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Sample records for cv cabernet sauvignon

  1. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

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    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Avaliação da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para elaboração de vinho tinto

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    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Sauvignon, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Brasil em 1921, mas foi somente a partir de 1980 que houve incremento de seu plantio na Serra Gaúcha. É uma cultivar destinada à elaboração de vinho tinto de guarda ou jovem. Devido a sua importância, conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para a elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1992. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Sauvignon tem cacho de tamanho médio de 149.3g/L e baga pequena de 1.40g. O mosto possui bom teor de açúcar e acidez titulável de 120meq/L, adequada para a produção de vinho tinto, o qual se caracteriza por apresentar teores elevados de álcoois superiores. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Cabernet Sauvignon se caracteriza pela cor vermelha relativamente intensa e com reflexos violáceos acentuados; pelo aroma típico que lembra pimentão-verde, que é sua característica varietal; e pelo corpo, estrutura e boa distinguibilidade.

  3. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

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    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39 °S 71.17 °W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  4. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of partial defoliation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon on the distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves in different positions on the shoot at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Partial defoliation (33% and 66%) resulted in a higher apparent photosynthetic effectivity for all the remaining leaves on the shoot. The pattern of distribution of photosynthetates would seem to stay the same between the defoliation treatments. The control vines were found to carry excess foliage. Optimal photosynthetic activity of all the leaves on the vine was therefore not reached

  5. Comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos Yield-related performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Petite Syrah on different rootstocks

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    Tânia das Graças Silva Orlando

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah são destinadas à elaboração de vinhos tintos jovens ou de guarda bastante difundidas em diversas zonas vitivinícolas de todo o mundo. No Brasil, são utilizadas principalmente no Rio Grande do Sul e Vale do Rio São Francisco. Atualmente, produtores da região de Jundiaí, SP, têm demonstrado interesse na utilização de tais cultivares com intuito de obter vinhos de qualidade superior aos originários de cultivares americanas. Por isso, realizou-se o estudo do comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos, na região de Jundiaí, SP (23º06' S; 46º55' W, 715 m. Não houve influência dos diferentes porta-enxertos sobre o comportamento da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. O porta-enxerto IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' tendeu a conferir colheita tardia na cultivar Syrah. Os porta-enxertos IAC 572 'Jales' e IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' conferiram maior produção a cultivar Syrah. A cultivar Syrah apresentou-se como boa opção de plantio para obtenção de vinho de qualidade na região.Grapevines cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are largely used for high quality vine making all around the world. In Brazil they are concentrated moreover, at the Rio Grande do Sul state and in the São Francisco Valley. Producers from Jundiaí region (São Paulo state have been interested in such cultivars for improved quality vine making as they generally use american cultivars for that propose. Aiming study the performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Syrah, cultivated over different rootstocks an experiment was conducted in the region of Jundiaí (SP (23º06' S; 46º55' W, 715 m. Results showed that there wasn't influence of different rootstocks on the performance of both analyzed cultivars. It was observed a trend of the rootstock IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' to improve final yield of cv Syrah. The Rootstocks IAC 572 'Jales' and IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' combined to Syrah resulted in the highest yield in the

  6. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

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    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  7. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves of different parts of the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Specific photosynthetic activity of the 14 CO 2 -treated leaves gradually decreased during the season. Photosynthetates were hoarded in the leaves at berry set, but were increasingly diverted to the bunches after that. The apical leaves displayed the highest photosynthesis. The leaves opposite and below the bunches accumulated very little photosynthetates, especially from veraison to ripeness. Redistribution of photosynthetates among the basal, middle and apical leaves was generally very restricted at all stages. Multidirectional distribution from the site of application of 14 CO 2 occurred at berry set stage, while from pea size to ripeness photosynthetates were mainly translocated basipetally. Highest accumulation in the bunches occurred at veraison, while the basal leaves were primarily used to nourish the bunch

  8. Model Validation for Estimating the Leaf Stomatal Conductance in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevines Validación de un modelo para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas en vides cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Francisco Jara-Rojas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The coupled model of assimilation and stomatal conductance (A-g s was evaluated to estimate leaf stomatal conductance of a drip-irrigated vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the Pencahue Valley (35º22’ S, 71°47’ W, 150 m.a.s.l., Maule Region, Chile, during the 2003-2004 and the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Additionally, a calibration of the three parameters mesophyll conductance (g m, maximum specific humidity (Dmax and coupled factor (f0 was applied on vines growing in 35 L pots. An infrared gas analyzer was used to calibrate and evaluate the A-g s which allowed simultaneous measuring of the leaf net CO2 assimilation (A and stomatal conductance (g s in 2 to 3 h intervals of time. The calibration indicated that the g m,, Dmax and f0 values were 1.15 mm s-1, 52.31 g kg-1 and 0.90, respectively. The validation in the drip-irrigated vineyard indicated that the A-g s model was able to estimate the leaf stomatal conductance with a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.05 mol m-2 s-1, model efficiency of 61% and agreement index of 90%. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the A-g s model is affected considerably by the g m, Dmax and f0 parameterization.Validación de un modelo para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas en vides cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. El modelo acoplado de asimilación neta y conductancia estomática (A-g s fue evaluado para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas (g s de un viñedo regado por goteo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue (35º22’ S; 71º47’ O; 150 m.s.n.m., Región del Maule, Chile, durante las temporadas 2003-2004 y 2004-2005. Además, se realizó una calibración de la conductancia del mesófilo (g m, valor máximo de humedad específica a saturación (Dmax y el factor acoplado (f0 en vides creciendo en maceteros de 35 L. Para calibrar y evaluar el modelo A-g s se utilizó un analizador infrarrojo de gases, el cual permitió medir simult

  9. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

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    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  11. Histopathological study of response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and wood injury with and without inoculation by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

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    Jérôme POUZOULET

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch is one of the main causal agents of tracheomycosis in grapevine. We characterize how this fungus affects the response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and xylem-tissue wounding after six weeks post-treatment. A histological investigation shows that, in xylem tissue, cell-wall modifications in response to wounding are related to suberin deposits rather than to lignin-induced wall thickening. The xylem response does not appear to be disturbed by Pch infection. Therefore, cell-wall modification strongly inhibits the development of wound-closure tissue (WCT but does not prevent the differentiation of the necro-phylactic periderm. Hyphae localization in tissue surrounding the wound or inoculation sites indicates that Pch colonizes all cell types, such as vascular tissues, paratracheal parenchyma cells, fibers and rays. The results also suggest that efficient compartmentalization separating fascicular xylem portions is assured by thick suberized cell walls bordering the ray parenchyma.

  12. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

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    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  14. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  15. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  16. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  17. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains

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    Martin, Diane M.; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C.; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore. PMID:19359488

  18. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

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    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

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    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  20. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  1. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  2. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon"

    OpenAIRE

    Miele,Alberto; Rizzon,Luiz Antenor; Giovannini,Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  3. Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Alberto; Rizzon, Luiz Antenor; Giovannini, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  4. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  5. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI of a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the commune of Cauquenes, Maule Region in Chile, was estimated from digital images obtained with a commercial camera using two indirect methods: Leaf Area Gap and Brightness (LAGB and -Photogrammetric Leaf Area Quantification System (PLAQS. The latter requires deleafing of the grapevine. In a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, three points of vine vigor were selected: high, medium, and low for which horizontal and vertical images were obtained. Images were filtered with the Arc View GIS 3.1 program to provide only leaf images and corresponding pixel numbers. Image area and square meters per linear meter were calculated. The best models were selected from  three linear regression adjustments: i LAI of LAGB vertical images of with LAI of PLAQS, ii LAI of PLAQS horizontal images with and, iii LAI of both types of images with PLAQS. The parameters in all models were significant. Adjustment between the LAGB and PLAQS vertical images provides greater simplicity and easy calculation since it requires only a vertical image to estimate LAI. Images thus obtained can accurately estimate LAI in this type of cultivar.En un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en la comuna de Cauquenes, Región del Maule, se estimó el índice de área foliar (LAI mediante imagen digital obtenida de una cámara fotográfica comercial, a partir de dos métodos indirectos: Espacio y Brillo Área Foliar (LAGB y Sistema Cuantificador de Área Foliar por Fotogrametría (PLAQS. Este último, requiere el deshoje de la parra. En un mapa de índice vegetativo diferencial normalizado (NDVI, se seleccionaron tres puntos de vigor de las vides: alto, medio y bajo, en cada uno de los cuales se obtuvo una imagen horizontal y vertical. Las imágenes se filtraron con el programa Arc View GIS 3.1, dejando sólo las hojas y el número de píxeles correspondientes. Se

  6. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  7. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions.

  8. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  9. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  10. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  11. Changes in aromatic compounds of cabernet sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography mass ... profiles of all the aroma compounds for cabernet sauvignon wines were increasingly diverse. The ... fermented in 30 T stainless steel tanks with activated dry yeast ..... volatile organic acids during yeast fermentation is.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Tillett, Richard L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Pezzotti, Mario

    2014-12-19

    Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berry color and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of this ripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages of ripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays. The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were a large number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abiotic stress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that there were statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved in ethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimal fruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade of ERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene, senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcript abundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin. A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berries revealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involving chemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcript abundance of genes involved in

  13. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Shulgau; Vladislav Tritek; Alexander Gulyaev; Gulsim Adilgozhina; Talgat Nurgozhin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the benef...

  14. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  15. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenolic Compounds from the Fermentation of Cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Berovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fermentation of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian coastal region was performed in Bücher-Vaslin roto tank vinificators. Six different areas, Prade, Kortina, Škocijan, Ankaran, Labor and Hrvatini, were selected for this study to investigate total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins and colour density, as well as pH, titratable acidity, sugar content and ethanol. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be in generally higher concentrations (up to 4240 mg/L in Cabernet Sauvignon. Prolongation of the fermentation phase with Merlot gave even reduced concentrations of anthocyanins, a phenomenon which was not observed in Cabernet Sauvignon. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was found in Merlot from the Kortina location (735 mg/L, and in Cabernet Sauvignon from the Labor location (998 mg/L. The highest concentration of tannins (1828 mg/L was found in the grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon from the Ankaran location, while in Merlot 1280 mg/L was detected in a sample from the Prade area. The tone of colour and its intensity reached full maturity in Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot from the Kortina location reached the highest colour density of 1.57, while in a sample of Cabernet Sauvignon from Hrvatini colour density was 2.89. Only small differences were detected in colour quality between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  17. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  18. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  20. Differentiation of the aromas of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using sensory and instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotseridis, Y; Razungles, A; Bertrand, A; Baumes, R

    2000-11-01

    The aromas of six Merlot and three Cabernet Sauvignon wines of the 1996 vintage from the Bordeaux region were evaluated by sensory analysis. A panel of selected enology students was trained to assess 20 attributes previously generated for these wines by enologists of Bordeaux. Using statistical methods, this 20-attribute list was reduced to a 12-attribute list. The aroma profiles of the wines of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon were very close. Differentiation of the wines of these two varieties was significant only for the caramel descriptor, which was rated higher in the Merlot wines. Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) and GC/MS analyses were used to detect and identify the potent odorants with the caramel odor in the two most differentiated samples for this attribute, a Merlot wine and a Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Two odorant zones with this odor resulted in identification of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (HEMF). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method showed a higher dilution factor (FD) for HDMF in the Merlot wine extract than in the Cabernet Sauvignon extract. The HDMF levels determined in the wines studied using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) method were consistent with the results found by sensory analysis and GC/O; i.e., higher HDMF levels were present in the Merlot wines than in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

  1. Mesoporous materials as fining agents in variety Cabernet Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Georgiana-Diana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative oenological products and techniques constantly need to be optimized in order to produce high quality wines that are able to fulfill the demanding consumers, with a pleasant colour, astringency, bitterness and a balanced organoleptic profile. New mesoporous materials with viability and environmental safety characteristics, might be a feasible alternative to the use of bentonite, while nowadays in the winemaking there is a major challenge caused by wastes derivate mainly from wine clarification stages. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of conventional (bentonite and activated coal and alternative (MCM-41, SBA-15, KIT-6 fining agents on enological parameters, colour, as well as on the antioxidant activity of a Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Our results show that mesoporous materials, KIT-6 and SBA-15 (6 g/L present the highest reduction on antioxidant activity with 23.08% and 24.41%, while bentonite and activated coal (1.5 g/L reduced with 20.72%, respectively 33.18%. Cluster analysis performed with the values of antioxidant activity differentiated wines treated with activated carbon from other wines.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.L.; Spayed, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  3. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a preliminary study on the influence two rootstocks (110R, high vigor; 420A, low vigor) grafted to scion 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8, and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation – usual practice in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or till...

  4. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  5. Light quality affects flavonoid biosynthesis in young berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hiroko; Poudel, Puspa Raj; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-09-17

    This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A) and 99% (film B) invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that (E)-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  7. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A and 99% (film B invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA revealed that (E-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  8. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliados a evolução da acidez titulável, pH, ácido tartárico e potássio imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva, na descuba e após a fermentação alcoólica, a fermentação malolática e a estabilização tartárica, totalizando análises em cinco fases da vinificação. Os resultados mostraram uma evolução diferente da acidez, avaliados através do pH, da acidez titulável, do ácido tartárico e do potássio, na vinificação em tinto da uva Isabel em relação à Cabernet Sauvignon e à Cabernet Franc, nas fases compreendidas entre o esmagamento da uva e a descuba. O vinho Isabel se caracterizou por apresentar teores mais elevados de acidez titulável e ácido tartárico e mais baixos de potássio e pH, em relação aos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc.

  9. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  10. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  11. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  12. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor; Miele Alberto

    2002-01-01

    A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera) da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinho...

  13. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  14. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines from R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Boros, Borbala; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dimovska, Violeta; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Wine quality largely depends on the phenolic compounds, which contribute to the wine colour, bitterness and astringency. Furthermore, phenolic compounds demonstrate the antioxidant potential of wines, which is mainly due to the flavonoids. In this study, phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vitis Vinifera red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon from three vintages, 2006, 2007 and 2008, produced in the Republic of Macedonia, have been evaluated. Separation of the in...

  16. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovska Maja; Tomovska Elena; Bocevska Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA...

  17. Phenolic Composition, Colour and Antioxidant Activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Boros, Borbala; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Wine quality largely depends on the phenolic compounds, which contribute to the wine colour, bitterness and astringency. Furthermore, phenolic compounds demonstrate the antioxidant potential of wines, which is mainly due to the flavonoids. In this study, phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vitis Vinifera red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon from three vintages, 2006, 2007 and 2008, produced in the Republic of Macedonia, have been evaluated. Separation of the in...

  18. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa Vişan; Ciprian Nicolae Popa; Radiana Tamba-Berehoiu

    2017-01-01

    During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structu...

  19. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrovska Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA. The established data were submitted to analysis of variance and principle component analysis in order to evaluate their potential for differentiation of wines according to variety and vintage. Vranec wines have shown distinctive characteristics, with the highest content of anthocyanins and values of colour intensity, % red and % dA, compared to the other two studied varieties. The content of petunidin-3-glucoside, peonindin-3-glucoside and anthocyanin acetates were established as possible markers for differentiation of Vranec wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. However, none of the assayed parameters could be used for differentiation of Cabernet Sauvignon from Merlot wines. It was observed that wine age limits successful classification of the wines by variety according to anthocyanins. The chromatic parameters allowed distinguishing of young (aged up to 1 year from old Vranec wines.

  20. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc wines: Anti-inflammatory activity in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Iglesias de Lacerda; Caillot, Adriana Rute Cordeiro; Palhares, Lais Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-04-15

    The structural characterization of the polysaccharides and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of Cabernet Franc (WCF), Cabernet Sauvignon (WCS) and Sauvignon Blanc (WSB) wines were studied for the first time in this work. The polysaccharides of wines gave rise to three fractions of polysaccharides, namely (WCF) 0.16%, (WCS) 0.05% and (WSB) 0.02%; the highest one was chosen for isolation of polysaccharides (WCF). It was identified the presence of mannan, formed by a sequence of α-d-Manp (1 → 6)-linked and side chains O-2 substituted for α-d-mannan (1 → 2)-linked; type II arabinogalactan, formed by (1 → 3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1 → 6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains, and nonreducing end-units of arabinose 3-O-substituted; type I rhamnogalacturonan formed by repeating (1 → 4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-L-Rhap groups; and traces of type II rhamnogalacturonan. The polysaccharide mixture and isolated fractions inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and mediator (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Volatile compounds of young wines from cabernet sauvignon, cabernet gernischet and chardonnay varieties grown in the loess plateau region of china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2010-12-10

    In order to elucidate the aroma components of wine produced in the Loess Plateau region of China, volatile compounds of young wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay varieties grown in the new ecological region were investigated for the first time in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by HS-SPME with GC-MS, a total of 45, 44 and 42 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of the three wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. According to their odor active values (OAVs), 18 volatile compounds were always present in the three wines at concentrations higher than their threshold values, but ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and isoamyl acetate were found to jointly contribute to 92.9%, 93.3%, and 98.7%, of the global aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. These odorants are associated with "fruity'' and ''ripe fruit'' odor descriptors.

  2. Volatile Compounds of Young Wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay Varieties Grown in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwen Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the aroma components of wine produced in the Loess Plateau region of China, volatile compounds of young wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay varieties grown in the new ecological region were investigated for the first time in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by HS-SPME with GC-MS, a total of 45, 44 and 42 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of the three wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. According to their odor active values (OAVs, 18 volatile compounds were always present in the three wines at concentrations higher than their threshold values, but ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and isoamyl acetate were found to jointly contribute to 92.9%, 93.3%, and 98.7%, of the global aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. These odorants are associated with “fruity’’ and ‘‘ripe fruit’’ odor descriptors.

  3. Free amino acids of leaves and berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of free amino acids was studied from leaves, pericarps, skins, musts and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Vineyards were in the Bordeaux region and the grapevines were conducted in espalier and lyre systems. Grapes were collected at maturity and lyophilized after sampling. Extraction of free amino acids was done with a hydroalcoholic solution and their analysis was performed with an autoanalyzer. A standard of 34 amino acids was utilized for the qualitative analysis. The results showed that, for both espalier and lyre training systems, respectively, the free amino acids were predominant in the pericarps (12.85 and 11.21 mg/g dw - 16.88 and 15.12 mg/g dw in skins and 3.29 and 2.88 g/l in musts -, followed by the seeds (2.37 and 2.32 mg/g dw and leaves (1.87 and 1.98 mg/g dw. The most abundant free amino acids in leaves were glutamic acid (23.8 and 28.8 p. cent, aspartic acid (8.8 and 11.1 p. cent, and glutamine (10.1 and 9.4 p. cent. Proline (41.8 and 41.5 p. cent and arginine (22.8 and 22.4 p. cent predominated in the pericarps. In seeds, the main amino acids were proline (14.5 and 15.8 p. cent, arginine (11.0 and 11.8 p. cent, histidine (11.2 and 8.7 p. cent, and glutamic acid (11.3 and 8.2 p. cent. Grapevine training system showed some differences in the total amount and in the percentages of each free amino acid, but the pattern of these compounds for each tissue was similar for both training systems.

  4. The Impact of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Infection on the Grapevine's Physiological Response to Water Stress - Part 2 : Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

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    J. Edwards

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeomoniella chlamydospora is a vascular pathogen that colonises the xylem tissues of the grapevine. It is associated with the diseases, esca and Petri disease, often considered to be ‘stress-related’ diseases. In glasshouse experiments using Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay, stomatal conductance was higher in infected plants, implying that infection interferes with stomatal control. In Cabernet Sauvignon, leaf water potentials were lower in infected plants subjected to water stress, indicating that infection made it more difficult for the vine to get water to the leaf. This was less apparent in Chardonnay. Clearly, infection alters the grapevine response to water stress and some cultivars are affected more than others.

  5. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine grafted onto rootstocks during the autumn-winter season in southeastern Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of grape (Vitis vinifera harvest from summer to winter through double pruning management has improved the fine wine quality in southern Brazil. High altitude, late cultivar and grafting combination all need to be investigated to optimize this new viticulture management. For this purpose, this study was carried out during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in a high altitude region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using eight grafting combinations for five year old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. The stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were not affected by rootstock type. The rootstocks IAC 766 and 101-14 induced, respectively, the highest and lowest vegetative vigor in Cabernet Sauvignon, as shown by leaf area and pruning weight. In the 2011 growing season, the leaf chlorophyll contents were increased in IAC 766, whereas vines grafted onto 101-14 accumulated more leaf starch, probably due to reduced vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, rootstocks K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 had the highest yield as compared to 1103P and 101-14. Berries from the grapevine with the highest yield did not differ in pH, total soluble solids and acidity. The rootstocks did not influence the anthocyanins and total phenols in both growing seasons. Quality parameters were better in the 2011 than in the 2012 growing season due to better climatic conditions, mainly less rainfall. The best performance of Cabernet Sauvignon was achieved when grafted onto K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 rootstocks.

  6. Phenolic Content of Blends of Tempranillo with Graciano or Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Produced in Spain

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    María Monagas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Graciano (GRA, Spanish valuable variety of limited production in Mediterranean countries vs. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS, world-wide known French variety on the phenolic content [total polyphenols (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, catechins (CAT and proanthocyanidins (PRO] of Tempranillo wines (TEM-BASE, a largely cultivated Spanish variety was studied in blends prepared with 25 and 10 % of each variety after 4, 6, 9, 16.5 and 23 months of bottle ageing. Significant differences among wines (blends and base wine according to the »blend« factor were observed for CAT and TA. Besides, although the evolution trend during wine ageing of different families of phenolic compounds studied was similar in the blends and base wine, different blends presented a faster anthocyanin disappearance kinetics than the base wine, probably due to their higher CAT content, which may favour the progress of certain anthocyanin condensation reactions during ageing in the bottle. This effect was slightly more pronounced in the TEM-GRA blends than in the TEM-CS ones. A further study of the phenolic composition of the monovarietal wines used for blending, as well as of the grapes (skins and seeds from which these wines were elaborated, revealed that the blending effect on CAT could be associated with higher concentration of these compounds in Graciano and Cabernet Sauvignon grape seeds in comparison with Tempranillo. Finally, the findings of this work scientifically confirm that, in terms of the phenolic content, Graciano wines possess properties similar to Cabernet Sauvignon for blending with Tempranillo.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan

    2014-01-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  8. Isohydrodynamic behavior in deficit-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec and its relationship between yield and berry composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grapevines were irrigated at 70 or 23% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) throughout berry development over four growing seasons. Stomatal behavior was characterized by relating predawn leaf water potential and mid-morning stomatal conductance to mid-morning lea...

  9. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPOUNDS IN THE AGING PROCESS OF THE DRĂGĂŞANI CABERNET SAUVIGNON WINES

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    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of raw material on wine aging and determining of the optimal duration of wine aging in oak vessels and glass vessels. The potential quality of red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon Drăgăşani is highlighted more in the aging process to oak vessels and glass vessels.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Tiţa; Ciprian Tuşa; Axenia Rădulescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  11. Isolation and identification of resveratrol-producing endophytes from wine grape Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Nan, Lijun; Liu, Junchao; Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Dianpeng; Han, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    Obtain endophyte strains with effective resveratrol production from superior grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon in Xinjiang and determine related taxonomic position of the strain. Seventy-three strains of endophytes, including 23 strains of bacteria, 14 ones of actinomycetes, 24 fungus and 12 yeasts, were isolated, respectively. The distribution law of endophytes was spring (30.14 %) = summer (30.14 %) < autumn (39.73 %) in different seasons, while the fruit (12.33 %) < leaf (20.55 %) < stem (32.88 %) < root (34.25 %) in different tissues and organs. From the 36 strains of endophytic fungi isolated, seven strains producing polyphenols were screened by ferric chloride-potassium ferricyanide color reaction. C2J6, stable genetic properties producing highly 1.48 mg L(-1) of resveratrol, was identified as Aspergillus niger by 26S rDNA-ITS sequence analysis after thin-layer chromatography sieve analysis, ultra violet wavelength scanning and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. There were the certain number and kinds of endophytes in the various tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon, which, to a certain extent, reflected the biological diversity of plant endophytes. The fact that the fungus C2J6 producing resveratrol in grape was acquired attested the special ability of the endophytes to produce the same or similar bioactive substances as the host plants.

