, cyanogen, ethyl formate, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide, and phosphine in hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonglin; Mahon, Daphne

    2007-01-10

    Fumigant residues in hay were "extracted" by microwave irradiation. Hay, in gastight glass flasks, was placed in a domestic microwave oven, and fumigants were released into the headspace by microwave irradiation. Power settings for maximum release of fumigants were determined for carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS(2)), cyanogen (C(2)N(2)), ethyl formate (EF), methyl bromide (CH(3)Br), sulfuryl fluoride (SF), propylene oxide (PPO), and phosphine (PH(3)). Recoveries of fortified samples were >91% for COS, CS(2), CH(3)Br, SF, PPO, and PH(3) and >76% for C(2)N(2) and EF. Completeness of extraction was assessed from the amount of fumigant retained by the microwaved hay. This amount was determined from further microwave irradiation and was always small (<5% of the amount obtained from the initial procedure). Limits of quantification were <0.1 mg/kg for COS, CS(2), C(2)N(2), EF, and PH(3) and <0.5 mg/kg for CH(3)Br, SF, and PPO. These low limits were essentially due to the absence of interference from solvents and no necessity to inject large-volume gas samples. The microwave method is rapid and solvent-free. However, care is required in selecting the appropriate power setting. The safety implications of heating sealed flasks in microwave ovens should be noted.

  17. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH.

  18. Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside from dandelion flower suppress iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

    2004-10-01

    Both reactive oxygen- and nitrogen-derived reactive species play important roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Flavones, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside along with a rich plant source of both flavones, namely dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract were studied for antioxidant activity in different in vitro model systems. In this current study, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside at concentrations lower than 20 microM, significantly (p dandelion flower extract, specifically, the ethyl acetate fraction of dandelion flower extract which contained 10% luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside.

  19. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    toxin may again be released after hydrolysis in the digestive tracts of animals and humans. Today, our knowledge of the occurrence of these compounds in cereal grains is limited. In this paper, a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of DON, deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside...... % of the DON concentration. The DON-3-glucoside levels in both the naturally and in the artificially grain inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below...

  20. Identification of rice β-glucosidase with high hydrolytic activity towards salicylic acid β-D-glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Nami; Saburi, Wataru; Wakuta, Shinji; Takeda, Ryosuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Sansenya, Sompong; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Mori, Haruhide; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    β-Glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) split β-glucosidic linkages at the non-reducing end of glucosides and oligosaccharides to release β-D-glucose. One of the important functions of plant β-glucosidase is deglucosylation of inactive glucosides of phytohormones to regulate levels of active hormones. Tuberonic acid is a jasmonate-related compound that shows tuber-inducing activity in the potato. We have identified two enzymes, OsTAGG1 and OsTAGG2, that have hydrolytic activity towards tuberonic acid β-D-glucoside in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsTAGG2 is upregulated by wounding and by methyl jasmonate, suggesting that this isozyme is involved in responses to biotic stresses and wounding, but the physiological substrate of OsTAGG2 remains ambiguous. In this study, we produced recombinant OsTAGG2 in Pichia pastoris (rOsTAGG2P), and investigated its substrate specificity in detail. From 1 L of culture medium, 2.1 mg of purified recombinant enzyme was obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni-chelating column chromatography. The specific activity of rOsTAGG2P (182 U/mg) was close to that of the native enzyme (171 U/mg), unlike recombinant OsTAGG2 produced in Escherichia coli, which had approximately 3-fold lower specific activity than the native enzyme. The optimum pH and temperature for rOsTAGG2P were pH 3.4 and 60 °C. After pH and heat treatments, the enzyme retained its original activity in a pH range of 3.4-9.8 and below 55 °C. Native OsTAGG2 and rOsTAGG2P showed 4.5-4.7-fold higher activities towards salicylic acid β-D-glucoside, an inactive storage-form of salicylic acid, than towards tuberonic acid β-D-glucoside (TAG), although OsTAGG2 was originally isolated from rice based on TAG-hydrolytic activity.

  1. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES CONCÓRDIA CARRÃO-PANIZZI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  2. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybouw, N.; Dermauw, W.; Tirry, L.; Stevens, C.; Grbić, M.; Feyereisen, R.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic

  3. Morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation represent complementary metabolic pathways that are both catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7: kinetic, inhibition, and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Nuy; Elliot, David J; Lewis, Benjamin C; Burns, Kushari; Johnston, Martin R; Mackenzie, Peter I; Miners, John O

    2014-04-01

    Morphine 3-β-D-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine 6-β-D-glucuronide (M6G) are the major metabolites of morphine in humans. More recently, morphine-3-β-d-glucoside (M-3-glucoside) was identified in the urine of patients treated with morphine. Kinetic and inhibition studies using human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant UGTs as enzyme sources along with molecular modeling were used here to characterize the relationship between morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation. The M3G to M6G intrinsic clearance (C(Lint)) ratio (∼5.5) from HLM supplemented with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) alone was consistent with the relative formation of these metabolites in humans. The mean C(Lint) values observed for M-3-glucoside by incubations of HLM with UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) as cofactor were approximately twice those for M6G formation. However, although the M3G-to-M6G C(Lint) ratio remained close to 5.5 when human liver microsomal kinetic studies were performed in the presence of a 1:1 mixture of cofactors, the mean C(Lint) value for M-3-glucoside formation was less than that of M6G. Studies with UGT enzyme-selective inhibitors and recombinant UGT enzymes, along with effects of BSA on morphine glycosidation kinetics, were consistent with a major role of UGT2B7 in both morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation. Molecular modeling identified key amino acids involved in the binding of UDP-GlcUA and UDP-Glc to UGT2B7. Mutagenesis of these residues abolished morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation. Overall, the data indicate that morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation occur as complementary metabolic pathways catalyzed by a common enzyme (UGT2B7). Glucuronidation is the dominant metabolic pathway because the binding affinity of UDP-GlcUA to UGT2B7 is higher than that of UDP-Glc.

  4. Isolation of biosynthesis related transcripts of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside from Fallopia multiflora by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-ß-D-glucoside (THSG exerts multiple pharmacodynamic actions, found in Fallopia multiflora, but the biosynthesis pathway of THSG is still unclear. To clear this ambiguity, we constructed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries to screen the genes involved in THSG biosynthesis from two F. multiflora varieties, which vary significantly in THSG content. Twelve non-redundant differentially expressed sequence tags were obtained and the full lengths of 4 unreported fragments were amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We totally got 7 full-length transcripts, and all of them were aligned to the transcriptome and digital gene expression tag profiling database of four F. multiflora tissues (root, stem and leaf from Deqing F. multiflora and another root from Chongqing F. multiflora; data unpublished using local BLAST. The results showed that there was a significant, organ specific difference in the expression of fragments and full-length sequences. All the sequences were annotated by aligning to nucleotide and protein databases. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that THSG biosynthesis was correlated with multiple life activities.

  5. Seasonal alteration in amounts of lignans and their glucosides and gene expression of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes in the Forsythia suspense leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kinuyo; Satake, Honoo

    2013-01-01

    Lignans of Forsythia spp. are essential components of various Chinese medicines and health diets. However, the seasonal alteration in lignan amounts and the gene expression profile of lignan-biosynthetic enzymes has yet to be investigated. In this study, we have assessed seasonal alteration in amounts of major lignans, such as pinoresinol, matairesinol, and arctigenin, and examined the gene expression profile of pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase (PLR), pinoresinol-glucosylating enzyme (UGT71A18), and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SIRD) in the leaf of Forsythia suspense from April to November. All of the lignans in the leaf continuously increased from April to June, reached the maximal level in June, and then decreased. Ninety percent of pinoresinol and matairesinol was converted into glucosides, while approximately 50% of arctigenin was aglycone. PLR was stably expressed from April to August, whereas the PLR expression was not detected from September to November. In contrast, the UGT71A18 expression was found from August to November, but not from April to July. The SIRD expression was prominent from April to May, not detected in June to July, and then increased again from September to November. These expression profiles of the lignan-synthetic enzymes are largely compatible with the alteration in lignan contents. Furthermore, such seasonal lignan profiles are in good agreement with the fact that the Forsythia leaves for Chinese medicinal tea are harvested in June. This is the first report on seasonal alteration in lignans and the relevant biosynthetic enzyme genes in the leaf of Forsythia species.

  6. Increasing cAMP levels of preadipocytes by cyanidin-3-glucoside treatment induces the formation of beige phenotypes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Villareal, Myra O; Motojima, Hideko; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes. Here, the formation of beige adipocyte phenotypes following treatment with Cy3G was evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cy3G induced phenotypic changes to white adipocytes, such as increased multilocular lipid droplets and mitochondrial content. Additionally, the expression of mitochondrial genes (TFAM, SOD2, UCP-1 and UCP-2), UCP-1 protein and beige adipocyte markers (CITED1 and TBX1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased by Cy3G. Furthermore, Cy3G promoted preadipocyte differentiation by up-regulating of C/EBPβ through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP levels. These results indicated that Cy3G elevates the intracellular cAMP levels, which induces beige adipocyte phenotypes. This is the first report on the effect of Cy3G on induction of differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocyte phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside regulates fatty acid metabolism via an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway in human HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Honghui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic metabolic derangements are key components in the development of fatty liver disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1 pathway. In this study, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g, a typical anthocyanin pigment was used to examine its effects on AMPK activation and fatty acid metabolism in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Results Anthocyanin Cy-3-g increased cellular AMPK activity in a calmodulin kinase kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, Cy-3-g substantially induced AMPK downstream target ACC phosphorylation and inactivation, and then decreased malonyl CoA contents, leading to stimulation of CPT-1 expression and significant increase of fatty acid oxidation in HepG2 cells. These effects of Cy-3-g are largely abolished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of AMPK. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Cy-3-g regulates hepatic lipid homeostasis via an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation by anthocyanin may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  8. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dayong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Lin, Zhifen, E-mail: lzhifen@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Xianghong [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E{sub binding}), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two

  9. TRANFSER OF FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS AND ?MASKED? DEOXYNIVALENOL (DEOXYNIVALENOL-3-GLUCOSIDE) FROM FIELD BARLEY THROUGH MALT TO BEER

    OpenAIRE

    Lancova, Katerina; Hajslova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Krplova, Alexandra; Zachariasova, Milena; Dostálek, Pavel; Sachambula, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The fate of 5 Fusarium toxins- deoxynivalenol (DON), sum of 15- and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) representing main trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON)- during the malting and brewing processes was investigated. In addition to these ?free? mycotoxins, also occurrence of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) was, to our knowledge, for the first time, monitored in beer production chain (currently, only DON and ZON are regulated). Two batches of barley,...

  10. Species- and gender-dependent differences in the glucuronidation of a flavonoid glucoside and its aglycone determined using expressed UGT enzymes and microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peimin; Luo, Feifei; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Huangyu; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Guiyu; Zhu, Lijun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Xinchun; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoids occur naturally as glucosides and aglycones. Their common phenolic hydroxyl groups may trigger extensive UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)- catalysed metabolism. Unlike aglycones, glucosides contain glucose moieties. However, the influence of these glucose moieties on glucuronidation of glucosides and aglycones remains unclear. In this study, the flavonoid glucoside tilianin and its aglycone acacetin were used as model compounds. The glucuronidation characteristics and enzyme kinetics of tilianin and acacetin were compared using human UGT isoforms, liver microsomes and intestinal microsomes obtained from different animal species. Tilianin and acacetin were metabolized into different glucuronides, with UGT1A8 produced as the main isoform. Assessment of enzyme kinetics in UGT1A8, human liver microsomes and human intestinal microsomes revealed that compared with tilianin, acacetin displayed lower Km (0.6-, 0.7- and 0.6-fold, respectively), higher Vmax (20-, 60- and 230-fold, respectively) and higher clearance (30-, 80- and 300-fold, respectively). Furthermore, glucuronidation of acacetin and tilianin showed significant species- and gender-dependent differences. In conclusion, glucuronidation of flavonoid aglycones is faster than that of glucosides in the intestine and the liver. Understanding the metabolism and species- and gender-dependent differences between glucosides and aglycones is crucial for the development of drugs from flavonoids.

  11. Cyanidin 3-glucoside improves diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Mathai, Michael L; Panchal, Sunil K; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    Increased consumption of dark-coloured fruits and vegetables may mitigate metabolic syndrome. This study has determined the changes in metabolic parameters, and in cardiovascular and liver structure and function, following chronic administration of either cyanidin 3-glucoside (CG) or Queen Garnet plum juice (QG) containing cyanidin glycosides to rats fed either a corn starch (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet. Eight to nine-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups for 16-week feeding with C, C with CG or QG, H or H with CG or QG. C or H were supplemented with CG or QG at a dose of ∼ 8 mg/kg/day cyanidin glycosides from week 8 to 16. H rats developed signs of metabolic syndrome including visceral adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, cardiovascular remodelling, increased collagen deposition in left ventricle, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increased plasma liver enzymes and increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver. Both CG and QG reversed these cardiovascular, liver and metabolic signs. However, no intact anthocyanins or common methylated/conjugated metabolites could be detected in the plasma samples and plasma hippuric acid concentrations were unchanged. Our results suggest CG is the most likely mediator of the responses to QG but that further investigation of the pharmacokinetics of oral CG in rats is required.

  12. PLS-Prediction and Confirmation of Hydrojuglone Glucoside as the Antitrypanosomal Constituent of Juglans Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellendorff, Therese; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Sendker, Jandirk; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Naphthoquinones (NQs) occur naturally in a large variety of plants. Several NQs are highly active against protozoans, amongst them the causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Prominent NQ-producing plants can be found among Juglans spp. (Juglandaceae) with juglone derivatives as known constituents. In this study, 36 highly variable extracts were prepared from different plant parts of J. regia, J. cinerea and J. nigra. For all extracts, antiprotozoal activity was determined against the protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani. In addition, an LC-MS fingerprint was recorded for each extract. With each extract's fingerprint and the data on in vitro growth inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression model was calculated in order to obtain an indication of compounds responsible for the differences in bioactivity between the 36 extracts. By means of PLS, hydrojuglone glucoside was predicted as an active compound against T. brucei and consequently isolated and tested in vitro. In fact, the pure compound showed activity against T. brucei at a significantly lower cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells than established antiprotozoal NQs such as lapachol.

  13. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and mitotic arrest by a novel podophyllotoxin glucoside, 4DPG, in tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-lin QI; Fan LIAO; Chang-qi ZHAO; Yong-da LIN; Ming-xue ZUO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To define the in vitro cytotoxic activities of 4-demethyl-picropodophyllotoxin 7'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4DPG), a new podophyllotoxin glucoside. Methods:Antiproliferation activity was measured in several tumor cell lines by using the microculture tetrazolium MTT assays. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry and mitosis index assays. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL, DNA agarose electrophoresis, and activated caspase-3 were used to analyze the induction of apoptotic cell death. Moreover, intracellular changes in the cytoskeleton were detected using immunocytochemistry. Results:4DPG effectively inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells (HeLa, CNE, SH-SY5Y,and K562 cell lines). For the K562 cell line, the antiproliferation effect of 4DPG was much more potent than that of etoposide (IC50 value: 7.79× 10-9 mol/L for 4DPG vs 2.23× 10-5 mol/L for etoposide). Further, 4DPG blocked the cell cycle in the mitotic phase. The induction of apoptosis and elevated levels of activated caspase-3were confirmed in cells treated with 4DPG. The microtubule skeleton of HeLa cells was disrupted immediately after treatment with 4DPG. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of 4DPG is due to its inhibition of the microtubule assembly of cancer cells at a low concentration, thus inducing apoptosis. These properties qualify 4DPG to be a potential antitumor drug.

  14. Pterostilbene 4′-β-Glucoside Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis via Induction of Tristetraprolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterostilbene, a dimethyl ester analog of resveratrol, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects and alters cell proliferation. Tristetraprolin (TTP promotes the degradation of proinflammatory mediators via binding to adenosine and uridine- (AU- rich elements (ARE located in the 3′-untranslated regions of mRNAs. Here, we utilized pterostilbene 4′-β-glucoside (4-PG, a compound derived from pterostilbene, to investigate whether it has anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis via TTP enhancement. TTP expression was increased in 4-PG dose- and time-dependent manners in RAW264.7 cells. The production of proinflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-α, was reduced by 4-PG in vitro. To investigate the role of TTP in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG, we used DSS-induced colitis in TTP WT and KO mice as models. The expression levels of TTP and proinflammatory cytokines were determined in serum and colon tissue. 4-PG increased the expression of TTP while suppressing proinflammatory cytokines both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that treatment with 4-PG mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG on DSS-induced colitis via enhancing TTP expression.

  15. [A new monoterpenoid glucoside from the twigs of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Chen, Ke-Li; Tan, Ning-Hua; Liu, Yi-Mei

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii, various column chromatography and spectroscopic methods were used for the isolation and elucidation of compounds. One new monoterpenoid glucoside, (4S)-4-isopropylcyclohex-l-enecarboxylic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with five known compounds, (4R)-p-menth-l-ene-7, 8-diol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), skimmin (3), 7-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5) and 1, 4-benzenedicarboxylic acid 1-butyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) ester (6) were isolated and identified from the twigs of this plant. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The methanol extract of this plant showed cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, Du145 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 0.94, 1.07, 0.95 and 0.96 microg x mL(-1), respectively. Yet, compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed no cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines HeLa, BGC-823 and A549.

  16. Antioxidant activity of Curculigoside, a phenolic glucoside from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Priya Murali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curculigoside is phenolic glucoside derived from the plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn, a well known immune stimulatory and rejuvenating tuberous plant. A systematic analysis of the antioxidant potential of curculigoside is not reported as far.Methods: In the present study antioxidant activity of curculigoside was evaluated both in the in vivo and in vitro models. Tube test were performed to analyse 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, super oxide (Nitro blue tetrazolium reduction and hydroxyl radical (Fenton reaction scavenging effects. Besides, effect of the compound on lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide scavenging was also tested. In vivo antioxidant activity was checked by PMA (Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induced superoxide radical formation by mouse peritoneal macrophages.Result: Curculigoside was found to scavenge the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction and also inhibited the in vitro lipid peroxidation.  The compound was also found to be an effective scavenger of superoxide, DPPH and nitric oxide (NO radicals. Curculigoside showed a significant scavenging effect on the NO release by cultured macrophages. Besides, oral administration of curculigoside inhibited superoxide generation in macrophages in vivo.  Conclusion: Curculigoside was found to exhibit good free radical scavenging effects which is comparable to known standards, both in the in vitro as well as in vivo systems.

  17. PLS-Prediction and Confirmation of Hydrojuglone Glucoside as the Antitrypanosomal Constituent of Juglans Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Ellendorff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones (NQs occur naturally in a large variety of plants. Several NQs are highly active against protozoans, amongst them the causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Prominent NQ-producing plants can be found among Juglans spp. (Juglandaceae with juglone derivatives as known constituents. In this study, 36 highly variable extracts were prepared from different plant parts of J. regia, J. cinerea and J. nigra. For all extracts, antiprotozoal activity was determined against the protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani. In addition, an LC-MS fingerprint was recorded for each extract. With each extract’s fingerprint and the data on in vitro growth inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense a Partial Least Squares (PLS regression model was calculated in order to obtain an indication of compounds responsible for the differences in bioactivity between the 36 extracts. By means of PLS, hydrojuglone glucoside was predicted as an active compound against T. brucei and consequently isolated and tested in vitro. In fact, the pure compound showed activity against T. brucei at a significantly lower cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells than established antiprotozoal NQs such as lapachol.

  18. Production of the UVB-absorbing compound mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Moline, Martín; van Broock, María

    2011-02-01

    The ability of the basidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) to accumulate astaxanthin is responsible for the industrial use of this yeast as a microbial source of pigments for aquaculture. It is also hypothesized that astaxanthin accounts for its ability to thrive in highly oxidative and UV-exposed habitats. Here, we assessed the ability of this species to synthesize UV-absorbing compounds generally known as mycosporines, evaluated the effect of culture media in the production of these compounds and compared its UV growth resistance and tolerance with other yeasts. The 48 wild and collection strains screened were positive for mycosporines and a unique compound identified as mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (MGG) was detected. Thus, the ability of X. dendrorhous to produce MGG, as described here for the first time, is so far unique among the Cystofilobasidiales. The compound was synthesized constitutively, although growth under visible light and, to a greater extent, UVA radiation stimulated its production. Strains from UV-exposed habitats produced larger quantities and oligotrophic complex media seemed to favor MGG accumulation. UV tolerance and survival of X. dendrorhous was high and comparable to that of the polyextremophilic Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The taxonomical and ecological implications of the production of MGG by X. dendrorhous are discussed.

  19. Combining high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line microdialysis sampling for the simultaneous determination of ascorbyl glucoside, kojic acid, and niacinamide in bleaching cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Hsin-Lung; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2007-01-02

    We have used on-line microdialysis sampling coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-vis detection to simultaneously determine the contents of ascorbyl glucoside (AA-2G), kojic acid (KA), and niacinamide (VitB(3)) in commercial bleaching cosmetics. Our results indicate that AA-2G, KA, and VitB(3) separated well within 4.5 min on a reverse-phase Hypersil Fluophase PFP column when eluting with 0.020 M phosphate buffer solution in 40% (v/v) methanol at pH 5.5. The calibration curves were linear over the ranges 0.068-304, 0.071-284, and 0.024-488 microg mL(-1) for AA-2G, KA, and VitB(3), respectively, with correlation coefficients for the linear regression analyses falling within the range 0.9982-0.9999. The detection limits for AA-2G, KA, and VitB(3) were 0.01, 0.01, and 0.007 microg mL(-1), respectively. The detection wavelength was robust when the levels of the analytes in the samples were high (0.1-2%). The analytes were all detected using ultraviolet light (254 nm). The compounds diffuse through the membrane more readily when KA and VitB(3) are in their molecular forms and AA-2G is ionized. The recoveries were in the range 92-106% with good reproducibility (R.S.D.=3.9-8.7%). We used this procedure to assay six commercially available bleaching cosmetics; our results confirmed not only the precision of the method but also the claims made on the labels of the cosmetics. This approach provides a very simple means to determine the contents of AA-2G, KA, and VitB(3) in various dosages in bleaching cosmetics.

  20. Eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside activates Nrf2 and protects against cerebral ischemic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Xu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Ren, Dongmei [Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Wei, Xinbing; Shi, Huanying; Zhang, Xiumei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Perez, Ruth G. [Health Science Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University, El Paso, TX, 79905 (United States); Lou, Haiyan, E-mail: louhaiyan@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Lou, Hongxiang [Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Stroke is a complex disease that may involve oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway plays an important role in inducing phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins and thus has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection in stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine whether eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside (E7G), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect against cerebral ischemic injury and to understand the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in neuroprotection. In primary cultured astrocytes, E7G increased the nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced the expression of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes. Exposure of astrocytes to E7G provided protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced oxidative insult. The protective effect of E7G was abolished by RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 expression. In vivo administration of E7G in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia significantly reduced the amount of brain damage and ameliorated neurological deficits. These data demonstrate that activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling by E7G is directly associated with its neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced ischemic injury and suggest that targeting the Nrf2/ARE pathway may be a promising approach for therapeutic intervention in stroke. - Highlights: • E7G activates Nrf2 in astrocytes. • E7G stimulates expression of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins in astrocytes. • E7G protects astrocytes against OGD-induced cell death and apoptosis. • The neuroprotective effect of E7G involves the Nrf2/ARE pathway. • E7G protects rats against cerebral ischemic injury.

  1. Effects of Power Ultrasound on Stability of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Obtained from Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Long Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Power ultrasound (US could potentially be used in the food industry in the future. However, the extent of anthocyanin degradation by US requires investigation. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu obtained from blueberry extracts was used as research material to investigate the effect of power ultrasound on food processing of anthocyanin-rich raw materials. The effects of ultrasonic waves on the stability of Cy-3-glu and on the corresponding changes in UV-Vis spectrum and antioxidant activity were investigated, and the mechanisms of anthocyanin degradation induced by ultrasonic waves were discussed. To explore Cy-3-glu degradation in different environments, we kept the Cy-3-glu solution treated with ultrasonic waves in four concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, and 50% of ethanol aqueous solutions to simulate water, beer, wine, and liquor storage environment according to the chemical kinetics method. Results show that the basic spectral characteristics of Cy-3-glu did not significantly change after power ultrasound cell crusher application at 30 °C. However, with anthocyanin degradation, the intensity of the peak for Cy-3-glu at 504 nm significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The degradation kinetics of Cy-3-glu by ultrasonic waves (200–500 W frequency fitted well to first-order reaction kinetics, and the degradation rate constant of Cy-3-glu under power ultrasound was considerably larger than that under thermal degradation (p < 0.05. The sensitivity of the anthocyanins of blueberry to temperature increased with increasing ethanol concentration, and the longest half-life was observed in 20% ethanol aqueous solution.

  2. The inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation by tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside is driven by suppressing vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjuan; Huang, Lei; Sun, Qinju; Yang, Lifeng; Tang, Lian; Meng, Guoliang; Xu, Xiaole; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Macrophage foam cell formation triggered by oxLDL is an important event that occurs during the development of atherosclerosis. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG) exhibits significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. Herein we used U937 cells induced by PMA and oxLDL in vitro to investigate the inhibitory effects of TSG on U937 differentiation and macrophage foam cell formation. TSG pretreatment markedly inhibited cell differentiation induced by PMA, macrophage apoptosis and foam cell formation induced by oxLDL. The inhibition of vimentin expression and cleavage was involved in these inhibitory effects of TSG. The suppression of vimentin by siRNA in U937 significantly inhibited cell differentiation, apoptosis and foam cell formation. Using inhibitors for TGFβR1 and PI3K, we found that vimentin production in U937 cells is regulated by TGFβ/Smad signaling, but not by PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling. Meanwhile, TSG pretreatment inhibited both the expression of TGFβ1 and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, and TSG suppressed the nuclear translocation of Smad4 induced by PMA and oxLDL. Furthermore, TSG attenuated the induced caspase-3 activation and adhesion molecules levels by PMA and oxLDL. PMA and oxLDL increased the co-localization of vimentin with ICAM-1, which was attenuated by pretreatment with TSG. These results suggest that TSG inhibits macrophage foam cell formation through suppressing vimentin expression and cleavage, adhesion molecules expression and vimentin-ICAM-1 co-localization. The interruption of TGFβ/Smad pathway and caspase-3 activation is responsible for the downregulation of TSG on vimentin expression and degradation, respectively.

  3. Anhydrous octyl-glucoside phase transition from lamellar to isotropic induced by electric and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Rauzah; Sugimura, Akihiko; Nguan, Hock-Seng; Rahman, Matiur; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2017-02-28

    A static deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)HNMR) technique (magnetic field, B = 7.05 T) was employed to monitor the thermotropic lamellar phase of the anhydrous 1:1 mixture sample of octyl-b-D-glucoside (βOG) and that of partially deuterium labelled at the alpha position on the chain, i.e.,βOG-d2 In the absence of an electric field, the (2)H NMR spectrum of the mixture gives a typical quadrupolar doublet representing the aligned lamellar phase. Upon heating to beyond the clearing temperature at 112 °C, this splitting converts to a single line expected for an isotropic phase. Simultaneous application of magnetic and electric fields (E = 0.4 MV/m) at 85 °C in the lamellar phase, whose direction was set to be parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, resulted in the change of the doublet into a single line and this recovers to the initial doublet with time for both experimental geometries. This implies E- and B-field-induced phase transitions from the lamellar to an isotropic phase and a recovery to the lamellar phase again with time. Moreover, these phase transformations are accompanied by a transient current. A similar observation was made in a computational study when an electric field was applied to a water cluster system. Increasing the field strength distorts the water cluster and weakens its hydrogen bonds leading to a structural breakdown beyond a threshold field-strength. Therefore, we suggest the observed field-induced transition is likely due to a structure change of the βOG lamellar assembly caused by the field effect and not due to Joule heating.

  4. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    the amount of cyanogenic glucosides. The cooking process of the ingredients was enough to reduce the phytic acid content in the multimixture to the levels recommended by the legislation. Significant statistical differences were not observed between these samples and those treated with moist heat.

  5. Determination of metabolites of diosmetin-7-O-glucoside by a newly isolated Escherichia coli from human gut using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Du, Leyue; Tao, Jinhua; Qian, Dawei; Shang, Er-xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Liu, Pei; Su, Shu-lan; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-11-26

    Different human intestinal bacteria were isolated and screened for their ability to transform diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. A Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, strain 4, capable of metabolizing diosmetin-7-O-glucoside was newly isolated. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence displayed 99% similarity with that of Escherichia. Then strain 4 was identified as a species of the genus Escherichia and was named Escherichia sp. 4. Additionally, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) technique combined with Metabolynx software method was established to screen the metabolites of diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. Comparing the retention time and MS/MS spectrum, three metabolites were detected and tentatively identified. These metabolites were acquired by four proposed metabolic pathways including dehydroxylation, deglycosylation, methylation, and acetylation. Diosmetin-7-O-glucoside was mainly bioconverted to considerable amounts of diosmetin and minor amounts of acacetin by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria such as Escherichia sp. 4. Subsequently, several strains could degrade acacetin to produce methylated and acetylated acacetin. The metabolites and metabolic pathways of diosmetin-7-O-glucoside by human intestinal bacterium Escherichia sp. 4 were first investigated.

  6. High-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides in the root of Paeonia lactiflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Römpp, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) at 10 μm pixel size was performed to unravel the spatio-chemical distribution of major secondary metabolites in the root of Paeonia lactiflora. The spatial...... distributions of two major classes of bioactive components, gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides, were investigated and visualized at the cellular level in tissue sections of P. lactiflora roots. Accordingly, other primary and secondary metabolites were imaged, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids...

  7. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi Ifeoma Chinwude; Kulkarni Roshan; Joshi Swati; Salawu Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Emeje Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein. Methods: Chloroform portion of P. niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29. Fractions with IC50 Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active (IC50 Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P. niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside palmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  8. Mesitylene-Cored Glucoside Amphiphiles (MGAs) for Membrane Protein Studies: Importance of Alkyl Chain Density in Detergent Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang

    2016-01-01

    are limited in their ability to maintain the structural integrity of membrane proteins and thus there are major efforts underway to develop novel agents with improved properties. We prepared mesitylene-cored glucoside amphiphiles (MGAs) with three alkyl chains and compared these agents with previously...... developed xylene-linked maltoside agents (XMAs) with two alkyl chains and a conventional detergent (DDM). When these agents were evaluated for four membrane proteins including a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), some agents such as MGA-C13 and MGA-C14 resulted in markedly enhanced stability of membrane...

  9. Sequestration of Glucosinolates and Iridoid Glucosides in Sawfly Species of the Genus Athalia and Their Role in Defense Against Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    . The defensive effectiveness of hemolymph that contains GLSs or IGs and of the respective glucosides was tested in feeding-bioassays against a potential predator, the ant Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Hemolymph of IG-sequestering cryptic A. cordata larvae has a higher deterrence potential than......In this study, the larval sequestration abilities and defense effectiveness of four sawfly species of the genus Athalia (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) that feed as larvae either on members of the Brassicaceae or Plantaginaceae were investigated. Brassicaceae are characterized by glucosinolates (GLSs...

  10. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical contents of greenhouse grown lettuces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2010-05-26

    Antioxidants and phytochemicals in vegetables are known to provide health benefits. Strategies that enhance these properties are expected to increase the nutritional values of vegetables. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical content of lettuces grown in a greenhouse. Red loose leaf lettuce (cv. Galactic) and green loose leaf lettuce (cv. Simpson Elite) were cultivated using a randomized complete block design. Three concentrations of ABA in water [0 (control), 150, 300 ppm] were sprayed on the 30th and 39th days after sowing, and lettuces were harvested on the 46th day. Exogenous ABA significantly decreased yield of green and red lettuces. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in red lettuce treated with ABA were significantly higher than in controls, whereas no significant differences were observed in green lettuce. ABA significantly induced the accumulation of chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in lettuces. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified in red and green lettuces included caffeoyltartaric acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin 3-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside. Additionally, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonoyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonoyl)-glucoside in red lettuces were quantified. No significant effects of ABA on these individual phytochemicals were observed in green lettuces, whereas ABA significantly elevated the content of individual phytochemicals in red lettuces except for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Differences among red lettuces with or without exogenous ABA were visualized on the score plots of principal component analyses. Loading plot indicated that multiple phenolic compounds contributed to the observed differences in red lettuces.

  11. A flavonoid glucoside, phellamurin, regulates differential oviposition on a rutaceous plant,Phellodendron amurense, by two sympatric swallowtail butterflies,Papilio protenor andP. xuthus: The front line of a coevolutionary arms race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, K; Hayashi, N

    1995-10-01

    We studied the chemical basis for the differential acceptance of a rutaceous plant.Phellodendron amurense, by ovipositing females of two sympatricPapilio butterflies,P. protenor andP. xuthus, that have a very similar host range.P. amurense, on which larvae of both species perform well, was rejected byP. protenor females but was marginally accepted byP. xuthus, even though water-soluble fraction of this plant elicited significant ovipositional responses from the two species. A prenylated dihydroflavonol glucoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone-7-O-β-glucoside (phellamurin), was identified as a dominant active substance that deters oviposition.P. protenor responded highly sensitively to phellamurin, whereasP. xuthus was less susceptible and was affected conspicuously only at higher concentrations than that found in living plants, thereby accounting for their differential responses toP. amurense. InP. protenor, the deterrent effect of phellamurin was considered to outweigh the activity of coexisting stimulant(s) at the concentrations actually present in the foliage, resulting in avoidance of this plant. The phellamurin content in the foliage amounted to as much as 1.8% of the fresh weight, which is far higher than the average levels of flavonoids present in other major host plants ofPapilio. The dose-response experiments demonstrated that unacceptability ofP. amurense forP. protenor was attributable largely to such a high concentration of phellamurin. These results appear to provide information on possible coevolutionary interactions between herbivores and plants and also on the potential for shifts in host affiliation.

  12. Application of positive and negative electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation and tandem mass spectrometry to a study of the fragmentation of 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 3)-glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Kerhoas, Lucien; Ducrot, Paul-Henri

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methodology based on the combined use of positive and negative electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been applied to the structural characterization of 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 3)-glucoside. In-source fragmentation of both glycosides at an increased potential yielded the protonated and deprotonated aglycone, allowing CID spectra to be obtained. The differentiation between quercetin and 6-hydroxyluteolin aglycones was achieved by product ion analysis of the protonated and deprotonated aglycone (m/z 303 and 301), that showed the characteristic product ions (1,3)A at m/z 151 and 153 for quercetin, and m/z 167 and 169 for 6-hydroxyluteolin, consistent with the trihydroxylated A-ring skeleton. In the negative ion mode both glycosides were shown to undergo collision-induced homolytic and heterolytic cleavages of the O-glycosidic bond producing the aglycone radical-anion [Y0-H]-* and Y0(-) product ions. At lower collision energy, various fragmentations involving the glucose moieties were observed with a relatively higher abundance for the monoglucoside compared to the diglucoside. In the latter case both the inner and the terminal glucose residues were involved in the fragmentations, giving useful information on the 1 --> 3 interglycosidic linkage. CID MS/MS analysis of the sodiated molecules gave complementary information for the structural characterization of the studied compounds. Fragmentation mechanisms are proposed for the observed product ions.

  13. Comparative Effect of Quercetin and Quercetin-3-O-β-d-Glucoside on Fibrin Polymers, Blood Clots, and in Rodent Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Seung

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluates the in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo antithrombotic and anticoagulant effect of two flavonoids: quercetin and quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (isoquercetin). The present results have shown that quercetin and isoquercetin inhibit the enzymatic activity of thrombin and FXa and suppress fibrin clot formation and blood clotting. The prolongation effect of quercetin and isoquercetin against epinephrine and collagen-induced platelet activation may have been caused by intervention in intracellular signaling pathways including coagulation cascade and aggregation response on platelets and blood. The in vivo and ex vivo anticoagulant efficacy of quercetin and isoquercetin was evaluated in thrombin-induced acute thromboembolism model and in ICR mice. Our findings showed that in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of quercetin were slightly higher than that of quercetin glucoside, whereas in vitro and ex vivo anticoagulant effects of quercetin were weaker than that of quercetin glucoside because of their structural characteristics.

  14. Analysis of the metabolites of isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside produced by human intestinal flora in vitro by applying ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Le-yue; Zhao, Min; Xu, Jun; Qian, Da-wei; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-03-26

    Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, which is widely contained in many vegetables and rice, is expected to be metabolized by intestinal microbiota after digestion, which brings about the profile of its pharmacological effect. However, little is known about the interactions between this active ingredient and the intestinal flora. In this study, the preculture bacteria and GAM (general anaerobic medium) broth with isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside were mixed for 48 h of incubation. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for analysis of the metabolites of isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside in the corresponding supernatants of fermentation. The parent and five metabolites were found and preliminarily identified on the basis of the chromatograms and characteristics of their protonated ions. Four main metabolic pathways, including deglycosylation, demethoxylation, dehydroxylation, and acetylation, were summarized to explain how the metabolites were converted. Acetylated isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside were detected only in the sample of Escherichia sp. 12, and quercetin existed only in the sample of Escherichia sp. 4. However, the majority of bacteria could metabolize isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside to its aglycon isorhamnetin, and then isorhamnetin was degraded to kaempferol. The metabolic pathway and the metabolites of isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside yielded by different isolated human intestinal bacteria were investigated for the first time. The results probably provided useful information for further in vivo metabolism and active mechanism research on isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside.

  15. Crotocascarins I-K: Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoids, Crotocascarin γ, Isocrotofolane Glucoside and Phenolic Glycoside from the Leaves of Croton cascarilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Inagaki, Masanori; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a methanol (MeOH) extract of the leaves of Croton cascarilloides, crotofolanes: crotocascarins I-K, nor-crotofolane: crotocascarin γ, isocrotofolane glucoside and phenolic glycoside were isolated by a combination of various separation techniques. Their structures were elucidated mainly from the NMR spectroscopic evidence. The structure of crotocascarin K was first elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and then was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Its absolute structure was finally determined by the modified Mosher's method. Isocrotofolane glucoside was found to possess a new skeleton, however, its absolute structure remains to be determined.

  16. High-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides in the root of Paeonia lactiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) at 10 μm pixel size was performed to unravel the spatio-chemical distribution of major secondary metabolites in the root of Paeonia lactiflora. The spatial distributions of two major classes of bioactive components, gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides, were investigated and visualized at the cellular level in tissue sections of P. lactiflora roots. Accordingly, other primary and secondary metabolites were imaged, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and monoterpenes, indicating the capability of untargeted localization of metabolites by using high-resolution MSI platform. The employed AP-SMALDI MSI system provides significant technological advancement in the visualization of individual molecular species at the cellular level. In contrast to previous histochemical studies of tannins using unspecific staining reagents, individual gallotannin species were accurately localized and unequivocally discriminated from other phenolic components in the root tissues. High-quality ion images were obtained, providing significant clues for understanding the biosynthetic pathway of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides and possibly helping to decipher the role of tannins in xylem cells differentiation and in the defence mechanisms of plants, as well as to investigate the interrelationship between tannins and lignins.

  17. Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic, and Amphiphilic Polyglycocarbonates with Linear and Macrocyclic Architectures from Bicyclic Glycocarbonates Derived from CO2 and Glucoside

    KAUST Repository

    Pati, Debasis

    2017-02-09

    Two bicyclic glycocarbonates were synthesized in five steps from α-methyl-d-glucoside without resorting to phosgene or to its derivatives for the first time. The 4- and 6-positions of glucose were modified to introduce a six-membered carbonate ring, using CO as the carbonylating reagent; the 2- and 3-positions of the same glucoside substrate were first transformed into either methyl or triethylene glycol monomethyl ether groups to protect these positions from undesirable reactions and also to impart hydrophobicity in the first case and hydrophilicity in the second. The polymerization behavior of these bicyclic glycocarbonates was then investigated under different conditions. On the one hand, through ring-opening polymerization of the above monomers, linear polyglycocarbonate homopolymers and diblock copolymers were obtained initiated by p-methylbenzyl alcohol using 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as catalyst; on the other hand, macrocyclic polyglycocarbonate homopolymers and diblock copolymers were grown using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) which served as zwitterionic initiator. The various architectures derived were all thoroughly characterized by NMR, GPC, and MALDI-tof and shown to exhibit the expected structure. Finally, the self-assembly of linear and macrocyclic amphiphilic copolyglycocarbonates in water was investigated and characterized by cryo-TEM.

  18. CTG-loaded liposomes as an approach for improving the intestinal absorption of asiaticoside in Centella Total Glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayu; Ma, Changhua; Guo, Chengjie; Yuan, Ruijuan; Zhan, Xueyan

    2016-07-25

    Centella Total Glucosides (CTG),obtained from Centella asiatica (L.), have been shown to possess a multitude of pharmacological activities, however, oral administeration of CTG failed to fulfill their therapeutic potentials due to the low bioavailability. In this study, the author prepared the liposomes encapsulated CTG using the ethanol injection method in order to enhance their intestinal absorption. The average particle size and the polydispersityindex(PDI) of CTG-loaded liposome in a batch are 137.0nm and 0.283, and the CTG-loaded amounts in CTG-loaded liposomes were 0.177mgmL(-1) and the zeta potential of CTG-loaded lipsomes is -21.2mV. The TEM images of CTG-loaded lipsomes showed that CTG-loaded liposomes are round and maintain high structural integrity, and their DSC thermograms indicated that CTG might be incorporated into the aqueous phase of DPPC to become more stable. The everted rat gut sac model was used to study the absorption characteristic of CTG-loaded solution in rat intestines. The cumulative absorption amount (Q) and the cumulative absorption percentage (P%) of asiaticoside in the CTG-loaded liposome was significantly higher than that in CTG (Pasiaticoside in CTG-loaded liposomes were significantly higher than those in CTG (Pasiaticoside in the ileum of the rats by enhancing its transmembrane permeability. The above study will provide the experimental evidence and a reference for the development of the oral dosage forms of Centella total glucosides.