  12. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

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    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  13. Impact of Plasmopara viticola infection of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on wine composition and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Deliere, Laurent; Crachereau, Jean Christophe; Davidou, Ludivine; Sauris, Pierre; Guilbault, Pascal; Darriet, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. We show that the organoleptic impact of P. viticola is more pronounced in Merlot wines compared to Cabernet Sauvignon ones. The highest levels of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (75.3ng/L) were found in old Merlot wines made with 20% infected berries, suggesting the incidence of berry quality on the ability of a wine to age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

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    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W.

    2015-01-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm 2 .s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  17. Detailed characterization of proanthocyanidins in skin, seeds, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Downey, Mark O

    2011-12-28

    The distribution of proanthocyanidin (PA) polymer lengths, proanthocyanidin concentration at each polymer length, and polymer composition were determined in the seed, skin, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in southeast Australia. PA was fractionated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and HPLC to report the degree of polymerization (DP), concentration, and composition at 11 DP values in seed and wine and 21 DP values in skin. In skin, the highest PA concentration was observed at a DP of 31 in Shiraz and 29 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing 15% of the total PA in both varieties. The distribution of seed PA had the highest concentration at a DP of 7 in Shiraz and 6 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 30% of the total PA. In the wine PA distribution, the highest concentration was observed at a DP of 11 in Shiraz and 9 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 26 and 32% of the distribution, respectively. A second peak in wine PA concentration was observed at the largest DP of 18 in Shiraz and 15 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 20% of the distribution. The composition in wine did not vary at different DP, but the proportion of epicatechin gallate varied in seed PA less than 4 DP. The proportion of epigallocatechin increased with increasing DP in skin PA. Wine PA had a DP range and composition similar to the distribution of skin PA between DP 4 and 18 suggesting that larger skin PAs are not extracted into wine. This study provides information that could be used to target the important PA fractions in grapes that need to be measured to understand (or predict) PA extraction into wine and eventual mouthfeel.

  18. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Counter-radiation efficacy of Enoviton granules produced from Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartzov, K.; Hadjiski, L.; Aljakov, M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the accident in the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, a need arose for radionuclide decontamination means capable of being used for a prolonged period of time without any side-effects on the human body. The probability of contamination with radionuclides in such emergencies, combined with external radiation, makes it necessary for the protective agents used to have a favourable effect on the protective force of the organism. The phenol compounds, anthocyanins, are the major plant pigments and are present in considerable amounts in red grapes and wines. Under relevant conditions in plants, phenolics protect hereditary cell mechanisms from mutagenic agents, such as ionising irradiation and UV rays. This ability of plant phenolics directed us towards the creation and use of the anthocyanin preparation Enoviton as a radioprotective means in investigations with animals. The Enoviton preparation was made on the basis of an anthocyanin colouring substance derived from specially isolated and purified anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon wine. (Author)

  20. Influence of Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mavri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of wine fermentation temperature and the amount of carbon dioxide present represent parameters that can be easily monitored and controlled. The influence of variation of the process temperature and the fluxes of additional inlet gaseous carbon dioxide in Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon grape must on the accumulation of biomass and production of metabolites was studied. All experiments with temperature and redox potential control on-line were performed in a 10-litre laboratory stirred tank reactor. Metabolites of Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation comprising higher alcohols (1-propanol, 2-butanol, isoamyl alcohol, as well as reducing sugars, were measured off-line by gas and high pressure liquid chromatography.

  1. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panprivech, Siriwan; Lerno, Larry A; Brenneman, Charles A; Block, David E; Oberholster, Anita

    2015-05-04

    The impact of increasing cold soak (CS) duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C) on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months' bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  2. Counter-radiation efficacy of Enoviton granules produced from Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartzov, K. (National Wine Research and Control Inst., Sofia (Bulgaria)); Hadjiski, L.; Aljakov, M. (Sofia Medical Univ. (Bulgaria))

    1993-01-01

    Following the accident in the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, a need arose for radionuclide decontamination means capable of being used for a prolonged period of time without any side-effects on the human body. The probability of contamination with radionuclides in such emergencies, combined with external radiation, makes it necessary for the protective agents used to have a favourable effect on the protective force of the organism. The phenol compounds, anthocyanins, are the major plant pigments and are present in considerable amounts in red grapes and wines. Under relevant conditions in plants, phenolics protect hereditary cell mechanisms from mutagenic agents, such as ionising irradiation and UV rays. This ability of plant phenolics directed us towards the creation and use of the anthocyanin preparation Enoviton as a radioprotective means in investigations with animals. The Enoviton preparation was made on the basis of an anthocyanin colouring substance derived from specially isolated and purified anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon wine. (Author).

  3. Combination of RGB and Multispectral Imagery for Discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Salinas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  4. Combination of RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of cabernet sauvignon grapevine elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota; Sarria, Javier; Armada, Manuel

    2013-06-19

    This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  5. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon wines made in traditional and Ganimede fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bianxia; He, Fei; Yang, Lili; Chen, Feng; Reeves, Malcolm J; Li, Jingming

    2013-12-15

    Chemical profiles of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine made by two different winemaking techniques (traditional vinification and Ganimede method) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Particularly, effect of extraction on and subsequent stability of the phenolic compounds from the end of fermentation to bottling were investigated. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content was higher in the young wines produced in the Ganimede fermenter. The anthocyanin contents in these wines subsequently decreased significantly after two years of ageing. By contrast, the traditional vinification was slightly better than the Ganimede to yield the non-anthocyanin phenolics. This indicates that the Ganimede fermenter might be suitable for the production of brightly coloured red wines for early consumption, which could save time and labour cost for industrial production of highquality wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Panprivech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of increasing cold soak (CS duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months’ bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  7. [The antioxidant activity of the products of processing of red grape of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidzba, A M; Kubyshkin, A V; Guguchkina, T I; Markosov, V A; Katsev, A M; Naumova, N V; Shramko, Yu I; Zaytsev, G P; Chernousova, I V; Ogay, Yu A; Fomochkina, I I

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data on the antioxidant activity of grape juice, grape concentrates and wine from grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Saperavi from Crimea and Krasnodar regions was presented. Flavonoids are presented in the form of glycosides of such anthocyanins as delphinidin, malvidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and also by quercetin and its glycoside, (+)-D-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Oligomeric procyanidins, which are condensed catechol units (2-6) soluble in water, are presented in significant amounts, and polymeric procyanidins with the amount catechin units greater than 7, insoluble in water, constituted the bulk of polyphenols od wine and concentrates from red grapes (no juice). Among non-flavonoid polyphenols hydroxybenzoic (gallic, syringic) and hydroxycinnamic (caftaric, cautaric) acids are identified, the relative content of which in the amount of polyphenols in the juice is maximum, and minimum is in concentrates. It was found that antioxidant activity for all products in standard Trolox method can be estimated by the equation: Y = 0.53627+0.1395X+0.080439X2-0.00064708X3, with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9952; where: Y--antioxidant activity, g/dm3 by Trolox method; X--mass concentration of phenolic substances on the Folin-Ciocalteu, g/dm3. The equation is valid for Y = 0.76-196.22; X = 1.0-82.67. The results of biological testing of wines Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi and polyphenol concentrates from grape on the biological model of bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 demonstrated the applicability of bioassay to assess the antioxidant activity, which correlates well with the polyphenols content and antioxidant activity by trolox method.

  8. A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine 'Cabernet Sauvignon' allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrin Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed. Results The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32% were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome. Conclusion Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and

  9. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 1. EFFECT ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPEVINE

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    ALBERTO MIELE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and environment can induce different responses to the grapevine physiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rootstock effect on the yield components of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapevine grown in the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 15 treatments, three replicates and ten vines per plot. The results show that all variables evaluated were significantly affected by the year and the rootstock. The CS/Solferino was among other combinations influenced by the year and had higher significant yield/ vine. Indeed, it was higher than that CS/Rupestris du Lot, CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/3309 C, CS/5BB K, CS/161- 49 C, CS/1103 P. and CS/Isabel. The number of clusters/bud, per burst bud and per vine and the weight of clusters were affected by the rootstock as well. Pruning weight/vine, yield/pruning weight, leaf area/vine, leaf area index and leaf area/fresh fruit weight are variables related to the physiology of grapevine which were also affected by the rootstock. In general, rootstocks had adapted well to the environment where the experiment was carried out, giving vigor and high yield to Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine, which means that they may be used by grape growers in this region. However, the choice of the right rootstock depends on various aspects, such as those related to the soil characteristics, climate conditions, grape varieties, and even clones, and production purposes.

  10. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

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    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced in a subtropical climate for red winemaking. The experimental area was located in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in a pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning held in late winter during four crops (2003, 2004

  11. Structures moléculaire et perception tannique des raisins et des vins (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot) du Bordelais

    OpenAIRE

    Chira, Kleopatra

    2009-01-01

    La connaissance de la composition phénolique du Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS) et du Merlot (M) dans la région vitivinicole du bordelais a un intérêt majeur pour définir la structure et la qualité tannique (astringence et amertume) des raisins et des vins. La composition en tanins et anthocyanes de raisins et de vins issus du Cabernet Sauvignon et du Merlot ainsi que leur perception tannique ont été recherchées. L’étude raisins a été réalisée pour cinq parcelles de la région bordelaise (Pauillac, Ma...

  12. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

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    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  14. Comportamento vegetativo e produtivo de videiras 'Cabernet sauvignon' cultivadas sob cobertura plástica Vegetative growth and yield of 'Cabernet sauvignon' grapevine under overhead plastic covering

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    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cobertura plástica no cultivo de videira encontra-se em expansão no Rio Grande do Sul, por ser uma alternativa que visa a proteger as plantas da precipitação pluvial e do granizo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os impactos de uma cobertura plástica translúcida e impermeável sobre a fenologia, o crescimento (de ramos, folhas, cachos e bagas e a produtividade em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L., com cinco anos de idade, conduzidas em sistema 'Y', sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento, conduzido no município de Caxias do Sul-RS, seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, tendo os tratamentos sem e com cobertura plástica, com quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. As alterações microclimáticas impostas pela cobertura plástica não foram expressivas para alterar a fenologia da videira. As plantas cultivadas sob cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores valores de comprimento e massa fresca de ramos e de área, e massa seca foliar em comparação às plantas descobertas. O peso e o diâmetro de bagas foram superiores nas videiras cobertas apenas no início do ciclo e não diferiram próximo da colheita. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram afetadas pela cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica interferiu no crescimento vegetativo das plantas, mas não afetou a produção.There is an increasing adoption of overhead plastic covering for grapevines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, to protect the plants from rain and hail storms. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of overhead plastic covering with a translucent and water-proof plastic film on phenological, growth (of branch, leaves, clusters, and berries, and yield attributes of five years old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. on Paulsen 1103 rootstock raised as 'Y' management system. The experiment was carried out in Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, and followed a

  15. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  16. Experimental study of physical and rheological properties of grape juice using different temperatures and concentrations. Part I: Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilhos, Maurício Bonatto Machado; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; de Carvalho, Gisandro Reis; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R 2 =0.99957 and relative error=7.77%). The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior (n<1). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations. The flow activation energy ranged from 28.87 (45.0Brix) to 38.05KJ/mol (37.0Brix) with a R 2 =0.9798 for both cases. Density and specific heat were influenced by both temperature and concentration; however, thermal conductivity was only influenced by concentration. The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates will be useful as wine chaptalization agent in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

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    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p < 0.05). Descriptive analyses revealed that 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole may contribute to the hay, dried herbs, and blackcurrant aromas reported in Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  18. Influence of choice of yeasts on volatile fermentation-derived compounds, colour and phenolics composition in Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez Rojas, Inmaculada; Smith, Paul A; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2012-12-01

    Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

  19. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  1. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

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    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  2. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

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    Luminiţa Vişan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structure was analyzed by their concentration in condensed tannins, astringent tannins and tannin-polysaccharide complex. Analyzes have been carried out in the wine by UV-VIS spectrometry techniques. Total content of polyphenols have been determined by spectrophotometric technique (DO280. Tannins have been determined by the Ribereau-Gayon method (1996, tannin structure after Glories method (1978; anthocyanins were determined by the discoloration technique with SO2. The study on color of red wines analyzed during their evolution referred to the study of chromatic parameters, the content of anthocyanin monomers and polymers (Glories method. Our results showed a decrease of the percent of anthocyanin monomers accompanied by an increase the percent of polymers, in both wines, during their maturation.

  3. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Steenwerth, Kerri L

    2011-08-01

    This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino acids recalculated as YAN), sugars, and organic acids in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8. A significant difference was observed for some of the free amino acids between rootstocks. In both sample preparation methods (juiced or chemically extracted), 110R rootstock grapes were significantly higher in SER, GLN, THR, ARG, VAL, ILE, LEU, and YAN than were 420A rootstock grapes. Differences in individual free amino acid profiles and concentrations were observed between the two sample preparations, which indicate that care should be taken when comparing values from dissimilar methods. No significant differences among vineyard floor treatments were detected, which suggests that mowing offers vineyard managers a sustainable practise, alternative to tilling, without negatively affecting grape nitrogen compounds, sugars, or organic acids. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

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    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  5. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water stress and ripeness effects on the volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverano, Inmaculada; Ubeda, Cristina; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Valdés, María Esperanza; Pastenes, Claudio; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2018-02-01

    Controlled water deficits affect grape berry physiology and the resulting wines, with volatile composition being the one of the affected parameters. However, there is a potential disconnect between aromatic maturity and sugar accumulation. Accordingly, the effects of three different water status levels over two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) and two different harvest dates on the aroma compounds from Cabernet Sauvignon wines were studied. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatoghraphy/mass spectrometry. Around 45 volatile compounds were determined in the wines and, among these, esters were affected the most, presenting lower concentrations when the most restrictive water treatment was applied in both years. By contrast, volatile acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest level of irrigation was applied. On the other hand, a delay in harvesting produced an increase in the total amount of volatile compounds in samples from the most restrictive water treatment. These results are coincident with a principal component analysis that indicated a great separation between years, deficit irrigation treatments and harvest dates. The results of the present study suggest that a low water supply had a negative effect on the aromatic potential of wines at a similar ripening stage. However, this effect could be countered by harvesting at a later date. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runze; He, Fei; Lan, Yibin; Xing, Ranran; Liu, Rui; Pan, Qiuhong; Wang, Jun; Duan, Changqing

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, L-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2011-11-09

    The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation.

  9. Effect of micro-oxygenation on sensory characteristics and consumer preference of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Plumejeau, François; Maury, Chantal; Versari, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L(-1) month(-1) ), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L(-1) month(-1) dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Condições meteorológicas e tipo de solo na composição da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' Weather and soil effects on the composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das condições meteorológicas e do tipo de solo sobre características físico-químicas e compostos fenólicos da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo implantado em 2003, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103' e conduzido no sistema espaldeira. No vinhedo, foram selecionados dois solos: Cambissolo Háplico e Cambissolo Húmico. O efeito das condições meteorológicas (precipitação e temperatura mínima e máxima do ar foi avaliado nas safras 2008/2009, 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Foram determinados os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e o pH do mosto, bem como o índice de polifenóis totais e dos teores de antocianinas e de taninos da uva. Os fatores solo e as condições meteorológicas (safras foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2x3. Com exceção do teor de polifenóis totais, as condições meteorológicas e o tipo de solo afetam as características físico-químicas da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', com efeito mais pronunciado das condições meteorológicas do que do tipo de solo. Menores precipitações e maiores amplitudes térmicas favorecem o acúmulo de sólidos solúveis na uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Maiores precipitações favorecem o aumento da acidez do mosto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of weather and soil type on the physicochemical characteristics and phenolic compounds of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape (Vitis vinifera. The experiment was carried out in a vineyard established in 2003, grafted onto 'Paulsen 1103', and conducted in the cordon system. Two soils were selected in the vineyard: Typic Dystrudepts and Pachic Humudepts. The effect of weather (rainfall, and minimum and maximum temperature was evaluated in the seasons 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011. Soil physical and chemical properties, soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH of the

  11. Produtividade e qualidade da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'produzida sob cobertura de plástico em cultivo orgânico

    OpenAIRE

    Detoni,Alessandra Maria; Clemente,Edmar; Fornari,Carlinhos

    2007-01-01

    A uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) é utilizada na produção de vinhos finos, sendo muito cultivada no Sul do Brasil. Esta variedade é muito sensível à ocorrência de doenças, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de práticas culturais para diminuir a incidência das mesmas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivada sob cobertura de plástico em sistema de produção orgânico. O experimento foi realizado em um vinhedo localizad...

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  13. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  14. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  15. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  16. Yeast population dynamics during prefermentative cold soak of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Y Paola; Mestre, M Victoria; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Nally, María Cristina; Lerena, María Cecilia; Toro, María Eugenia; Vazquez, Fabio; Combina, Mariana

    2015-04-16

    Prefermentative cold soak is a widely used technique in red wine production, but the impact on the development of native yeast species is hardly described. The aim of this work was to analyse the dynamics and diversity of yeast populations during prefermentative cold soak in red wines. Three different temperatures (14 ± 1 °C; 8 ± 1 °C and 2.5 ± 1 °C) were used for prefermentative cold soak in Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grape musts. Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces populations during cold soak and alcoholic fermentation were analysed. In addition, the impact on chemical and sensory properties of the wines was examined. Yeast dynamics during prefermentative cold soak were temperature dependent. At 14 ± 1 °C, the total yeast population progressively increased throughout the cold soak period. Conversely, at 2.5 ± 1 °C, the yeast populations maintained stable during the same period. Prefermentative cold soak conducted at 14±1°C favoured development of Hanseniospora uvarum and Candida zemplinina, whereas cold soak conducted at 8 ± 1 °C favoured growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At 2.5 ± 1 °C, no changes in yeast species were recorded. Acidity and bitterness, two sensory descriptors, appear to be related to wines produced with prefermentative cold soak carried out at 14 ± 1 °C. This fact could be associated with the increase in non-Saccharomyces during the prefermentation stage. Our results emphasise the importance of the temperature as a determinant factor to allow an increase in non-Saccharomyces population during prefermentative cold soak and consequently to modify sensorial attributes of wines as well as their sensorial impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content and colour of the Slovak cabernet sauvignon wines

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    Daniel Bajčan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time, they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Grapes and wine are a significant source of antioxidants in human nutrition. One of the most important group occuring in grapes and wines are polyphenols. Many of phenolic compounds have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant and antiradical activity. Therefore, it is important to know the content of polyphenols and their antioxidant effects in foods and beverages. Twenty-eight Cabernet Sauvignon wine samples, originated from different Slovak vineyard regions, were analyzed using spectrophotometry for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. Determined values of antioxidant activity in observed wines were within the interval 69.0 - 84.2% inhibition of DPPH (average value was 78.8% inhibition of DPPH and total polyphenol content ranged from 1,218 to 3,444 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 2,424 mg gallic acid.L-1. Determined total anthocyanin contents were from 68.6 to 430.7 mg.L-1 (average content was 220.6 mg.L-1 and values of wine colour density ranged from 0.756 to 2.782 (average value was 1.399. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results did not confirm any linear correlations between total polyphenol content, resp. total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The correlations between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, resp. the content of total anthocyanins and wine colour density were strong. The results confirmed very strong correlations between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant

  18. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

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    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  19. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  20. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  1. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  2. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  3. Effect of different irrigation strategies on vine physiology, yield, grape composition and sensory profiles of Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet-Sauvignon in a cool climate area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Balint

    2014-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of PRD and RDI on Cabernet-Sauvignon in a cool humid climate. It suggests that although RDI strategies are more effective, PRD also has value, particularly in dry seasons.

  4. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

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    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  5. Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-07-25

    The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  6. Comparison of distinct transcriptional expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from east and west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Sun, Run-Ze; Duan, Chang-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Flavonoids make a very important contribution to the organoleptic qualities of grapes and wines. In this work these were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grown in Changli, Hebei Province in east China and Gaotai, Gansu Province in west China. These regions have distinctly different climates contributing to their different 'terroir'. RNA sequencing was performed to trace transcriptome changes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries at pea size, veraison and ripening, corresponding to E-L 31, 35 and 38. The accumulation of flavonols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins together with the expression of relevant genes were analyzed and compared between the two regions. The biosynthesis patterns were similar between two regions, but more flavonols, anthocyanins, and tri-hydroxylated flavonoids accumulated in grapes from Gaotai before berry harvest, possibly due to the higher transcript levels of the genes that encode biosynthetic enzymes and their potential candidate transcription factors. The lower levels of flavan-3-ols, mainly (-)-epigallocatechin, in the pre-veraison grapes from Changli, might be due to limited flow of carbon to the F3'5'H branch pathway, as the ratio of F3'5'H to F3'H was lower in these berries from Changli. It is suggested that the combination of climatic factors profoundly affect the flavonoid pathway in grapes from China, providing regionally specific metabolism patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Amino acids and volatile compounds in wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo varieties subjected to malolactic fermentation in barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orte, P; Peña, A; Pardo, I; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to compare the behaviour of industrial lactic bacteria and indigenous bacteria of the cellar when malolactic fermentation was carried out in barrels. The effects of these bacteria on the concentration of metabolised amino acids during malolactic fermentation and on the composition of volatile compounds both before and after malolactic fermentation are studied. The experiment was performed with wines of the Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. An analysis has been made of the easily extractable volatile compounds of the wood and the compounds from the grapes, and the action of the yeasts during the alcoholic fermentation. Acetoin and diacetyl decreased during the malolactic fermentation in barrels and the concentrations of furfural and its derivatives were up to 100 times higher in wines not subjected to malolactic fermentation. Most of the volatile phenols increased during the malolactic fermentation in wines of the Tempranillo variety, while only guaiacol (p < 0.05) and t-isoeugenol increased in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The decrease in amino acids during the malolactic fermentation depends much more on the variety than on the bacterial strain which carries out the malolactic fermentation.