  19. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi; Ifeoma; Chinwude; Kulkarni; Roshan; Joshi; Swati; Salawu; Oluwakanyinsola; Adeola; Emeje; Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri(P.niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein.Methods:Chloroform portion of P.niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane,ethylacetate and methanol.The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29.Fractions with IC50<10μg/ml.against parasites were further screened for peripheral analgesic activity,while cytotoxicity was evaluated using THP-1 cells.Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active(IC50<10 μg/mL) against Plasmodium falciparum and showed no significant cytotoxicity.Fractions 12 and 13 exhibited significant(P<0.01) reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice,decreasing the number of writhes by 66.67% and 65.22% respectively and comparable with 100 mg/kg aspirin(65.22%).From fraction 12,a compound was isolated and identified as sitosteryl-6-β-D-glucoside-6’-palmitate by 1H,13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopies.Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P.niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside pahmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  20. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; DuPont, M Susan; Mellon, Fred A; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E; Colquhoun, Ian J

    2003-04-23

    There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an overall increase in flavonoid levels in tomato fruit, can be achieved by means of simultaneous overexpression of the maize transcription factors LC and C1. Fruit from progeny of two modified lines (2027 and 2059) was selected for a detailed analysis and individual identification of flavonoids, at different stages of maturity. Nine major flavonoids were detected in the flesh of transgenic ripe tomatoes. LC/NMR, LC/MS, and LC/MS/MS enabled us to identify these as kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), two dihydrokaempferol-O-hexosides (3 and 4), rutin (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (7), naringenin-7-O-glucoside (8) and naringenin chalcone (9), which were quantified by HPLC/DAD. All but 5, 6, and 9 were detected in tomato for the first time. The total flavonoid glycoside content of ripe transgenic tomatoes of line 2059 was about 10-fold higher than that of the controls, and kaempferol glycosides accounted for 60% of this. Kaempferol glycosides comprised around 5% of the flavonoid glycoside content of ripe control tomatoes (the rest was rutin and naringenin chalcone). The rutin concentration in both transgenic and control fruits was similar.

  1. C-Glucoside xanthone from the stem bark extract of Bersama engleriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre C Djemgou

    2010-01-01

    data. Fractionation of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 extract of the stem bark of B. engleriana Guike gave mangiferin (1, in addition to three previously reported triterpenes, swinniol (2, Δ4-stigmaster-3b-ol (3, and 4-methylstigmaster-5,23-dien-3-b-ol (4. Conclusions: A chemical investigation of the CH2Cl2-MeOH extract of the stem bark of Bersama engleriana afforded a xanthone C-glucoside (mangiferin and fi rst isolation of three terpenoids from this species: swinniol (2, Δ4-stigmaster-3b-ol (3, and 4-methylstigmaster-5,23-dien-3-b-ol (4. The complete 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments of mangiferin were determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, DEPT. The structures of the terpenoids were determined from their 1H and 13C NMR data and compared with the literature data.

  2. Determination of citrus limonoid glucosides by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the identification and quantification of citrus limonoid glucosides in juices based upon high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlichs’s reagent has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase and an isocratic ...

  3. Protective role of malvidin-3-glucoside on peroxynitrite-induced damage in endothelial cells by counteracting reactive species formation and apoptotic mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Joana; Dinis, Teresa C P; Almeida, Leonor M

    2012-01-01

    The health-promoted benefits of anthocyanins, including vascular protective effects and antiatherogenic properties, have now been recognized, but the involved molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Following our previous work on cytoprotective mechanisms of some anthocyanins against apoptosis triggered by peroxynitrite in endothelial cells, here we investigated the protective role of malvidin-3-glucoside, a major dietary anthocyanin, on such deleterious process, by exploring the interference on cellular reactive species formation and on apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. Preincubation of cells with 25 μM malvidin-3-glucoside protected efficiently endothelial cells from peroxynitrite-promoted apoptotic death, an effect which may be partially mediated by its ability to decrease the formation of reactive species after cell aggression, as assessed by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay and by carbonyl groups formation. Moreover, malvidin-3-glucoside inhibited mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways induced by peroxynitrite, by counteracting mitochondrial membrane depolarization, the activation of caspase-3 and -9, and the increase in the expression of the proapoptotic Bax protein. Altogether, our data expands our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular protection afforded by malvidin-3-glucoside, and anthocyanins in general, in the context of prevention of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

  4. SGLT-1 Transport and Deglycosylation inside Intestinal Cells Are Key Steps in the Absorption and Disposition of Calycosin-7-O-β-d-Glucoside in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian; Zheng, Haihui; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Lijun; Yan, Tongmeng; Wu, Peng; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Ying; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrolysis by lactase-phloridzin hydrolase (LPH) is the first and critical step in the absorption of isoflavonoid glucosides. However, the absorption characteristics of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) slightly differ from other isoflavonoid glucosides. In this study, we used the rat intestinal perfusion model and performed pharmacokinetic studies and in vitro experiments to determine the factors influencing CG absorption and disposition. After oral administration of isoflavonoid glucosides, LPH was found to play minimal or no role on the hydrolysis of CG, in contrast to that of daidzin. CG was mainly transported into the small intestinal cells by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) as intact. This pathway could be the main mechanism underlying the high permeability of CG in the small intestine. CG was likely to be hydrolyzed in enterocytes to its aglycone calycosin by broad-specific β-glucuronides (BSβG) and glucocerebrosidase or rapidly metabolized. Calycosin was also rapidly and extensively metabolized to 3'-glucuronide in the enterocytes and liver, and the glucuronidation rates of calycosin and CG were much higher in the former. The metabolites were also transported into lumen by breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. In conclusion, the enterocytes could be an important site for CG absorption, deglycosylation, and metabolism in rats. This study could contribute to the theoretical foundation and mechanism of absorption and disposition of flavonoid compounds.

  5. Specialized roles for the two UDP-glucosyltransferases UGT85K2 and UGT85K3 in hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    in vitro. Mutants in the UGT85K2 gene, obtained by TILLING, almost lacked rhodiocyanosides and showed severe growth defects. This suggested the toxicity of the rhodiocyanoside aglycones and supports their proposed defense role. The observed specificity of these UGTs further highlights the metabolic...... flexibility of the hydroxynitrile glucoside based defense pathway in Lotus japonicus....

  6. Effect of pH on the complexation of kaempferol-4'-glucoside with three β-cyclodextrin derivatives: isothermal titration calorimetry and spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Dong, Li-Na; Liu, Min; Chen, Aiju; Feng, Shangcai; Wang, Bingquan; Sun, Dezhi

    2014-01-08

    The utilization of kaempferol and its glycosides in food and pharmaceutical industries could be improved by the formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins at different pH. This study explores the complexation of kaempferol-4'-glucoside with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) in phosphate buffer solutions of different pH using isothermal titration calorimetry, UV-vis absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 298.2 K. Experimental results showed that kaempferol-4'-glucoside binds with the three β- cyclodextrins in the same 1:1 stoichiometry. The rank order of stability constants is SBE-β-CD > HP-β-CD > M-β-CD at the same pH level and pH 6.0 > pH 7.4 > pH 9.0 for the same cyclodextrin. The binding of kaempferol-4'-glucoside with the three β-cyclodextrin derivatives is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy at pH 6.0 and enthalpy-driven at pH 7.4 and 9.0. The possible inclusion mode was that in the cavity of β-CD is included the planar benzopyranic-4-one part of the kaempferol-4'-glucoside.

  7. Determination of flavone C-glucosides in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) fortified foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Bao, Bili; Lu, Boyi; Ren, Yiping; Tie, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ying

    2005-02-18

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD) was used for the simultaneous determination of four flavone C-glucosides, i.e. orientin, homoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin in several food systems fortified by the antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), such as high temperature sterilized milk, sunflower seed oil and extruded rice cake for the first time. The method included extraction of flavone C-glucosides from AOB-fortified foods by methanol aqueous solution, deproteinating with saturated lead acetate solution and potassium oxalate, defatting with n-hexane and clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Phenomenex C18 cartridges. Analytes were separated with Luna C18 5 microm 250mm x 4.6mm column using acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) acetic acid (pH 3.0) as mobile phase. Good results were obtained with respect to repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD)fortified sterilized milk, sunflower seed oil and extruded rice cake, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of flavone C-glucosides in AOB-fortified samples. The optimized procedure could also be referenced for the separation of flavone C-glucosides in other fortified foodstuffs.

  8. Adaption of Ehrlich’s Reagent to a HPLC post-column reaction system for the quantification of limonoid glucosides (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus limonoid glucosides are found in large quantities in citrus fruits and seeds. Characterization and quantification of these compounds is important because they contribute to citrus quality and are reported to be biologically active. Unlike other bioactive compounds (e.g., flavonoids) present...

  9. Detection of Type A Trichothecene Di-Glucosides Produced in Corn by High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nagashima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of di-glucosylated derivative of T-2 toxin in plant (corn powder was confirmed for the first time in addition to that of HT-2 toxin. These masked mycotoxins (mycotoxin glucosides were identified as T-2 toxin-di-glucoside (T2GlcGlc and HT-2 toxin-di-glucoside (HT2GlcGlc based on accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometric (LC-Orbitrap MS analysis. Although the absolute structure of T2GlcGlc was not clarified, two glucose molecules were suggested to be conjugated at 3-OH position in tandem when considering the structure of T-2 toxin. On the other hand, the specification of the structure seems to be more complicated in the case of HT2GlcGlc, since HT-2 toxin has two possible positions (at 3-OH and 4-OH to be glusocylated. In addition, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol-glucoside (MASGlc was also detected in the identical sample.

  10. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  11. Effect of apigenin-7-glucoside, genkwanin and naringenin on tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Bouzaiene, Nouha; Chaabane, Fadwa; Sassi, Aicha; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effects of apigenin-7-glucoside, genkwanin and naringenin, on mouse melanoma B16F10 cell proliferation. Influence of these natural products on percentage cell distribution in cycle phases and melanogenesis was also studied. Cell viability was determined at various periods using the MTT assay, whereas effects of tested compounds on progression through the cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, amounts of melanin and tyrosinase were measured spectrophotometrically at 475 nm. Besides, the mechanism involved on the death route induced by the tested molecules was evaluated using the bis-benzimide trihydrochloride coloration method (Hoechst 33258). Apigenin-7-glucoside, genkwanin and naringenin exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity against B16F10 melanoma cells after 24 and 48 h of incubation. Furthermore, apigenin-7-glucoside, genkwanin and naringenin provoked an increase of subG0/G1, S and G2/M phase cell proportion with a significant decrease of cell proportion in G0/G1 phases. The results evaluated using Hoechst 33,258, confirm that the percentage of B16F10 cells observed in the sub G0/G1 phase were undergoing apoptosis. Moreover, apigenin-7-glucoside and naringenin revealed an ability to enhance melanogenesis synthesis and tyrosinase activity of B16F10 melanoma cells. Whereas genkwanin induces a decrease of melanin synthesis by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. Our results promote the introduction of genkwanin in cosmetic preparations, as skin whitening agent, whereas apigenin-7-glucoside and naringenin should be introduced into cosmetic products as natural tanning agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification, amounts, and kinetics of extraction of C-glucosidic ellagitannins during wine aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdes, Michaël; Michel, Julien; Saucier, Cédric; Quideau, Stéphane; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-09-01

    The C-glucosidic ellagitannins are found in wine as a result of its aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Once dissolved in this slightly acidic solution, the C-glucosidic ellagitannins vescalagin can react with nucleophilic entities present in red wine, such as ethanol, catechin, and epicatechin, to generate condensed hybrid products such as the β-1-O-ethylvescalagin and the flavano-ellagitannins (acutissimin A/B and epiacutissimin A/B), respectively. During this study, we first monitored the extraction kinetic and the evolution of the eight major oak-derived C-glucosidic ellagitannins in red wines aged in oak barrels or in stainless steel tank with oak chips. Their extraction rates appeared to be faster during red wine aging in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. However, their overall concentrations in wines were found higher in the wine aged in barrels. The formation rates of the vescalagin-coupled derivatives were also estimated for the first time under both red wine aging conditions (i.e., oak barrels or stainless steel tanks with oak chips). As observed for the oak-native C-glucosidic ellagitannins, the concentrations of these vescalagin derivatives were higher in the red wine aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Despite these differences, their relative composition was similar under both red wine aging conditions. Finally, the impact of the oak chips size and toasting level on the C-glucosidic ellagitannins concentration in wine was also investigated.

  13. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory and antioxidant activities of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Furuta, Shoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-01-01

    In the course of searching for new whitening agents, we have found that the methanol extract of dried skin of Allium cepa shows potent melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) from the methanol extract of dried skin of A. cepa, which inhibited melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 38.8 microM and mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 6.5 microM using L-tyrosine and 48.5 microM using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrates, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of 1 was evaluated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay; it showed 3.04 micromol Trolox equivalents/mmol. 1 was shown to be a promising ingredient that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation and for protecting against oxidative stress.

  14. Improved production of raw starch degrading enzyme by Aspergillus oryzae F-30 using methyl glucoside sesqui-stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Yan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jian-Wen; Peng, Ming

    2009-10-01

    The effect of methyl glucoside sesqui-stearate (MGS) on the production of raw starch degrading enzyme (RSDE) by Aspergillus oryzae F-30 was studied in this paper. The activity of RSDE formed by Aspergillus oryzae F-30 was enhanced dramatically by the addition of MGS to the medium. As a result, with the addition of 1.5 g MGS in 1 L basal medium, RSDE activity and productivity were 107 U mL(-1) and 1.49 U mL(-1) h(-1), 4.3-fold and 7.1-fold greater than the values obtained in the basal medium, respectively. The effect of MGS on the synthesis of RSDE by Aspergillus oryzae F-30 was also studied on a molecular level. It was observed that the regulation of RSDE synthesis in Aspergillus oryzae F-30 occurs at both transcriptional and translational level and the enzyme synthesis was provoked by the addition of MGS at transcriptional level.

  15. A New 8′ ,9 ′ -Dinor 8,4 ′ -Oxy neolignan Glucoside from Dendrobium Aurantiacum var. Denneanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of n-BuOH extract of Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum stems has led to the isolation of a new 8′,9′-dinor 8,4′-oxyneolignane glucoside, (–-(7 S ,8 S -4-hydroxy-3,3′,5,5′-tetramethoxy-8′,9′-dinor - 8,4′-oxyneolign a -7,9-diol- 7 ′-al 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, and four phenylpropanoid glycosides (2– 5 . The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods . This is the first report of norlignane from the genus Dendrobium.

  16. Validated HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of khellol glucoside, khellin and visnagin in Ammi visnaga L. fruits and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Jihan M; Hadad, Ghada M; Nahriry, Khaled; Hassanean, Hashem A

    2015-01-01

    Tea bags including fruits of Ammi visnaga L. are used in Egypt as remedy for the treatment of kidney stones. Our study focuses on developing simple and rapid method utilising HPLC for quantitative estimation of khellol glucoside (KG), khellin (KH) and visnagin (VS) simultaneously. Their concentrations were determined in A. visnaga L. fruits at different developmental stages and in pharmaceutical formulations together with following up them during shelf life. Separation was accomplished using HPLC. Perfect resolution between KG, KH and VS was possible through using a mobile phase consisting of water:methanol:tetrahydrofuran (50:45:5, v/v/v). Peaks were detected at 245 nm. The suggested method for the determination of KG, KH and VS was successful in determining the analytes of interest without any interference of other compounds and matrix. All validation parameters were satisfactory and the procedure was relatively easy and fast as extracts are evaluated without previous steps of purification.

  17. The corrected structure of depressoside, an antioxidative iridoid glucoside extracted from the flowers of Gentiana urnula Harry Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Ken; Fukuhara, Tadao; Motoyama, Akira; Ochiai, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Three known iridoid glucosides (gentiournoside A, gentiournoside E and depressoside) were isolated from the flowers of Gentiana urnula Harry Sm. through activity-guided fractionations with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. All three compounds exhibited excellent DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50: 10-20 μmol L(-1)) comparable to that of ascorbic acid and Trolox. However, examination of the NMR data revealed that the reported chemical structure of depressoside, previously isolated from the leaves of G. depressa, needed correcting due to incorrect elucidation around C-7 of the iridane skeleton, and was corrected to 6-β-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-D-glucosyl 7-O-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-loganate. Depressoside exhibited a much higher scavenging activity against superoxide radicals (IC50: 45.5 μmol L(-1)) than the other two extracted compounds (IC50: more than 900 μmol L(-1)) due to the crucial presence of a pyrogallyl unit.

  18. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry (Morus nigra L.) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2008-03-01

    The mechanism of uptake of anthocyanins (as well as the type) from food in the intestine is not clear. Anthocyanin-rich extract from wild mulberry, composed of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) (19%), was orally administered to Wistar rats, and their concentrations were determined in plasma, kidney, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The 2 glycosylated forms showed maximum concentration at 15 minutes after oral administration, both in plasma and kidney. The cyanidin-3-glucoside and cy-3-rut were found in plasma as glucuronides, as sulfates of cyanidin, and as unchanged forms. The area under the curve of concentration vs time (AUC(0-8h)) was 2.76 +/- 0.88 microg hour/mL and 9.74 +/- 0.75 microg hour/g for plasma and kidney, respectively. In spite of the low absorption, the increase in plasma anthocyanin level resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant capacity (P < .05). In the GI tract (stomach and small and large intestines), cyanidin glycosides were found unchanged, but a low amount of the aglycone form was present. Anthocyanin glycosides were no longer detected in the GI tract after 8 hours of administration. In vitro fermentation showed that the 2 cyanidin glycosides were totally metabolized by the rat colonic microflora, explaining their disappearance. In addition, the 2 products of their degradation, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid, were not detected in plasma and probably do not influence plasma antioxidant capacity. As found by the everted sac model, anthocyanins were transported across the enterocyte by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  20. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br, e-mail: mrramos@ipen.br; Mandarino, Jose M.G. [EMBRAPA Soybean, Londrina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jmarcos@cnpso.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a {sup 60}Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  1. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  2. Effects of dietary stilbene glucoside on growth and body color of Ictalurus punctatus%饲料中添加二苯乙烯苷对斑点叉尾(鱼回)生长和体色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒; 贺国龙; 刘立鹤; 王辅臣; 张侃; 舒友松

    2012-01-01

    A 42 d feeding-trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of stilbene glucoside (tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside, THSG) on the growth and body color performance of Ictalurus punctatus. Five isonitrigenous diets were formulated to contain 36. 6% protein and 7. 3% lipid. THSG was added at four inclusion levels of 0. 33% , 0. 67% , 1. 33% and 2. 67% (diets A-D). The control diet didn' t contain THSG ( diet Ctr). Weight gain ( WG) , Survival and feed conversion ratio( FCR) were not significantly affected when the THSG added except FCR, which presented statistical significance in diet D; In diets A-D, tyrosinase activity in blood and skin, melanin content and distribution in the skin were higher than the diet Ctr, and tyrosinase activity in skin of diet A and diet B is 10. 4 ug/cm2 and 10. 6 ug/cm2 respectively , melanin distribution is 8. 16% and 9. 38% respectively, which were significantly higher than that of 7. 86 ug/cm2 and 5. 01% in control(P < 0. 05 ). These results indicate that adding THSG to Channel catfish feed has obvious influence on body color and without adverse effect on growth performance. Based on the results of WG, FCR, survival, tyrosinase activity in blood and skin, melanin content and distribution, it was feasible to improve the body color by dietary stilbene glucoside.%在饲料中分别添加0、0.33%、0.67%、1.33%和2.67%的二苯乙烯苷(THSG)制成5种等氮等能试验饲料饲喂(15 ±0.5)g斑点叉尾(鱼回)(Ictalurus punctatus)42 d,研究THSG对其生长和体色的影响.结果表明.饲料中添加THSG对斑点叉尾(鱼回)增重率和存活率均无显著影响,仅在添加量为2.67%时,试验组的饵料系数显著高于对照组(P<0.05);然而,随着添加量的增加,(鱼回)皮肤和血液酪氨酸酶活力、皮肤黑色素含量和黑色素分布量均有提高,其中0.33%和0.67%组皮肤中酪氨酸酶活力分别为10.4 U和10.7 U,显著高于对照组的7.86 U;黑色素分布量分别为8.16%和9

  3. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of isoflavones after ingestion of soy products with different aglycone/glucoside ratios in South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Youngeun; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-10-01

    Asian populations are thought to receive significant health benefits from traditional diets rich in soybeans due to high isoflavone contents. However, available epidemiologic data only weakly support this hypothesis. The present study was carried out to assess the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in South Korean women after ingestion of soy-based foods. Twenty-six healthy female volunteers (20-30 y old) consumed three different soy products (i.e., isogen, soymilk, and fermented soybeans) with different aglycone/glucoside ratios. Plasma and urine isoflavone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after ingestion of one of the soy products. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using the WinNonlin program. The area under the curve (AUC) for plasma daidzein levels of the soymilk group (2,101 ± 352 ng · h/mL) was significantly smaller than those of the isogen (2,628 ± 573 ng · h/mL) and fermented soybean (2,593 ± 465 ng · h/mL) groups. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of daidzein for the soymilk group (231 ± 44 ng/mL) was significantly higher than those of the isogen (160 ± 32 ng/mL) and fermented soybean (195 ± 35 ng/mL) groups. The half-lives of daidzein and genistein in the soymilk group (5.9 and 5.6 h, respectively) were significantly shorter than those in the individuals given isogen (9.6 and 8.5 h, respectively) or fermented soybean (9.5 and 8.2 h, respectively). The urinary recovery rates of daidzein and genistein were 42% and 17% for the isogen group, 46% and 23% for the fermented soybean group, and 33% and 22% for the soymilk group. In conclusion, our data indicated that soy products containing high levels of isoflavone aglycone are more effective for maintaining plasma isoflavone concentrations. Additional dose-response, durational, and interventional studies are required to evaluate the ability of soy-based foods to increase the bioavailability of isoflavones that positively affect human health.