  8. Influence of closure, phenolic levels and microoxygenation on Cabernet Sauvignon wine composition after 5 years' bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guomin; Ugliano, Maurizio; Currie, Bruce; Vidal, Stéphane; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Wine aging is generally limited by the amount of oxidation, which is dependent on the amount of oxygen entering via the closure. Cabernet Sauvignon wine is well known for its high concentration of tannin, making it an ideal red wine for aging. The impact of closure type after 5 years' bottle aging has been investigated on a 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, treated with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and micro-oxygenation (Mox). Two oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions (16 and 5 µg per day) into 375 mL bottles were obtained by using different synthetic stoppers. Color was evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry, carbonyls by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization, phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography and sulfur dioxide by the aspiration method. Closure type strongly influenced color parameters involving SO2 bleaching and some phenolics, particularly quercetin, were affected, but there was little effect on carbonyls other than acetaldehyde. PVPP treatment afforded wines with the lowest levels of phenolics and color density, but highest acetaldehyde. Few effects of Mox could be detected. Closure OTR strongly affects sulfur dioxide levels - the primary antioxidant in wine - in aged wine, but phenolic levels substantially alter the secondary reactions of oxidative aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

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    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  10. Efeito de diferentes épocas de desfolha e de colheita na composição do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Effect of different defoliation and harvesting times in the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

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    Vitor Manfroi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em Santana do Livramento. Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de épocas de desfolha e de colheita sobre a composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O experimento foi conduzido num fatoriat incompleto, com quatro épocas de desfolha e três épocas de colheita, realizadas em função de uma data ideal de colheita, totalizando onze tratamentos, com três repetições. A intensidade de desfolha foi de aproximadamente 25%. Os vinhos foram elaborados através de microvinificações. Os resultados mostraram que a época de desfolha não afetou de forma significativa a maioria das variáveis analisadas no vinho, à exceçao do álcool, açúcares redutores e extraio seco. A época de colheita, por outro lado, influiu significativamente na maior parte das variáveis, exceto na acidez total e na acidez volátil, o que sugere uma maior influência deste fator sobre a composição e qualidade do vinho.The fleld work was carried out in Santana do Livramento, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of defotiation and harvesting times on the physicchemical composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The experimental design was an incompletely factorial with four defotiation times and three harvesting limes at on ideal harvest date with a total of eleven treatments in three replicales. The defotiation intensity was about 25% and wines were elaborated in small volumes The results showed that the time of defotiation did not have significam effect on the majority of the variables anatyzed, exception on the alcohot, reducing sugars and dry extract. On the other hand, the harvesting time had a significant effect on almost ali variables, exception to the total and votatile acidities. These results suggests a greater influence of the harvesting time on the composition and quatity of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

  11. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes as a function of geospatial variability in a Napa Valley vineyard

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    Carvalho, Angela; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Sue; Jenkins, Christopher; Plant, Richard; Smart, David

    2015-04-01

    A primary tenant of the concept of geoscience and wine is that elemental composition of soils may be reflected in the elemental profile of fruit and discerned in the organoleptic assessment of wine. The extremely varied soil composition at the vineyard level in the Napa Valley region of California provides an ideal setting to study elemental pattern correlations between grape berries and soil samples. In the Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon is a wine grape variety of substantial economic value. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in function of origin will provide a better understanding of the relationship between elemental accumulation in berries and soil element composition. The aim of this study was to explore the geospatial variability of elemental patterns in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with respect to the soil elemental profiles at thirty-six geo-referenced vines in a 4 ha vineyard. Sixty-eight elements were determined via inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); this allowed for elemental profiling of both soil and berries at each sampling site. It was found that for the soil samples twenty-two elements contributed to a significant difference between sampling points, and thirty for the berries. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) showed that soil and berry elemental composition varied as a function of location in the vineyard. For the soil PCA, rare earth metals such as Dy, Ho, Ce, Er, Yb and Tm were driving separation towards the southern section of the vineyard while K, Ga, V, Al, Mg and P were correlated with the northern section. In the berry samples the Lanthanides, Gd, Pr, Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, also showed a higher influence in driving separation towards the southern section while Sr, Mo, Ba, Mg, P, K, Cd, Cu, B, Rb and Ti characterized the elemental profile of the northern part of the block. These findings showed that the rare earth metals, in particular Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, were the most distinguishing elemental

  12. Comparison of aroma volatiles in commercial Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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    Gürbüz, Ozan; Rouseff, June M; Rouseff, Russell L

    2006-05-31

    Seventy-four aroma active compounds were observed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced in California and Australia. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction and analyzed using time-intensity gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The most intense odorants were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, octanal, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, beta-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethenyl-2-methoxy-phenol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol. Aroma compounds were classified according to their aroma descriptor similarity and summed into nine distinct categories consisting of fruity, sulfury, caramel/cooked, spicy/peppery, floral, earthy, pungent/chemical, woody, and green/vegetative/fatty. Both Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines were characterized by high fruity, caramel, green, and earthy aroma totals. Although there were distinct quantitative differences between Merlot and Cabernet wines, the relative aroma category profiles of the four wines were similar. Of the 66 volatiles identified by GC-MS, 28 were esters and 19 were minor alcohols. Between 81 and 88% of the total MS total ion chromatogram peak areas from each wine type were produced from only eight compounds: ethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, diethyl succinate, and 2-phenylethanol. Merlot wines from both Australia and California contained 4-5 times more ethyl octanoate than Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the same sources.

  13. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on polysaccharide and tannin content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Smith, Paul A; Hranilovic, Ana; Bindon, Keren A; Jeffery, David W

    2018-04-01

    A changing climate has led to winegrapes being harvested with increased sugar levels and at greater risk of berry shrivel. A suggested easy-to-adopt strategy to manage the associated rising wine alcohol levels is the pre-fermentative substitution of juice with either "green harvest wine" or water. Our study investigates the effects of this approach on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality attributes. Wines were also made from fruit collected at consecutive earlier harvest time points to produce wines comparable in alcohol to the substituted wines. Tannin concentrations and colour did not change significantly in the wines with modified alcohol content even at higher juice substitution rates. Differences in polysaccharide and tannin composition indicated variability in extraction dynamics according to substitution rate and type of blending component. In scenarios where berry shrivel is inevitable, the incorporation of water in particular offers much promise as part of a strategy to manage wine alcohol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Produtividade e qualidade da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'produzida sob cobertura de plástico em cultivo orgânico Productivity and quality of grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' produced in organic sistem under plastic covering

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    Alessandra Maria Detoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. é utilizada na produção de vinhos finos, sendo muito cultivada no Sul do Brasil. Esta variedade é muito sensível à ocorrência de doenças, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de práticas culturais para diminuir a incidência das mesmas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivada sob cobertura de plástico em sistema de produção orgânico. O experimento foi realizado em um vinhedo localizado no município de Toledo, região oeste do Paraná, sendo as plantas conduzidas no sistema de espaldeira, com cobertura de plástico na linha de plantio. Foram determinados: teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, a acidez titulável (AT, pH, antocianinas totais, produtividade, número de cachos por planta e peso médio dos cachos. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no teor de SS (17,3 ºBrix, porém os frutos sob a cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores teores de AT e pH, 1,14 g 100 mL-1 de suco e 3,4, respectivamente, que aqueles colhidos de plantas sem cobertura de plástico, que apresentaram AT de 0,87 g 100 mL-1 de mosto e pH de 3,5. O maior teor de antocianinas totais foi verificado nas plantas fora da cobertura, com 22,8 mg L-1. Nas plantas protegidas, a produção foi maior (1769 g planta-1 do que nas plantas sem cobertura (492 g planta-1, que apresentaram elevado índice de doenças. Conclui-se, desta forma, que a cobertura de plástico viabiliza o cultivo da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' no sistema de produção orgânico, por proporcionar diminuição na incidência de doenças.The grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. it is used in fine wines production, being very cultivated in the South of Brazil. This variety is very sensitive of occurrence of diseases, being necessary the development of cultural practices to reduce the incidence of the same ones. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and the

  15. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

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    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  16. The Influence of Prefermentative Addition of Gallic Acid on the Phenolic Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid in Cabernet Sauvignon red winemaking was performed. The influence of gallic acid addition on wine phenolic composition, the ratio of copigmentation, and the color parameters were monitored throughout the winemaking process. The results showed that the prefermentative addition of gallic acid enhanced the extraction of total anthocyanins and the copigmentation effect, producing wines with more darkness, redness, yellowness, and saturation. Moreover, the addition of gallic acid contributed to the concentration of total phenolic acids. However, it had a negative effect on the concentrations of flavonols and flavan-3-ols in the final wines. Thus, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid at appropriate levels might be a promising enological technology to obtain wines with high color quality and aging potential. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  18. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  19. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan-Lun; Liu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2016-10-12

    The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  20. Transcriptional expression of Stilbene synthase genes are regulated developmentally and differentially in response to powdery mildew in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ru; Ge, Hui; Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2012-12-01

    Stilbenic compounds are natural phytoalexins that have antimicrobial activities in plant defense against pathogens. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of stilbenic compounds. Grapevine genome contains a family of preliminarily annotated 35 STS genes, the regulation of each STS gene needs to be studied to define their roles. In this study, we selected eight STS genes, STS8, STS27/31, STS16/22, STS13/17/23, and applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to characterize their transcriptional expression profiles in leaf tissues upon infection by the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr. Their transcripts were also compared in young and old leaves as well as in the berry skin at five developmental stages in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and Vitis aestivalis 'Norton'. The results showed that transcripts of selected STS genes increased significantly in Cabernet Sauvignon leaves at 24 and 48 h post inoculation with PM spores and remained unchanged in Norton leaves in response to the PM infection. Transcripts of STS8, STS27/31 and STS13/17/23 were more abundant in the old leaves of Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon. STS genes showed lower expression levels in young leaves than in old leaves. Transcript levels of the eight STS genes increased drastically in the berry skin of Cabernet Sauvignon and Norton post véraison. In addition, the content of trans-resveratrol in the berry skin rapidly increased post véraison and reached the highest level at harvest. These assays demonstrated that individual STS genes are regulated differentially in response to PM infection and during development in the two grape varieties. The present study yields basic knowledge for further investigation of the regulation and function of each STS gene in grapevine and provides experimental evidences for the functional annotation of the STS gene family in the grapevine genome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  1. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic profile and free radical-scavenging activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different geographical origins from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Souquet, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    The phenolic profile, determined by the relative proportions of different phenolic compounds, is characteristic for each grape variety and its corresponding wine. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic and hydroxycinnamate acid, flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents and free radical-scavenging activity of single-cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) wines from selected Balkan vineyard regions by spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection. The contents of phenolic compounds varied depending on the agroclimatic factors and oenological practices of the vineyard region. The antioxidant activity of wine samples was estimated by their ability to scavenge the stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). All wines showed high DPPH-scavenging activity (70.03-83.53%, mean 73.76%). Significant correlations between catechin (R(2) = 0.8504) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.8488) concentrations and DPPH-scavenging ability of the wines were found. The concentrations of the main components catechin and quercetin can be used as biochemical markers for the authentication of red grape cultivars and their corresponding single-cultivar wines. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  3. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Study of the contribution of massoia lactone to the aroma of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alexandre; Allamy, Lucile; Lavigne, Valérie; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively. In Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon musts marked by dried fruit flavors from overripe grapes, its concentration reached 68µg/L. In contrast, in wines marked by these flavors, it never exceeded 20µg/L. We show that (R)-C10 massoia lactone is reduced to (R)-δ-decalactone during alcoholic fermentation. In addition, we underline the contribution of temperature during the growing season on its level in old red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  6. Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR, a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  7. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  8. Effect of Robola and Cabernet Sauvignon extracts on platelet activating factor enzymes activity on U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, M N; Asimakopoulos, D; Antonopoulou, S; Demopoulos, C A; Fragopoulou, E

    2014-12-15

    A number of studies support the anti-atherogenic effect of wine compounds. The scope of this study was to examine the effect of a red (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS) and a white (Robola-R) wine, as well as resveratrol and quercetin, on the platelet activating factor (PAF) biosynthetic enzymes, acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF-AT) and DTT-insensitive CDP-choline 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT), and its main catabolic enzyme (PAF acetylhydrolase; PAF-AH), on U937 cells, in cell free and in intact cell experiments. In cell free experiments, phenolic compounds and wine extracts inhibited PAF biosynthetic enzymes, however in higher concentrations than intact cell experiments. In the latter cases, polar lipids of both wines inhibited in the same order of magnitude the action of lyso-PAF-AT and of PAF-CPT. The water fractions possessed a dual action, in lower concentrations they activated both enzymes, while in higher concentrations only inhibited PAF-CPT. All fractions either did not affect or slightly activated PAF-AH activity. In conclusion, wine compounds may exert their anti-inflammatory activity by reducing PAF levels through modulation of the PAF metabolic enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of different position of grape clusters on the bearing shoot on production results of Cabernet Sauvignon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoloveić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the differences were examined between clones of Cabernet sauvignon (clones ISV-F-V5, ISV-F-V6 and R5, i.e. the difference between uvological properties of grape clusters and grape berries, based on the different positions on the bearing shoot. Tests were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture 'Radmilovac'. Standard ampelographic methods were used in numerous analyses of grape yield, as well as uvological properties of clones. All data were statistically analyzed and processed by the method of two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measuring of one factor (height and Tukey HSD test. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences between clones. The best results were achieved with grape clusters positioned in the base of bearing shoot. The first positioned grape clusters on the bearing shoot had the highest share in the total grape yield, the highest amount of sugar, and the highest positioned grape clusters had higher content of total acids. The differences determined between examined clones were in regard to productivity and quality of grapes which reflected also on production value.

  10. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  11. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  12. Chemical and sensory evaluation of Bordeaux wines (Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot) and correlation with wine age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Pacella, Nicola; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-06-15

    Wine quality study was carried out with 24 vintages of Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS) and 7 vintages of Merlot (M) produced by two different Bordeaux wine-growing areas. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV-Fluo. Percentage of galloylation (%G), of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) were also determined. Total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, total tannins, hue, CI (colour intensity), titratable acidity, ethanol level and pH were evaluated. Sensory analysis concerning astringency and bitterness intensity was also performed. Total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, total tannins, tannin monomers, hue, CI, % G, % P, mDP and astringency intensity differentiate both wines (M and CS) according to vintage. Correlations between wine age and: mDP, hue, astringency and tannin monomers (C+EC) are obtained. Qualitative tannin characterisation is established by correlation between astringency and mDP (R(2)=0.509, p=0.051, CS; R(2)=0.780, p=0.000M). In addition, mDP decreases significantly during ageing (R(2)=0.796, p=0.000; CS and R(2)=0.946, p=0.000; M). Scale patterns between wine mDP and tannin perception (astringency) are proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Repercussion of the phytosanitary treatments on various models of foliage management in a Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard (I note).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, G; Moretti, S; Casadei, G

    2004-01-01

    This study is the first communication about the repercussion of several phytosanitary treatments in three different training systems, differently managed in foilage, in relation to the usual phytopatologies: botrytis, acid rot, grape mildew and oldium. Particular attention to residuals of the products supplied on the foilage and present in ground and wine is paid. The considered foilage management systems are among those more spread and effective ones for a good quality wine production for Cabernet Sauvignon variety (clone R5). 11. Cordon Spur of Conegliano (C.S.C); 12. Simple Free Espalier Curtain (S.C.S.L); 13. Lyra (Lyra). The phytosanitary interventions for the foilage management systems have been compared between the company's ordinary plan and one with various and numerous active principles. The CG-ECD with Multiresidual analysis has determined the active principles residuals in the ground and in the wines. The characteristics of the wines have been determined by physical- chemical analysis; their organoleptic quality has been valued by panels of producers, oenologists, consumers and restaurant staff. The results point out a difference among the trials for the different presence of residuals. The foilage management justifies the diversity of the analytical composition of the wines. There is a substantial uniformity of judgements for the organoleptic quality. In conclusion, in this prove the judgement on the economic quality highlights the uselessness of the use of more incisive and radical active principles.

  14. Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Fang; Li, Jing-Ming

    2017-06-02

    Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon ( Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content. This technique increased ester contents, as well as decreasing the amount of volatile acids. Higher alcohol contents were also increased, but within an acceptable content range. All taken into consideration, the freeze concentration treated wine showed better fragrance characters according to sensory evaluation. The non-anthocyanin composition was altered by this application, however, the difference disappeared after the aging process. Fortunately, sensory evaluation showed that the treated wine possessed better mouthfeel properties. Anthocyanin contents were enhanced, and effectively stabilized the fresh wine color attributes, resulting in an improvement in appearance of the treated wine. All results considered, it can be concluded that freeze concentration treatment could be a good choice to improve wine quality.

  15. Condições meteorológicas e tipo de solo na composição da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das condições meteorológicas e do tipo de solo sobre características físico-químicas e compostos fenólicos da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo implantado em 2003, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103' e conduzido no sistema espaldeira. No vinhedo, foram selecionados dois solos: Cambissolo Háplico e Cambissolo Húmico. O efeito das condições meteorológicas (precipitação e temperatura mínima e máxima do ar foi avaliado nas safras 2008/2009, 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Foram determinados os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e o pH do mosto, bem como o índice de polifenóis totais e dos teores de antocianinas e de taninos da uva. Os fatores solo e as condições meteorológicas (safras foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2x3. Com exceção do teor de polifenóis totais, as condições meteorológicas e o tipo de solo afetam as características físico-químicas da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', com efeito mais pronunciado das condições meteorológicas do que do tipo de solo. Menores precipitações e maiores amplitudes térmicas favorecem o acúmulo de sólidos solúveis na uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Maiores precipitações favorecem o aumento da acidez do mosto.

  16. Sensory profiling and quality assessment of research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines; quality discrimination depends on greater differences in multiple modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Boss, Paul K; Bastian, Susan E P

    2018-04-01

    The sensory profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay research wines were determined and analysed together with wine quality scores of expert judges. Research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines from three and two vintages, respectively, were evaluated. Wines of both varieties were produced with grapes harvested from across South Australian wine making regions throughout 2013-2016 vintages. Wines within varieties were vinified identically across samples and also across vintages. Wines were profiled in triplicate using descriptive analysis with a panel of trained assessors (n=9-11) and graded for quality in triplicate by winemakers (n=6-9) using a sorting task based on similarity of quality and with the aid of definitions formed by the winemakers prior to sorting. The data sets were analysed using canonical variate analysis (CVA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). The scores from CVA and MDS per variety per vintage were analysed using Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Differences in Cabernet Sauvignon samples by provenance were determined, where associations with regions by sensory attributes were observed in all vintages. These wines were consistently sorted based on quality by the winemakers, evident from GPA. Chardonnay in comparison were poorly discriminated in both sensory profiles and quality. The combination of descriptive sensory analysis with sorting was complimentary to each other and was able to uncover additional information about the sensory properties of wines when the two methods were used in concert, such as balance and complexity. However the red wine variety had more intrinsic characteristics that lead to better discrimination based on sensory properties and hence quality than the white wine variety. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risco de geada e duração dos subperíodos fenológicos da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' na região da Campanha

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    Gabriel F. Brixner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar os períodos com maior risco de formação de geada e avaliar as alterações quanto à duração do ciclo fenológico da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon', estimados com base na disponibilidade térmica de Alegrete, Bagé, Quaraí, São Gabriel, Santana do Livramento e Uruguaiana, localizados na região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizados dados meteorológicos, como temperatura máxima e mínima do ar para o período de 1961 a 2010. Para determinar o risco de formação de geada foi considerada condição favorável a formação quando a temperatura mínima fosse menor ou igual a 3 °C. Para determinar o comportamento fenológico da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foi realizado o somatório de graus-dia abrangendo o período de 1/agosto a 10/outubro como início de brotação. Verifica-se que, no início de setembro, Uruguaiana e São Gabriel apresentam baixo risco de formação de geada, a nível de 0,05, enquanto para Alegrete, Bagé, Quaraí e Santana do Livramento para este nível a última data ocorre no início de outubro. Quanto aos subperíodos de desenvolvimento da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' é possível observar variações no número total de dias em relação às épocas de brotação, bem como entre os municípios da Campanha.

  18. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Asfaw; Hochberg, Uri; Sikron, Noga; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Ghan, Ryan; Plaschkes, Inbar; Batushansky, Albert; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Mattivi, Fulvio; Delledonne, Massimo; Pezzotti, Mario; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cramer, Grant R; Fait, Aaron

    2014-07-26

    Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3'5'H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3'5'H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between the central and specialized

  19. Effect of cluster sun exposure on chemical composition and technological properties of grapes and wine from cultivars Cabernet sauvignon and mavrud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambalov, V.; Rijchev, V.; Botyanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of direct solar radiation on grape clusters of cvs Cabernet sauvignon and Mavrid, formed under four different microclimatic conditions: Vo- control; V1 - clusters exposed naturally to direct sunlight; V2 - clusters formed under natural shading; V3 - clusters formed under artificial shading.The positive impact of direct solar radiation on the formation of wine structure, character and body indicated the primary role of agrotechnical practices for ensuring better sunlight exposure of clusters and microclimatic conditions to enable the production of good wine-making materials

  20. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.

  1. Disponibilidade hídrica, radiação solar e fotossíntese em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sob cultivo protegido Water supply, solar radiation and photosynthesis in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines under plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' com lona plástica translúcida sobre a disponibilidade de luz e água, a concentração foliar de clorofila e a fotossíntese. As plantas com cinco anos de idade foram conduzidas em sistema 'Y' sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (plantas sem e com cobertura plástica e quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. A cobertura plástica reduziu o suprimento às plantas de radiações ultravioleta (UV, azul, verde, vermelho, vermelho distante e total (300-750 nm, bem como a disponibilidade hídrica nas camadas superficiais do solo (0-30 cm. As plantas cobertas apresentaram maior taxa fotossintética máxima e condutância estomática em relação às plantas descobertas. Os pontos de compensação e de saturação de luz, a eficiência quântica aparente, a respiração no escuro, a concentração foliar de clorofilas e o potencial hídrico foliar de base não foram influenciados pelo uso da cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica reduziu a radiação e a disponibilidade hídrica nas camadas superficiais do solo, porém favoreceu a assimilação foliar de CO2.The objective of this work was to assess the effects of translucent plastic overhead cover on light and water supply of vineyard and leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in grapevines. Five-year-old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grafted on Paulsen 1103 rootstock and raised as 'Y' management system were used. The experiment followed a randomized block design, with two treatments (uncovered and covered plants and four replicates of 15 plants (experimental unit. The plastic cover reduced the supply of ultraviolet (UV, blue, green, red, far red, and total (300-750 nm radiation to the plants, as well as the water availability at the superficial soil layers (0-30 cm. Covered plants had

  2. PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE DA 'CABERNET SAUVIGNON' SUSTENTADA EM ESPALDEIRA E MANJEDOURA NA FORMA DE Y

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    MÁRIO JOSÉ PEDRO JÚNIOR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A uva ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ utilizada para elaboração de vinho tem tido seu plantio incrementado na região vitivinícola de São Roque (SP, sendo o sistema de sustentação mais usual a espaldeira. Recentemente, foi introduzido o sistema de sustentação em manjedoura na forma de Y, portanto foi realizado experimento objetivando caracterizar a produção e as características químicas do mosto da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ sustentada em espaldeira e em Y. As avaliações foram feitas durante os anos agrícolas: 2010/2011, 2011/2012 e 2012/2013. As videiras sustentadas em Y apresentaram maiores médias de massa dos cachos e de produtividade quando comparadas às sustentadas em espaldeira. As médias de produtividade estimada variaram entre 9,89 e 13,64 t ha-1 para a espaldeira e entre 13,34 e 17,43 t ha-1 para a manjedoura na forma de Y. Em relação às características químicas do mosto (teor de sólidos solúveis, pH e acidez titulável, não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os sistemas de sustentação das videiras. As médias do teor de sólidos solúveis variaram entre 17,3 e 19,3°Brix, e a acidez titulável total, entre 98 e 143 meq.L-1 para os diferentes anos agrícolas avaliados.

  3. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cabernet sauvignon grape cells exposed to thermal stresses reveals alterations in sugar and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Iniga S; Pascovici, Dana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are a valuable fruit crop and wine production is a major industry. Global warming and expanded range of cultivation will expose grapes to more temperature stresses in future. Our study investigated protein level responses to abiotic stresses, with particular reference to proteomic changes induced by the impact of four different temperature stress regimes, including both hot and cold temperatures, on cultured grape cells. Cabernet Sauvignon cell suspension cultures grown at 26°C were subjected to 14 h of exposure to 34 and 42°C for heat stress, and 18 and 10°C for cold stress. Cells from the five temperatures were harvested in biological triplicates and label-free quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed. A total of 2042 non-redundant proteins were identified from the five temperature points. Fifty-five proteins were only detected in extreme heat stress conditions (42°C) and 53 proteins were only detected at extreme cold stress conditions (10°C). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of differentially expressed proteins provided insights into the metabolic pathways that are involved in temperature stress in grape cells. Sugar metabolism displayed switching between alternative and classical pathways during temperature stresses. Additionally, nine proteins involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were greatly increased in abundance at extreme cold stress, and were thus found to be cold-responsive proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000977 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000977). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  6. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  7. Assessing the aromatic potential of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot musts used to produce rose wine by assaying the cysteinylated precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M L; Tominaga, T; Dubourdieu, D

    2001-11-01

    The development of a method for assaying S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-L-cysteine, the cysteinylated precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (P-3MH), in must has made it possible to study its impact on the aromatic potential of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties used to produce rose wines in Bordeaux. The original feature of this method is the purification of very small volumes of must (500 microL) containing P-3MH by affinity chromatography and gas-phase chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of the purified precursor in trimethylsilylated derivative form. Assays of the cysteinylated precursor in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes showed that it was mainly located in the grape skins (60%). Prolonged juice-skin contact increased the must's P-3MH content, and this phenomenon was more marked at higher temperatures. Assessment of the aromatic potential of must used to produce rose wines by chemical analysis of an S-cysteine conjugate is mentioned for the first time.

  8. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

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    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  9. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grape Berries

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    Yan-Lun Ju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  10. The combined effects of storage temperature and packaging on the sensory, chemical, and physical properties of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Buffon, Peter A; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-04-03

    A Californian Cabernet Sauvignon was stored for 6 months at three different constant temperatures to study the combined effects of storage temperature and packaging configuration. Glass bottles with natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw cap closure, as well as two Bag-in-Box treatments, were used in the experiment. A trained sensory panel was able to detect significant changes in aroma, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and color attributes among the samples, differences that were found also with various chemical and physical measurements (volatile profile, polyphenol pattern, enological parameters, color space). Additionally, two commonly used polyphenol assays were compared to each other in terms of their ability to detect the changes in the polyphenol profile. Generally, sample changes were more pronounced due to the different storage temperatures, with 30 sensory attributes differing significantly among the three different storage temperatures, while only 17 sensory attributes showed a significant packaging effect. With increasing storage temperature the packaging effect became more pronounced, resulting in the largest changes in the Bag-in-Box samples stored at the highest temperature of 40 °C. At the highest storage temperature, all wines showed oxidized characters, independent of the wine packaging configurations, but to a varying degree. Generally, wines that received highest oxygen amounts and storage temperatures were much lighter, less red, and more brown-yellow at the end of the 6-month storage period, compared to their counterparts stored at 10 °C. These changes in color and polyphenols, respectively, were also detected with the two spectrophotometric assays. With increasing storage temperature both assays measured reduced concentrations in total phenols and total anthocyanins, while total tannins, degree of ionized anthocyanins, and color density increased. Various volatile compounds differed significantly among the samples, with largest relative

  11. Brotação e produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Pinot Noir' submetidas a diferentes concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada Shoot growth and production of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir grapevines sprayed with different concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide

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    Gilmar Arduino Bettio Marodin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de frio invernal na videira produz efeitos adversos, como o atraso e desuniformidade de brotação das gemas, dificuldades de manejo fitossanitário, produção escalonada e de baixa qualidade. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Garibaldi, na região da Encosta Superior do Nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, com 640 metros de altitude, com objetivo de testar concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada de 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5% nas cultivares viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon e Pinot Noir. Os melhores resultados para brotação de gemas de vara foram de 1,75 e 2,0 % em 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Pinot Noir', respectivamente. Concentrações superiores a 1,5 % ocasionaram uniformidade de brotação, independentemente do ano. A maior produtividade foi obtida com cianamida.hidrogenada 2,0% nas duas cultivares, com elevação média de cinco ton/ha. Houve maior fertilidade nas gemas de vara do que em esporão. Os aspectos qualitativos das uvas não foram afetados pela cianamida hidrogenada, com exceção do peso médio dos cachos na 'Pinot Noir', na safra de 2004.The lack of chilling for grapevines produces adverse effects such as the delay and unevenness of budburst; difficulties for phytosanitary procedures, extension of the harvesting period and low fruit quality. The work was carried out close to Garibaldi, at an altitude of 640 meters in the region of "Encosta Superior" Northern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this work was to test concentrations of hydrogen Cyanamid varying from 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 ; 2,0 and 2.5% sprayed onto Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir cultivars. The best shoot growth results were obtained from sprays of 1.75% and 2.0% in Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir, respectively. Concentrations beyond to 1.5% promoted shoot growth uniformity, independent of the year. The highest productivity was obtained with 2.0% hydrogen Cyanamid in both cultivars, with an average increase of 5 ton/ha. There

  12. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

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    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  14. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

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    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  15. Modificação parcial do ambiente de cultivo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: efeito sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis Crop partially modified environment on different rootstocks of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine: effect on yield and sugar concentration

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    Maria Aparecida Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas regiões onde existe ocorrência de chuvas durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação dos frutos justifica-se a busca de alternativas de cultivo protegido de uvas para vinho visando atenuar esse impacto sobre a qualidade da produção. Um experimento com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e 'Ripária do Traviú',cultura videira foi conduzido em Jundiaí (SP, sob cultivo protegido (cobertura com plástico e laterais abertas, objetivando estudar as alterações microclimáticas ocorridas no ambiente de cultivo do vinhedo e avaliar o impacto dessa prática sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis, em relação ao cultivo em ambiente a céu aberto. A proteção por polietileno no cultivo da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' diminuiu o nível de radiação solar para 85,4% e aumentou as temperaturas máximas em 1,3 ºC. Nos ambientes analisados separadamente, as maiores produções por planta e teor de sólidos solúveis foram obtidas na 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' que superaram o 'Ripária do Traviú'. Na comparação entre os ambientes a céu aberto e parcialmente modificado não foram encontradas diferenças de produção, porém o teor de sólidos solúveis foi superior no ambiente a céu aberto.In the traditional regions of grape growers, where the incidence of rain is concentrated on the stage of fruit development and maturation, the search for improved crop management strategies is justified, aiming at attenuate the impact of it on yield quality. An experiment with grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" cultivated on rootstocks IAC 766, IAC 572 and Ripária do Traviú was carried out in Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, under plastic greenhouse. The search was focused on the microclimate modification in the environment of cultivated grapes from its conduction in partially modified crop cultivation environment (plastic cover with open sides, as well as evaluates the impact on

  16. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aminoácidos livres e uréia durante a fermentação do mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon com diferentes leveduras

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    DUTRA Sandra Valduga

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de aminoácidos e uréia em mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon fermentado com diferentes leveduras, foram os principais objetivos desse trabalho. Cabernet Sauvignon foi utilizada por ser teoricamente uma cultivar com alto teor de prolina e baixo teor de arginina, em comparação com cultivares com alto teor e predominância de arginina. Os mostos foram coletados em Santana do Livramento, RS e transportados para a UFSM; lá foram dividos em dois lotes aos quais foram adicionados diferentes leveduras: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermol Bouquet e Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2056. A análise dos aminoácidos foi realizada utilizando um analizador de aminoácidos marca Hitachi L-8500 conforme SANDERS e OUGH (21. Uréia foi determinada de acordo com ALMY e OUGH (1 modificado por PEREIRA e DAUDT (19. O aminoácido encontrado no mosto, em maior quantidade foi a prolina (847mg/l seguido por arginina (235mg/l e alanina (87mg/l. A maioria dos aminoácidos (exceção de prolina foram consumidos pelas leveduras logo após o início da fermentação. A liberação máxima de uréia no meio coincidiu com o consumo máximo de arginina, que na fermentação com a levedura 2056 ocorreu à 19° Brix (2,7mg/l e com a levedura Fermol Bouquet ocorreu com o mosto a 15° Brix (4,1mg/l. O teor de prolina permaneceu elevado durante todo o processo fermentativo, confirmando a pouca preferência das leveduras por este aminoácido. Os aminoácidos arginina, treonina, serina, aspartato e isoleucina, podem ser considerados melhores fontes de nitrogênio para as leveduras.

  19. Produção e composição química da uva de videiras Cabernet Sauvignon submetidas à adubação nitrogenada Grapes yield and chemistry composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine with nitrogen fertilization

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    Gustavo Brunetto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A adubação nitrogenada em videiras é realizada para suprir a demanda da planta pelo nutriente. Porém, o nitrogênio (N deve ser usado com prudência porque afeta a produção e a composição química da uva e do seu mosto, nem sempre na mesma direção. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N na produção de uva, em seus componentes e na composição química do seu mosto. O experimento foi desenvolvido na safra 2004/05, em vinhedo de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, na área experimental da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, sobre NEOSSOLO LITÓLICO. Os tratamentos foram testemunha, 15, 30, 45 e 60kg ha-1 de N aplicados durante o ciclo vegetativo e produtivo. Na maturação, a uva foi colhida, e o seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: a produção por planta e por hectare, o comprimento e a largura de cachos e a massa de 100 bagas. Foram coletadas bagas de uva, sendo uma parte amassada, e no mosto foram determinados os sólidos solúveis totais, o pH, a acidez total, o ácido tartárico e málico, os polifenóis totais, as antocianinas e o N amoniacal. As bagas restantes foram trituradas, e foi analisado o total de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de uva de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon em solos com teores médios de matéria orgânica é máxima com a aplicação de doses de 15 e 30kg ha-1 de N. A aplicação de N aumenta os teores de N amoniacal no mosto, mas diminui as antocianinas, e aumenta a porcentagem de K nas bagas, o que interfere na cor dos vinhos tintos e na formação de precipitados.Fertilization of grapevines with N is generally accomplished to supply the demand for N. However N should be used with prudence because affect the yield and chemical composition of the grape and your must. The experiment was carried out in 2004/05, to evaluate the effect of N fertilization on the grape yield and on the chemical composition of the grape and must of Cabernet

  20. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

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    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  1. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Hochberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C. Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose, more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures.

  2. Application of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to predict sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from grape chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Tomic, Oliver; Næs, Tormod; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P; Boss, Paul K

    2018-08-01

    The current study determined the applicability of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to relate Cabernet Sauvignon grape chemical composition to the sensory perception of the corresponding wines. Grape samples (n = 25) were harvested at a similar maturity and vinified identically in 2013. Twelve measures using various (bio)chemical methods were made on grapes. Wines were evaluated using descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 10) for sensory profiling. Data was analysed globally using SO-PLS for the entire sensory profiles (SO-PLS2), as well as for single sensory attributes (SO-PLS1). SO-PLS1 models were superior in validated explained variances than SO-PLS2. SO-PLS provided a structured approach in the selection of predictor chemical data sets that best contributed to the correlation of important sensory attributes. This new approach presents great potential for application in other explorative metabolomics studies of food and beverages to address factors such as quality and regional influences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. The HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L(-1)) than EC1118 (390 g L(-1)) during alcoholic fermentation, but the concentration equalized during the aging period (424 and 417 g L(-1) respectively). All aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than the EC1118 wines by the panel of tasters after alcoholic fermentation. In general, the HPS wines showed better physicochemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all aging techniques contributed to improve wine quality, but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed the best wine to be obtained, because it depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Associations between the sensory attributes and volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines and the volatile composition of the grapes used for their production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ciarán G; Cox, Agnieszka; Williams, Emlyn R; Boss, Paul K

    2011-03-23

    The sensory properties of wine are influenced by the chemical composition of the grapes used to produce them. Identification of grape and wine chemical markers associated with the attributes perceived by the consumer of the wine will enable better prediction of the potential of a parcel of grapes to produce wine of a certain flavor. This study explores the relationships between Cabernet Sauvignon grape volatile composition and wine volatile profiles with the sensory properties of wines. Twenty grape samples were obtained from nine vineyard sites across three vintages and wines vinified from these parcels using controlled winemaking methods. The volatile composition of the grapes were analyzed by SBSE-GCMS, the wines were analyzed by SPME-GCMS, and these data sets were compared to that obtained from the sensory analysis of the wines. Statistical treatment of the data to account for vintage and region effects allowed underlying relationships to be seen between wine sensory attributes and wine or grape volatile components. The observed associations between grape or wine volatile compounds and wine sensory attributes has revealed target compounds and pathways whose levels may reflect the biochemical effects on grape composition by differing growth conditions during berry development and ripening. The compounds identified in this study may be useful grape or wine markers for potential wine sensory characteristics.

  5. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of yeast strain, canopy management, and site on the volatile composition and sensory attributes of cabernet sauvignon wines from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Anthony L; Boss, Paul K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Solomon, Peter S; Trengove, Robert D

    2011-04-13

    Understanding what factors are the major influences on wine composition will assist in the successful management of grape composition in the vineyard and/or variables in the winery to produce wines with specific sensory attributes. A recently developed analytical method [headspace solid-phase microextraction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry] was employed to analyze over 350 volatile compounds in research scale wines and was combined with descriptive sensory analysis. Both compositional and sensory results showed significant differences among the wines, and in many cases, multiple factors influenced the abundance of wine volatile compounds. Site had the most significant influence on sensory scores and wine composition, followed by canopy management. Unexpectedly, yeast strain had no significant sensory effect despite the fact that a number of volatile compounds were significantly different in the wines made from different strains. PLS analysis, combining the sensory and chemical analyses, also supports the concept of volatile compound interactions contributing to the aroma characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

  7. Phenolic compositions of grapes and wines from cultivar cAbernet Sauvignon produced in Chile and their relationship to commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Galvez, Andrés; Obreque-Slier, Elías; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2012-09-05

    The phenolic composition of wine depends on, among other factors, the grapes used to make it. In this sense, knowledge of the chemical composition of grapes and its association with the resulting wines is an important tool to determine if there is a relationship between the phenolic composition of grapes and the price that these wines obtain in the market. For this purpose, grape skins and seeds from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon from the central region of Chile, in 2009 and 2010 vintages from two ripening points, were subjected to chemical and phenolic analyses, as were the wines made from these grapes. Grapes and the corresponding wines from three retail price wine categories, U.S. $6-8, U.S. $28-30, and U.S. $150-160, were evaluated. No differences were found across the price categories in the chemical analysis of grapes. Berry skins and wines from the higher price categories presented a higher concentration only of total tannins, and the differences in their concentrations were only among the different fractions of proanthocyanidins in the skins, seeds, and wines; there were no differences in their proportions. A seasonal effect influenced the concentrations of certain compounds in grapes and led to a decrease in the concentration of total phenols, total tannins, and total anthocyanins between sampling dates as harvesting moved toward the common commercial grape harvest in Chilean viticulture.

  8. Effect of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines of the north foot of Mt. Tianshan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Cheng, Guo; Duan, Liang-Liang; Jiang, Ren; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-15

    C6 and C9 volatiles, originated from fatty acids, are important volatiles for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines. This study evaluated the influence of different training systems including Modified Vertical Shoot Positioned, (M-VSP); Fan training system with two trunks (F-TT); Fan training system with multiple trunks (F-MT) on these volatiles and the long-chain fatty acids (>C12) of grape berries and wines in the northwest of China. The expression profiles of genes from associated metabolic pathway were also analyzed. F-MT training resulted in lower vine vigor, larger yield, higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in grapes and lower C6 esters in wines in comparison with M-VSP and F-TT. M-VSP and F-TT enhanced C6 volatiles in grape berries. The concentrations of C6 volatiles were positively correlated with the expression of VvLOXA and VvHPL1. The results expanded the knowledge of the influence of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles of grapes and wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-10-14

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures.

  10. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  11. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  12. Ácido abscísico e Etefom: influência sobre a maturação e qualidade das uvas Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar os efeitos da aplicação exógena de ABA e ETEFOM sobre a maturação e a qualidade de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon. O presente trabalho foi realizado em um vinhedo, localizado na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Videira - SC, durante a safra de 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas as doses de 0; 20 e 40g i.a. 100L-1 de ácido abscísico (ABA e 0; 136,8 e 273,6g i.a. 100L-1 de ETEFOM, configurando um experimento fatorial 3x3. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no início da mudança de cor das bagas "veraison". As variáveis analisadas nas uvas foram teor de antocianinas, polifenóis totais, índice CIRG (índice de cor para uvas tintas, atividade antioxidante, sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix e acidez total titulável. Os resultados indicam melhoria na qualidade das uvas com o uso das combinações de ABA e ETEFOM, aumento do índice CIRG, polifenóis totais, antocianinas e açúcares.

  13. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  14. Impact of extended maceration and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines: characterization of proanthocyanidin distribution, anthocyanin extraction, and chromatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Larsen, Richard C; Beaver, Christopher W; Mireles, Maria S; Keller, Markus; Riley, William R; Smithyman, Russell; Harbertson, James F

    2013-07-03

    The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ~73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution.

  15. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries. PMID:28469625

  16. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Young Wines Made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grapes Treated by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS (Vitis vinifera L. were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz, and deionized water (control, at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  17. Changes in monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids during Cabernet Sauvignon wine ageing based on a simultaneous analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; Lan, Yi-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xiang, Xiao-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids are the important flavour-related components in wines. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a method that could simultaneously analyse these compounds in wine based on silylation derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and apply this method to the investigation of the changes of these compounds and speculate upon their related influences on Cabernet Sauvignon wine flavour during wine ageing. This work presented a new approach for wine analysis and provided more information concerning red wine ageing. This method could simultaneously quantitatively analyse 2 monosaccharides, 8 organic acids and 13 amino acids in wine. A validation experiment showed good linearity, sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Multiple derivatives of five amino acids have been found but their effects on quantitative analysis were negligible, except for methionine. The evolution pattern of each category was different, and we speculated that the corresponding mechanisms involving microorganism activities, physical interactions and chemical reactions had a great correlation with red wine flavours during ageing. Simultaneously quantitative analysis of monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids in wine was feasible and reliable and this method has extensive application prospects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Metabolite and proteome changes during the ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties cultured in a nontraditional wine region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraige, Karina; González-Fernández, Raquel; Carrilho, Emanuel; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2015-01-15

    Grapevines are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of views in many countries, including Brazil, where the practice of vitiviniculture is being developed in different regions. We compared the anthocyanin concentration, the main organic acids and sugars, and the proteome profiles during berry ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from two distinct geographical sources in São Paulo State. The proteome was mapped by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially abundant proteins during the ripening process were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. An increase in sugar concentration and in anthocyanin content was observed, as well a decrease in the tartaric and malic acid concentration. A total of 128 spots varied with geographical origin, grape variety, and ripening stage, with 108 being identified. The identified proteins resulted in 80 gene products. A multivariate analysis of protein abundance clustered the samples according to grape variety, geographical origin, and stage of ripening, and showed the possibility of using proteomics to characterize three variables: variety, area where grown, and the ripening process. The changes observed during the ripening process corresponded to enzymes involved in sugar and organic acid metabolism. These results are in accordance with the metabolic profile reported for the process. Given the importance of discriminating grapes, thus making the adulteration of wines more difficult, in this paper we showed the possibility of differentiating varieties of grapes, geographical area of cultivation and stage of ripening by combining the results of differentially abundant protein determinations and multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relações hídricas, rendimento e compostos fenólicos de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon em três tipos de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a influência de três tipos de solo (Argissolo Bruno-acizentado, Planossolo Háplico e Neossolo Regolítico sobre aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da produção de uvas destinadas à vinificação. O experimento foi executado no ciclo 2008/2009, em vinhedo da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., no município de Bento Gonçalves, (RS. Avaliou-se a disponibilidade hídrica em base gravimétrica ao longo do período de maturação das uvas, o potencial da água na folha, parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo, componentes do rendimento e os compostos fenólicos no momento da colheita. Argissolos Bruno-acizentados propiciaram maior crescimento vegetativo, sobretudo em massa de ramos, comprimento de entrenós e área foliar, assim como, cachos com maior número de bagas. Planossolos Háplicos com maior disponibilidade hídrica proporcionaram maior produtividade das videiras. Neossolos Regolíticos levaram à menor disponibilidade hídrica, o que reflete em redução do potencial da água na folha. Nestas condições de restrição hídrica, as videiras tiveram menor crescimento e rendimento, como também, maiores teores de taninos e índice de polifenóis totais. Em geral, o Neossolo Regolítico pode ser considerado mais promissor para a obtenção de vinhos finos de qualidade.

  20. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L. berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs. Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  1. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina

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    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.

  2. Cabernet Sauvignon ve Merlot Şarapların Resveratrol Düzeyleri ve Ekolojik Koşulların Etkileri

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    Belkıs Çaylak Adıgüzel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fitoaleksinler bitkilerde patojen enfeksiyonuna bir reaksiyon olarak veya çeşitli biyotik ve abiyotik tetikleyicilerin etkisi sonucu oluşan fenolik madde karakterli, düşük molekül ağırlıklı antimikrobiyal bileşiklerdir. Resveratrol (trans–3,5,4’-trihidroksistilben de bir fitoaleksin olup, asma (Vitis vinifera, yer fıstığı (Arachis hypogaea ve diğer pek çok bitki türünde yaprak veya diğer organlarda yüksek miktarlarda bulunabilmektedir. Resveratrol asmada gövde, sürgün ve yapraklar yanında, özellikle renkli çeşitlerin tane kabuğunda bol miktarda sentezlenebilmekte ve şarap yapımı sırasında şıraya, şıradan da şaraba geçmektedir. Son yıllarda resveratrolün antikanserojen özelliği ve antioksidan karakteri nedeniyle sağlık yararları üzerine yoğun araştırmalar yapılmakta ve günlük diyette alımı önerilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Ege, Marmara ve Trakya Bölgeleri’nde üretilen kimi bağlardan sağlanan Cabernet sauvignon ve Merlot siyah üzümlerinden üretilmiş şaraplarda bulunan resveratrol miktarları Yüksek Performanslı Sıvı Kromatografisi yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar bölgelerin ekolojik koşulları açısından birbirleriyle karşılaştırılmış ve resveratrol miktarı ile bu parametreler arasındaki korelasyon araştırılmıştır. Resveratrol konsantrasyonunun üzüm çeşidi ve bölgelerin iklim şartlarına bağlı olarak farklılıklar gösterebileceği görülmüştür.