  4. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  5. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  6. Effects of total paeony glucosides on mRNA expressions of Toll receptors and interleukin-33 in the brain tissue of D-galactose induced aging rats:an experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of total paeony glucosides (TPGs) on the expressions of Toll receptors (TLR4) and interleukin-33 (IL-33) in the brain tissue of D-galactose-induced aging rats.Methods Fifty SD rats

  7. Synthesis and Detailed Examination of Spectral Properties of (S and (R-Higenamine 4′-O-β-d-Glucoside and HPLC Analytical Conditions to Distinguish the Diastereomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Kato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Higenamine is a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in several plants that has β-adrenergic receptor agonist activity. Study of the biosynthesis of higenamine has shown the participation of norcoclaurine synthase, which controls the stereochemistry to construct the (S-isomer. However, when isolated from nature, higenamine is found as the racemate, or even the (R-isomer. We recently reported the isolation of higenamine 4′-O-β-d-glucoside. Herein, its (R- and (S-isomers were synthesized and compared to precisely determine the stereochemistry of the isolate. Owing to their similar spectral properties, determination of the stereochemistry based on NMR data was considered inappropriate. Therefore, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was established to separate the isomers, and natural higenamine 4′-O-β-d-glucoside was determined to be a mixture of isomers.

  8. Isolation, structural elucidation, MS profiling, and evaluation of triglyceride accumulation inhibitory effects of benzophenone C-glucosides from leaves of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Lifeng; Ge, Dandan; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Erwei; Wu, Chunhua; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao

    2013-02-27

    Seventy percent ethanol-water extract from the leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) was found to show an inhibitory effect on triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. From the active fraction, six new benzophenone C-glucosides, foliamangiferosides A(3) (1), A(4) (2), C(4) (3), C(5) (4), C(6) (5), and C(7) (6) together with 11 known benzophenone C-glucosides (7-17) were obtained. In this paper, isolation, structure elucidation (1-6), and MS fragment cleavage pathways of all 17 isolates were studied. 1-6 showed inhibitory effects on TG and free fatty acid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells at 10 μM.

  9. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymic synthesis of alpha- and beta-D-glucosides of 1-deoxynojirimycin and their glycosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, N; Oseki, K; Kaneko, E; Matsui, K

    1994-05-20

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (1) is a potent inhibitor of mammalian and rice alpha-glucosidase. Several glucosides of 1 were synthesized by use of the native and immobilized enzyme and their effect on various enzymes was investigated. Transglucosylation reactions using rice alpha-glucosidase, yeast alpha- and beta-glucosidases purified from Rhodotorula lactosa were performed with maltose or cellobiose as a glucose donor and N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (2) as an acceptor. The transglucosylation reaction using native rice alpha-glucosidase afforded 3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (4), 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (5), and 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (3) in yields of 40, 13, and 2%, respectively, after 30 min. The transglucosylation reaction using immobilized rice alpha-glucosidase was similar to that using the native enzyme. In the system using native yeast alpha-glucosidase, 3, 5, and 4 were formed in yields of 34, 13, and 6%, respectively, after 15 h. The immobilization of yeast alpha-glucosidase caused a significant decrease in transglucosylation activity. Yeast beta-glucosidase showed a high transglucosylation activity and incubation with the reaction system afforded 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (6) and 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (7) in yields of 69 and 3%, respectively, after 3 h. The transglucosylation reaction using immobilized yeast beta-glucosidase preferentially afforded 6 in a yield of 73% after 3 h. After removal of N-benzyloxycarbonyl group from the product glucosides, their glycosidase inhibitory activities were measured. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (9) retained the potent inhibition of 1 against rat intestinal sucrase activity and was more effective than 1 against rice alpha-glucosidase. 4-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (10

  11. A study on the NMR spectrum of monoterpene glucosides from Paeonia lactiflora Pall.%芍药单萜苷的NMR谱学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 王金辉; 李铣

    2001-01-01

    A study on the NMR spectral character of paeoniflorin, amonoterpene glucoside, was carried out and its proton signals of 1H-NMR were completely assigned by means of HMQC、HMBC、1H-1H COSY and ROSEY for the first time.%利用HMBC,HMQC,1H-1HCOSY,ROSEY等核磁技术第一次完整地确定了芍药苷中碳氢信号的归属。

  12. Protective Effect of Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside on 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells through the ROS-NO Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Lizhen; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Jiyu; Li, Xiaobing; Sun, Xin; Li, Xuefen; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The molecule, 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydr- oxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), is a potent antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of TSG against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and the possible mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that TSG significantly ...

  13. Iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside from Cyclopia genistoides: isolation and quantitative comparison of antioxidant capacity with mangiferin and isomangiferin using on-line HPLC antioxidant assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Christiaan J; Willenburg, Elize; de Beer, Dalene; Bonnet, Susan L; van der Westhuizen, Jan H; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The benzophenone, iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside, was isolated from Cyclopia genistoides using a combination of fluid-fluid extraction, high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The microplate oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, with fluorescein as probe, was adapted for use in an on-line HPLC configuration. The method was validated using a mixture of authentic standards including iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside, and the xanthones, mangiferin and isomangiferin. Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid) was included in the mixture for calculation of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values. Using the on-line HPLC-ORAC assay, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) on-line assays, the antioxidant activity of iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside and isomangiferin was demonstrated for the first time. Iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside presented no radical scavenging ability against DPPH, but scavenged ABTS(+) and peroxyl radicals (TEACABTS of 1.04 and TEACORAC of 3.61). Isomangiferin showed slightly lower antioxidant capacity than mangiferin against DPPH (TEACDPPH of 0.57 vs. 0.62), but higher capacity against ABTS(+) (TEACABTS of 1.82 vs. 1.67) and peroxyl radical (TEACORAC of 4.14 vs. 3.69) than mangiferin. The on-line HPLC-ORAC assay was shown to be more sensitive for radical scavengers, but at the same time less selective for rapid radical scavengers than the DPPH assay.

  14. Design, synthesis and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity of gem-dimethyl-bearing C-glucosides as SGLT2 inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jing Zhao; Yong Heng Shi; Gui Long Zhao; Yu Li Wang; Hua Shao; Li Da Tang; Jian Wu Wang

    2011-01-01

    A series of gem-dimethyl-bearing C-glucosides were designed and synthesized as SGLT2 inhibitors, with anhydrous aluminum chloride-mediated Friedel-Crafts alkylation to construct the gem-dimethyl functionality being the key step. The in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activity was evaluated with mice oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and all the synthesized compounds showed significant but less potent anti-hyperglycemic activity than the positive control dapagliflozin.

  15. Dianthosaponins G-I, triterpene saponins, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a flavonoid glycoside from the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Extensive isolation work on the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus afforded three further triterpene glycosyl estsers, termed dianthosaponins G-I, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a C-glycosyl flavonoid along with one known triterpene saponin. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds toward A549 cells was evaluated.

  16. The Safety of Dark, Moulded Casava Flour Compared with White - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Safety of Dark, Moulded Casava Flour Compared with White - a Comparison ... split into segments to obtain pieces with similar levels of cyanogenic glucosides. ... pH, brightness, aflatoxins and the number and genus of fungal propagules.

  17. Lepidopteran defence droplets - a composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2016-01-01

    Insects often release noxious substances for their defence. Larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) secrete viscous and cyanogenic glucoside-containing droplets, whose effectiveness was associated with their physical and chemical properties. The droplets glued mandibles and legs of potential...

  18. Assessing the hydrolytic fate of the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside - A warning light for the need to look at the "maskedome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Galaverna, Gianni; Righi, Federico; Cozzini, Pietro; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Masked mycotoxins are plant metabolites of mycotoxins that contaminate food and feed. They pose health concern as the shortage of toxicological data forces the lack of regulation worldwide. The present work investigated the toxicological relevance of the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. In vitro, it shows a lower toxicity in respect to the parent compound. However, the major risks related to the consumption of masked mycotoxins depend on the possibility to undergo hydrolysis. Therefore, the hydrolysis and further transformation of zearalenone-14-glucoside in bovine blood and blood components (i.e. plasma, serum and serum albumin) were monitored using LC/MS-MS analysis to gain insights on the possible systemic fate. Hydrolysis was observed in all matrices, and both cell-dependent and -independent contributions were pointed out. Moreover, further metabolism was observed in the whole blood as zearalenol isomers were found. Serum albumin was identified among the active components, and the protein-ligand interaction was investigated via computational analysis. The blood has been pointed out as possible district of reversion and further activation of zearalenone-14-glucoside, and a similar fate cannot be excluded for other masked mycotoxins. Therefore, the systemic hydrolysis should be evaluated beside the absorption, bioavailability and bioaccessibility to deeply understand the toxicity of masked mycotoxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crossed beam reaction of the cyanogen radical, CN(X 2Σ+), with acetylene, C2H2(X 1Σg+): Observation of cyanoacetylene, HCCCN(X 1Σ+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L. C. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.

    1999-04-01

    The chemical dynamics to cyanoacetylene, HCCCN(X 1Σ+), formation via the neutral-neutral reaction of cyanogen, CN(X 2Σ+), with acetylene, C2H2(X 1Σg+), is investigated in a crossed molecular beams experiment at a collision energy of 21.1 kJ mol-1. The laboratory angular distribution and time-of-flight spectra of the HCCCN product are recorded at m/e=51 and 50. Forward-convolution fitting of our data reveals that the reaction dynamics are governed by an initial attack of the CN radical to the π electron density of the acetylene molecule to form a HCCHCN collision complex on the 2A' surface. The four heavy atoms are rotating in plane almost perpendicular to the total angular momentum vector J around the C axis of the complex which undergoes C-H bond rupture through a tight transition state to HCCCN and H. The H atom is emitted almost perpendicular to the HCCCN axis to yield a nearly "sideways" peaking of T(θ). The explicit identification of the cyanoacetylene reaction product represents a solid background for the title reaction to be included with more confidence in reaction networks modeling the chemistry in dark, molecular clouds, outflow of dying carbon stars, hot molecular cores, as well as the atmosphere of hydrocarbon rich planets and satellites such as the Saturnian moon Titan.

  20. Facile preparation of water soluble curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder by using steviol glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Si, Jinbeom; Kang, Choongil; Chung, Byoungsang; Chung, Donghwa; Kim, Doman

    2017-01-01

    Curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa possess various biological activities. However, low aqueous solubility and consequent poor bioavailability of curcuminoids are major limitations to their use. In this study, curcuminoids extracted from turmeric powder using stevioside (Ste), rebaudioside A (RebA), or steviol glucosides (SG) were solubilized in water. The optimum extraction condition by Ste, RebA, or SG resulted in 11.3, 9.7, or 6.7mg/ml water soluble curcuminoids. Curcuminoids solubilized in water showed 80% stability at pH from 6.0 to 10.0 after 1week of storage at 25°C. The particle sizes of curcuminoids prepared with Ste, RebA, and SG were 110.8, 95.7, and 32.7nm, respectively. The water soluble turmeric extracts prepared with Ste, RebA, and SG showed the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (SC50) activities of 127.6, 105.4, and 109.8μg/ml, and the inhibition activities (IC50) against NS2B-NS3(pro) from dengue virus type IV of 14.1, 24.0 and 15.3μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A natural flavonoid glucoside icariin inhibits Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ruile; Deng, Wenjing; Li, Chun; Zeng, Guangwei

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. Icariin, a natural flavonoid glucoside isolated from plants in the Epimedium family, has been proved to have various pharmacological activities. However, the effect of icariin on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has never been investigated. In our current study, we found that icariin treatment leads to alleviated inflammatory infiltration and reduced blood-brain barrier leakage (BBB) of the paracellular tracer (FITC-dextran) in EAE. Mice that received icariin-treated T cells also displayed lower EAE scores and better clinical recovery from EAE. Icariin administration suppresses the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the splenocytes and lymph node cells. Icariin-treated mice also show lower frequency of Th17 cells in CNS mononuclear cells. The effect of icariin on Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation may be mediated via modulation of dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, icariin suppresses the proliferation of T cells and the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells in vitro. In conclusion, icariin ameliorates EAE and this was associated with suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Glass transition behavior of octyl β-D-glucoside and octyl β-D-thioglucoside/water binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2010-11-22

    The lyotropic behavior and glass-forming properties of octyl β-D-glucoside (C8Glu) and octyl β-D-thioglucoside (C8SGlu)/water binary mixtures were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The results clearly indicate that the mixture forms a glass in the supercooling state of liquid crystalline phases such as cubic, lamellar, and smectic. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the mixture was strongly dependent on solute concentration, with a higher concentration correlating with a higher T(g). The experimental T(g) was consistent with the predicted value calculated using the Couchman-Karasz equation in both the C8Glu and C8SGlu/water mixtures. The change of heat capacity at T(g) showed the two bending points under variation of concentrations. And the highest temperature of phase transition from lamellar to isotropic solution was observed at around 50% molar concentration. It was expected that non-percolated state of water existed in extremely higher concentration ranges. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside attenuates MPP+-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by inhibiting ROS generation and modulating JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianzong; Sun, Jing; Li, Xiaofeng; Sun, Xin; Kang, Xiaogang

    2010-10-08

    It is known that oxidative stress plays a major role in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have suggested that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., has significant antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. This is the first study that investigated the protective effects of TSG against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and determined the underlying mechanism. The results showed that incubation of PC12 cells with TSG before exposing them to MPP(+) could significantly decrease cell viability loss and reverse cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-apoptotic effects of TSG were probably mediated via the inhibition of ROS generation and modulation of JNK activation because TSG blocked ROS increase and JNK phosphorylation induced by MPP(+). Taken together, these results indicated that TSG may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.

  4. Isolation of a flavonoid, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia and its genotoxic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Yanmis, Derya; Arasoglu, Tulin; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Demirezer, Lutfiye Omur

    2015-09-01

    Mentha is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which is widely used in food, flavor, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, it has been found that the use of Mentha as a pharmaceutical source is based on its phytochemical constituents that have far been identified as tannins, saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-glucoside (A7G), a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia (ML). The possible antimutagenic potential of A7G was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate and acridine in an eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and 9-aminoacridine in S. typhimurium TA1537. According to our findings, any concentrations of the A7G used did not show mutagenic activity but exerted strong antimutagenic activities at tested concentrations. The inhibition rates for the Ames test ranged from 27.2% (S. typhimurium TA1535: 0.4 μM/plate) to 91.1% (S. typhimurium TA1537: 0.2 μM/plate) and for the yeast deletion assay from 4% to 57.7%. This genotoxicological study suggests that a flavonoid from ML owing to antimutagenic properties is of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial to industries producing food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals products.

  5. A new monoterpene glucoside and complete assignments of dihydroflavonols of Pulicaria jaubertii: potential cytotoxic and blood pressure lowering activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Ehab A; Raafat, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    One new monoterpene glucoside and five dihydroflavonols were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of Pulicaria jaubertii and identified as p-menthane-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [1], dihydroquercetin (taxifolin) [2], 7,3'-di-O-methyltaxifolin [3], 3'-O-methyltaxifolin [4], 7-O-methyltaxifolin (padmatin) [5] and 7-O-methyl-dihydrokampferol (7-O-methylaromadenderin) [6]. The structures of these compounds were unambiguously assigned on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC) and MS analysis. 2D-NMR methods required revision of assignments of H-6 and H-8 for dihydroflavonol compounds. Possible cytotoxic activity as well as blood pressure (BP) lowering activity were tested. The alcoholic extract showed cytotoxic activity against prostate carcinoma (PC-3), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) human cell lines with IC50 19.1, 20.0 and 24.1 μg, respectively. The higher dose levels of the alcoholic extract significantly reduced normal BP of rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside inhibits TNF-α-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via suppression of vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjuan; Sun, Qinju; Huang, Lei; Meng, Guoliang; Wang, Huiming; Jing, Xiang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-28

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration triggered by TNF-α is an important event that occurs during the development of atherosclerosis. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG) has been proven to exhibit significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. Herein we investigate the inhibitory effect of TSG on TNF-α-induced VSMC migration and explore the underlying mechanisms. TSG pretreatment markedly inhibited TNF-α-induced cell migration. The inhibition of vimentin redistribution and expression was involved in the inhibitory effect of TSG on VSMC migration. The suppression of vimentin expression by shRNA in VSMCs significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced cell migration. Furthermore, TSG inhibited the TNF-α-induced expression of TGFβ1 and TGFβR1, and phosphorylation of TGFβR1 and Smad2/3. TSG also suppressed the nuclear translocation of Smad4 induced by TNF-α. These results suggest that TSG inhibits VSMC migration induced by TNF-α through inhibiting vimentin rearrangement and expression. The interruption of TGFβ/Smad pathway appears to be responsible for the suppression of TSG on vimentin expression.

  7. Long chain fatty acid acylated derivatives of quercetin-3-o-glucoside as antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-11-06

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  8. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu N. Warnakulasuriya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA, oleic acid (OLA, linoleic acid (LNA, α-linolenic acid (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA, using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL, in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  9. Sesquiterpene glucosides from Shenzhou honey peach fruit showed the anti-aging activity in the evaluation system using yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Lin, Yanfei; Xiang, Lan; Osada, Hiroyuki; Qi, Jianhua

    2017-08-01

    One new (1, SZMT01) and one known (2) anti-aging substances were isolated from Shenzhou honey peach fruit. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization, and the result reveals that these two compounds are sesquiterpene glucosides. SZMT01 possesses a new glycosylation with an ester linkage at one terminal in an acyclic sesquiterpenoid which is the end of a double bond at another terminal. Both compounds extend the replicative lifespan of K6001 yeast strain at doses of 7.5 and 25 μM. Then, to understand the action mechanism involved, we performed an anti-oxidative experiment on SZMT01. The result revealed that treatment with SZMT01 increased the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress. Moreover, the lifespans of sod1 and sod2 mutant yeast strains with a K6001 background were not affected by SZMT01. These results demonstrate that anti-oxidative stress performs important roles in anti-aging effects of SZMT01.

  10. Copigmentation of malvidin-3-O-glucoside with five hydroxybenzoic acids in red wine model solutions: experimental and theoretical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Rui; He, Fei; Zhou, Pan-Pan; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-03-01

    In the present research, the copigmentations of malvidin-3-O-glucoside with five hydroxybenzoic cofactors (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) were investigated. The influence of the concentration of these cofactors and the reaction temperature was examined. The equilibrium constant (K), stoichiometric ratio (n) and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°) related to the copigmentation were also reported here. Theoretical calculations were performed to identify the relative arrangement between the pigment and cofactors in the copigmentation complexes. Besides, the comparison of the relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbinding) derived from the theoretical calculations and experimental data were made, and the binding strength of these copigmentation complexes was discussed with the interaction energies (ΔE). AIM analysis was also used to explore the main driving forces contributing to the copigmentation. In the comparison of the five studied cofactors, syringic acid had a stronger copigmentation effect than the other four phenolic acids investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and identification of trans-2- and trans-3-hydroxy-1,8-cineole glucosides from Alpinia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Y; Kobayashi, A; Kubota, K

    2001-04-01

    Three hydroxy-1,8-cineole glucopyranosides, (1R, 2R, 4S)- and (1S, 2S, 4R)-trans-2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole beta-D-glucopyranosides, and (1R, 3S, 4S)-trans-3-hydroxy-1,8-cineole beta-D-glucopyranoside, which are possible precursors of acetoxy-1,8-cineoles as unique aroma components, were isolated from the rhizomes of greater galangal (Alpinia galanga W.). Their structures were analyzed by FAB-MS and NMR spectrometry, and the absolute configulation of each aglycone was determined by using a GC-MS analysis with a capillary column coated with a chiral stationary phase. The composition of the diastereomers of (1R, 2R, 4S)- and (1S, 2S, 4R)-trans-2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole beta-D-glucopyranosides in the rhizomes was determined as 3:7 by a GC-MS analysis after preparing the trifluoroacetate derivatives of the glucosides.