  3. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom

  4. Effect of pH on the copigmentation of anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon grape extracts with organic acids Efeito do pH na copigmentação de antocianinas do extrato de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon com ácidos orgânicos

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    Cony Gauche

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins show low-stability when exposed to different food processing conditions. Copigmentation is one of the main reactions contributing to the in vivo color responsible to the stability of anthocyanins. In the aim of holding the red color, copigmentation effect of organic acids (caffeic, ferulic, gallic and tannic acids combined with anthocyanins in crude Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract at pH values (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.3, 3.5, 3.7, 4.0, 4.5 was evaluated in this research. The maximum copigmentation effect, revealed by the hyperchromic and bathochromic shifts in anthocyanin maximum absorbance wavelength, was obtained at pH 3.3 with every acid used. Anthocyanin stability was followed by measuring the loss of color, thus it was possible to determine the protecting effects of these copigments. Tannic acid was the best copigment in our model system, giving half-life time of 2,585 h. We are suggesting the formation of pyranoanthocyanins by the reactions of anthocyanins with caffeic and ferulic acid, these substances could be avoiding the observation of the copigmentation effect. Addition of organic acids could improve the anthocyanin stability; though, more studies are needed to justify the lack of copigmenting effect observed with the caffeic and ferulic acids.Antocianinas apresentam baixa estabilidade frente aos fatores que afetam o processamento de alimentos. A copigmentação é uma das principais reações responsáveis pela estabilidade da coloração de antocianinas in vivo. Com objetivo de manter a coloração vermelha, a copigmentação das antocianinas do extrato bruto de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. com ácidos orgânicos (ácidos caféico, ferrúlico, gálico e tânico em diferentes valores de pH (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 3,3; 3,5; 3,7; 4,0; 4,5 foi avaliada neste estudo. O efeito máximo de copigmentação, revelado pelos deslocamentos hipercrômico e batocrômico, foi obtido em pH 3,3 para todos os

  5. Quantificação da área e do teor de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' mediante métodos não destrutivos Non-destructive quantification of area and chlorophyll content in the leaves of young 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando a desenvolver métodos não destrutivos para estimar a área foliar e o conteúdo de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Para a estimativa da área foliar, foram tomadas medidas de comprimento da nervura principal e das duas maiores nervuras secundárias em folhas representando uma grande amplitude de áreas foliares, seguindo-se da leitura em um integrador de área foliar. Para a quantificação de clorofilas, folhas com tonalidades variando de verde-amareladas (folha clorótica a verde-escuras foram avaliadas individualmente com um medidor de clorofila (Minolta SPAD-502 e um colorímetro (Minolta CR-400, no espaço de cores L, C e hº, nas faces abaxial (inferior e adaxial (superior, seguido de quantificações destrutivas de clorofilas a, b e totais. A quantificação do comprimento da nervura principal proporcionou boa estimativa da área foliar, sendo que a soma do comprimento das duas nervuras secundárias, bem como do somatório destes comprimentos com o comprimento da nervura principal, resultou em aumento muito pequeno na capacidade de estimativa da área foliar. Os valores das leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, avaliados em ambas as faces das folhas, aumentaram com o incremento nos teores de clorofilas. Os modelos ajustados entre os teores de clorofilas e as leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro apresentaram valores de R² similares. Todavia, a medição da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, feita na face adaxial da folha, mostrou melhor estimativa do teor de clorofila, expresso em unidade de área (µg.cm-2 de folha.This work was carried out to develop non destructive methods to estimate the area and chlorophylls content in the leaves of young grapevines 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. For leaf area estimation, the lengths of main and two secondary leaf veins were measured, in leaves ranging from

  6. Influência da maceração carbônica e da irradiação ultravioleta nos níveis de trans-resveratrol em vinhos de uva cabernet sauvignon Influence of the carbonic maceration on the levels of trans-resveratrol in cabernet sauvignon wine

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    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo moderado de vinho reduz significativamente os riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Este efeito é atribuído aos polifenóis presentes no vinho, em especial ao resveratrol (3,5,4'-triidroxiestilbeno, que é uma fitoalexina encontrada em várias partes da videira, principalmente na casca da uva, assim como em outras espécies de plantas. Uvas da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foram submetidas à irradiação com luz ultravioleta e maceração carbônica e após fermentadas. Procedeu-se à coleta de amostras durante todo o experimento, as quais foram posteriormente analisadas quanto ao teor de trans-resveratrol através da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que a evolução do conteúdo de trans-resveratrol foi ascendente durante as fases da fermentação. Diferenças ocorreram no final da fermentação, em que as amostras de vinhos com maceração carbônica apresentaram leve declínio, possivelmente pela atmosfera de CO2 na qual ficaram armazenadas, inibindo a formação do resveratrol. Ao final da fermentação principal a concentração de trans-resveratrol foi de 15 mg.L-1 em todos os tratamentos, chegando a 1,5 mg.L-1, em média, no final do período de estocagem.The moderate consumption of wine reduces the risks of heart diseases significantly. This effect is attributed to the polyphenols found in the wine, in special to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihidroxistilbene that it is a phytoalexin found in the various parts of the vine, including in the skin of the grape, as well as in other species of plants. Grapes of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon had been submitted to the irradiation with ultra-violet light and carbonic maceration and after fermented. It was proceeded all collection from samples during the experiment, which later had been analyzed how much to the concentration of trans-resveratrol using the Liquid Chromatography of High Efficiency. The of the content of trans-resveratrol was ascendent

  7. Tannin Composition of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot Grapes from the Bordeaux Area for Different Vintages (2006 to 2009 and Comparison to Tannin Profile of Five 2009 Vintage Mediterranean Grapes Varieties

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    Kleopatra Chira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009. The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise. The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009 revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  8. Cu, Zn and Mn uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine: effect of soil metal content and plant vigor

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    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, María Paz

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of leaf thinning on micronutrient (Cu, Zn and Mn) uptake and distribution in grape tissues, in a 16 year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The analysis was carried out in two plots with differences in vigor (P1- high and P2-low) grown in calcareous soils. Vigour was analysed by the NDVI values. In each plot, two treatments (with and without leaf thinning after bloom) were applied. Total and the CaCl2-DTPA extractable fraction of these micronutrients were evaluated. Nutrient concentration in petiole were evaluated from veraison to harvest as well as the concentration of those elements in seeds and skins at ripening and in wines elaborated with grapes grown in each plot and treatment in 2013. Their relationships were evaluated. The soil extractable fraction did not give a good correlation with petiole concentrations. However, Mn in petiole was strongly correlated with soil total Mn. Cu and Zn had higher concentration at veraison than at harvest, while for Mn it was the opposite. Cu concentration in petiole and seeds was greater in the most vigorous plots, but there were not clear differences between treatments. Cu in seeds and skins correlated significantly but there was not correlation with Cu in petiole. Zn concentration in skins was quite similar in both plots, but with higher values in vines without leaf thinning. Zn concentrations in skins were correlated with Zn in petiole but no significant correlation was found with Zn in seeds. Higher concentrations were found in the no thinning treatment in skins. For Mn, petiole concentrations were greater in the high vigorous plot and in the leaf thinning treatment. However, petiole Zn concentrations were greater in the less vigorous plot and without clear effect of leaf thinning. Mn concentration in skins was greater in the less vigorous vines in both treatments and it was inversely correlated with Mn in seeds, but there were no significant correlation between them and Mn in petiole

  9. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

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    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está o manejo do vinhedo, aliado a ajustes tecnológicos nas etapas de elaboração do vinho. Para tal, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0g hl-1, 10,0g hl-1, 20,0g hl-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, descuba, e após a fermentação malolática. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se análises sensoriais, em relação aos atributos ligados aos perfis olfativos e gustativos, com análise de oito descritores olfativos e nove descritores gustativos, além de um conceito geral. Assim, verificou-se que os taninos enológicos imprimiram algumas diferenças, principalmente no perfil aromático dos vinhos, que apresentaram acréscimo de qualidade quando tratados com os taninos enológicos. Da mesma maneira, houve superioridade olfativa e gustativa nos vinhos que receberam tratamentos com taninos na etapa de maceração.The objective of this research was to study the effect of enological tannins in the sensory composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The study was conducted in Bento Gonçalves, RS, with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, harvest 2004. This is a cultivar that stands out in importance in Brazil for the production of red wines. However, in some crops there are difficulties for a proper maturation, which hampers the development of wines with the sensory profile desired by consumers. Among the strategies to minimize this problem

  10. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

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    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  11. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

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    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  12. Efeito do ácido tartárico nos valores de potássio, acidez titulável e pH durante a vinificação de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon Effect of tartaric acid upon potassium, total acidity and pH, during the vinification of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

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    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Vinhos tintos com altos valores de pH são resultantes de uvas com valores excessivos de potássio. O excesso de potássio é, geralmente, resultado, do manejo inadequado no vinhedo. Com o intuito de encontrar uma solução tecnológica para o problema de pH nos mostos antes e durante da aplicação de medidas no vinhedo, foram realizadas vinificações em escala piloto com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon adicionando-se ácido tartárico no momento do esmagamento. Assim, três tratamentos, em duplicata, foram feitos com a adição de zero (testemunha, 1 e 2gL-1 de ácido tartárico. Foram utilizados os procedimentos normais de sulfitagem, uso de enzimas pectinolíticas e leveduras selecionadas. A descuba foi realizada após 10 dias e a fermentação malolática foi espontânea. Foram analisados potássio (por fotometria de chama, acidez titulável (por titulometria e pH (por peagâmetro no mosto durante a fermentação e no vinho resultante. Potássio foi também analisado nas películas e nas borras submetidas, no entanto, a digestão nitroperclórica antes da análise. Os valores encontrados para potássio (gL-1, acidez titulável (g% e pH durante a microvinificação foram, respectivamente, na amostra testemunha: 1,98, 0,61, 3,68; tratamento 1: 1,72, 0,70 e 3,63; tratamento 2: 1,41, 0,73 e 3,50. A análise de potássio, nas películas e nas borras nos diferentes tratamentos, apresentou os seguintes valores, respectivamente, para a amostra testemunha em g kg-1 (Matéria Seca: 24,91 e 69.30; tratamento 1: 21,85 e 75.11; tratamento 2: 16,20 e 85.38. A ação do ácido tartárico torna-se mais evidente nas borras, em que quanto maior foi a adição de ácido no mosto maior foi a quantidade de potássio encontrada nestas, reduzindo, desse modo, a quantidade de potássio no vinho. Salienta-se que a adição de ácido tartárico é um paliativo momentâneo e a verdadeira correção deve ser feita no vinhedo, por meio de um manejo adequado.Wines with high p

  13. Effect of foliar nitrogen and sulphur application on aromatic expression of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc

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    Florian Lacroux

    2008-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Vine nitrogen deficiency can negatively impact on grape aroma potential. Soil nitrogen application can increase vine nitrogen status, but it has several drawbacks: it increases vigour and enhances Botrytis susceptibility. This study shows that foliar N and foliar N + S applications can improve vine nitrogen status and enhance aroma expression in Sauvignon blanc wines without the negative impact on vigour and Botrytis susceptibility. Although this study was carried out on Sauvignon blanc vines, it is likely that foliar N or foliar N + S applications will have similar effects on other grapevine varieties containing volatile thiols (Colombard, Riesling, Petit Manseng and Sémillon.

  14. GC-MS metabolic profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars during grapevine berry development and network analysis reveals a stage- and cultivar-dependent connectivity of primary metabolites.

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    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Ruíz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    Information about the total chemical composition of primary metabolites during grape berry development is scarce, as are comparative studies trying to understand to what extent metabolite modifications differ between cultivars during ripening. Thus, correlating the metabolic profiles with the changes occurring in berry development and ripening processes is essential to progress in their comprehension as well in the development of new approaches to improve fruit attributes. Here, the developmental metabolic profiling analysis across six stages from flowering to fully mature berries of two cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, is reported at metabolite level. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted approach, 115 metabolites were identified and relative quantified in both cultivars. Sugars and amino acids levels show an opposite behaviour in both cultivars undergoing a highly coordinated shift of metabolite associated to primary metabolism during the stages involved in growth, development and ripening of berries. The changes are characteristic for each stage, the most pronounced ones occuring at fruit setting and pre-Veraison. They are associated to a reduction of the levels of metabolites present in the earlier corresponding stage, revealing a required catabolic activity of primary metabolites for grape berry developmental process. Network analysis revealed that the network connectivity of primary metabolites is stage- and cultivar-dependent, suggesting differences in metabolism regulation between both cultivars as the maturity process progresses. Furthermore, network analysis may represent an appropriate method to display the association between primary metabolites during berry developmental processes among different grapevine cultivars and for identifying potential biologically relevant metabolites.

  15. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

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    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  16. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Carménère grape and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Kennedy, James A; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-05-02

    A formal compositional study of the proanthocyanidins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carménère was conducted in this work. We first characterized the polymeric proanthocyanidins of Carménère skins, seeds, and wines. In addition, the wine astringency was analyzed and compared with Cabernet Sauvignon. Although Carménère wines had a higher proanthocyanidin concentration and mean degree of polymerization than Cabernet Sauvignon wines, the former wines were perceived as less astringent. The low seed/skin proportion in Carménère wines as compared to other varieties, as evidenced by the reduced number of seeds per berry and the higher amount of epigallocatechin subunits of Carménère wine proanthocyanidins, could explain this apparent paradox.

  17. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  18. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP and thermal infrared (TIR imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R2 increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE and standard error (SE decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  19. Tiamina e riboflavina: evolução com a maturação de Cabernet Sauvignon e comportamento durante a fermentação com diferentes níveis de anidrido sulfuroso adicionado Thiamine and riboflavin: evolution during ripening of Cabernet Sauvignon and during fermentation with different levels of so2 added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das vitaminas,tiamina (vitamina B1 e riboflavina (vitamina B2,durante a maturação de Vitis vinifera cultivar Cabemet Sauvignon e durante a fermentação do mosto, usando diferentes quantidades de SO2. Os valores mínimos encontrados para tiamina e riboflavina foram respectivamente (ug/100nd: 7,67 e 6,85 com 5,5 °Brix e os máximos foram, respectivamente, 19,35 (na colheita e 15,75 com 12,8 °Brix. A tiamina foi quase totalmente consumida antes da fermentação inicial, aparecendo novamente ao final da mesma. A riboflavina, ao contrário aumentou durante a fermentação. Ambas as vitaminas aumentaram durante a maturação de Cabemet Sauvignon, estando a tiamina presente em maior quantidade. O aumento das quantidades de SO2 adicionado ao mosto, afetou a tiamina numa proporção direta, mas não teve nenhum efeito sobre a riboflavina. A tiamina diminuiu durante a fermentação, ao mesmo tempo em que ocorreu um aumento da riboflavina.The aim of the work was to follow the behaviour of both vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, during ripening of Vitis vinifera Cabemet Sauvignon and during fermentation of the must using different amounts of SO2. Minimum values for thiamine and riboflavin were, respectivelly, (ug/100ml: 7.67 and 6.85 at 5.5 °Brix and the maximum values were, respectivelly, 19.35 (at harvest and 15.75 at 12.87 °Brix. Thiamine was almost completelly consumed before the start of fermentation showing up again at the end of the process; riboflavin, on the contrary, increased during fermentation. Both vitamins increased during ripening of Cabemet Sauvignon but -in grapes- the amount of thiamine was greater than riboflavin. Fermentation procedures, as increasing levels of SO2, affected thiamine in a direct proportion but did not have any effect upon riboflavin. Thiamine decreased during fermentation and riboflavin increased.

  20. Characterization of a Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 3',5'-O-methyltransferase showing strong preference for anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Martens, Stefan; Lund, Steven T

    2010-09-01

    At ripening initiation in red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries, the exocarp turns color from green to red and then to purple due to the accumulation and extent of methylation of anthocyanins. The accumulation of transcripts encoding an O-methyltransferase was recently shown to be closely correlated with the onset of ripening and the degree of blue/purple pigmentation in grapevine berries; however, the biochemical function of this gene has remained uncharacterized. In this study, an O-methyltransferase cDNA that showed a distinct expression pattern when compared to closely related sequences was expressed in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays were carried out with a broad array of anthocyanin and other flavonoid substrates. We demonstrate that this enzyme carries out 3',5'-O-methylation of anthocyanins and flavonol compounds in vitro, which are known to be present in grape berries, with a preference for glycosylated substrates. The highest relative specific activity for the enzyme was found with delphinidin 3-O-glucoside as substrate. The enzyme is not able to methylate flavan type skeletons with chiral centers, such as either catechins or dihydroquercetin. The enzyme showed negligible specific activity for caffeoyl-CoA, compared to flavonol and anthocyanin substrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the O-methyltransferase suggests that it may be a member of a distinct subclass of Type 2 bivalent metal-dependent S-adenosyl-methionine O-methyltransferases. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and Organoleptic Contribution of (Z)-1,5-Octadien-3-one to the Flavor of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon Musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamy, Lucile; Darriet, Philippe; Pons, Alexandre

    2017-03-08

    The main goal of this research was to identify key aroma compounds involved in the dried fruits (prune and dried fig) aroma of musts. An odoriferous zone (OZ) was detected by gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry (GC-O) and identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one (geranium). A quantitation method by SPME-GC-MS (CI, MeOH) was developed and validated for assaying this very fragrant ketone in musts for the first time (LOD, 0.15 ng/L; LOQ, 0.5 ng/L). Concentrations of (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one in musts marked by dried fruits flavors reached 90 ng/L, thus exceeding its detection threshold (D th = 9 ng/L). Moreover, sensory experiments showed that this compound contributes to the dried fig nuance at concentrations ranging from 64 to 96 ng/L. Above that level, it contributes to the geranium nuance of the must. Its affinity with sulfur dioxide was also established; 30 mg/L of sulfur dioxide causes a decrease of concentration of 60%.

  2. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diez portainjertos de vid: Efectos sobre el crecimiento, la producción y la composición de la uva del cv. Sauvignon blanc en la denominación de origen rueda (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the behaviour of different grapevine rootstocks is basic to achieve a good adaptation of vine to its growing area. With the objective of knowing the agronomic and qualitative response of cv. Sauvignon Blanc to the use of several rootstocks, a trial was established in 2006 in the D.O. Rueda. The vines are vertical trellised, with bilateral Royat cordon pruning, and the vine spacing is 2.60 m × 1.25 m. The row orientation is NNW (N-25°. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with 4 replications and elemental plot of 60 vines. Over the period 2010–2014 it has been developed the study of the following 10 rootstocks (treatments: 110R, 101-14M, 420A, 3309C, 41B, 161-49C, 196-17C, Fercal, Gravesac and RGM. The rootstocks 420A and 41B showed a production higher than 50% with respect to 196-17C and 161-49C, and higher to 100% than RGM, due to the number of clusters per vine and, in greater amount, to the cluster weight. Fercal and Gravesac showed an increase of pruning wood weight of 24% with respect to 196-17C and 161-49C, and 90% with respect to RGM, mainly due to the shoot weight. The sugar concentration increased with 101-14M, 196-17C and Fercal, and became reduced with 161-49C, 41B and RGM. The pH of must was reduced with Fercal whereas the titratable acidity increased, which also showed increase with Gravesac and 161-49C. The tartaric acid hardly increased slightly with Fercal and 161-49C, whereas the malic acid increased with Gravesac and Fercal, and was reduced with 41B, 3309C, RGM and 101-14M. The potassium concentration increased with 196-17C, Gravesac and Fercal, and was reduced with 41B, 161-49C, 420A and 3309C. The effects observed show alternatives for rootstock election according to the growing conditions and objectives of the vineyard.

  4. ALTERNATIVE OAK IN THE MATURATION OF WINES CABERNET SAUVIGNON

    OpenAIRE

    T. B. Hamm; R. A. G. Kohn; E. P. Pinto; L. Lucchetta; V. Manfroi; C. V. Rombaldi

    2014-01-01

    The wine maturation with classic oak is a practice used for a long time, but recently the alternative means (fragments) has been used for its lower cost and practicality. In this study, the alternative wooden barrel was evaluated sit tested two types of oak fragment (chip and cube) and two doses (1 and 2 g L-1). The variables analyzed were as physicochemical characteristics and sensory analysis. The wines showed positive characteristics in general quality, highlighting the conditions of body ...

  5. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  6. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... grape metabolism, many factors (including soil, terrain, climate, etc.) can influence the ... and Stefano, 1988); in Canada, Reynolds et al. (1996) ... nological maturity, as judged by indices of sugar and acid content in. 2009. ... for each compound were prepared using the method described by. Ferreira et al.

  7. Ecofisiologia da videira (Vitis vinifera L.) sob cultivo protegido, variedades Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet sauvignon e Merlot

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Gabriella Vanderlinde

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais, Florianópolis, 2014. O Estado de Santa Catarina tem se destacado no cenário nacional pelo potencial na produção de vinhos finos de qualidade, em função da altitude. No entanto, algumas regiões de Santa Catarina, como o município em estudo, Rancho Queimado, apresentam elevada pluviosidade no período de maturação e colheita, além de riscos d...

  8. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  9. Dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy and cold hardiness influence grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) susceptibility to cold injury, which is a major cause of economic loss in high latitude growing regions. The objectives of this study were to compare dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars considered more (C...

  10. Defining Efficient Deficit Irrigation for Winegrape Cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon under Semiarid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient deficit irrigation balances enhanced berry attributes with acceptable reduction in yield. The present study relates pre and post-veraison midday leaf water potential with the growth and composition of east and west-facing berries. Two deficit irrigation treatments were applied over four g...

  11. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Disentangling dormancy and cold-hardiness in wine grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-hardiness of bud and cane tissue was monitored throughout para, endo and ecodormancy in field-grown vines using differential thermal analysis to generate lethal temperature exotherms (LTE). Deacclimation and re-acclimation rates were measured during ecodormancy to determine the depth of dorm...

  14. Effect of some herbicides on weeds and vines in mother plantation of Cabernet sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Prodanova-Marinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To maintain soil surface clean of weeds in the parent vineyard for producing cuttings for scions, the efficiency and selectivity of Gardoprim plus Gold (312.5 g/l s-metolachlor + 187.5 g/l terbuthylazine, Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l and Lumax 538 SC (375 g/l s-metolachlor + 125 g/l terbuthylazine + 337.5 g/l mesotrione at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da was studied. Lumax 538 SC, Wing P and Gardoprim Plus Gold controlling efficiently annual weeds established in parent vineyard, except Xanthium strumarium L.. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold showed long-term (90 days activity. Wing P activity decreases after the thirtieth day. The tested herbicides do not damage the buds and do not lead to a reduction of shoots developed from them. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da and Wing P at dose of 0.4 l/da do not inhibit the growth of shoots. The largest number of cuttings for scions were obtained after treatment with Lumax 538 SC.

  15. Ethylene pre-harvest application in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ produced in the region of “Dom Pedrito” – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Jansen Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thus this work was to evaluate the use of ethylene application in pre-harvest grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar. Applying ethylene by spraying with ethylene solution in different periods with the following treatments; (T1 without application of ethylene; (T2 10 ppm of ethylene in the fruit only on the day of collection; (T3 two applications of 10 ppm ethylene (one day before harvest and once on the day of harvest and; (T4 three applications of 10 ppm ethylene (two days prior to harvest, one day prior to harvest and the other on the day of harvest. For each treatment were made four replications in the field, with 07 plants each. The physicochemical analyses in must and wine as pH, total soluble solids (TSS, expressed acidity malic acid, expressed as acid into lactic acid, total acid and ethanol were made by infrared spectrometry Fourier transform (FTIR. There were significant differences between treatments in physical and chemical composition of must and wine. These preliminary results suggest that ethylene pre-harvest application modify somehow the malic acid content, modifying the total acidity and pH of the must and wine in Cabernet Sauvignon, promoting a slight modification in the TSS and thus in ethanol.

  16. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability of Anthocyanins and Their Degradation Products from Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine under Gastrointestinal pH and Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Yuan, Chunlong; Wang, Hua; Han, Fuliang; Liu, Yangjie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-07

    This study investigated the stability of wine anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal pH and temperature conditions, and further studied the evolution of anthocyanin degradation products through simulated digestive conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthocyanins' structure and their digestive stability. Results showed that a total of 22 anthocyanins were identified in wine and most of these anthocyanins remained stable under simulated gastric digestion process. However, a dramatic concentration decrease happened to these anthocyanins during simulated intestinal digestion. The stability of anthocyanins in digestive process appeared to be related to their structure. The methoxy group in the B-ring enhanced the stability of anthocyanins, whereas hydroxyl group resulted in a reduction of their stability. Acylation decreased the stability of malvidin 3- O -glucoside. Pyruvic acid conjugation enhanced the structural stability of pyranoanthocyanins, whereas acetaldehyde attachment weakened their stability. A commercial malvidin 3- O -glucoside standard was used to investigate anthocyanin degradation products under simulated digestion process, and syringic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid were confirmed to be the degradation products via anthocyanin chalcone conversion path. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and p -coumaric acid in wine experienced a significant concentration decrease during digestion process. However, wine model solution revealed that phenolic acids remained stable under gastrointestinal conditions, except gallic acid.

  18. Stability of Anthocyanins and Their Degradation Products from Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine under Gastrointestinal pH and Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the stability of wine anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal pH and temperature conditions, and further studied the evolution of anthocyanin degradation products through simulated digestive conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthocyanins’ structure and their digestive stability. Results showed that a total of 22 anthocyanins were identified in wine and most of these anthocyanins remained stable under simulated gastric digestion process. However, a dramatic concentration decrease happened to these anthocyanins during simulated intestinal digestion. The stability of anthocyanins in digestive process appeared to be related to their structure. The methoxy group in the B-ring enhanced the stability of anthocyanins, whereas hydroxyl group resulted in a reduction of their stability. Acylation decreased the stability of malvidin 3-O-glucoside. Pyruvic acid conjugation enhanced the structural stability of pyranoanthocyanins, whereas acetaldehyde attachment weakened their stability. A commercial malvidin 3-O-glucoside standard was used to investigate anthocyanin degradation products under simulated digestion process, and syringic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid were confirmed to be the degradation products via anthocyanin chalcone conversion path. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and p-coumaric acid in wine experienced a significant concentration decrease during digestion process. However, wine model solution revealed that phenolic acids remained stable under gastrointestinal conditions, except gallic acid.

  19. A novel extracellular β-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii: yield prediction, evaluation and application for aroma enhancement of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Yan; Li, Jiming

    2012-08-01

    The production and application of novel β-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii were studied. The β-glucosidase yield was improved by response surface methodology, and the optimal media constituents were determined to be dextrin 4.67% (w/v), yeast extract 2.99% (w/v), MgSO(4) 0.01% (w/v), and K(2) HPO(4) 0.02% (w/v). As a result, β-glucosidase production was enhanced from 123.72 to 215.66 U/L. The effects of different enological factors on the activity of β-glucosidases from T. asahii were investigated in comparison to commercial enzymes. β-Glucosidase from T. asahii was activated in the presence of sugars in the range from 10% to 40% (w/v), with the exception of glucose (slight inhibition), and retained higher relative activities than commercial enzymes under the same conditions. In addition, ethanol, in concentrations between 5% and 20% (v/v), also increased the β-glucosidase activity. Although the β-glucosidase activity decreased with decreasing pH, the residual activity of T. asahii was still above 50% at the average wine pH (pH 3.5). Due to these properties, extracellular β-glucosidase from T. asahii exhibited a better ability than commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing aromatic precursors that remained in young finished wine. The excellent performs of this β-glucosidase in wine aroma enhancement and sensory evaluation indicated that the β-glucosidase has a potential application to individuate suitable preparations that can complement and optimize grape or wine quality during the winemaking process or in the final wine. The present study demonstrated the usefulness of response surface methodology based on the central composite design for yield enhancement of β-glucosidase from T. asahii. The investigation of the primary characteristics of the enzyme and its application in young red wine suggested that the β-glucosidase from T. asahii can provide more impetus for aroma improvement in the future. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Interactive effects of deficit irrigation and berry exposure aspect on Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deficit irrigation is used to control vine vigor and enhance water use efficiency yet few studies have compared cultivar response to water deficit in a warm, arid climate with a high amount of solar radiation and measured the interactive effects of water deficit, cultivar and fruit canopy location. ...

  1. Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide Interacts with Light to Regulate Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yali; Yuan, Chunlong; Ruan, Shicheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei

    2018-01-09

    Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are crucial factors that affect the quality of grapes and the making of wine, which were stimulated by various stimuli and environment factors (sugar, hormones, light, and temperature). The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) and light on the mechanism of anthocyanins and PAs accumulation in grape berries. Grape clusters were sprayed with EBR (0.4 mg/L) under light and darkness conditions (EBR + L, EBR + D), or sprayed with deionized water under light and darkness conditions as controls (L, D), at the onset of veraison. A large amount of anthocyanins accumulated in the grape skins and was measured under EBR + L and L treatments, whereas EBR + D and D treatments severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicated that EBR treatment could produce overlay effects under light, in comparison to that in dark. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that EBR application up-regulated the expression of genes ( VvCHI1 , VvCHS2 , VvCHS3 , VvDFR , VvLDOX , VvMYBA1 ) under light conditions. Under darkness conditions, only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to EBR. Furthermore, we also analyzed the expression levels of the BR-regulated transcription factor VvBZR1 (Brassinazole-resistant 1) and light-regulated transcription factor VvHY5 (Elongated hypocotyl 5). Our results suggested that EBR and light had synergistic effects on the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.

  2. ANÁLISE CROMÁTICA DE VINHOS TINTOS DA VARIEDADE CABERNET SAUVIGNON DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    OpenAIRE

    Mariele dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul a produção de uvas é uma atividade já consolidada, de significativa importância socioeconômica, responsável por cerca de 90% da produção nacional de uvas, vinhos e derivados. Neste sentido, o vinho é um importante produto devido ao valor agregado que transfere para as vinícolas e para os produtores de uvas. São cinco as principais regiões vitivinícolas do Rio Grande do Sul: Serra do Nordeste, Campanha, Serra do Sudeste, Região Central e Campos de Cima da Serra. ...

  3. Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide Interacts with Light to Regulate Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs are crucial factors that affect the quality of grapes and the making of wine, which were stimulated by various stimuli and environment factors (sugar, hormones, light, and temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR and light on the mechanism of anthocyanins and PAs accumulation in grape berries. Grape clusters were sprayed with EBR (0.4 mg/L under light and darkness conditions (EBR + L, EBR + D, or sprayed with deionized water under light and darkness conditions as controls (L, D, at the onset of veraison. A large amount of anthocyanins accumulated in the grape skins and was measured under EBR + L and L treatments, whereas EBR + D and D treatments severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicated that EBR treatment could produce overlay effects under light, in comparison to that in dark. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that EBR application up-regulated the expression of genes (VvCHI1, VvCHS2, VvCHS3, VvDFR, VvLDOX, VvMYBA1 under light conditions. Under darkness conditions, only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to EBR. Furthermore, we also analyzed the expression levels of the BR-regulated transcription factor VvBZR1 (Brassinazole-resistant 1 and light-regulated transcription factor VvHY5 (Elongated hypocotyl 5. Our results suggested that EBR and light had synergistic effects on the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.

  4. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  5. Raleio de cachos sobre o potencial enológico da uva 'Cabernet Franc' em duas safras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Marcon Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a maturação tecnológica e fenólica das uvas na variedade 'Cabernet Franc', submetida a diferentes níveis de raleio de cachos, de modo a estabelecer critérios que contribuam para definir o manejo mais apropriado para a obtenção de uvas destinadas à elaboração de vinhos finos, em regiões acima de 900m de altitude. Os ensaios foram conduzidos durante as safras 2009/10 e 2010/11 em um vinhedo comercial a 1,230m de altitude, localizado no município de São Joaquim, SC, coordenadas 28º 17' 39" S e 49º 55' 56" W. Foi utilizada a variedade 'Cabernet Franc', enxertada sobre 'Paulsen 1103', conduzida em espaldeira, com espaçamento de 3,0m x 1,2m e cobertura anti-granizo. Os níveis de raleio de cachos, ajustados na virada de cor "véraison", corresponderam à produção máxima, com reduções percentuais em sua produtividade em 25%, 50% e 75%. Observou-se que, em região de altitude, a prática de raleio de cachos modifica as características químicas da uva 'Cabernet Franc', aumentando o pH, reduzindo o teor de SS do mosto e polifenóis da casca. A realização do raleio de cachos, além de reduzir a produção por área, não teve um efeito compensatório na qualidade do mosto, além de não ter sido observado equilíbrio vegetativo/produtivo das plantas. A redução da carga através da prática do raleio de cachos não gerou os benefícios esperados para a cv 'Cabernet Franc', cultivada em região de altitude nas duas safras avaliadas.

  6. CV equipment responsibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pirollet, B

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the limits of the responsibilities of the TS/CV for fire fighting equipment at the LHC. The various interfaces, providers and users of the water supply systems and clean water raising systems are described.

  7. Emgu CV essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to Emgu CV libraries, with sample code and examples used throughout to explain the concepts clearly. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the Computer Vision field and the implementation of that topic in Emgu CV.If you are a C# programmer working on computer vision projects, this book is for you. You should have prior experience with C#.

  8. CV : [luuletused] / Mari Vallisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallisoo, Mari, 1950-2013

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: CV ; Sõnaraamat ; Tegijad ; "Kus leemekulp?..." ; "Veel üks viimnepäev mis asja teha sellega..." ; "Ülemise riiuli ääre pääl...", "Alkeemik Alberti elamus...", "Valge pulber veel enam valgega...", "Meie isa, kes sa...", "Ükskord, kui Maa...", "Kevadvesi ja -pori...", "Mõisnik Meeskurat müüs mu vaarisale..."

  9. Quantitative determination of 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-0ne in Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bouchilloux

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP, a powerful aromatic component from Sauvignon variety, is present at trace levels in the wines from this cultivar. A method is proposed ta measure the amount of 4MMP in Sauvignon wines. It combines the extraction of wines volatile constituents using a dynarnic headspace technique and the selective reaction between thiols and p-hydroxymercuribenzoatc (pHMB. This combination is reversible in presence of an excess of cystein or glutathione. Finally, the organic extract is injected on agas chromatograph coupled with a flame photometric detector. Using this method, 4MMP content in Sauvignon wines can be determined with good repetability and sensitivity. These results enable us to evalue the incidence of viticultural and oenological aspects on the level of this aromatic component in Sauvignon wines.

  10. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma Del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  12. New insight into the unresolved HPLC broad peak of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed polymeric tannins by combining CPC and Q-ToF approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Alessandra Paissoni, Maria; Jourdes, Michäel; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-05-30

    Polymeric tannins from grapes have always been reported as an unresolved broad peak in HPLC chromatograms, and this has severely limited their identification to date. This study aimed to disassemble this broad peak and explore the polymeric tannin molecules inside. By applying centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), an efficient separation approach was developed to split the broad peak of grape seed tannins into fractions. Then, the fractions were analyzed by Q-ToF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to determine the corresponding structures of the tannins. The results suggest that grape seed polymeric tannins were eluted consecutively according to their degree of polymerization (DP). Condensed tannins identified in wine grape seed have a range of DP and degree of galloylation (DG) up to 20 and 11, respectively. The molecular mass of the largest molecule detected was 6067. To our knowledge, this is the first report to offer an insight into the broad peak of polymeric tannins found with HPLC and to characterize the tannins with a DP up to 20 as shown by HRMS and MS/MS data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemometric analysis for the detection of biogenic amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines: a comparative study between organic and nonorganic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, L; Saavedra, J; Martínez, C; Córdova, A; Ganga, M A

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the presence of biogenic amines (BAs) was correlated with the type of wine grape culture (traditional or organic) and their concentration in the different stages of winemaking (must, alcoholic fermentation [AF] and malolactic fermentation [MLF]). The formation of BA occurred mainly during MLF in which the percentages for putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine were 100%, 70%, 13%, 61%, and 44% for the wines produced with traditional grapes and 100%, 94%, 25%, 88%, and 13% for the wines produced with organic grapes, respectively. In general, these latter wines exhibited a lower concentration of total amines. The principal component analysis and partial least-square discriminate analysis indicated that the generation of BA has a certain behavioral pattern in the wines analyzed, which is associated with the different stages of wine production and with the type of culture (traditional or organic) used in the wine grapes. Chemometrics tools can be useful as a method of characterization and classification in a global overview of the process variables involved in the development of toxic chemicals in foods, such as the production of BA in wine. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Cabernet Sauvignon ve Merlot Şarapların Resveratrol Düzeyleri ve Ekolojik Koşulların Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Belkıs Çaylak Adıgüzel; Nedim Çetinkaya; Ufuk Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Fitoaleksinler bitkilerde patojen enfeksiyonuna bir reaksiyon olarak veya çeşitli biyotik ve abiyotik tetikleyicilerin etkisi sonucu oluşan fenolik madde karakterli, düşük molekül ağırlıklı antimikrobiyal bileşiklerdir. Resveratrol (trans–3,5,4’-trihidroksistilben) de bir fitoaleksin olup, asma (Vitis vinifera), yer fıstığı (Arachis hypogaea) ve diğer pek çok bitki türünde yaprak veya diğer organlarda yüksek miktarlarda bulunabilmektedir. Resveratrol asmada gövde, sürgün ve yapraklar yanında,...

  15. Use of DMACA to visualise flavan-3-ols in grape berry skins (Vitis vinifera L., CV Cabernet Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chevalier

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are of great importance in Enology. They play a major role in the elaboration of red wines and during wine preservation, and contribute greatly to their organoleptic properties. Among them, flavonoïds constitute the major group present in berry skins. Their histological study is based classically on the use of Toluidine blue O as a staining agent, which is not specific of any type of phenolics. The use of DMACA (p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which is specific of tannins (flavan-3-ols, permitted to precise the localisation of these compounds without any risk of error ; it allowed also for the visualisation of tannins, stuck to the tonoplast, which had not been identified with Toluidine blue O.

  16. Classification of Argentinean Sauvignon blanc wines by UV spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana Mariela; Cantarelli, Miguel Ángel; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Marchevsky, Eduardo Jorge; Camiña, José Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Argentina is an important worldwide wine producer. In this country, there are several recognizable provinces that produce Sauvignon blanc wines: Neuquén, Río Negro, Mendoza, and San Juan. The analysis of the provenance of these white wines is complex and requires the use of expensive and time-consuming techniques. For this reason, this work discusses the determination of the provenance of Argentinean Sauvignon blanc wines by the use of UV spectroscopy and chemometric methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The proposed method requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. The results are in very good agreement with results based on the geographical origin of Sauvignon blanc wines. This manuscript describes a method to determine the geographical origin of Sauvignon wines from Argentina. The main advantage of this method is the use of nonexpensive techniques, such as UV-Vis spectroscopy. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Instant OpenCV starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dalal, Jayneil

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.A practical, quick, and hands-on guide for Python developers and hobbyists who want to get started with computer vision with OpenCV.This book is great for developers, hobbyists, and students new to computer vision who are looking to get a good grounding in how to use the OpenCV library. It's assumed that you will have some basic experience in C/C++ programming.

  18. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan; Pereira Dachi Ângela; Nogueira Fernandes Elizeu; Lais Hamm Bruna; Corrêa de Almeida Fabiane; Moreira Silveira Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control); T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant...

  19. Protein characterization of Roditis Greek grape variety and Sauvignon blanc and changes in certain nitrogen compounds during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Nakopoulou

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Must and wine samples of the Greek grape variety Roditis and the French one Sauvignon blanc were analysed in order to obtain further knowledge of the protein profile of Roditis and to watch the evolution of grape proteins during the alcoholic fermentation of Roditis and Sauvignon blanc musts. For these purposes protein samples were isolated from must and wine samples by ammonium sulphate precipitation and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE. Eleven and nine bands with molecular weights between 11,1 and 64,4 kDa were detected on the electrophoregramms of Roditis and Sauvignon blanc must and wine samples respectively, using Coomassie Brillant Blue R-250 and silver staining methods. Two protein fractions of must and wine samples with molecular weights of 64,4 kDa and 34,4 kDa were identified as being glycoproteins in the profile of the Greek grape variety, according to the Periodic acid - silver staining, while only one must and wine fraction of 64,4 kDa had positively react with this stain, as far as it concerns Sauvignon blanc. None of the low molecular weight protein fractions found to be responsible for haze formation. A modified (Bradford dye - binding procedure was used for the determination of musts and wines soluble proteins. Free amino nitrogen and the contents of neutral and acidic polysaccharides in the protein fractions after chromatography on Sephadex G - 25, were also analyzed.

  20. Wine Chemical Composition and Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Cabernet Franc Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic-Djordjevic, Jelena; Pejin, Boris; Dramicanin, Aleksandra; Jovic, Sonja; Vujovic, Dragan; Zunic, Dragoljub; Ristic, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Three clones of Cabernet Franc (Nos. 02, 010 and 012) were selected in the last phase of clonal selection in Serbia. Wines made from each clone were assessed for quality parameters and taste during five consecutive vintages (2008-2012) and compared to the standard. The wine quality was determined based on the following parameters: alcohol, total extract, anthocyanins, tannins, pH, titratable acidity, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters and reducing sugars, relative density, ash, colour, tonality, and tasting score. In the last year of the study, grapes and wines of Cabernet Franc clones and a standard were subjected to a chemical analysis of their phenolic composition, resveratrol and radical scavenging activity. In the last year of the study, grapes and wines of Cabernet Franc clones and a standard were subjected to a chemical analysis of their phenolic composition, resveratrol and radical scavenging activity. Chemical analyses of grapes and wines along with sensory and radical scavenging activity evaluations were done according to the standard procedures. The wines of the clone No. 010 showed some superior properties compared to the other two clones and the standard; in five-year period the average concentration of anthocyanins (179±3.8 mg/L) and polyphenolics (1.85±0.02 g/L) was significantly higher than in wines of clones and the standard, (168-173 mg/L and 1.63-1.74 g/L for anthocyanins and phenolics, respectively). Furthermore, the same clone had a higher alcohol content (13.97±0.03%) in each year of the study, which indicated that it ripened faster than other clones (13.06-13.08 %) and compared to the standard (13.04±0.07%). This finding suggested that the clone No. 010 could possibly have a significant economic impact and further increase popularity of Cabernet Franc in a cooler climate viticultural region. It was also found to have the highest contents of aldehydes (488±1.54 mg/L) and esters (322±0.71 mg/L) compared to aldehydes (452-467 mg/L) and

  1. A S-cysteine conjugate, precursor of aroma of White Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Tominaga

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4-MMP, a strongly odorant compound responsible for the « boxtree » or « broom plant » odour of the Sauvignon wines, can be enzymaticaly released in vitro from an odourless must extract. The enzyme source used is a cell-free extract of the gastrointestinal bacterium Eubacterium limosum. This crude preparation exhibits a cysteine β-lyase activity which requires the presence of pyridoxal phosphate. The release of 4-MMP is inhibited when the substrate is previously treated with N-hydroxysuccimide acetate which reacts with a primary amine. The same bacterial extract is also able to release 4-MMP, pyruvic acid and ammonium, from S-(4-méthylpentan-2-one-L-cysteine. On the other hand, the cleavage of S-(4-méthylpentan-2-oneD,L-homocysteine and S-(4-méthylpentan-2-one- glutathione is very limited. These results suggest that the precursor of 4-MMP in Sauvignon must is a S-cysteine conjugate. Such an aroma precursor in grapes or in other fruits has never been round berore.

  2. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  3. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  4. INTERSTOCK EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF MANDARIN CV BATU 55, TANGERINE CV PONTIANAK AND LIME CV NIMAS PROPAGATED BY GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyatno A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Japansche citroen (JC rootstock is still the main choice for producing citrus seeds for its high availability and compatibility. Other rootstocks have been used in the production, yet they produce unsatisfying results. Based on the theory, there is an alternative to use rootstock as interstock in order to stimulate the growth of scion. The objective of this reseach is to understand the effect of interstock on the growth of Mandarin cv. Batu 55, Tangerine cv. Pontianak and Lime cv. Nimas. This research was conducted in the screen house of Tlekung Experimental Field of Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute (ICSFRI in Batu-East Java, located on 950 m asl, from January to April 2016. This research was arranged in a CRD design with 4 replications and 24 interstock-scion combination treatments. The interstocks used in this study were Carizzo citrange, Citrumello, Poncirus trifoliata, Volkameriana, Rough lemon, Troyer citrange, Kanci and control (JC combined with 3 scions namely Mandarin cv. Batu 55, Tangerine cv. Pontianak and Lime cv. Nimas propagated by grafting. The result showed the percentage of successful grafting ranged between 37.5% to 100%, while the percentage of the shoot formed on grafted plants was 75%-100%. The use of Poncirus trifoliata as interstock has stimulated fastest bud break on Tangerine cv. Pontianak in just 24.75 days while the Troyer citrange has stimulated better shoot growth in Lime cv. Nimas, resulted to the highest shoot around 52.20 cm which was significantly different from other treatments. Meanwhile, Carizzo citrange has been found to have some influences to the plant diameter and the number of leave of Lime cv. Nimas but showed insignificant effect on the growth of its own diameter. The use of interstock showed that it can be used to promote the growth of scion which usually has slow growth when it is directly grafted on the rootstock.

  5. Wyoming CV Pilot Traveler Information Message Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset contains a sample of the sanitized Traveler Information Messages (TIM) being generated by the Wyoming Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot. The full set of TIMs...

  6. cv. “Sukali Ndiizi”- AAB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clara

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... improve transformation and regeneration efficiency of banana (cv. “Sukali .... Vuylsteke (1989) proliferation medium in the tissue culture .... DNA repair machinery is more active during cell division ... Biology-Plant 40:31-45.

  7. Use of image analysis for the study of phenolic compounds of the grape berry skin (Vitis vinifera L., cv Cabernet franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chevalier

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The localization and quantitative determination of phenolics in grape berry skins, from the onset of veraison, constitute the first step to understand the évolution of these compounds throughout the maturation process. Histological techniques are appropriate to study the evolution of phenolics but manual countings are long and drudgery and do not allow for reliable quantitative results. The image analysis software "Scion Image" proved to be a good tool to improve the quantitative results. This method permitted also to measure the cells area and the area occupied by phenolic compounds inside the vacuoles. Image analysis could be helpful to the understanding of the évolution of phenolics during maturation and possibly contribute to explain their extraction during macération.

  8. Combined effects of soil-applied and foliar-applied nitrogen on the nitrogen composition and distribution in water stressed "Vitis vinifera L." cv Sauvignon blanc grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Jreij

    2009-12-01

    Significance and impact of study: This work helps to provide insight into the effect of N soil fertilization along with foliar fertilization on waterstressed vines. This may be useful in fertilization programs in the Mediterranean area and may help to choose the type and the rate of the N fertilization in case of severe vine water deficit. Also, we provide information of utmost importance on the distribution of summer foliarapplied N in grape tissues.

  9. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  10. OpenCV for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Howse, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers who want to expand their skills by building fun, smart, and useful systems with OpenCV. The projects are ideal in helping you to think creatively about the uses of computer vision, natural user interfaces, and ubiquitous computers (in your home, car, and hand).

  11. AstroCV: Astronomy computer vision library

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roberto E.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Hernández, Cristian A.

    2018-04-01

    AstroCV processes and analyzes big astronomical datasets, and is intended to provide a community repository of high performance Python and C++ algorithms used for image processing and computer vision. The library offers methods for object recognition, segmentation and classification, with emphasis in the automatic detection and classification of galaxies.

  12. Aroma modulation of Cabernet Gernischt dry red wine by optimal enzyme treatment strategy in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Xuan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    Cabernet Gernischt (CG) is a famous Chinese wine grape cultivar, the red wine of which is known for its green trait, especially when produced from grapes cultivated in regions with monsoon climate. To modify CG wine aroma, three enzyme preparations (H. uvarum extracellular enzyme, AR2000, and pectinase) were introduced in different winemaking stages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Free and bound aroma compounds in young wines were detected using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantified by trained panelists. Results showed that simultaneous inoculation of enzymes and yeasts improved wine aroma. Partial least-squares regression revealed that the green trait was due mainly to varietal compounds, especially C 6 compounds, and could be partly weakened by fermentative compounds. Moreover, H. uvarum enzyme treatments enriched the acid fruit note of CG wine by enhancing the synergistic effect of varietal volatiles and certain fermentative compounds, such as esters and phenylethyls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  14. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  15. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zhongwan (CV12 were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation.

  16. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves......, the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...... of individual plants was monitored until grain production. It was found that the sodium cyanide concentrations in the feed solutions affected plant stature, with the plants becoming progressively dwarfed with increasing dosage. Anomalies in the morphological and anatomical structure of the plant were also noted...

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  18. CV controls from design to operation

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, D

    2002-01-01

    The cooling and Ventilation (CV) group has emphasised the need to redefine its organisational structure at the end of 98. The main objective of this operation was to ensure the CV group to be more competitive and efficient through the growing tasks of the LHC projects. The main evolution given to this reorganisation is that the new structure is more project oriented and then operates on three distinct axes: Design, Work and Operation. Process control project management requires a complete and early interaction and participation of all the actors involved. This procedure to be efficient and constructive must be considered and performed not only during the design stage but along the project planning phases and must go beyond the completion work including the process control operation activity. The paper explains the present project management for process control. It describes the present constraints and gives suggestions to a different approach to these projects to improve performances and efficiency of a contr...