  12. Stability, Antioxidant Capacity and Degradation Kinetics of Pelargonidin-3-glucoside Exposed to Ultrasound Power at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxia Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative preservation method to thermal treatment, ultrasound is a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, recently literature indicated that anthocyanin degradation occurred when high amplitude ultrasound was applied to juice. This work mainly studied the effect of ultrasound on the stability and antioxidant capacity of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pg-3-glu and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and •OH generation in a simulated system. Results indicated that the spectral intensities of Pg-3-glu decreased with increasing ultrasound power (200–500 W and treatment time (0–60 min. The degradation trend was consistent with first-order reaction kinetics (R2 > 0.9100. Further study showed that there was a good linear correlation between Pg-3-glu degradation and •OH production (R2 = 0.8790, which indicated the important role of •OH in the degradation of anthocyanin during ultrasound exposure. Moreover, a decrease in the antioxidant activity of solution(s containing Pg-3-glu as evaluated by the DPPH and FRAP methods was observed after ultrasound treatment.

  13. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  14. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  15. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  16. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin).

  17. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside induces human DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been associated with reduced risk of cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) has been shown to possess anti-proliferative and antioxidant activities. The objectives of this study were to assess the anti-proliferative properties of Q3G in human liver cancer cells (HepG2); assess the cytotoxicity on normal primary cells; and elucidate its possible mechanism of action(s). Using a dose- and time-dependent study, we evaluated the antiproliferative properties of Q3G in HepG2 cells using MTS cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. To elucidate the mechanism of action, we performed cell-cycle analysis using flow cytometry. Cell death via apoptosis was analyzed by DNA fragmentation assay, caspase-3 induction assay and fluorescence microscopy. DNA topoisomerase II drug screening assay was performed to assess the effect of Q3G on DNA topoisomerase II. Q3G treatment inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 cells with the blockade of the cell cycle in the S-phase. Additionally, Q3G exhibited a strong ability to inhibit DNA topoisomerase II. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopy analysis suggested that Q3G induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells with the activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, Q3G exhibited significantly lower toxicity to normal cells (primary human and rat hepatocytes and primary lung cells) than sorafenib (papoptosis. Further research should be performed to confirm these results in vivo.

  18. Charge Transfer Dynamics of Highly Efficient Cyanidin-3-O- Glucoside Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, E. C.; Yuliarto, B.; Suyatman; Dipojono, H. K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the novel efficiency achievement of black rice-based natural dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher dye concentration, the longer dye extraction as well as dye immersion onto a TiO2 film, and the co-adsorption addition are key strategies for improved-cell performance compared to the highest previous achievement. The black rice dye containing 1.38 mM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside has been extracted without purification for 3 weeks at dark condition and room temperature. The anatase TiO2 photoanode was dipped into dye solution within 4 days. Its electrode was firmly sealed to be a cell and was filled by I-/I3- electrolyte using vacuum technique. As a result, the overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency was 1.49% at AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW.cm-2). The voltametric analysis has reported the interfacial electronic band edges of TiO2-Dye-Electrolyte. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown the kinetic of interfacial electron transfer dynamics among TiO2-dye-electrolyte. The cell has the transfer resistance (Rt) of 12.5 ω, the recombination resistance (Rr) of 266.8 ω, effective electron diffusion coefficients (Dn) of 1.4 × 10-3 cm2/s, Dye-TiO2 effective electron transfer (τd) of 26.6 μs, effective diffusion length (Ln)of 33.78 μm, chemical capacitance (Cμ) of 12.43 μF, and electron lifetime (τn) of 3.32 ms.

  19. Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Modulates the In Vitro Inflammatory Crosstalk between Intestinal Epithelial and Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ferrari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelium represents a protective physical barrier and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. Polarized basolateral intestinal secretion of inflammatory mediators, followed by activation of NF-κB signaling and inflammatory pathways in endothelial cells, efficiently triggers extravasation of neutrophils from the vasculature, therefore contributing to the development and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. Proper regulation of NF-κB activation at the epithelial interface is crucial for the maintenance of physiological tissue homeostasis. Many papers reported that anthocyanins, a group of compounds belonging to flavonoids, possess anti-inflammatory effects and modulate NF-κB activity. In this study, by using a coculture in vitro system, we aimed to evaluate the effects of TNF-α-stimulated intestinal cells on endothelial cells activation, as well as the protective effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G. In this model, TNF-α induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and TNF-α and IL-8 gene expression in Caco-2 cells, whereas C3G pretreatment dose-dependently reduced these effects. Furthermore, TNF-α-stimulated Caco-2 cells induced endothelial cells activation with increased E-selectin and VCAM-1 mRNA, leukocyte adhesion, and NF-κB levels in HUVECs, which were inhibited by C3G. We demonstrated that selective inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in epithelial cells represents the main mechanism by which C3G exerts these protective effects. Thus, anthocyanins could contribute to the management of chronic gut inflammatory diseases.

  20. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. The crystal structure of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Os4BGlu12, an oligosaccharide and tuberonic acid glucoside-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase with significant thioglucohydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansenya, Sompong; Opassiri, Rodjana; Kuaprasert, Buabarn; Chen, Chun-Jung; Cairns, James R Ketudat

    2011-06-01

    Rice Os4BGlu12, a glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) β-glucosidase, hydrolyzes β-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides of 3-6 glucosyl residues and the β-(1,3)-linked disaccharide laminaribiose, as well as certain glycosides. The crystal structures of apo Os4BGlu12, and its complexes with 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxyl-2-fluoroglucoside (DNP2FG) and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose (G2F) were solved at 2.50, 2.45 and 2.40Å resolution, respectively. The overall structure of rice Os4BGlu12 is typical of GH1 enzymes, but it contains an extra disulfide bridge in the loop B region. The glucose ring of the G2F in the covalent intermediate was found in a (4)C(1) chair conformation, while that of the noncovalently bound DNP2FG had a (1)S(3) skew boat, consistent with hydrolysis via a (4)H(3) half-chair transition state. The position of the catalytic nucleophile (Glu393) in the G2F structure was more similar to that of the Sinapsis alba myrosinase G2F complex than to that in covalent intermediates of other O-glucosidases, such as rice Os3BGlu6 and Os3BGlu7 β-glucosidases. This correlated with a significant thioglucosidase activity for Os4BGlu12, although with 200- to 1200-fold lower k(cat)/K(m) values for S-glucosides than the comparable O-glucosides, while hydrolysis of S-glucosides was undetectable for Os3BGlu6 and Os3BGlu7.

  2. Purfication and properties of a specific isoflavone 7-O-glucoside-6''-malonate malonyestrase from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, W; Köster, J; Barz, W

    1986-08-01

    Protein extracts from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants contained high esterase activity hydrolyzing malonate hemiesters of isoflavone 7-O-glucosides. Using 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (biochanin A) 7-O-glucoside-6"-malonate as a substrate, a specific malonylesterase was purified about 700-fold to near homogeneity. The purified enzyme possesses an extremely low enzyme activity with synthetic esterase substrates. Various putative nonspecific esterases, as tested with alpha-naphthylacetate, were removed during enzyme purification. The malonylesterase demonstrated a very high molecular mass in gel chromatography and in sedimentation analyses with sucrose gradients (greater than or equal to 2 X 10(6)). Analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pointed to a single subunit of 32,000. The catalyzed reaction showed a pH optimum at 7.5 and a temperature optimum between 30 and 35 degrees C. The apparent Km for biochanin A 7-O-glucoside-6"-malonate was (4.2 +/- 1.2) X 10(-4) M. The malonylesterase was insensitive to the esterase inhibitors eserine and neostigmine (10(-3) M) as well as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, paraoxon, and diisopropylfluorophosphate (10(-4) M). On the other hand enzyme activity was totally inhibited by Hg2+ ions (10(-5) M) and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (10(-4) M), whereas iodoacetamide (10(-6)-10(-4) M) inhibited only partially. Di- and tricarboxylic acids strongly stimulated enzyme activity at 10(-2) M. These properties indicate that the malonylesterase from chickpea roots greatly differs from other known esterases. The possible biological function of the specific malonylesterase is discussed in relation to isoflavone conjugate metabolism in chickpea.

  3. Biological Activities of 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-Glucoside in Antiaging and Antiaging-Related Disease Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions. This review focuses on the biological effects of THSG in antiaging and antiaging-related disease treatments and discusses its molecular mechanisms.

  4. Occurrence of different trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside in naturally and artificially contaminated Danish cereal grains and whole maize plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P. H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ghorbani, F.

    2012-01-01

    ), 3 acetyl-DON, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in naturally (n = 48) and artificially (n = 30) contaminated cereal grains (wheat, barley, oat, rye triticale) is reported. The method has also been applied to whole fresh maize plant intended for production of maize...... % of the DON concentration. The DON-3-glucoside levels in both the naturally and in the artificially grain inoculated with Fusarium were second only to DON, and were generally higher than those of the other tested trichothecenes, which were found at low concentrations in most samples, in many cases even below...

  5. Survey of deoxynivalenol and its conjugates deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in 374 beer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elisabeth; Malachova, Alexandra; Schwartz, Heidi; Krska, Rudolf; Berthiller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Malted cereal grains are among the basic ingredients and hence mycotoxin contamination might occur. Previous studies reported the presence of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON), as well as of the masked mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in beer. In the present survey, 374 beer samples from 38 countries with a focus on Austrian (156) and German (64) beers were analysed for the presence of D3G, DON and 3ADON. Beers were assigned to the following six categories: pale (217), wheat (46), dark (47), bock (20), nonalcoholic beers (19) and shandies (25). In total, 348 and 289 beers (93 and 77%, respectively) contained D3G and DON at the levels above the limit of detection, whereas 3ADON was not detected in any of the samples. Average concentrations of all beers were 6.9 µg L(-1) for D3G and 8.4 µg L(-1) in the case of DON. Nonalcoholic beers and shandies showed the lowest contaminations, 1.5 and 3.2 µg L(-1) for D3G and 2.7 and 4.4 µg L(-1) for DON, respectively. In bock beers characterised by a higher gravity, a significant trichothecene load of 14.8 µg L(-1) D3G and 12.4 µg L(-1) DON was found. The highest contamination (81 µg L(-1) D3G, 89 µg L(-1) DON) was detected in a pale beer from Austria, underlining the importance of this study for food safety. The molar D3G to DON ratio ranged between 0.11 and 1.25 and was 0.56 on average. Concluding, the average contamination of beer is not of toxicological concern for moderate beer drinkers. However, in the case of heavy beer drinkers, beer consumption may considerably contribute to the overall intake of DON, which might even lead to exceeding the maximum tolerable limits established for this Fusarium toxin.

  6. Chronic administration tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside promotes hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity and activates ERKs, CaMKII and SIRT1/miR-134 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Li, Yan-Kun; Liu, Jing; Wu, Peng-Fei; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo; Long, Li-Hong

    2016-08-22

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-aging effect. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is generally considered as the main active component in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. However, the effect of TSG on memory in adult is unclear till now. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is a polyphenols compound from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of TSG on hippocampal memory in normal mice. Behavioral test, electrophysiology and golgi staining were used to evaluate the effect of TSG on hippocampus-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of ERK1/2, CaMKII, and SIRT1. Real-time quantitative PCR was explored to measure miR-134. It was found that TSG enhanced hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and novel object recognition, facilitated hippocampal LTP and increased dendrite spine density in the CA1 region of hippocampus. TSG obviously promoted the phosphorylations of ERK1/2, CaMKII, CREB and the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus, with upregulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and downregulation of miR-134. Chronic administration of TSG promotes hippocampal memory in normal mice, suggesting that supplementary of TSG might serve as an enhancement of memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant Sterol 3-O-Glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Catalyzing Biosynthesis of Steryl Glucosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator, is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants.

  8. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a recombinant sterol 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pragya; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B N; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants.

  9. Simultaneous determination of cucurbitacin B, E, I and E-glucoside in plant material and body fluids by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcsik, Nicole; Pfab, Rudolf; Pietsch, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    A selective and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of cucurbitacin B, E, I and E-glucoside in plant material and body fluids by HPLC-MS was developed. After liquid-liquid extraction with dichlormethane, separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna Pentafluorophenyl Column (150mm×2mm, 5μm) using acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase system. Detection was performed using a 3200 Q Trap mass spectrometer (AB Sciex). For analysis Q1 Scans with negative ionisation were chosen. The method was validated for serum as the matrix of choice. Limits of detection are in the picogram range, limits of quantification are between 0.05 and 0.42ng/mL, recoveries are above 50%. The assay was linear in the calibration range from 1.0 to 50ng/mL for cucurbitacin E and from 0.10 to 50ng/mL for the cucurbitacins B, I and E-glucoside. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the determination of cucurbitacins in zucchini plant material and body fluids from intoxication cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Contents of Some Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica in Kaduna Metropolis-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarkiyayi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three varieties of mangoes (Mangifera indica namely; Adansonia digitata (Durshea big seed, Durio zubethinus murr (Peter middle seeded, Foetide lour (Julie collected within Kaduna metropolis were subjected to proximate analysis. Analysis of the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the three varieties of mangoes revealed that moisture content, crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fat, ash content and vitamin c were 79.17, 1.97, 7.16, 1.89, 9.81 and 34.12% respectively for Durshea variety. The findings revealed that Peter (Middle Seeded mango proximate values for all the nutrients analyzed were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the values obtained from Durshea result. The Julie (Small Seeded mango’s moisture content (72.04% and carbohydrate contents (16.59 mg/100 g were significantly (p<0.05 different from Durshea and Peter varieties. The findings also revealed that calcium contents were 0.15, 0.10 and 0.13% for durshea, peter and Julie, respectively. Iron and magnesium contents were present in small amount for all the three variaties. The contents of cyanogenic glycosides (0.28 mg/100 g, oxalates (1.60 mg/100 g and phytate (0.62 mg/100 g for durshea were not significantly different from peter and jullie varieties of the mango. The findings revealed that the three varieties of mango contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that the body required for its normal metabolic functions .The anti nutrients contents is negligible. The Durshea variety is the most recommended for human consumption because of its high lipids and calcium contents.

  12. Variation in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented rooibos herbal tea infusions: role of production season and quality grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Beelders, Theresa; de Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; de Villiers, André J; Sigge, Gunnar O

    2012-09-12

    Data are required to calculate the dietary exposure to rooibos herbal tea flavonoids and phenolic acids. Representative content values for the principal phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of fermented rooibos infusion, taking into account variation caused by production seasons (2009, 2010, and 2011) and quality grades (A, B, C, and D), were determined for samples (n = 114) from different geographical areas and producers. The major phenolic constituents were isoorientin and orientin (>10 mg/L), with quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, phenylpyruvic acid glucoside, and aspalathin present at >5 mg/L. Isovitexin, vitexin, and hyperoside were present at antioxidant capacity within production seasons and quality grades.

  13. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  14. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p soybeans.

  15. Effect and significance of total glucosides of paeony treatment on serum Leptin,IP-10 and hs-CRP expression in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Xiang Quan; Dong-Xu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore and analyze the effect and significance of total glucosides of paeony treatment on serum Leptin, IP-10 and hs-CRP expression of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.Methods:80 cases of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) treated in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital and our hospital from March 2004 to March 2013 were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group, 40 cases in each group. Control group received routine treatment and observation group, based on the treatment of control group, were given a sufficient amount of total glucosides of paeony for treatment. Then expression levels of serum Leptin, IP-10 (interferon-induced protein of rats-10) and hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) of both groups before treatment and at various time points after treatment were detected, and test results were observed and counted.Results:Data between two groups, at different time points as well as at different time points between two groups had significant differences, with statistical significance. And after t test, Leptin levels of both groups after 6m of treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment; Leptin level of observation group after 6 m of treatment was significantly higher than that of control group, with statistical significance. Data between two groups, at different time points as well as at different time points between two groups had significant difference, with statistical significance. And after t test, hs-CRP levels of both groups after 6m of treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment; Hs-CRP level of observation group after 6m of treatment was significantly higher than that of control group, with statistical significance. IP-10 levels of both groups after 6 months of treatment significantly decreased than those before treatment, but IP-10 level of observation group was significantly lower than that of control group, with statistical significance

  16. Temperature-dependent studies on the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and sugar content in six onion varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heating effect on total phenol, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sugar content of six onion varieties has been quantitatively investigated to explore the effect of different temperatures. The onion varieties comprised one red-skinned variety, two white-skinned varieties, and three yellow-skinned varieties. The heating temperature was scanned at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C, and 150°C for 30 minutes each, and quantitative analysis was performed relative to the powdered onion at ambient temperature. Quercetin, glucosides and sugar content were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and antioxidant content increased in all six varieties. The total flavonoid levels showed a considerable change. On heating the onion samples at 120°C for 30 minutes, the red-skinned variety showed the highest level of total phenolic content [13712.67 ± 1034.85 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (μg GAE/g DW] and total flavonoids [3456.00 ± 185.82 μg of quercetin equivalents/g dry weight (μg Q/g DW], whereas the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were 13611.83 ± 341.61 μg GAE/g DW and 3482.87 ± 117.17 μg Q/g DW, respectively, for the yellow-skinned (Sunpower variety. Quercetin and its glucoside contents increased up to 120°C and then decreased at 150°C, whereas the sugar content continuously decreased with heating. All cultivars showed the same pattern in the heating effect, and the predominant flavonoids were destroyed at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is improper to expose onion powder to a temperature higher than 120°C.

  17. 三七叶苷软胶囊改善睡眠功能试验研究%Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) Leaves Glucoside Soft Capsule Improve Animals Sleep Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爱; 高明菊; 曾鸿超; 崔秀明

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究三七叶苷软胶囊改善动物睡眠功能.方法 通过戊巴比妥钠睡眠时间实验、戊巴比妥钠阈下剂量催眠试验、巴比妥钠睡眠潜伏期实验对三七叶苷软胶囊进行检测.结果 能延长戊巴比妥钠睡眠时间、协同戊巴比妥钠阈下剂量催眠作用、缩短巴比妥钠睡眠潜伏期,与阴性对照组的差异具有显著性(P<0.01或P<0.05),无直接睡眠作用,对小鼠的体重无影响.结论 三七叶苷软胶囊具有改善睡眠功能作用.%Objective Research on Sanqi leaf glucoside soft capsule improving animals sleep. Methods Sanqi leaf glucoside soft capsule were detected through the sodium pentobarbital sleep time experiment, the nembutal subthreshold-hypnosis dose hypnotic experiment and the pentobarbital sodium sleep latency period experiment. Results The results showed that the sodium pentobarbital sleep time was lengthened, the nembutal subthreshold-hypnosis dose hypnotic effect was collaborated and the pentobarbital sodium sleep latency was shortened. Sanqi leaf glucoside soft capsule showed the significant difference with the negative control on improving animals sleep (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). At the same time, Sanqi leaf glucoside soft capsule had no obvious effect on body weight in mice. Conclusion Sanqi leaves glucoside soft capsule improved sleep.

  18. Separation of patuletin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by elution-pump-out high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Xie, Qianqian; Fisher, Derek; Sutherland, Ian A

    2011-09-09

    Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze is an annual alien weed of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae) in China. Bioactive compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and flavones from F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze, have been studied in order to utilize this invasive weed, Analytical high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was successfully used to separate patuletin-3-O-glucoside, a mixture of hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin using two runs with different solvent system. Ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:1:10, v/v) was selected by analytical HPCCC as the optimum phase system for the separation of patuletin-3-O-glucoside, a mixture of hyperoside and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside, and astragalin. A Dichloromethane-methanol-water (5:3:2, v/v) was used for the separation of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The separation was then scaled up: the crude extract (ca 1.5 g) was separated by preparative HPCCC, yielding 12 mg of patuletin-3-O-glucoside at a purity of 98.3%, yielding 9 mg of a mixture of hyperoside and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside constituting over 98% of the fraction, and 16 mg of astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) at a purity of over 99%. The pump-out peaks are isorhanetin (98% purity), kaemferol (93% purity) and quercitin (99% purity). The chemical structure of patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin were confirmed by MS and ¹H, ¹³C NMR.

  19. The use of a-methyl-D-glucoside, a synthetic analogue of maltose, as inducer of amylase by Aspergillus sp in solid-state and submerged fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a methyl-D-glucoside (alphaMG, a synthetic analogue of maltose, as carbon source and inducer of amylase synthesis to several species of Aspergillus was studied in submerged and solid-state fermentations. Among a group of ten species, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. flavus were able to produce biomass and high specific amylolytic activity in submerged cultures containing alphaMG as the only carbon source. In solid state fermentation, the enrichment of basal wheat bran or corn cob medium with alphaMG increased up to 3 times the production of amylases. In both submerged and solid state fermentations, alphaMG was more effective inducer of amylases than maltose and starch.

  20. Higenamine 4'-O-β-d-glucoside in the lotus plumule induces glucose uptake of L6 cells through β2-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eisuke; Inagaki, Yosuke; Kawabata, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Hypoglycemic effect is an efficient means to modulate elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. We found that the extract of lotus plumule (the germ of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. seed) showed potent glucose uptake enhancement activity against L6 myotubes, which results in a hypoglycemic effect. This activity was further investigated, and an active constituent was identified as a single bioactive compound, higenamine 4'-O-β-d-glucoside. Mechanistic studies employing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, or adrenergic receptor antagonist showed that the compound induced its activity through β2-adrenergic receptor. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus frequently develop insulin resistance. Owing to the differences between the mechanism of action of insulin and of the isolated compound, the compound or lotus plumule itself may have the possibility of modulating blood glucose levels in insulin-resistant patients effectively.