  19. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  20. Exploration of consumer perception of Sauvignon Blanc wines with enhanced aroma properties using two different descriptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaeta, Alvaro; Bordeu, Edmundo; Næs, Tormod; Varela, Paula

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' perception of a complex set of stimuli as aromatically enriched wines. For that, two consumer based profiling methods were compared, concurrently run with overall liking measurements: projective mapping based on choice or preference (PM-C), a newly proposed method, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions with an ideal sample, a more established, consumer-based method for product optimization. Reserve bottling and regular bottling of Sauvignon Blanc wines from three wineries were aromatically enriched with natural aromas collected by condensation during wine fermentation. A total of 144 consumers were enrolled in the study. The results revealed that both consumer-based highlighted the positive effect of aromatic enrichment on consumer perception and acceptance. However, PM-C generated a very detailed description, in which consumers focused less on the sensory aspects and more on the usage, attitudes, and reasons behind their choices. Providing a deeper understanding of the drivers of liking/disliking of enriched Sauvignon Blanc wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning openCV computer vision with the openCV library

    CERN Document Server

    Bradski, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Learning OpenCV puts you right in the middle of the rapidly expanding field of computer vision. Written by the creators of OpenCV, the widely used free open-source library, this book introduces you to computer vision and demonstrates how you can quickly build applications that enable computers to see" and make decisions based on the data. With this book, any developer or hobbyist can get up and running with the framework quickly, whether it's to build simple or sophisticated vision applications

  2. Organisation des travaux ST-CV

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, C; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2003-01-01

    Débutée il y a deux ans, la phase de construction des installations de refroidissement du LHC a atteint en 2003 son apogée. De nombreux autres projets sont également gérés par le groupe dans divers secteurs du laboratoire. La spécificité du groupe est de réaliser des installations complexes impliquant des spécificités diverses telles qu’aéraulique, hydraulique, électrique, etc. Pour faire face à ces demandes la section travaux du groupe ST CV a adopté une structure capable de réaliser ces divers projets avec un minimum de personnel. La première partie de ce document décrit l’organisation de la section travaux ST CV. Dans une deuxième partie, les auteurs dressent un état des lieux des chantiers par projet en décrivant plus particulièrement les activités dans les domaines du traitement d’air et de refroidissement par eau.

  3. Retendering of ST-CV maintenance contract

    CERN Document Server

    Battistin, M

    2003-01-01

    During the next three years, the ST/CV group will be deeply involved in the installation works for the LHC project. During this period the need for maintenance activity will decrease. The minimum level will be reached during the “long shutdown” of the PS and SPS machines in 2005. The budget for the maintenance will decrease accordingly, thus the CV group had to review its maintenance strategy. The new contract, which started on January 1st 2003, has been defined to cope with these workload variations during the next years and to guarantee the minimum maintenance activity on the existing equipment. A lump-sum contract based on a win-win strategy has been discarded. The contractor no longer has to guarantee the performance of the CERN cooling and ventilation systems. A new price list strategy based on performance indicators and penalties has been chosen. The contractor now has to guarantee the performance of every maintenance operation demanded by CERN. This modification obliged the Operation section of the...

  4. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta durante o ciclo vegetativo de 1995/1996. O experimento foi realizado em oito vinhedos localizados nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Monte Belo do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação, com duas repetições para cada vinhedo, os quais foram analisados por processos físico-químicos, espectrofotometria de absorção atômica e cromatografia líquida e gasosa. Os parâmetros das variáveis mais significativas foram os seguintes: álcool 9,65%, acidez total 69 meq L-1, pH 3,46, extrato seco reduzido 16,0 g L-1, K nas cinzas 49,4%, ácido tartárico 33 meq L-1, glicerol 9,3 g L-1, prolina 669 mg L-1, antocianinas 330 mg L-1, taninos 1,19 g L-1, intensidade de cor 0,286, K 1.078 mg L-1, metanol 101,7 mg L-1 e soma dos álcoois superiores 450 mg L-1. Os resultados dos vinhos avaliados foram relativamente similares aos encontrados em vinhos Cabernet Franc da mesma região elaborados com uvas provenientes de videiras conduzidas em latada. Eles evidenciam que o sistema de condução da videira em lira aberta constitui-se como alternativa para a produção de vinho tinto fino na Serra Gaúcha.The objective of the work was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of the Cabernet Franc wine from the 1995/1996 vegetative cycle. It was conducted in eight vineyards in the communes of Bento Gonçalves and Monte Belo do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From each vineyard, two microvinifications were elaborated and wines were analysed by physicochemical, atomic absorption spetrophotometry, and liquid and gas chromatography processes. The parameters of the most significant variables were the following: alcohol 9.65%, total titratable acidity 69 meq L-1, pH 3.46, reduced dry extract 16.0 g L-1, K in the ashes 49.4%, tartaric acid 33 meq L-1

  5. IJ-OpenCV: Combining ImageJ and OpenCV for processing images in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, César; Heras, Jónathan; Pascual, Vico

    2017-05-01

    The effective processing of biomedical images usually requires the interoperability of diverse software tools that have different aims but are complementary. The goal of this work is to develop a bridge to connect two of those tools: ImageJ, a program for image analysis in life sciences, and OpenCV, a computer vision and machine learning library. Based on a thorough analysis of ImageJ and OpenCV, we detected the features of these systems that could be enhanced, and developed a library to combine both tools, taking advantage of the strengths of each system. The library was implemented on top of the SciJava converter framework. We also provide a methodology to use this library. We have developed the publicly available library IJ-OpenCV that can be employed to create applications combining features from both ImageJ and OpenCV. From the perspective of ImageJ developers, they can use IJ-OpenCV to easily create plugins that use any functionality provided by the OpenCV library and explore different alternatives. From the perspective of OpenCV developers, this library provides a link to the ImageJ graphical user interface and all its features to handle regions of interest. The IJ-OpenCV library bridges the gap between ImageJ and OpenCV, allowing the connection and the cooperation of these two systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving Postharvest Storage of Apple Cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Etemadi Nasab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.

  7. A practical introduction to computer vision with OpenCV

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson-Howe, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Explains the theory behind basic computer vision and provides a bridge from the theory to practical implementation using the industry standard OpenCV libraries Computer Vision is a rapidly expanding area and it is becoming progressively easier for developers to make use of this field due to the ready availability of high quality libraries (such as OpenCV 2).  This text is intended to facilitate the practical use of computer vision with the goal being to bridge the gap between the theory and the practical implementation of computer vision. The book will explain how to use the relevant OpenCV

  8. Guidelines on CV networking information flow optimization for Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Recognizing the fundamental role of information flow in future transportation applications, the research team investigated the quality and security of information flow in the connected vehicle (CV) environment. The research team identified key challe...

  9. Calibration of ADRET voltage generator type CV102. Program CODAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, Gerard.

    1978-07-01

    The CODAV programm studied by the Metrology SES/SME laboratory is used for the calibration of ADRET voltage generator type CV.102. A JCAM.10 microcomputer run the measurement cycle and the printout of the results [fr

  10. Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture for sheep. 1. Seasonal .... obtained by laboratory work, using in vitro techniques. (Engels et al. .... model that was used to explain 92,3% of the variance in. IVDOM content.

  11. Effectiveness of Fibers from “Cabernet Sauvignon” (Vitis vinifera Pomace as Fining Agents for Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have highlighted the potential of fibers from grape cell wall material to be fining agents for red wines as alternatives to animal-derived proteins. The affinity of those fibers for grape proanthocyanidins (also known as condensed tannins seems to depend on the initial phenolic composition of the wines to be fined and on the applied dose of fibers. In the present work, “Cabernet Sauvignon” grapes were harvested at three different maturity levels and used for making red wine. The pomaces of the three vinifications were used to obtain the cell wall fibers. Each wine was treated with the three purified fibers at two different doses (0.2 g/L and 2.5 g/L under winery-like conditions in order to check the potential of fibers as fining agents. Color and phenolic composition of the treated wines were determined immediately after the treatments and after four and nine months of wine bottle ageing. The effectiveness of the fining strongly depends on the initial wine matrix. Wines treated at high doses had lower color density and higher hue than control untreated wines. Small differences were observed in the phenolic content of the treated wines. Those differences were dose dependent and almost disappeared after several months of ageing. The maturity of the grapes from which the fibers came had no influence on the effectiveness of the fining. Additionally, there was no evidence of polysaccharide release from the fibers to the wine.

  12. Evaluating the correlation between chemical and sensory compounds in Blaufränkisch and Cabernet Franc wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive physiological effects of the bioactive compounds of red wines have been known for a long time. Besides that, the polyphenolic compounds of red wines represent one of the most important factors for oenology. With a special chemical analysis, we discover the relationship between chemical and sensory compounds. In this way, we explore which compounds influence sensory properties. The phenolic compounds are the quality attributes of the wine. The analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out in two red wines: Cabernet Franc and Blaufränkisch. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these two wines and evaluate the connection between the two parameters. In addition, we also examined the influence of the polyphenolic content on sensory perception. The experiment was carried out in a cool climate wine region in Eger, Hungary, in vintage of 2008. We investigated the profile of phenolic contents in new and aged wines. Total polyphenolic content, anthocyanin, leucoanthocyanin and catechin were evaluated by spectrophotometer. Stilbenes were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  13. Balanço de energia e consumo hídrico de vinhedo de ‘Cabernet Franc’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado em vinhedo da uva para vinho ‘Cabernet Franc’, conduzido em espaldeira alta, para caracterizar a repartição do saldo de radiação (SR nos diferentes fluxos de calor: latente (LE, sensível e no solo. Em média LE representou aproximadamente 79% de SR. São apresentadas as variações horárias dos componentes do balanço de energia para dias: ensolarado e nublado. O consumo hídrico do vinhedo para os diferentes subperíodos fenológicos foi: poda-florescimento (99 mm, florescimento-início de maturação (249 mm e início de maturação-colheita (201 mm. Para o ciclo total (poda-colheita, o consumo hídrico obtido foi de 549 mm.

  14. Clonal differences and impact of defoliation on Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.) wines: a chemical and sensory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Langlois, Jennifer; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Gouot, Julia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Deloire, Alain

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study, performed on Sauvignon blanc clones SB11 and SB316, grafted on the same rootstock 101-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia × V. ruperstris) and grown at two adjacent vineyards, was two-fold: (1) to study wine chemical and sensory composition of both clones within an unaltered canopy; and (2) to determine the effect of defoliation (e.g. bunch microclimate) on wine chemical and sensory composition. Orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to the concentration profiles of volatile compounds derived from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The loadings directions inferred that 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) discriminated control treatments (shaded fruit zone) of both clones from defoliation treatments (exposed fruit zone), whereas 3-sulfanyl-hexan-1-ol (3SH), 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), hexanol, hexyl hexanoate and some other esters discriminated defoliated treatments from the controls. The OPLS-DA indicated the importance of IBMP, higher alcohol acetates and phenylethyl esters, for discrimination of clone SB11 from clone SB316 irrespective of the treatment. Defoliation in the fruit zone significantly decreased perceived greenness in clone SB11 and elevated fruitier aromas, whereas in clone SB316 the effect of defoliation on wine sensory perception was less noticeable regardless the decrease in IBMP concentrations. These findings highlight the importance of clone selection and bunch microclimate to diversify produced wine styles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  16. Biodiversity of wine grapes: less than we thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe Editor of the International Journal of Wine Research has had a long-standing interest in the genetics of wine grape varieties. Two publications, in particular, piqued the interest from both the scientific and consumer point of view. Cabernet Sauvignon is the offspring of a chance cross-pollination of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc in western France several centuries ago.

  17. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  18. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rong-Hua; Xiao Yi; Shi Jin-Jing; Guo Ying; Lee, Moon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. (paper)

  19. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.

  20. Instant OpenCV for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kornyakov, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book uses a very practical approach, with each recipe and their associated sample projects or examples focusing on a particular aspect of the technology.This book is intended for OpenCV developers who are interested in porting their applications to the iOS platform. Basic experience with OpenCV, computer vision, Objective C, and other iOS tools is encouraged.

  1. Extraction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Phenolics in Sauvignon Blanc as Affected by Grape Harvesting and Processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the two main groups of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins found in wine that cause protein haze formation. Previous studies have found that phenolics are also involved in protein haze formation. In this study, Sauvignon Blanc grapes were harvested and processed in two vintages (2011 and 2012 by three different treatments: (1 hand harvesting with whole bunch press (H-WB; (2 hand harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (H-DC-3; and (3 machine harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (M-DC-3. The juices were collected at three pressure levels (0.4 MPa, 0.8 MPa and 1.6 MPa, some juices were fermented in 750 mL of wine bottles to determine the bentonite requirement for the resulting wines. Results showed juices of M-DC-3 had significantly lower concentration of proteins, including PR proteins, compared to those of H-DC-3, likely due to the greater juice yield of M-DC-3 and interactions between proteins and phenolics. Juices from the 0.8–1.6 MPa pressure and resultant wines had the highest concentration of phenolics but the lowest concentration of TLPs. This supported the view that TLPs are released at low pressure as they are mainly present in grape pulp but additional extraction of phenolics largely present in skin occurs at higher pressing pressure. Wine protein stability tests showed a positive linear correlation between bentonite requirement and the concentration of chitinases, indicating the possibility of predicting bentonite requirement by quantification of chitinases. This study contributes to an improved understanding of extraction of haze-forming PR proteins and phenolics that can influence bentonite requirement for protein stabilization.

  2. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  3. Ensacamento de frutos de pereira cv. Housui Bagging of nashi pear cv. Housui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dagoberto Faoro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de frutos de pêra japonesa cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta ensacados com diferentes tipos de sacos de papel e em duas épocas: 34 e 83 dias após a florada. O ensacamento não influenciou na firmeza, no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e no peso médio dos frutos. Sacos vermelhos não induziram aumento do pH da polpa, mas o uso de sacos duplos, sacos marrons, sacos de papel kraft marrons e sacos de pipoca brancos aumentaram significativamente o pH. Ao buscar-se maior precocidade de colheita, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de sacos pequenos de papel manteiga aos 34 dias após a floração e o uso de sacos grandes duplos ou sacos grandes marrons, 83 dias após a plena floração. O ensacamento 34 dias após a plena floração, com sacos grandes de papel duplo de cor marrom ou sacos de papel kraft marrons, ou ainda o uso de sacos pequenos parafinados transparentes de papel manteiga, aos 34 dias, seguidos pela colocação, aos 83 dias, dos dois tipos de sacos grandes citados anteriormente, resultaram em frutos de melhor qualidade externa (película de coloração homogênea e mais clara, lisa e com lenticelas pouco salientes. O uso de sacos vermelhos de papel manteiga e de sacos de pipoca brancos, com ou sem ensacamento prévio com sacos pequenos de papel manteiga parafinado, não resultaram em melhoria substancial da qualidade externa do fruto.The fruit quality of Nashi pears cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta have been evaluated after bagging with different paper bags at two bagging dates: 34 and 83 days after full bloom. The bagging did not affect the fruit firmness, the total soluble solids and the average fruit weight. Red bags did not affect the pH of the fruit flesh. However the fruit bagged with double bags of brown color, brown kraft paper and white popcorn paper increased the pH. In order to harvest precociously, the use of small transparent paraffin paper bags 34 days after full bloom

  4. Indications of the prominent role of elemental sulfur in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol in Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Leandro Dias; Vannevel, Sebastian; Buica, Astrid; Callerot, Suzanne; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A; du Toit, Wessel J

    2017-08-01

    Elemental sulfur is a fungicide traditionally used to control Powdery Mildew in the production of grapes. The presence of sulfur residues in grape juice has been associated with increased production of hydrogen sulfide during fermentation, which could take part in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol. This work examines whether elemental sulfur additions to Sauvignon blanc juice can increase the levels of sought-after varietal thiols. Initial trials were performed in South Africa and indicated a positive impact of sulfur on the levels of thiols. Further experiments were then carried out with New Zealand Sauvignon blanc and confirmed a positive relationship between elemental sulfur additions and wine varietal thiols. The formation of hydrogen sulfide was observed when the addition of elemental sulfur was made to clarified juice, along with an increase in further reductive sulfur compounds. When the addition of sulfur was made to pressed juice, prior to clarification, the production of reductive sulfur compounds was drastically decreased. Some mechanistic considerations are also presented, involving the reduction of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  6. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  7. Caracterização da fenologia e da demanda térmica das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ para a região norte do Paraná = Characterization of phenology and thermal demand for ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapevines in the northern region of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o comportamento fenológico e determinar a demanda térmica das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em vinhedos comerciais pertencentes à Vinícola Intervin®, localizados no município de Maringá, estado do Paraná. Para cada variedade, foram marcadas 20 plantas, conduzidas em latada com espaçamento de 4,0 x 1,5 m. A fenologia das plantas foi avaliada a partir da poda de produção de 2004 quanto à duração em dias de cada um dos subperíodos: poda à gema-algodão; poda à brotação, poda ao aparecimento da inflorescência; poda ao florescimento; poda ao início da maturação e poda à colheita. A demanda térmica foi calculada empregando-se o somatório de graus-dias (GD desde a poda até a colheita e também para cada um dos subperíodos, considerando-se duas temperaturas base (10 e 12°C, sendo escolhida a que apresentou menor desvio padrão. Pelos resultados obtidos, determinou-se que a duração dos subperíodos para a videira ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ foi de 9; 13; 17; 40; 98 e 132 dias e, para a videira ‘Tannat’, foi de 13; 15; 19; 41; 99 e 139 dias, respectivamente. A temperatura-base de 10°C foi a mais adequada para o cálculo da demanda térmica. Para completar o seu ciclo, a demanda foi de 1.295,8 GD para a ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e de 1.375,5 GD para a ‘Tannat’.The aim of this research was to characterize the phenological performance, and determine the thermal demand of the ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in Northern Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercialvineyard owned by Vinícola Intervin®, located in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The vineyards were established in July, 2000, using the ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ as a rootstock. For each variety, 20 plants previously

  8. Analisis Kinerja CV. Fabamus Famili Utama Semarang Dengan Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Permata, Nilla Mega; Nugraha, Hari Susanta; Nurseto, Sendhang

    2014-01-01

    A method of measuring the performance of the company to assist in knowing the health condition of the company itself. The study was conducted on the CV. Fabamus First Family with Balanced Scorecard approach to measuring through four perspectives: financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business process perspective and learning and growth perspectives. In the financial aspects of performance measurement with a weight of 70%, 10% customer perspective, internal business process per...

  9. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PRODUK DIGITAL PRINTING PADA CV. FNB DIGITAL JAMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti, Yenni; Mauliana, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    CV. Digital FNB is one of the companies that involved in Digital Printing business. Based on survey in the middle of 2011-2012, there are 31 digital printing businesses in the city of Jambi. In order to examine the marketing stratey implemented, descriptive study has been conducted, uses interview, observation, and documentation as instruments. The strategy that observed in this study consist of marketing strategy including market segmentation, targeting, product strategy, pricing strategy, ...

  10. Applications in Foreign Currency Prima CV Ellindo Money Changer

    OpenAIRE

    Wisnu Sutrisno; Ire Puspa Wardhani, Skom, MMSI

    2004-01-01

    This explains the scientific writing about the design of application programs forforeign currency transactions by using Visual Basic 6.0 programming language.In scientific writing database is also used by Visual Data Manager (VisData)integrated in Visual Basic 6.0 program itself. Consists of three tables namelyCurrency,Customer and Transaction.In the end application program for foreign currency transactions will be applied to theCV. Prima Ellindo Money Changer for ease in performing activitie...

  11. The draft genome of Corchorus olitorius cv. JRO-524 (Navin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the draft genome (377.3 Mbp of Corchorus olitorious cv. JRO-524 (Navin, which is a leading dark jute variety developed from a cross between African (cv. Sudan Green and indigenous (cv. JRO-632 types. We predicted from the draft genome a total of 57,087 protein-coding genes with annotated functions. We identified a large number of 1765 disease resistance-like and defense response genes in the jute genome. The annotated genes showed the highest sequence similarities with that of Theobroma cacao followed by Gossypium raimondii. Seven chromosome-scale genetically anchored pseudomolecules were constructed with a total size of 8.53 Mbp and used for synteny analyses with the cocoa and cotton genomes. Like other plant species, gypsy and copia retrotransposons were the most abundant classes of repeat elements in jute. The raw data of our study are available in SRA database of NCBI with accession number SRX1506532. The genome sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession LLWS00000000, and the version described in this paper will be the first version (LLWS01000000.

  12. Pest and beneficial complex in organic viticulture at the conditions of Gokceada Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsemerci Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of harmful and predatory insects have been compared in six table (Trakya İlkeren, Alphonse Lavallée, Tekirdağ Çekirdeksizi, Cardinal, Italia, Amasya beyazı x 28/259-1 and six wine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Kalabaki, Sauvignon Blanc, Özer Karası grape varieties in Gokceada between 2008 and 2011. No difference was determined among table grape varieties. Trakya llkeren has been the most suitable grape variety for Gokceada as it is rarely infested by the pests. Population density of Colomerus vitis Pgst. was statistically different in wine varieties in 2010. Cabernet Sauvignon has continuously been infested by the pest. Arboridia adanae Dlabola and Thrips spp. were harmful in Cabernet Sauvignon in 2011. Merlot has been infested with higher populations of insect pests in some years. Hence, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot should not be preferred in Gokceada. Kalabaki had the lowest population density. Effect of four combinations of green manure, farm manure and olive cake compost was observed on the population density of harmful and beneficial insects on Trakya Ilkeren and Cabernet Sauvignon. The combinations tested had no important effect on the population density of insect pests and predators. Organic fertilization program should be selected according to what grape and vine tree need.

  13. Analisis Daya Saing untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Layanan terhadap Pelanggan dengan Pendekatan CRM di CV. BLITZSPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available CV. Blitzspot adalah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang jasa penyediaan layanan internet (internet service provider, yang berkantor pusat di Komplek Padasuka Indah Ruko Blok A-1, Cimahi, Jawa Barat. Berdasarkan hasil wawancara dan hasil observasi pada data transaksi CV. Blitzspot, konsumen CV. Blitzspot yang melakukan transaksi tiap tahunnya selalu berkurang, hal ini dikarenakan konsumen sering membandingkan layanan-layanan yang ditawarkan oleh para pesaing CV. Blitzspot. Bila permasalahan tersebut belum teratasi, konsumen CV. Blitzspot akan menurun tiap tahunnya dan akan selalu berpindah ke pesaing CV. Blitzspot. Direktur Utama CV. Blitzspot ingin menganalisis daya saing untuk menentukan layanan-layanan yang akan diberikan kepada pelanggan CV. Blitzspot dan penentuan strategi untuk mempertahankan konsumen CV. Blitzspot.  Metode Analisis daya saing yang digunakan adalah Model Analisis Berlian Porter dan Metode Pengelompokkan Pelanggan yang digunakan adalah Metode LRFM. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian dan pembahasan yang telah dibuat, maka dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa Direktur Utama dapat menganalisis daya saing CV. Blitzspot dengan menggunakan Berlian Porter untuk meningkatkan kualitas layanan terhadap pelanggan CV. Blitzspot.

  14. Induction of single flower mutant in Hibiscus cv. 'Alipur Beauty'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Stem cuttings of Hibicus cv. 'Alipur Beauty' were irradiated with 0, 1.0, 2.0 Krad of gamma rays in 60 Co source and planted just after irradiation. Data were recorded on days to sprout, number of sprouts, sprouting percentage, survival, plant height, leaf number and size, abnormal leaves and plants, floral abnormalities and induction of somatic mutations in flower colour/form. Some of the characters like plant height, leaf number, abnormal leaves and plants and leaf size were recorded after 60 and 120 days. 7 refs. (author)

  15. DETECTION OF MOTORCYCLISTS WITHOUT HELMET AND FINEPAYMENT USING OPEN CV

    OpenAIRE

    Stemy Simon, Divya Kumaran A.K.

    2018-01-01

    The helmet is the main safety equipment of motorcyclists, but many drivers do not use it. The main aim of this project is to construct an automatic detection of the motorcyclist without helmet from video using OpenCV library tools. If they are not wearing the helmet, the license plate of the motorcycle is focused automatically. By using Computer Vision technique we can detect and recognize the license plate number. We make the training set of different characters of different sizes. Based on ...

  16. Comparison of tracking algorithms implemented in OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janku Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is very progressive and modern part of computer science. From scientific point of view, theoretical aspects of computer vision algorithms prevail in many papers and publications. The underlying theory is really important, but on the other hand, the final implementation of an algorithm significantly affects its performance and robustness. For this reason, this paper tries to compare real implementation of tracking algorithms (one part of computer vision problem, which can be found in the very popular library OpenCV. Moreover, the possibilities of optimizations are discussed.

  17. OpenCV 3.0 computer vision with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, Daniel Lélis

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer, student, researcher, or hobbyist wanting to create computer vision applications in Java then this book is for you. If you are an experienced C/C++ developer who is used to working with OpenCV, you will also find this book very useful for migrating your applications to Java. All you need is basic knowledge of Java, with no prior understanding of computer vision required, as this book will give you clear explanations and examples of the basics.