  1. Cyanogen excitation in diffuse interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Meyer, David M.

    1995-03-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio observations of optical CN absorption from the B (2)sigma(+) -X (2)sigma(+) (0, 0) and (1, 0) vibrational bands in the five diffuse lines of sight toward zeta Ophiuchi, zeta Persei, HD 27778, HD 21483, and HD 154368. The observed level of CN excitation is consistent with direct satellite and rocket measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), implying that local collision effects are small. The weak 2.64 mm CN line emission observed toward HD 21483 and HD 154368 is used to correct the observed CN excitation temperatures and derive a weighted mean CMBR temperature at 2.64 mm of 2.729(+0.023, -0.031) K which agrees remarkably well with the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) measurement obtained with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrometer (FIRAS) instrument of 2.726 +/- 0.010 K. These absorption data were obtained during 10 separate observing runs, and we find excellent agreement between independent equivalent width measurements resulting from widely varying instrument combinations. Finally we discuss the limitations and future applications of CN excitation absorption-line measurements.

  2. Quercetin 7-O-glucoside suppresses nitrite-induced formation of dinitrosocatechins and their quinones in catechin/nitrite systems under stomach simulating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Filis; Takahama, Umeo; Yamauchi, Ryo; Hirota, Sachiko; Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foods of plant origin contain flavonoids. In the adzuki bean, (+)-catechin, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q7G) are the major flavonoids. During mastication of foods prepared from the adzuki bean, the flavonoids are mixed with saliva and swallowed into the stomach. Here we investigated the interactions between Q7G and (+)-catechin at pH 2, which may proceed in the stomach after the ingestion of foods prepared from the adzuki bean. Q7G reacted with nitrous acid producing nitric oxide (˙NO) and a glucoside of 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone. (+)-Catechin reacted with nitrous acid producing ˙NO and 6,8-dinitrosocatechin. The production of the dinitrosocatechin was partly suppressed by Q7G, and the suppression resulted in the enhancement of Q7G oxidation. 6,8-Dinitrosocatechin reacted further with nitrous acid generating the o-quinone, and the quinone formation was effectively suppressed by Q7G. In the flavonoids investigated, the suppressive effect decreased in the order Q7G≈quercetin>kaempferol>quercetin 4'-O-glucoside>rutin. Essentially the same results were obtained when (-)-epicatechin was used instead of (+)-catechin. The results indicate that nitrous acid-induced formation of 6,8-dinitrosocatechins and the o-quinones can be suppressed by flavonols in the stomach, and that both a hydroxyl group at C3 and ortho-hydroxyl groups in the B-ring are required for efficient suppression.

  3. Influences of organically and conventionally grown strawberry cultivars on anthocyanins content and color in purees and low-sugar jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Vahčić, Nada; Babojelić, Martina Skendrović; Levaj, Branka

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect influences of cultivar, cultivation and processing on anthocyanin content and color in purees and low-sugar jams produced from strawberry cultivars (Elsanta, Maya, Marmolada, Queen Elisa), grown under conventional and organic cultivation. Color was determined by CIELab values while anthocyanins were quantified by HPLC-UV/VIS-PDA. Queen Elisa was the best cultivar for processing as it had highest total anthocyanin content (TAC) that was well preserved in processing. On average, processing purees to jams decreased TAC for 28% where pelargonidin-3-glucoside revealed most noticeable loss (53%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside was best preserved in processing. Obtained results indicated that measurement of colorimetric parameters are strongly correlated with content of anthocyanins. In other words, loss of anthocyanins during processing was accompanied by noticeable decrease in lightness, red/yellow color and total color change. Results showed that change of color is useful predictor for estimating anthocyanins in strawberry purees and jams.

  4. Azoxyglycoside content and beta-glycosidase activities in leaves of various cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Fumio

    2004-12-01

    Azoxyglycoside contents in leaves of 32 cycad species belonging to 10 cycad genera and the seeds of 4 Encephalartos species were analyzed by HPLC with a YMC-PA03 amide column. Azoxyglycosides were detected in mature leaves of 14 cycad species including 2 Bowenia, 2 Lepidozamia, 1 Microcycas, and 1 Stangeria species, but not in mature leaves of 18 other cycad species; 2 of 3 Ceratozamia, 1 of 3 Cycas, 3 of 3 Dioon, 10 of 11 Encephalartos, 1 of 3 Macrozamia and 1 of 3 Zamia species analyzed. The ratios of beta-glycosidase activity toward cycasin and macrozamin in extracts from the leaves of 9 species belonging to 9 genera were measured. The hydrolysis of cycasin was higher in the leaf extracts of Cycas revoluta, Bowenia spectabilis, Stangeria eriopus and Ceratozamia mexicana, whereas in Lepidozamia hopei, the hydrolysis levels of cycasin and macrozamin were similar. On the other hand, activity toward macrozamin was higher in Dioon edule, Encephalartos villosus, Macrozamia miquelii and Zamia fischeri. The hydrolytic activities in most species were estimated to be sufficient for the release of methylazoxymethanol in leaves analogous to the cyanogenesis of cyanogenic plants. Therefore, hydrolysis of azoxyglycosides by endogenous glycosidase in leaves seems to occur by accidental injury of leaves. However, in M. miquelii leaf extract, hydrolytic activity toward macrozamin was high and the activity toward cycasin was very low, though only cycasin was found in the leaves of this species.

  5. Metabolite profiling of phenolic and carotenoid contents in tomatoes after moderate-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Oms-Oliu, Gemma; Odriozola-Serrano, Isabel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    A metabolite profiling approach was used to study the effect of moderate-intensity pulsed electric field (MIPEF) treatments on the individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents of tomato fruit after refrigeration at 4°C for 24h. The MIPEF processing variables studied were electric field strength (from 0.4 to 2.0kV/cm) and number of pulses (from 5 to 30). Twenty four hours after MIPEF treatments, an increase was observed in hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones, whereas flavonols, coumaric and ferulic acid-O-glucoside were not affected. Major changes were also observed for carotenoids, except for the 5-cis-lycopene isomer, which remain unchanged after 24h of MIPEF treatments. MIPEF treatments, conducted at 1.2kV/cm and 30 pulses, led to the greatest increases in chlorogenic (152%), caffeic acid-O-glucoside (170%) and caffeic (140%) acids. On the other hand, treatments at 1.2kV/cm and 5 pulses led to maximum increases of α-carotene, 9- and 13-cis-lycopene, which increased by 93%, 94% and 140%, respectively. Therefore, MIPEF could stimulate synthesis of secondary metabolites and contribute to production of tomatoes with high individual polyphenol and carotenoid contents.

  6. Flavonol content and biometrical traits as a tool for the characterization of "Cipolla di Giarratana": a traditional Sicilian onion landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Siracusa, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-10-15

    "Cipolla di Giarratana", a locally cultivated white onion landrace, is listed as an item in the 'List of Traditional Agro-food Products' of the Italian Department for Agriculture and itemised as 'slow food presidium' by the Slow Food Foundation. Ten local accessions were investigated for their biomorphological and biochemical characteristics in five experimental locations. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electron spray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS) was used to identify the phenolic profile and quantify phenolic content in bulbs: quercetin, quercetin 3,4' di-O-glucoside and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside were detected as major components. The 'Cipolla di Giarratana' landrace is characterised by a high bulb weight (436g) and high diameter (11cm). The total flavonols content ranged between 68 and 408mgkg(-1) bulb fresh weight in nine of the 10 collected accessions. The opportunity of considering flavonol patterns as chemotaxonomic descriptors in order to characterise onion germplasm is also discussed.

  7. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of sour cherries from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: the total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in three sour cherry cultivars (Prunus cerasus L. introduced to the southeast Serbia climate conditions. Among the researched sour cherries, ‘Oblacinska’ cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by ‘Cigancica’ > ‘Marela’. A significant difference were observed in the phenolic content among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and the phenolic compounds were significantly higher in the growing season 2009. The examined cultivars possess a high antioxidant capacity, and all phenolics of highy correlation with TAC. The following compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD: 4 anthocyanins, the most abundant of which was cyaniding-3-glucoside in ‘Marela’ and ‘Oblacinska’, and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside in ‘Cigancica’, and 4 hydroxycinnamic acids, the most abundant of which was neochlorogenic acid in all sour cherry cultivars. The growing and ripening process on the tree of sour cherry cv. Oblacinska was evaluated, also. The results showed significant increases in total phenols during the ripening, the total anthocyanins and total antioxidant capacity and 4 quantified anthocyanins, however the neochlorogenic acid decreased during the ripening. The study indicated that the growing and climate conditions in southeast Serbia are convenient for introducing sour cherry cultivars.

  8. Research and Development on Cosmetic Actives Derived from Raspberry Ketone Glucoside%化妆品活性成分覆盆子酮葡糖苷的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安良; 杨淑琴; 郭秀茹

    2014-01-01

    综述了以覆盆子酮葡糖苷为代表的相关化妆品活性成分的研发历程,即始于覆盆子,开发出覆盆子提取物、覆盆子酮葡糖苷、覆盆子酮、覆盆子提取物加覆盆子酮葡糖苷等活性成分。覆盆子酮葡糖苷与覆盆子酮都具有抑制黑色素的生成、抗炎及清除一氧化氮的活性。各种体外抑制试验和靓肤美白应用试验表明,覆盆子酮葡糖苷和覆盆子提取物合用的效果最佳,然后为覆盆子提取物、覆盆子酮葡糖苷,它们都优于熊果苷。近年来,化妆品活性成分的研发又回归到覆盆子等天然植物提取物乃至果汁,应予以关注。%The course of research and development on the relevant representative cosmetic actives derived from raspberry ke-tone glucoside was summarized. It began in raspberry,then raspberry extract,raspberry ketone glucoside,raspberry ketone, raspberry extract plus the glucoside as actives were found. Raspberry ketone glucoside or raspberry ketone has inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis,anti-inflammatory activity and nitric oxide (NO)scavenging effect. Invitro inhibition experiments and skin-whitening application experiments show that combination of raspberry ketone glucoside and raspberry extract works best, followed by raspberry extract,raspberry ketone glucoside,and then all of them are better than arbutin. In recent years,the cosmetic actives from raspberry,other natural plant extracts and even juice aroused interest and concern.

  9. Long-Term Cultured Hairy Roots of Chicory—A Rich Source of Hydroxycinnamates and 8-Deoxylactucin Glucoside

    OpenAIRE

    Malarz, Janusz; Stojakowska, Anna; Kisiel, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus L., a callus culture of the plant as well as roots and leaves of a wild plant of chicory, and roots of two C. intybus L. var. sativum cultivars were examined in respect of their hydroxycinnamate and sesquiterpene lactone compositions and contents. Total phenolics and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of the examined plant tissues were also analyzed. The most active in radical scavenging were extracts from the hairy roots a...

  10. 纳滤分离甲基葡萄糖苷和甘油水溶液%Separation of Methyl Glucosides and Glycerol Aqueous Solution by Nanofiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解则安; 赵丽丽; 李露; 刘仕伟; 于世涛

    2015-01-01

    以甲基葡萄糖苷和甘油水溶液为模拟生物质液化油水溶液,采用纳滤膜对其进行分离。通过单因素试验,考察了各操作参数对NF400~600卷式纳滤膜分离模拟生物质液化油的影响,确立了较优纳滤工艺条件:操作压力0.4 MPa,总进料浓度(甘油与甲基葡萄糖苷质量之比为3∶1)10 g/L,操作温度45℃。此时,膜通量为48.6 L/(m2·h),甲基葡萄糖苷截留率为95.4%,甘油透过率为81.0%;以阻力叠加模型为原型,探索了纳滤中膜通量与操作工艺参数的数学模型,得到 J 的公式为 J=0.625ΔP/(0.00528+3.37×10-4ΔP0.0177 C0.901)。经验证试验表明该模型的拟合效果较好,平均相对误差小于6%,最大相对误差小于10%。%Nanofiltration membrane was used to separate simulative biomass liquefaction oil solution consisting of glycerol and methyl glucosides( Meg) . The effects of the parameters on NF400-600 spiral-wound nanofiltration membrane separation process were examined during the separation of glycerol and methyl glucosides. The optimum nanofiltration conditions established by single factor test were operating pressure 0. 4 MPa, initial concentration 10 g/L, operating temperature 45 ℃. Under the above conditions, the permeate flux was 48. 6 L/(m2·h), the retention ratio of methyl glucosides was 95. 4%, and the penetration ratio of glycerol was 81. 0%. Resistance model was used as the prototype to explore the mathematical models between membrane flux and operating parameters in the process of nanofiltration. The formula of J was J =0. 625ΔP/(0. 005 28 +3. 37 × 10 -4ΔP0. 017 7 C0. 901 ) . The results of verification test showed the fitting effect of model agreed well with the average relative error < 6%and maximum relative error < 10%.

  11. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  12. PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. FROM NATURAL HABITATS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula STEFANACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the phenolic compounds content and profile of A. annua samples harvested from natural habitats in R. Moldova. The samples, consisting in leaves, were harvested in August 2014 (before flowering from different growing sites in north, centre and south regions. Phenolic extracts were obtained by methanol extraction of the residual plant material resulted from artemisinin separation. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by TLC and HPLC-DAD analyses, respectively. In all samples, four phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids, cynarin and two flavonoids (isoquercitrin and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified, cynarin being the major compound. The variations in phenolic composition between samples harvested from the same growing site and also for the samples from different growing areas (south, centre, north, were mostly quantitative. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained for all samples, regardless of the growing site. Phenolic acids were the dominant components in the phenolic extracts.

  13. A new dermocosmetic containing retinaldehyde, delta-tocopherol glucoside and glycylglycine oleamide for managing naturally aged skin: results from in vitro to clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouvrais C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Céline Rouvrais,1,* Daniel Bacqueville,2,* Patrick Bogdanowicz,2,* Marie-José Haure,2 Laure Duprat,2 Christine Coutanceau,3 Nathalie Castex-Rizzi,2 Hélène Duplan,2 Valérie Mengeaud,1 Sandrine Bessou-Touya2 1Clinical Skin Research Center, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Toulouse, 3Laboratoire Dermatologique Avène, Lavaur, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM. The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL, delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC and glycylglycine oleamide (GGO and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. Materials and methods: The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV-irradiated fibroblasts. A skin aging assay using UV light on ex vivo skin samples and a clinical study conducted in 36 women aged from 35 to 55 years with a minimum of level 4 to a maximum of level 6 on the crow’s feet photoscale assessed the antiaging effect of the dermocosmetic. Results: When added to UV-irradiated fibroblasts, the combination substantially improved the ECM in activating the elastin fiber production (fibrillin 2, fibulin 1 and 5 and lysyl ­oxidase-like 2 as well as that of proteins involved in the cellular ECM interactions (integrin β1, paxillin and actin a2. An ex vivo photodamaged human skin model showed that the dermocosmetic formulation containing the combination of the active ingredients protected the elastic network against UV-induced alterations including both elastin and fibrillin-rich fibers in the dermis. A daily application of the dermocosmetic for 2 months on naturally aged skin resulted in a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05 of visible

  14. Soymilk residue (okara as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiudong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT IN BLUEBERRIES IS INFLUENCED BY UV ILLUMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The levels of phytochemicals in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C light. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cy...

  16. The Efficacy and Safety of the Combination of Total Glucosides of Peony and Leflunomide for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhitao; Xu, Juan; He, Guochao; Cao, Meiqun; Duan, Lihong; Chen, Liguo; Wu, Zhengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the total glucosides of peony (TGP) and leflunomide (LEF) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy and safety of the combination of TGP and LEF versus LEF alone for the treatment of RA were retrieved by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Wanfang database. Results. Eight RCTs including 643 RA patients were included in the present meta-analysis. The quality of included studies was poor. The levels of ESR (P < 0.0001), CRP (P < 0.0001), and RF (P < 0.0001) in RA patients who received the combination of TGP and LEF were significantly lower than RA patients who received LEF therapy alone. The pooled results suggest that the combination of TGP and LEF caused less abnormal liver function than LEF alone (P = 0.02). No significant difference in the gastrointestinal discomfort was identified between the combination of TGP and LEF and LEF alone groups (P = 0.18). Conclusion. The combination of TGP and LEF in treatment of RA presented the characteristics of notably decreasing the levels of laboratory indexes and higher safety in terms of liver function. However, this conclusion should be further investigated based on a larger sample size.

  17. Downregulation of a pathogen-responsive tobacco UDP-Glc:phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase reduces scopoletin glucoside accumulation, enhances oxidative stress, and weakens virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Julie; Baltz, Rachel; Schmitt, Corinne; Beffa, Roland; Fritig, Bernard; Saindrenan, Patrick

    2002-05-01

    Plant UDP-Glc:phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of Glc from UDP-Glc to numerous substrates and regulate the activity of compounds that play important roles in plant defense against pathogens. We previously characterized two tobacco salicylic acid- and pathogen-inducible UGTs (TOGTs) that act very efficiently on the hydroxycoumarin scopoletin and on hydroxycinnamic acids. To identify the physiological roles of these UGTs in plant defense, we generated TOGT-depleted tobacco plants by antisense expression. After inoculation with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), TOGT-inhibited plants exhibited a significant decrease in the glucoside form of scopoletin (scopolin) and a decrease in scopoletin UGT activity. Unexpectedly, free scopoletin levels also were reduced in TOGT antisense lines. Scopolin and scopoletin reduction in TOGT-depleted lines resulted in a strong decrease of the blue fluorescence in cells surrounding TMV lesions and was associated with weakened resistance to infection with TMV. Consistent with the proposed role of scopoletin as a reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) scavenger, TMV also triggered a more sustained ROI accumulation in TOGT-downregulated lines. Our results demonstrate the involvement of TOGT in scopoletin glucosylation in planta and provide evidence of the crucial role of a UGT in plant defense responses. We propose that TOGT-mediated glucosylation is required for scopoletin accumulation in cells surrounding TMV lesions, where this compound could both exert a direct antiviral effect and participate in ROI buffering.

  18. Isolation and Purification of Unstable Iridoid Glucosides from Traditional Chinese Medicine by Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Solid-phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cun-man; XIAO Yuan-sheng; XUE Xing-ya; FENG Jia-tao; ZHANG Xiu-li; LIANG Xin-miao

    2011-01-01

    An efficient preparative method was successfully developed for isolation and purification of unstable components from medicinal plant extracts, using a combined method of preparative high performance liquid chro matography(HPLC) and solid-phase extraction(SPE). The aim of this study was to obtain an effective method with high preparative efficiency and importantly to avoid the transformation of unstable compounds. The preparative HPLC system was based on an LC/MS controlled four-channel autopurification system. The SPE method was per formed with a C1s packing material to trap the target compounds and to remove the acidic additive derived from the mobile phase. Using this method, the unstable iridoid glucosides(IGs) as model compounds were successfully iso lated and purified from the extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Six IGs(including one new minor IG) and one nucleo tide compound were simultaneously obtained, each with a purity of >91% as determined by HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UPLC/Q-TOF MS, UV, ID and/or 2D NMR. It was demonstrated that the combination of preparative HPLC with SPE is a versatile tool for preparative purification of unstable compounds from complex natural products.

  19. Delphinidin-3-glucoside protects against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells via the sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp is a member of a family of bioactive compounds known as anthocyanins that occur naturally in pigmented plants and are known to ameliorate oxidative stress. Previous studies have showed that Dp decreased oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that pretreatment with Dp significantly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Also, Dp pretreatment attenuated oxLDL-induced mitochondrial dysfunction via decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide anion generation, thereby repressing mitochondrial membrane potential and closing mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo data showed that Dp was transported into endothelial cells in a temperature, concentration, and time-dependent manner via the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1. Suppression of SGLT1 by its substrate glucose, its inhibitor phlorizin or SGLT1 siRNA blocked Dp transportation. Repression of SGLT1 significantly inhibited Dp function of ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction induced by pro-apoptotic factors (Apoptosis-inducing factor, Cytochrome c, Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Taken together, our data indicate that Dp protects VECs via the SGLT1-ROS-mitochodria pathway. This new insight may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular protection afforded by Dp, and anthocyanins in general, in the context of prevention of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

  20. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase/Nitric Oxide Synthase Pathway in Liver and Kidney: Protective Effect of Cyanidin 3-O-β-D-Glucoside on Ochratoxin-A Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Acquaviva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (C3G and/or Ochratoxin A (OTA-exposure on dimethylarginine dimethylamino hydrolase/nitric oxide synthase (DDAH/NOS pathway in rats. The experiments were performed in rats supplemented with C3G (1 g/kg feed, OTA (200 ppb, and OTA + C3G. After 4 weeks of daily treatment, liver and kidneys were processed for eNOS, iNOS and DDAH-1 Western blotting, nitrite levels evaluation and DDAH activity determination. Results show that OTA is able to induce iNOS both in kidney and liver, whereas OTA is able to induce eNOS and DDAH-1 overexpression and DDAH activation only in kidney, resulting in increased nitrite levels. In kidney of OTA + C3G fed rats, iNOS, eNOS and DDAH-1 expression were less pronounced compared with those observed in the OTA-treated group. Coherent with the decreased iNOS, eNOS and DDAH-1 expression a decrease in nitrite levels and DDAH activity was observed in the OTA + C3G group. Results demonstrate that C3G is able to counteract the deleterious effects of chronic consumption of OTA and also suggest a possible involvement of iNOS-eNOS-DDAH impairment in OTA nephrocarcinogenity.

  1. Micellar Surfactant Association in the Presence of a Glucoside-based Amphiphile Detected via High-Throughput Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Vesna [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Campinas (Brazil); Broadbent, Charlotte [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Engineering Dept.; DiMasi, Elaine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Division; Galleguillos, Ramiro [Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Cleveland, OH (United States); Woodward, Valerie [Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-11-14

    The interactions of mixtures of anionic and amphoteric surfactants with sugar amphiphiles were studied via high throughput small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The sugar amphiphile was composed of Caprate, Caprylate, and Oleate mixed ester of methyl glucoside, MeGCCO. Optimal surfactant interactions are sought which have desirable physical properties, which must be identified in a cost effective manner that can access the large phase space of possible molecular combinations. X-ray scattering patterns obtained via high throughput SAXS can probe a combinatorial sample space and reveal the incorporation of MeGCCO into the micelles and the molecular associations between surfactant molecules. Such data make it possible to efficiently assess the effects of the new amphiphiles in the formulation. A specific finding of this study is that formulations containing comparatively monodisperse and homogeneous surfactant mixtures can be reliably tuned by addition of NaCl, which swells the surfactant micelles with a monotonic dependence on salt concentration. In contrast, the presence of multiple different surfactants destroys clear correlations with NaCl concentration, even in otherwise similar series of formulations.

  2. Total Glucosides of Paeony Capsule Plus Compound Glycyrrhizin Tablets for the Treatment of Severe Alopecia Areata in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingquan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total glucosides of paeony capsule (TGPC and compound glycyrrhizin tablets (CGT are plant extracts of glycosides. We conducted this study to examine the efficacy and safety of TGPC plus CGT for severe alopecia areata in children. 117 subjects were randomly allocated into TGPC plus CGT group or CGT group. For consecutive 12 months, subjects were given oral TGPC and CGT or oral CGT alone. The outcome measures included score of alopecia areata severity, effective rate, and adverse events observed in the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month. We found that the scores of alopecia areata severity of both groups were significantly reduced, and the scores of treatment group were lower than those of control group; for effective rate, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in the 3rd month, while in the 6th and 12th months the treatment group was superior compared with control group; the incidence rate of adverse events between the two groups was not statistically different, and no severe adverse events were observed. In conclusion, TGPC plus CGT appears effective and safe for severe alopecia areata in children.

  3. Antiproliferative activity of long chain acylated esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Sudhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Despite their strong role in human health, poor bioavailability of flavonoids limits their biological effects in vivo. Enzymatically catalyzed acylation of fatty acids to flavonoids is one of the approaches of increasing cellular permeability and hence, biological activities. In this study, six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically and were used for determining their antiproliferative action in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in comparison to precursor compounds and two chemotherapy drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin). Fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by 85 to 90% after 6 h and 24 h of treatment, respectively. The cell death due to these novel compounds was associated with cell-cycle arrest in S-phase and apoptosis observed by DNA fragmentation, fluorescent microscopy and elevated caspase-3 activity and strong DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Interestingly, Q3G esters showed significantly low toxicity to normal liver cells than Sorafenib (P ester of Q3G displayed the greatest antiproliferation action and a high potential as an anti-cancer therapeutic. Overall, the results of the study suggest strong antiproliferative action of these novel food-derived compounds in treatment of cancer. PMID:25681471

  4. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P<0.05. In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements.

  5. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl glucosides interfere with host membrane phase and affect type IV secretion system function during infection in AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Jung; Cheng, Wen-Chi; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Chih-Ho; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an aetiological cause of gastric disorders worldwide. H. pylori has been shown to assimilate and convert host cholesterol into cholesteryl glucosides (CGs) by cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase encoded by capJ. Here, we show that CapJ-deficient (ΔcapJ) H. pylori resulted in greatly reduced type IV secretion system (TFSS)-associated activities, including the hummingbird phenotype of AGS cells, IL-8 production, CagA translocation/phosphorylation and CagA-mediated signalling events. Complementation of the ΔcapJ mutation with wild type cagJ or by adding CGs-containing lysates or exogenous fluorophore-tagged CGs reversed the mutant phenotypes. We also show that the wild-type but not ΔcapJ H. pylori recruited raft-associated components to sites of bacterial attachment. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of AGS cells treated with fluorescence-tagged cholesterol/CGs revealed that there was a higher proportion of CGs associated with immobile fractions. CGs-associated membranes were also more resistant to a cold detergent extraction. Thus, we propose that CGs synthesized by H. pylori around host-pathogen contact sites partition in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), alters lateral-phase segregation in membrane and reorganizes membrane architecture. These processes together promote the formation of a functional TFSS and H. pylori infection.

  6. Protective effect of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside on 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through the ROS-NO pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Tao

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The molecule, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydr- oxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG, is a potent antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of TSG against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and the possible mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that TSG significantly reversed the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease in cell viability, prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced changes in condensed nuclei and decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TSG slowed the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, counteracted the overexpression of inducible nitric oxide syntheses as well as neuronal nitric oxide syntheses, and also reduced the level of protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine. These results demonstrate that the protective effects of TSG on rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells are mediated, at least in part, by the ROS-NO pathway. Our results indicate that TSG may be effective in providing protection against neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  7. Protective effect of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside on 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through the ROS-NO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lizhen; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Jiyu; Li, Xiaobing; Sun, Xin; Li, Xuefen; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The molecule, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydr- oxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), is a potent antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of TSG against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and the possible mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that TSG significantly reversed the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease in cell viability, prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced changes in condensed nuclei and decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TSG slowed the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, counteracted the overexpression of inducible nitric oxide syntheses as well as neuronal nitric oxide syntheses, and also reduced the level of protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine. These results demonstrate that the protective effects of TSG on rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells are mediated, at least in part, by the ROS-NO pathway. Our results indicate that TSG may be effective in providing protection against neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  8. Effects of luteolin and quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside identified from Passiflora subpeltata leaves against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Saravanan; Thangaraj, Parimelazhagan; Lima, Bruno Dos Santos; Chandran, Rahul; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Narain, Narendra; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Júnior, Lucindo José Quintans

    2016-10-01

    Passiflora subpeltata has many beneficial effects in the treatment of various diseases including inflammation, pain and fever. This study was aimed to analyze the phytochemical compounds present in acetone extract of P. subpeltata leaves and to evaluate their performance against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity activity. HPLC-DAD method was used to identify and quantify the phytochemical compounds. Hepatoprotective activity of acetone extract in the treatment of rat liver functions was monitored by the measurement of blood parameters and serum biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP and in vivo antioxidant parameters viz. SOD, CAT and LPO. Further, liver tissues were also subjected to histopathological analysis. The HPLC-DAD results showed the luteolin and quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside as newly identified compounds in P. subpeltata species. Pre-treatment with acetone extract of P. subpeltata leaves at 200 and 400mg/kg doses significantly elevated the WBC, RBC and HB counts and retained the serum biochemical and enzymatic antioxidants levels to normal level. Based on this detailed study we conclude that acetone extract of P. subpeltata leaves offered better protection against hepatotoxicity induced by the acetaminophen.

  9. Validation of a RP-HPLC-DAD Method for Chamomile (Matricaria recutita Preparations and Assessment of the Marker, Apigenin-7-glucoside, Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Galeti Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a medicinal plant, which presents several biological effects, especially the anti-inflammatory effect. One of the compounds related to this effect is apigenin, a flavonoid that is mostly found in its glycosylated form, apigenin-7-glucoside (APG, in natural sources. However, the affectivity and safety of this glycoside have not been well explored for topical application. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-DAD method to quantify APG in chamomile preparations. Additionally, the safety and the anti-inflammatory potential of this flavonoid were verified. The RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated with linearity at 24.0–36.0 μg/mL range (r=0.9994. Intra- and interday precision (RSD were 0.27–2.66% and accuracy was 98.27–101.21%. The validated method was applied in the analysis of chamomile flower heads, glycolic extract, and Kamillen cream, supporting the method application in the quality control of chamomile preparations. Furthermore, the APG safety was assessed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and mutagenic protocols and the anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed by a diminished TNF-α production showed by mice macrophages treated with APG following LPS treatment.

  10. 马鞭草环烯醚萜苷类成分的研究%Studies on Iridoid Glucosides from Verbena officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 阮金兰; 吕子敏

    2000-01-01

    目的:探索马鞭草抗早孕有效成分。方法:甲醇渗漉提取,反复硅胶柱层析分离,理化常数和光谱分析鉴定化合物结构。结果:从马鞭草甲醇提取物中分离并鉴定了3个环烯醚萜苷,分别为马鞭草苷(Ⅰ)、3,4-二氢马鞭草苷(Ⅱ)和5一羟基马鞭草苷(Ⅲ)。结论:其中Ⅱ为新的天然化合物。%For the purpose to seek the active components in the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L.with anti-early pregnancy activity, the methanolic extract of this drug was repeatedly chromatographed onsilica gel column. Three iridoid glucosides were isolated and identified on the basis of physical, chemicalevidences and spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, 1H-1HCOSY, 1H-13CCOSY and DEPT)as verbenalin (Ⅰ), 3, 4-dihydroverbenalin (Ⅲ) and hastatoside (Ⅲ). Ⅱ is a new natural compound.

  11. Complexation of bovine β-lactoglobulin with malvidin-3-O-glucoside and its effect on the stability of grape skin anthocyanin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The binding interaction between bovine β-lactoglobulin and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), the major anthocyanin in grape skin anthocyanin extracts (GSAE), was studied at pH 6.3 using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constant (KS), binding force and effect of the interaction on the β-lactoglobulin conformation and GSAE stability were investigated. The results indicated that β-lactoglobulin complexed with MG mainly via hydrophobic interaction with KS of 0.67×10(3)M(-)(1) at 297K. The secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin was changed by MG binding, with a decrease in α-helix, turn and random coil and an increase in β-sheet. Bovine whey protein effectively prevented the color fading and degradation of anthocyanin in the GSAE solution during the thermal treatment (80°C/2h), H2O2 oxidation (0.005% H2O2/1h) and photo illumination (5000lx/5d). The whey protein-anthocyanin complexation appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE.

  12. Upregulation of skeletal muscle PGC-1α through the elevation of cyclic AMP levels by Cyanidin-3-glucoside enhances exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Motojima, Hideko; Sato, Yuki; Takahashi, Shinya; Villareal, Myra O.; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α’s ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated. ICR mice were given Cy3G (1 mg/kg, orally) everyday and made to perform weight-loaded swimming exercise for 15 days. The endurance of mice orally administered with Cy3G was improved, enabling them to swim longer (time) and while the levels of exercise-induced lactate and fatigue markers (urea nitrogen, creatinine and total ketone bodies) were reduced. Additionally, the expression of lactate metabolism-related genes (lactate dehydrogenase B and monocarboxylate transporter 1) in gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was increased in response to Cy3G-induced PGC-1α upregulation. In vitro, using C2C12 myotubes, Cy3G-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels increased PGC-1α expression via the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase pathway. This study demonstrates that Cy3G enhances exercise performance by activating lactate metabolism through skeletal muscle PGC-1α upregulation. PMID:28317895

  13. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-11-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  14. Analogs of Natural 3-Deoxyanthocyanins: O-Glucosides of the 4′,7-Dihydroxyflavylium Ion and the Deep Influence of Glycosidation on Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Nuno; Al Bittar, Sheiraz; Mora, Nathalie; Dangles, Olivier; Pina, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    3-Deoxyanthocyanidins and their O-β-d-glucosides are natural pigments abundant in black sorghum. O-glycosidation can perturb the acid-base properties of the chromophore and lower its electron density with a large impact on the distribution of colored and colorless forms in aqueous solution. In this work, the influence of O-glycosidation on color is systematically studied from a series of 3-deoxyanthocyanin analogs. The pH- and light-dependent reversible reactions of 7-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4′-hydroxyflavylium (P3) and 4′-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-7-hydroxyflavylium (P5) were completely characterized in mildly acidic solution and compared with the parent aglycone 4′,7-dihydroxyflavylium ion and the O-methylethers of P3 and P5. Except P5, the chalcone forms of the pigments exhibit a high cis-trans isomerization barrier that allows a pseudo-equilibrium involving all species except the trans-chalcone. At equilibrium, only the flavylium cation and trans-chalcone are observed. With all pigments, the colored flavylium ion can be generated by irradiation of the trans-chalcone (photochromism). Glycosidation of C7–OH accelerates hydration and strongly slows down cis-trans isomerization with the pH dependence of the apparent isomerization rate constant shifting from a bell-shaped curve to a sigmoid. The color of P5 is much more stable than that of its regioisomer P3 in near-neutral conditions. PMID:27775619

  15. Protective Effects of Total Glucosides of Paeony on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats via Down-regulation of Regulatory B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S S; Yuan, P F; Li, P P; Wu, H X; Ni, W J; Lu, J T; Wei, W

    2015-01-01

    Total glucoside of paeony (TGP), extracted from the root of Paeonia Lactiflora, has been known to show anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, hepato-protective and immuno-regulatory activities. The aim of this present study was to determine the anti-tumor effect of TGP against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, and to find the related mechanisms. Rat HCC model was established by intragastrically administrating with DEN (8 mg/kg). We found the number of tumor nodules and the index of liver and spleen were increased in the model group compared with the normal group, and was significantly decreased by TGP. Additionally, TGP obviously improved the hepatic pathological lesions induced by DEN, and decreased the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) by DEN. Moreover, TGP decreased the level of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and the proportion of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs), and the decrease of BAFF by TGP is positively correlated to the decrease of IL-10-producing Bregs by TGP. These results suggest that TGP had a good therapeutic action on DEN-induced HCC rats, which might be due to its down-regulation of Bregs through reducing the level of BAFF.

  16. Assessment of the Therapeutic Effect of Total Glucosides of Peony for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongsong; Yuan, Qiling; Xu, Ke; Zhu, Jialin; Li, Yuanbo; Wu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children; some clinical trials have reported the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) in the treatment of JIA. However, no systematic review has yet been conducted. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety in patients with JIA enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TGP. We extracted data for studies searched from 8 electronic databases that were searched and also evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies. We assessed the following outcome measures: overall response rate, pain, tender joint count (TJC), swollen joint count (SJC), duration of morning stiffness (DMS), grip strength (GS), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adverse effects (AEs) in short term (4–8 weeks), intermediate term (9–26 weeks), and long term (>26 weeks). The final analysis showed that TGP acted as a unique nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (nonbiologic DMARD), and its therapeutic effects were safe and efficacious for the treatment of JIA with few AEs. However, more high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm these therapeutic effects. PMID:27525026

  17. A New Coumarin Glucoside from the Fruits of Citrus aurantium%酸橙中一个新的香豆素苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永勇; 叶文才; 范春林; 殷志琦; 汪豪; 赵守训

    2005-01-01

    目的:对中药枳实化学成分进行研究.方法:采用色谱技术进行分离,应用波谱技术、化学手段及文献对照方法,对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果: 自枳实乙醇提取物中分离得到10个化合物,分别为5,7-二羟基香豆素5-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(Ⅰ)、 3,5-二羟基苯基1-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(phlorin,Ⅱ)、新橙皮苷(neohesperidin,Ⅲ)、柚皮苷(naringin,Ⅳ)、异樱花素7-O-β-D-新橙皮糖苷(poncirin,Ⅴ)、红橘素(tageritin,Ⅵ)、柚皮素(naringenin,Ⅶ)、马尔敏(marmin,Ⅷ)、橙皮素7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(hesperetin 7-O-glucoside,Ⅸ)、腺苷(adenosine,Ⅹ).结论: 化合物Ⅰ为新化合物,化合物Ⅱ、Ⅹ为首次从该植物果实中分离得到.

  18. The scavenging effect and flavonoid glycosides content in fractions from fruits of hot pepper Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Materska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds fraction (PCF from hot pepper and to characterise their composition and antiradical activity. Material and methods. PCF was isolated from hot pepper fruits by solid phase extraction technique and separated by medium pressure liquid chromatography on Büchi system. HPLC quantitative analysis of sub- fractions constituents and of standards was made on Empower-Pro chromatograph (Waters with DAD detec- tion. Total phenolics content was assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was measured according to superoxide radical, generated in NADH/PMS model and DPPH radical. Results. The separation yielded three subfractions with different composition. In fraction 1, the predominant component was quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-glucoside. The presence of luteolin 7-O-apiosyl-glucoside was observed in fraction 2, and the key component of fraction 3 was quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction 2, both in reducing superoxide radicals (IC50 = 97 μg·cm-3 and DPPH• (IC50 = 43 μg·cm-3. Conclusion. Pepper fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with a considerable lipophilicity and dif- ferent chemical activity. They can be used as supplements to enhance food products.

  19. Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad

    2013-09-18

    The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.

  20. 醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯盐的制备与性能研究%Preparation and performance of citrate monoesters salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛少勇; 杨秀全; 白亮; 周媛; 张军

    2012-01-01

    Through indirect eaterification,citric acid anhydride was synthesized with citric acid and acetic anhydride as raw materials,the citrate monoesters were prepared with synthetic citric acid anhydride and ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (containing excess ethoxylated fatty alcohols) ,and then neutralization with NaOH,Ca (OH)2 and Mg (OH)2 obtained the citrate monoesters disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG-EC-Na) , citrate monoesters calcium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEC-EC-Ca) and citrate monoesters magnesium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG- EC-Mg). The physicochemical properties of the products were measured. Results showed that the γcmc range of the three products are very small, and the one of citric acid monoester disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside is minimum. The order of foaming ability and foam stability of citric acid monoester salt is MAEG-EC-Mg > MAEG-EC-Ca > MAEG-EC-Na.%采用间接酯化法,以柠檬酸和乙酸酐为原料,先合成柠檬酸酐,后与醇醚糖苷(含有未反应的脂肪醇醚)反应,合成了醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯,再用NaOH溶液、饱和Ca(OH)2水溶液和Mg(OH)2乳浊液中和制得醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯二钠盐(MAEG-EC-Na)、醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯钙盐(MAEG-EC-Ca)和醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯镁盐(MAEGEC-Mg),对产物的物化性能进行了测定.结果表明,上述3种产品的γcmc变化范围均很小,而柠檬酸单酯二钠盐的cmc最小,柠檬酸单酯盐起泡性能、泡沫稳定性的顺序为MAEG-EC-Mg> MAEG-EC-Ca> MAEG-EC-Na.

  1. 小花鬼针草中的苯丙苷类成分及抑制组胺释放活性%Phenolic glucosides from Bidens parviflora and their anti-histamine activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 王乃利; 姚新生; 北中進

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究小花鬼针草Bidens parviflora全株的化学成分,并通过组胺抑制实验寻找活性成分.方法 采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和ODS柱色谱分离化合物,运用1D NMR、2D NMR波谱学方法鉴定了化合物的结构,通过组胺抑制实验测定化合物抗过敏活性.结果 分离鉴定了4个苯丙苷类及1个苯甲醇苷成分:4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯丙三醇8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(guaiacyl glycerol 8-O-β-D-glucoside Ⅰ)、丁香酚苷(syringin,Ⅱ)、4-烯丙基-2-甲氧基苯酚-O-(6-O-β-D-芹糖基)-β-D-葡萄糖苷[4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol-O-(6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucoside,Ⅲ]、5,7-二羟基色原酮-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(5,7-dihydroxy chromone 7-O-β-D-glucoside,Ⅳ)、苄醇-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(benzyl alcohol-O-β-D-glucoside,Ⅴ).化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ抑制组胺释放,IC50分别为70、61、>100、52、>100 μg/mL.结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ首次从本植物中分得,Ⅲ为未见文献报道的新化合物,命名为鬼针草酚葡萄糖苷(bidenphenol glucoside).化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ具有抑制组胺释放的活性.

  2. Effect of geniposide, a hypoglycemic glucoside, on hepatic regulating enzymes in diabetic mice induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyu WU; Guangfa WANG; Zhongqiu LIU; Jinjun RAO; Lin LU; Wei XU; Shuguang WU; Jiajie ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:Hepatic glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) play an important role in the control of blood glucose homeostasis and are proposed to be potential targets for anti-diabetic drugs.Geniposide is an iridoid gluco-side extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruits and has been reported to have a hypoglycemic effect.However,little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which geniposide regulates hepatic glucose-metabolizing enzymes.The pres-ent study investigates whether the hypoglycemic effect of geniposide is mediated by GP or G6Pase.Methods: Type 2 diabetic mice,induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection,were treated with or without geni-poside for 2 weeks.Blood glucose levels were monitored by a glucometer.Insulin concentrations were analyzed by the ELISA method.Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured using LabassayTM kits.Activities of hepatic GP and G6Pase were measured by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-coupled reaction.Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of both enzymes.Results: Geniposide (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly decreased the blood glucose,insulin and TG levels in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner.This compound also decreased the expression of GP and G6Pase at mRNA and immunoreac-tive protein levels,as well as enzyme activity.Conclusion: Geniposide is an effective hypoglycemic agent in diabetic mice.The hypoglycemic effect of this compound may be mediated,at least in part,by inhibiting the GP and G6Pase activities.

  3. Pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucoside from Valeriana officinalis root stimulates calcium mobilization and chemotactic migration of mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kee Hun; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Sun Young; Ha, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Chi Dae; Son, Beung Gu; Kang, Jum Soon; Khan, Ikhlas A; Bae, Sun Sik

    2009-06-01

    Lignans are major constituents of plant extracts and have important pharmacological effects on mammalian cells. Here we showed that pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucoside (PDG) from Valeriana officinalis induced calcium mobilization and cell migration through the activation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor subtypes. Stimulation of mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells with 10 microM PDG resulted in strong stimulation of MEF cell migration and the EC(50) was about 2 microM. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G(i) protein, completely blocked PDG-induced cell migration demonstrating that PDG evokes MEF cell migration through the activation of the G(i)-coupled receptor. Furthermore, pretreatment of MEF cells with Ki16425 (10 microM), which is a selective antagonist for LPA(1) and LPA(3) receptors, completely blocked PDG-induced cell migration. Likewise, PDG strongly induced calcium mobilization, which was also blocked by Ki16425 in a dose-dependent manner. Prior occupation of the LPA receptor with LPA itself completely blocked PDG-induced calcium mobilization. Finally, PDG-induced MEF cell migration was attenuated by pretreatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor such as LY294002. Cells lacking downstream mediator of PI3K such as Akt1 and Akt2 (DKO cells) showed loss of PDG-induced migration. Re-expression of Akt1 (but not Akt2) completely restored PDG-induced DKO cell migration. Given these results, we conclude that PDG is a strong inducer of cell migration. We suggest that the pharmacological action of PDG may occur through the activation of an LPA receptor whereby activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway mediates PDG-induced MEF cell migration.

  4. IGF-1 induction by acylated steryl β-glucosides found in a pre-germinated brown rice diet reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Usuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathology of diabetic neuropathy involves oxidative stress on pancreatic β-cells, and is related to decreased levels of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Acylated steryl β-glucoside (PR-ASG found in pre-germiated brown rice is a bioactive substance exhibiting properties that enhance activity of homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase, reducing oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. The biological importance of PR-ASG in pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here we examined the effects of PR-ASG on IGF-1 and glucose metabolism in β-cells exposed to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a pre-germinated brown rice (PR-diet was tested in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic rats fed control diets, the PR-diet fed rats showed an improvement of serum metabolic and neurophysiological parameters. In addition, IGF-1 levels were found to be increased in the serum, liver, and pancreas of diabetic rats fed the PR-diet. The increased IGF-1 level in the pancreas led us to hypothesize that PR-ASG is protective for islet β-cells against the extensive injury of advanced or severe diabetes. Thus we examined PR-ASG to determine whether it showed anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative effects on the insulin-secreting β-cells line, INS-1; and additionally, whether PR-ASG stimulated IGF-1 autocrine secretion/IGF-1-dependent glucose metabolism. We have demonstrated for the first time that PR-ASG increases IGF-1 production and secretion from pancreatic β-cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that PR-ASG may affect pancreatic β-cells through the activation of an IGF-1-dependent mechanism in the diabetic condition. Thus, intake of pre-germinated brown rice may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes, in particular diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Impact of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside on Glycated LDL-Induced NADPH Oxidase Activation, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cell Viability in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Xie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of glycated low density lipoprotein (glyLDL are frequently detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies demonstrated that glyLDL increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, activated NADPH oxidase (NOX and suppressed mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC enzyme activities in vascular endothelial cells (EC. The present study examined the effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, a type of anthocyanin abundant in dark-skinned berries, on glyLDL-induced ROS production, NOX activation and mETC enzyme activity in porcine aortic EC (PAEC. Co-treatment of C3G prevented glyLDL-induced upregulation of NOX4 and intracellular superoxide production in EC. C3G normalized glyLDL-induced inhibition on the enzyme activities of mETC Complex I and III, as well as the abundances of NADH dehydrogenase 1 in Complex I and cytochrome b in Complex III in EC. Blocking antibody for the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE prevented glyLDL-induced changes in NOX and mETC enzymes. Combination of C3G and RAGE antibody did not significantly enhance glyLDL-induced inhibition of NOX or mETC enzymes. C3G reduced glyLDL-induced RAGE expression with the presence of RAGE antibody. C3G prevented prolonged incubation with the glyLDL-induced decrease in cell viability and the imbalance between key regulators for cell viability (cleaved caspase 3 and B cell Lyphoma-2 in EC. The findings suggest that RAGE plays an important role in glyLDL-induced oxidative stress in vascular EC. C3G may prevent glyLDL-induced NOX activation, the impairment of mETC enzymes and cell viability in cultured vascular EC.

  6. Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Apoptosis Studies of Quercetin-3-O Glucoside and 4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-Rhamnopyranosyloxy)-Benzyl Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyo, Fiona C; Moodley, Roshila; Singh, Moganavelli

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analyses of the crude extracts of M.oleifera and biological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds. The compounds isolated from the leaves and seeds of the plant were quercetin-3-O-glucoside (1), 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), lutein (3), and sitosterol (4). Antioxidant activity of compound 1 was significant when compared to that of the control, while compound 2 showed moderate activity. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 were tested in three cell lines, viz. liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a non-cancer cell line Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293), using the MTT cell viability assay and compared against a standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining method. The isolated compounds showed selective in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against human cancer and non-cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cell line with an IC50 of 79 μg mL(-1) and moderate cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 of 150 μg mL(-1), while compound 2 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco- 2 and HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 45 μg mL(-1) and 60 μg mL(-1), respectively. Comparatively both compounds showed much lower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL(-1) and 224 μg mL(-1), respectively.

  7. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  8. Content management systems (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Oriahi, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  9. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  10. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  11. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  12. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  13. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  14. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  15. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  16. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  17. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  18. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).

  19. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  20. Simultaneous determination of vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in the extract of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) leaves by RP-HPLC with ultraviolet photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shan; Qiu, Feng; Huang, Jia; He, Junqi

    2007-03-01

    RP-HPLC with UV photodiode array detection (UV-DAD) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in the extract of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) leaves. The analytes of interest were separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with the mobile phase consisting of THF/ACN/methanol/ 0.05% phosphoric acid solution (pH 5.0) (18:1:1:80 v/vl/v). The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the eluent was detected at 340 nm for the four flavonoids. The method was linear over the studied range of 1.00-100 microg/mL for the four analytes of interest with the correlation coefficient for each analyte greater than 0.999. The LOD and LOQwere 0.03 and 0.10 microg/mL, 0.03 and 0.10 microg/mL, 0.05 and 0.15 pg/mL, 0.10 and 0.30 microg/mL for vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-0-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside, respectively. The optimized method was successfully applied to the analysis of four important flavonoids in the extract of hawthorn leaves. The total amounts of the four flavonoids were 22.2, 62.3, 4.27, and 8.24 mg/g dry weight for vitexin-2"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, rutin, and hyperoside in the extract of hawthorn leaves, respectively.

  1. Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Riquelme, María T; Porras, Ignacio; Ferreres, Federico

    2004-01-28

    The grafting of the rootstock with the lemon tree is an agronomical technique used to improve production and/or quality of the fruit. The interstock has been used with different fruit trees to modulate the tree size, fruit production and quality, and the aging of the tree. The lemon trees grafted with interstocks increase their longevity, lemon production and quality; interstocks are also used to decrease the thickness of the trunk at the grafting point. This enlarging of the trunk provokes a decrease of the sap flow. In our study, "Verna" lemon trees were grafted with interstock between the rootstock and the lemon tree to follow the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. The lemon juice was obtained from the lemons collected of the grafted lemon trees. Two types of rootstocks were used: Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus macrophylla L. Seven interstocks from five cultivars of orange tree, one cultivar of lime tree, and one cultivar of tangerine tree were used. "Verna" lemon trees were also grafted directly to the rootstock. The rootstock was more important agronomic factor than the interstock on the total flavonoid content of lemon juice. The interstock grafting had only a small influence on the flavonoid content of the lemon juice, and it modulated the individual flavonoid content. Citrus aurantium L. rootstock and "Berna" and "Washington Navel" interstocks were the most appropriate to graft in the lemon tree. This interstock grafting technique does not increase the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. Regarding the individual flavonoids, the 6,8-di-C-glucosyl diosmetin was the most affected flavonoid by the type of rootstock used. The interstock used is able to alter the individual quantitative flavonoid order of eriocitrin, diosmin, and hesperidin. In addition, the HPLC-ESI/MS(n) analyses provided the identification of two new flavonoids in the lemon juice: Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and chrysoeriol 6,8-di-C-glucoside (stellarin-2). The occurrence of

  2. Determination of free and glucosidically-bound volatiles in plants. Two case studies: L-menthol in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and eugenol in clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Pagani, Alberto; Sganzerla, Marla; Boggia, Lorenzo; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    This study arises from both the today's trend towards exploiting plant resources exhaustively, and the wide quantitative discrepancy between the amounts of commercially-valuable markers in aromatic plants and those recovered from the related essential oil. The study addresses the determination of both the qualitative composition and the exhaustive distribution of free and glucosidically-bound L-menthol in peppermint aerial parts (Mentha x piperita L., Lamiaceae) and of eugenol in dried cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae), two plants known to provide widely ranging essential oil yields. The two markers were investigated in essential oils and residual hydrodistillation waters, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Their amounts were related to those in the headspace taken as reference. The results showed that the difference between marker compound in headspace and in essential oil amounted to 22.8% for L-menthol in peppermint, and 16.5% for eugenol in cloves. The aglycones solubilised in the residual hydrodistillation waters were 7.2% of the headspace reference amount for L-menthol, and 13.3% for eugenol, respectively representing 9.3% and 15.9% of their amounts in the essential oil. The amount of L-menthol from its glucoside in residual hydrodistillation waters was 20.6% of that in the related essential oil, while eugenol from its glucoside accounted for 7.7% of the amount in clove essential oil. The yield of L-menthol, after submitting the plant material to enzymatic hydrolysis before hydrodistillation, increased by 23.1%, and for eugenol the increase was 8.1%, compared to the amount in the respective conventional essential oils. This study also aimed to evaluate the reliability of recently-introduced techniques that are little applied, if at all, in this field. The simultaneous use of high-concentration-capacity sample preparation techniques (SBSE, and HS-SPME and in-solution SPME) to run quali-quantitative analysis without sample

  3. Pharmacological Effects of Benzyl Glucoside and Chlorogenic Acid from Prunus mume Fruit%李属科水果中苯甲基糖苷和氯基因酸的药理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊奈郊二

    2010-01-01

    @@ The fruit of Prunus mume SIEB.et ZUCC.(Rosaceae)has been traditionally used as medicinal food in Japan.In the course of our search on the pharmacologically active constituents of P.nune fruit, we found that the ethanol extract of P.nume showed a remarkable antihypertensive effect.Benzyl glucoside (BG)and chlogenic acid (CA)were isolated from the extract as active components.At this time, I wish to report on antihypertensive effects,antinociceptive effects and antistressive effects of BG and CA.1-3)

  4. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  5. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  6. Quality assessment of 178 cultivars of plum regarding phenolic, anthocyanin and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this study assessment of total phenolic, individual anthocyanin and total sugar content (TSC) of wide range of plum cultivars was done in order to select cultivars with high health benefiting compounds for potential breeding purposes. Total phenolics varied between 38.45 and 841.50mg GAE 100g(-1) FW. Cyaniding-3-rutinoside, cyaniding-3- glucoside and its equivalents were identified in anthocyanin measurement by HPLC with different ranges. TSC differed between 9.63 and 29.47%. Besides, evaluation of the effect of cultivar and year on phenolic content of 23 randomly selected cultivars over two following years (2013 & 2014) showed significant effect of both factors on phenolic content of plum cultivars. Overall, cultivars "Cacaks Spaete" which had high amount of total phenolics with stability over time, as well as "Hohenheim breed 4894" as a cultivar which contained high amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins and TSC were selected for further breeding purposes to provide high nutritional quality plum to consumers.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Hieracium pilosella L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čanadanovic-Brunet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity ofwater, ethanol and methanol Hieracium pilosella L.extracts is reported. The antioxidative activity was tested by spectrophotometrically measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH· free radical and a reactive hydroxyl radical trapped by DMPO during the Fenton reaction, using the ESR spectroscopy. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. A HPLC method was used for identification of some phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone. The antioxidant activity of the investigated extracts slightly differs depending on the solvent used. The concentration of 0.30 mg/mL of water, ethanol and methanol extract is less effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals (56.35, 58.73 and 54.35%, respectively in comparison with the DPPH· radical scavenging activity (around 95% for all extracts. The high contents of total phenolic compounds (239.59–244.16 mg GAE/g of dry extract and total flavonoids (79.13–82.18 mg RE/g of dry extract indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity.

  8. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  9. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  10. Annexin V assay-proven anti-apoptotic effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside after cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists over whether the predominant cell death of hepatocytes is due to apoptosis or necrosis after ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study we investigated the predominant cell death of hepatocytes after cold ischemia/reperfusion injury using the Annexin V-based assay, and evaluated the anti-apoptotic effect of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G added to the University of Wisconsin solution (UW solution in rat liver transplantation. The retrieved liver was preserved in 4 UW solution for 24 h, and then transplanted orthotopically to the syngeneic Wistar recipient. The animals were divided into 2 groups, a control group (n=10, in which liver grafts were preserved in UW solution (4, and an AA-2G group (n=10, in which liver grafts were preserved in UW solution (4 with AA-2G (100 ug/ml. The serum AST level 4 h after reperfusion in the control group was significantly suppressed in the AA-2G group, and the bile production of the liver graft in the AA-2G group was well recovered. The mean survival time in the AA-2G group was significantly improved compared with that in the control group. Annexin-V and Propidium iodide staining 4 h after reperfusion showed a significantly higher percentage of viable hepatocytes in the AA-2G group compared with the control group (93.4 +/- 2.0 vs. 80.3 +- 2.1%, P<0.05. In the control group, the main cell death of hepatocytes was apoptosis (early apoptosis: 10.0 +- 4.7%, late apoptosis: 6.4 +/- 1.7%. The addition of AA-2G to the UW solution significantly inhibited both early and late apoptotic cell death 4 h after reperfusion (early apoptosis: 0.98 +/- 0.88%, late apoptosis: 2.2 +/- 1.1%. The expression of caspase 9 in the immunostaining of the liver graft was suppressed in the AA-2G group compared with in the control group. Our study using the Annexin V-based assay provided evidence that the predominant cell death of hepatocytes was apoptosis after 24 h cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver

  11. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Joseph, Binoy [Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center and Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yin, Yuanqin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Roy, Ram Vinod [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Lu, Jian [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Yitao [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau (China); and others

    2014-10-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE{sub 2} and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • C3G inhibited UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. • C3G inhibited UVB-induced COX-2, iNOS and PGE{sub 2} production. • C3G

  12. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  13. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  14. Scalable Content Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-01-01

    Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizabi...

  15. Rapid quantitative analysis of individual anthocyanin content based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection with the pH differential method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huayin

    2014-09-01

    A new quantitative technique for the simultaneous quantification of the individual anthocyanins based on the pH differential method and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection is proposed in this paper. The six individual anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, and malvidin 3-rutinoside) from mulberry (Morus rubra) and Liriope platyphylla were used for demonstration and validation. The elution of anthocyanins was performed using a C18 column with stepwise gradient elution and individual anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the pH differential method, the high-performance liquid chromatography peak areas of maximum and reference absorption wavelengths of anthocyanin extracts were conducted to quantify individual anthocyanins. The calibration curves for these anthocyanins were linear within the range of 10-5500 mg/L. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) all exceeded 0.9972, and the limits of detection were in the range of 1-4 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 for these anthocyanins. The proposed quantitative analysis was reproducible with good accuracy of all individual anthocyanins ranging from 96.3 to 104.2% and relative recoveries were in the range 98.4-103.2%. The proposed technique is performed without anthocyanin standards and is a simple, rapid, accurate, and economical method to determine individual anthocyanin contents.

  16. Simultaneous determination of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, calycosin, formononetin, astragaloside IV and schisandrin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Shenqi Wuwei chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuehui; Zhang, Pingping; Wu, Xiujun; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Mengmeng; An, Ye; Shi, Guobing

    2014-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the five main bioactive components, calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, formononetin, astragaloside IV and schisandrin in rat plasma after oral administration of Shenqi Wuwei chewable tablets. Plasma samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction separated on a CEC18 column and detected by MS with an electrospray ionization interface in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Calibration curves offered linear ranges of two orders of magnitude with r > 0.995. The method had a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1, 0.02, 0.1, 1 and 0.1 ng/mL for calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, formononetin, astragaloside IV and schisandrin, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) for all analytes ranged from 0.97 to 7.63% and from 3.45 to 10.89%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the five compounds in rats after oral administration of Shenqi Wuwei chewable tablets.

  17. Rapid separation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside from crude mulberry extract using high-performance countercurrent chromatography and establishment of a volumetric scale-up process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Choi, Janggyoo; Lee, Chang Uk; Yoon, Shin Hee; Bae, Soo Kyung; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the rapid separation of mulberry anthocyanins; namely, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, using high-performance countercurrent chromatography, and the establishment of a volumetric scale-up process from semi-preparative to preparative-scale. To optimize the separation parameters, biphasic solvent systems composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate, sample amount and rotational speed were evaluated for the semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography. The optimized semi-preparative-scale high-performance countercurrent chromatography parameters (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 4.0 mL/min; sample amount, 200-1000 mg; rotational speed, 1600 rpm) were transferred directly to a preparative-scale (tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/0.01% trifluoroacetic acid, 1:3:1:5, v/v; flow rate, 28 mL/min; sample amount, 5.0-10.0 g; rotational speed, 1400 rpm) to achieve separation results identical to cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The separation of mulberry anthocyanins using semi-preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography and its volumetric scale-up to preparative-scale was addressed for the first time in this report. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Screening of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase producing strains and its fermentable condition%葡萄糖3-脱氢酶产生菌的筛选和产酶培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芬; 沈明杰; 曾为锋; 季佳; 连振静

    2011-01-01

    A glucoside 3-dehydrogenase producing was isolated from soil.The strain was identified as Klebsiella oxytoca.The culture condition was optimized by single factor experimental design.The activity of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase produced by this strain was 1.45 U under liquid fermentation conditions:carbon source, lactose, nitrogen source,yeast extract, 50 mL culture medium in 250 mL shaking flask at 33 ℃, pH 7.0.%从土壤中筛选分离得到1株葡萄糖3-脱氢酶产生菌,经生理生化初步鉴定为产酸克雷伯菌(Klebsiella oxytoca).将菌株D8进行产酶优化培养,经过单因素法确定优化培养条件:乳糖为C源,酵母膏为N源,250 mL 摇瓶装液量为50 mL,培养基的初始pH为7,33 ℃培养时G3DH酶比活力最高,达到1.45 U.

  19. 翼首草总苷对佐剂性关节炎大鼠药效及作用机制的研究%Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Total Glucosides of Herba Pterocephali on Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 左芳; 魏志成; 曾勇; 孟宪丽; 张艺

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of total glucosides of Herba Pterocephali(TGP) on adjuvant arthritis(AA) rats. Methods Forty-eight healthy SD rats were enrolled into the experiment, and 8 rats of them were randomly selected as normal group. The left 40 rats were injected with 0.1 mL complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) through the right plantar region to induce inflammation for 17 days, and then the modeled rats were divided into the model group, dexamethasone acetate group(0.001 g·kg-1), and low-, medium- and high-dose TGP groups(in the dosage of 0.058, 0.116, 0.232 g·L-1 respectively), 8 rats in each group. The intragastric medication lasted for 30 days. After modeling for 17, 27, 37, 47 days, we detected swelling rate of rats paw and pathological changes in synovial tissue of ankle joint by HE staining. After modeling for 47 days, the contents of tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-l beta(IL-1β), and IL-17 in the serum and nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) in the synovial tissue of knee joint were examined by ELISA reagent kit. Results Compared with the normal group, the paw swelling rate of model group was significantly increased (P < 0.01), the proliferation of a large amount of synovial cells, macrophages and fibrocytes, and the infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells were present in the synovial tissue of the model group . Meanwhile, the model group had higher contents of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17and NF-κB than the normal group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the paw swelling rate of medication groups was significantly decreased (P <0.05, P < 0.01), the proliferation of synovial cells, macrophages, and fibrocytes as well as the infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells were much improved, and the contents of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17 and NF-κB were markedly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion TGP can inhibit joint swelling of AA rats, and improve the pathomorphology of the synovial

  20. Iridoid Glucosides from Picconia excelsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damtoft, Søren; Franzyk, Henrik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1997-01-01

    constituents were secoxyloganin, 8-epi-kingiside, 8-epi-kingisidic, oleoside 11-methyl ester, excelsioside, ligstroside and loganic acid together with the new compounds ketologanic acid, 6 beta-hydroxy-7-epi-loganin and picconiosides II-V, the latter four being esters of loganin and menthiafolic, foliamenthic......, 6-(Z)-foliamenthic or 6,7-dihydrofoliamenthic acid. The structures were mainly elucidated by NMR spectroscopy. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....