  18. Recherches sur les marqueurs moléculaires de l’arôme de « fruits cuits » des raisins et des vins rouges issus des cépages Merlot et Cabernet-Sauvignon : Approches sensorielle, analytique et agronomique

    OpenAIRE

    Allamy , Lucile

    2015-01-01

    In the 2000s, aromas of dried fruits, referring to prune, fig or cooked peach are found more and more often in Bordeaux red wines. The markers responsible for these aromas related to the grape maturity are unknown. Firstly, we show that these shades, which were rarely encountered in wines from an appellation named A in this study, are now part of the distinctive aromas of these wines. However, the tasters that assimilate these characteristics to the distinctive aromas and the type of the appe...

  19. Alcohol and CV Health: Jekyll and Hyde J-Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Evan L; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2018-02-16

    A routine of light or moderate alcohol consumption (≤1 drink/day for women and 1 to 2 drinks/day for men) is associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), heart failure (HF), and stroke. Conversely, heavy drinking, (>4 drinks/day) is associated with an increased risk for death and cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Excessive alcohol intake trails behind only smoking and obesity among the 3 leading causes of premature deaths in the United States (US). Heavy alcohol use is a common cause of reversible hypertension (HTN), nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation (AF), and stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic). Among males aged 15 to 59 years, alcohol abuse is perhaps the leading cause of premature death. As such, the risk-to-benefit ratio of drinking is less favorable in younger individuals. A daily habit of light to moderate drinking is ideal for those who choose to consume alcohol regularly. Red wine in particular before or during the evening meal is linked with the best long-term CV outcomes. Most of the studies on alcohol and health are observational, and correlation does not prove causation. Health care professionals should not advise nondrinkers to begin drinking because of the paucity of randomized outcome data coupled with the potential for alcohol abuse even among seemingly low risk individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Resistance selection on banana CV. Ambon Kuning Against Fusarium Wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ismiyarti; Meldia, Yeni; Jumjunidang

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the occurrence of mutation on irradiated plantlets and their resistance of plants of banana cv. Ambon Kuning against Fusarium wilt. Plantlets of banana cv. Ambon Kuning sized 5 cm were exposed to gamma rays at the doses 5 - 35 Gy intervals, then were subcultured for obtained M 1 V 5 plantlets. More over, the planlets were acclimatized and were planted in the field was already infected by Fasarium (f).culbense (FOC). The result indicated that irradiated plantlets of the doses 20 - 35 Gy were not able to survive up to 6 months after exposing to gamma rays. Abnormalities of M 1 V 5 plantlets originated from irradiated plantlets at the doses 10 and 15 Gy were shown on rossette plantlets with rigid and dark green leaves, and the formation of smooth mass morphologically shaped like calculus. The appearance of plant height and number of suckers of suckers of M 1 V 5 plants in the field was quite various. The number of survival plants after 8 moths planting was 8, 7, 15, and 28, respectively originated from untreated plants and irradiated plantlets at the doses 5, 10, and 15 Gy. After one year planting , only 2 plants were able to survive from irradiated plantlet at the dose 15 Gy. The plants could produce 27 plantlets obtained from culturing their shoot tips. Further study of these plantlets was needed in order create the stability of their resistance to FOC. (author)

  1. EN-CV during LS1: upgrade, consolidation, maintenance, operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonis, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group in the Engineering Department (EN) will be heavily involved in several projects and activities during the long shutdown in 2013 and 2014 (LS1) within a time-frame limited to around twelve months. According to the requests received so far, most projects are related to the upgrade of users' equipment, consolidation work, and the construction of new plants. However, through the experience gained from the first years of the LHC run, some projects are also needed to adapt the existing installations to the new operating parameters. Some of these projects are presented hereafter, outlining the impact that they will have on operational working conditions or risks of breakdown. Among these projects we find: the PM32 raising pumps, the cooling of the CERN Control Center, R2E, the backup cooling towers for ATLAS and cryogenics, a thermosyphon for ATLAS, or new pumps in UWs. Finally, EN-CV activities during LS1 for maintenance, operation, and commissioning will be mentioned since they represent a major workload for the Group

  2. Perancangan Kemasan Transportasi Buah Jambu Air (Syzygium aqueum cv Camplong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswahyudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jamboo cv Camplong was an exotic fruit from Sampang Indonesia which had high economic values. The quality of fresh Jamboo was greatly influenced by the types of packaging and ways of its transportation that affected its shelf life. The purpose of this research were designing a primary packaging and analyzing the quality of Jamboo cv Camplong after short transportation (from Sampang to Surabaya. Farmers used conventional packaging with capacity of 8.4 kg/box (dimension 478 mm x 146 mm x 354 mm. Based on theoretical packaging design showed that the flute BC cardboard (capacity 4.5 kg/box, dimension 357 mm x 217 mm x 216 mm with partition flute A cardboard. In fact, there was needed modification of the dimension (342 mm x 210 mm x 200 mm because of the fruits diameter (60-65 mm. This result did not change the efficiency usage of transportation space (91-95% and compression strength of box can support (7 boxes/ stack. The result showed that the mechanical damage after transportation were 20.87% for conventional packaging (as control and 7.70% for modification packaging design (packaging with partition.

  3. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Liu, X.; Cheng, B.S.; Ma, X.L.; Lyu, X.; Zhao, X.; Ju, Y.; Min, Z.; Fang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA), and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai) and JY22 (B. aryabhattai) were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  4. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Liu, X.; Cheng, B.S.; Ma, X.L.; Lyu, X.; Zhao, X.; Ju, Y.; Min, Z.; Fang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA), and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai) and JY22 (B. aryabhattai) were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  5. Wilting and biological additive effect on in situ degradability and chemical composition of Arachis pintoi cv Belomonte silage

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Aparecida Possenti; Evaldo Ferrari Júnior; Valdinei Tadeu Paulino; Ivani Pozar Otsuk; Patrícia Brás

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of wilting and biological additive amendment on chemical composition, fermentation and ruminal degradability of Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte silage. The following treatments were analysed: T1- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte fresh forage; T2 - Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte fresh forage plus bacterial additive added to the forage prior to the ensilage; T3- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte wilted by the sun for 4 hours; T4- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte wilted b...

  6. Analisis Tingkat Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan pada CV Sumber Pangan di Denpasar

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRATMAN, I WAYAN NOVA; USTRIYANA, I NYOMAN GEDE; DEWI, IDA AYU LISTIA

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of Job Satisfaction at CV Food Sources in DenpasarHuman resources is a factor of production which is very important for a company,compared with other factors of production include natural resources, capital, andskills. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of employee satisfactionCV Food Source in Denpasar. The location determination is done deliberately. Thetotal number of the population sampled that stout 40 employees CV Source of Foodin Denpasar. The factors used in...

  7. Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi, Kepemimpinan, dan Motivasi Kerja terhadap Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan CV Surya Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Sito Dwi Irvianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted on CV Surya Raya which is engaged in car shipping. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of organization culture, leadership, and working motivation partially to employees’ satisfaction in CV Surya Raya. The data was collected by conducting interviews with the company and distributing questionnaires to 67 employees as respondents and then analyzed using linear regression analysis method. From the research results, leadership variable does not have a significant impact on employees' job satisfaction in CV Surya Raya. Whereas, the motivation variable has greater influence on job satisfaction of CV Surya Raya employees compared to the organization's culture.

  8. CIVAC CV-01 type pressure gage for middle vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaru, Grigore; Aculai, Agustin

    1997-01-01

    The digital display pressure gage CIVAC CV-01 measures absolute pressures in vacuum range of 10 2 - 10 -3 mbar in any installation or equipment generating or using low pressures. It uses a transducer type PIRANI, model TR-02. It is a portable device, easy to exploit and handle. It is applied in research, chemistry, metallurgical industry, mechanical engineering. The system of coupling the transducer to the enclosure where the pressure is to be measured is of type ISO-PNEUROP with flange, collar and adjusting ring with a DN 25 ring gasket. The technical and functional features are: - Measuring error: ± 35% of real conventional value ; - Response time: 20 ms; - Number of measuring points: 1; - Output signal: 0 - 10 V d.c.; - Repeatability error: 5%; - Max weight: 1,600 Kg; Size: 91 x 117 x 187 mm. (authors)

  9. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sign Language Translator Application Using OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyono, L.; Pratisto, E. H.; Bawono, S. A. T.; Purnomo, F. A.; Yudhanto, Y.; Raharjo, B.

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the development of sign language translator application using OpenCV Android based, this application is based on the difference in color. The author also utilizes Support Machine Learning to predict the label. Results of the research showed that the coordinates of the fingertip search methods can be used to recognize a hand gesture to the conditions contained open arms while to figure gesture with the hand clenched using search methods Hu Moments value. Fingertip methods more resilient in gesture recognition with a higher success rate is 95% on the distance variation is 35 cm and 55 cm and variations of light intensity of approximately 90 lux and 100 lux and light green background plain condition compared with the Hu Moments method with the same parameters and the percentage of success of 40%. While the background of outdoor environment applications still can not be used with a success rate of only 6 managed and the rest failed.

  11. Gamma irradiation studies on Gladiolus cv. White Friendship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.; Sharma, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Dormant corms of Gladiolus cv. White Friendship were irradiated with 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 Gy of gamma rays. Reduction in survival, plant height, number of leaves and floret, spike length, leaf and corm size and delayed flowering were recorded after irradiation. Morphological abnormalities in foliage and florets and chromosomal aberration during root tip mitosis increased with increase in exposure. Flowering was ceased cent per cent in highest dose of 1250 Gy. LD 50 on survival basis was found in 750 Gy exposure. MV 2 and MV 3 also followed the similar pattern of results as exhibited by MV 1 plants. Pink flower colour mutation was detected in few plants as sectorial chimeric form in MV 2 in treated population. In MV 3 one plant produced spike with lighter pink florets in 750 Gy treatment. This mutant has been isolated in pure form. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Induced somatic mutation in mango, mangifera indica L. cv. Langra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dormant buds of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Langra) exposed to acute gamma-irradiation dosages of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kiloroentgens (kR), were grafted on to one-year-old seedling stock. Dosages of 2.0 and 3.0 kR were found satisfactory for the purpose, as measured by bud lethality and scion growth. A bud graft from 3.0 kR bore fruits of excellent quality. Compared with the control, the fruits were heavier, larger and had more creamish-yellow pulp. None of the other morphological changes expressed by the mutant fruits, observed over three fruiting seasons, were disadvantageous. The tree habit is being further investigated before the mutant can be considered for release as an improved cultivar. (author)

  13. Analisis Pengukuran Produktivitas Perusahaan Alsintan CV. Cherry Sarana Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Fithri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CV Cherry Sarana Agro is a manufacturing company, which produces agricultural machinery. In reality, company evaluatesits work and performance based on level of profits. In order to maintain the company's performance, it is necessary to measures the productivity of company to see how effective the performance of this company. So it can be determined what is needed in order to improve the performance of the company and also can increase profits. Measuring the productivity can be seen from the financial data that obtained from the company. Then based on data processing, show this company's productivity levels decreased during the period of measurement and it means company requires efforts to increase the efficient use of inputs. It is necessary for company to increase its productivity for the future. This improvement was made by taking into account the partial productivity as inputs that affect the profitability of the company on an ongoing basis.

  14. CV activities on the LHC complex during the long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Deleval, S; Body, Y; Obrecht, M; Moccia, S; Peon, G

    2011-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the major projects and work foreseen to be performed during next long shutdown on cooling and ventilation plants. Several projects are needed following the experience of the last years when LHC was running, in particular the modifications in the water cooling circuits presently in overflow. Some other projects are linked to the CV consolidation plan. Finally, most of the work shall be done to respond to additional requests: SR buildings air conditioning, the need to be able to clean and maintain the LHC cooling towers without a complete stop of cooling circuits, the upgrade of the air conditioning of the CCC rack room cooling etc. For all these activities, the author will detail constraints and the impact on the schedule and on the operation of the plants that will however need to run for most of the shutdown duration. The consequence of postponing the long shutdown from 2012 to 2013 will be also covered.

  15. Propolis extract in postharvest conservation Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Passos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of papaya (Carica papaya L. reduces its lifespan as well as limits marketing. Coating the fruits is an alternative to aid food preservation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of coating propolis extract on the physicochemical characteristics of papaya stored at room temperature. Solo papayas cv. 'Golden' were randomly divided into five postharvest treatment groups, three forms of dip-coating (70% alcohol, hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 2.5%, and hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 5% and two controls (one uncoated and one with refrigerated uncoated fruits. The weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA, and hydrogen potential (pH were evaluated at the intervals of 4 days every 12th storage day. Sensory analysis was performed on the 4th day of storage of papayas and evaluated by untrained through the acceptance testing. Treatments “refrigerated”, “propolis 2.5%”, and “5% propolis” presented with the lowest weight loss. The firmness level for treatment propolis 5% was superior to that of control, alcohol, and 2.5% propolis treatments. The SS was greater for propolis 5% treatment, which only differed from the alcohol treatment. The TA and SS/TA did not vary with the treatments, but with the storage time. The pH of refrigerated papaya showed significant differences in relation to other treatments. The fruits subjected to refrigerated treatment presented with chilling injury. Papayas coated with propolis extract showed sensory acceptability similar to that in other treatments on the 4th day of storage. The coating of propolis extract is a promising alternative for the control of weight loss and for the maintenance of firmness in Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'.

  16. Core Problem: Does the CV Parent Body Magnetization require differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T.; Tarduno, J. A.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the presence of past dynamos from magnetic studies of meteorites can provide key information on the nature and evolution of parent bodies. However, the suggestion of a past core dynamo for the CV parent body based on the study of the Allende meteorite has led to a paradox: a core dynamo requires differentiation, evidence for which is missing in the meteorite record. The key parameter used to distinguish core dynamo versus external field mechanisms is absolute field paleointensity, with high values (>>1 μT) favoring the former. Here we explore the fundamental requirements for absolute field intensity measurement in the Allende meteorite: single domain grains that are non-interacting. Magnetic hysteresis and directional data define strong magnetic interactions, negating a standard interpretation of paleointensity measurements in terms of absolute paleofield values. The Allende low field magnetic susceptibility is dominated by magnetite and FeNi grains, whereas the magnetic remanence is carried by an iron sulfide whose remanence-carrying capacity increases with laboratory cycling at constant field values, indicating reordering. The iron sulfide and FeNi grains are in close proximity, providing mineralogical context for interactions. We interpret the magnetization of Allende to record the intense early solar wind with metal-sulfide interactions amplifying the field, giving the false impression of a higher field value in some prior studies. An undifferentiated CV parent body is thus compatible with Allende's magnetization. Early solar wind magnetization should be the null hypothesis for evaluating the source of magnetization for chondrites and other meteorites.

  17. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ribeiro-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS. Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in

  18. Quantitating Volatile Phenols in Cabernet Franc Berries and Wine after On-Vine Exposure to Smoke from a Simulated Forest Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-01-24

    Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity. An increase in total VPs after primary fermentation suggested the existence of VP-conjugates other than the acid-labile VP-glycosides already reported. This conclusion was supported with base hydrolysis on the same samples. Relative to published results, the data suggested a multifactorial regional identity for smoke-taint and they inform efforts to produce a predictive model for perceptible smoke-taint in wine based on the chemical composition of smoke-exposed berries.

  19. How Adequate is your CV? Analyzing French CVs with ReaderBench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutu, Gabriel; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Lepoivre, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at presenting a new ReaderBench-based tool built to support candidates in increasing the quality of their CV for a job opening. Both the visual quality and the textual content are considered while also providing an overview and corresponding feedback for the entire CV.

  20. CV-Online tahab Londoni börsile / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Personaliotsinguga tegelev firma tahab tulevikus minna Londoni ja OMXi börsile. Diagramm: CV-Online Group loodab tänavu esmakordselt positiivse kulumieelse ärikasumi. Vt. samas: Üks CV-Online'i aktsionäridest on ka Google'i aktsionär; Väsinud ootamast esimest IPOt

  1. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI BERSAING JAHE INSTAN PRODUK CV. INTRAFOOD SURAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN PERCEPTUAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Harisudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi bersaing jahe instan produk CV. Intrafood dan strategi bersaing yang dapat direkomendasikan untuk meraih keberasilannya. Metode dasar yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Penentuan lokasi penelitian ditentukan dengan metode purposive, yaitu CV. Intrafood Surakarta. Jenis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis Perceptual Mapping. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh informasi bahwa jahe instan produk CV Intrafood berada pada peringkat ke-2 dari produk empat jahe instan yang diperbandingkan. Atribut yang dapat dijadikan kekuatan utama dalam meningkatkan pemasaran jahe instan produk CV. Intrafood adalah manfaat produk. Sisi yang paling lemah adalah atribut desain kemasan dan kinerja produk dalam kemasan. Abstract This study aims to determine the competitive position of the product instant ginger CV. Intrafood and competitive strategy can be recommended to achieve success. The basic method used is descriptive analysis. Determining the location of the study are determined by purposive method, namely CV. Intrafood Surakarta. Data used in this study is primary data and secondary data. Method analyzed using Perceptual Mapping. From the results of the study concluded that instant ginger of CV Intrafood product ranks second of four instant ginger products are compared. Attributes that can be used as a major force in improving product marketing instant ginger CV. Intrafood is the benefits of the product. The weakest side is the packaging design and performance attributes of the product in the packaging.

  2. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN INVESTASI PENAMBAHAN MESIN FRAIS BARU PADA CV. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Muhammad Rachadian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi sangat pesat sehingga dunia perindustrian harus mengikuti perkembangannya. Penerapan teknologi diharapkan dapat meningkatkan proses produksi sehingga dapat menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas. Pada industri pembuatan mesin cetak di CV XYZ, mesin-mesin yang digunakan telah hampir lebih dari 20 tahun. Ada indikasi bahwa mesin-mesin tersebut sudah lewat umur pakainya. Alternatif yang digunakan selama ini ialah penggantian komponen yang rusak. Peneliti ingin membandingkan alternative tersebut dengan  penambahan mesin frais baru. Untuk itu diperlukan analisis kelayakan investasi penambahan mesin baru. Dalam perkiraan kurun waktu 10 tahun dan suku bunganya 15 % dengan menggunakan NPV, penambahan mesin frais menarik sebesar Rp 461.201.000 dibandingkan penggantian komponen yang rusak sebesar Rp 211.227.000. Sebaliknya pada PBP, penggantian komponen yang rusak masih mengungguli dengan 1 tahun 4 bulan dibandingkan penambahan mesin frais baru selama 2 tahun 1 bulan. Begitupun juga PI penggantian komponen yang rusak masih menarik sebesar 4,2 dibandingkan PI penambahan mesin frais baru sebesar 2,56. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa dalam jangka waktu 10 tahun, alternatif penggantian komponen yang rusak masih lebih baik dibandingkan penambahan mesin frais baru. Namun, untuk investasi jangka panjang, mungkin saja alternatif penambahan mesin frais baru lebih menarik. Kata Kunci: penggantian komponen rusak, mesin frais baru, mesin cetak Abstract The rapid development of technology makes the world of industry must follow its development. Application of technology is expected to improve the production process so it can be produce a quality product. On the industrial manufacture of printing machines in CV XYZ, the machines have been used almost more than 20 years. There are indications that those machines passed the age lifetime. The alternatives that have been used during this time are the replacement of defective parts. Researchers wanted to

  3. Nitrogen fertilization on the establishment of Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Manuele Porto Sales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the establishment of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte propagated vegetatively. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with treatments arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design - two ages (70 and 85 days after planting and four nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha - with four replications. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics and production were evaluated. The nitrogen accelerated the establishment of the forage peanut with an increase in dry weight of green leaves and stolons. The greatest length of stolons (48.0 cm was obtained with a dose equivalent to 86 kg N/ha and higher density of stolons (20 stolons/vase between 78 and 82 kg N/ha. Nitrogen fertilization also reduced the phyllochron from 6.7 to 4.6 days/leaf. These data were more intense at 85 days, suggesting greater photosynthetic contribution during this period related to the large number of leaves after 70 days. Therefore, nitrogen can be an important tool to accelerate the establishment of pure stands of forage peanut.

  4. EVALUASI SISTEM INFORMASI PERSEDIAAN PADA CV. SARANA TELEMAXINDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Nelly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation objectives of inventory information systems at CV. Facilities Telemaxindo was to evaluate the weaknesses of the implementation of internal control, as well as estimating and assessing possible risks that might arise. The research method used is literature study of reference books in the library, and field study consisted of observation, interviews with relevant parties, creating check lists, check the inventory information systems documentation, and testing of inventory application systems. The results are findings of control weaknesses in the implementation of security management, operational management control, boundary control, input control, and output control on the present inventory information system. These weaknesses could pose a risk and if not dealt soon it could hurt the company. The resulting conclusion of the security management control, boundary control, control input, and output control is not running well so that it needs to be improved in accordance with the recommendations, while operational management control has been running fairly well.Keywords: evaluation, information system, inventory

  5. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  6. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices

  7. A virtual computing infrastructure for TS-CV SCADA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    2008-01-01

    In modern data centres, it is an emerging trend to operate and manage computers as software components or logical resources and not as physical machines. This technique is known as â€ワvirtualisation” and the new computers are referred to as â€ワvirtual machines” (VMs). Multiple VMs can be consolidated on a single hardware platform and managed in ways that are not possible with physical machines. However, this is not yet widely practiced for control system deployment. In TS-CV, a collection of VMs or a â€ワvirtual infrastructure” is installed since 2005 for SCADA systems, PLC program development, and alarm transmission. This makes it possible to consolidate distributed, heterogeneous operating systems and applications on a limited number of standardised high-performance servers in the Central Control Room (CCR). More generally, virtualisation assists in offering continuous computing services for controls and maintaining performance and assuring quality. Implementing our systems in a vi...

  8. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DO KIWI CV. HAYWARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIZE FÁBIO EDUARDO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a obtenção de mudas de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv. Hayward, por meio do cultivo in vitro de cotilédones. Utilizou-se o meio de MURASHIGE & SKOOG (1962 -- MS, suplementado com dois tipos de auxina (AIA e AIB e uma citocinina (BAP. Foram verificados os efeitos de três doses de auxinas (0,125; 0,250 e 0,375 mg.L-1, combinadas com três doses de citocinina (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 mg.L-1 na capacidade morfogênica dos explantes. Procedeu-se o estudo histológico dos órgãos das plântulas obtidas in vitro, e verificou-se, também, a capacidade de aclimatação das mudas ex vitro. A menor dose de AIB (0,125 mg.L-1, independentemente das doses de BAP, foi a mais eficaz na morfogênese dos explantes. Não foram verificadas alterações histológicas e anatômicas das plântulas obtidas in vitro. Aos três meses após o cultivo ex vitro dos explantes, verificou-se a sobrevivência de 88% das plantas transplantadas em condições de campo.

  9. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  10. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ANALISIS PENGUKURAN PRODUKTIVITAS PADA CV. CITRA JEPARA FURNITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available CV. Citra Jepara adalah perusahaan furnitur ekspor. Pada masa itu, perusahaan hanya melihat level keuntungan untuk mengkaji perusahaan telah berjalan lebih baik atau kebalikannya. Hasil persepsi membuat perusahaan hanya sedikit memperhatikan efisiensi pemakaian sumber daya yang dimiliki (input sehingga perusahaan membutuhkan biaya besar untuk melakukan aktivitas perusahaan.Penelitian ini mempelajari evaluasi produktivitas perusahaan dan pengukuran serta hubungan antara level produktivitas dengan level profitabilitas (kemampuan perusahaan untuk menciptakan laba yang dapat dicapai oleh perusahaan.Hasil penelitian ini tentang pengukuran produktivitas parsial memperlihatkan level produktivitas berubah-ubah dan masih memerlukan usaha peningkatan produktivitas parsial terutama dalam pemakaian masing-masing input dengan efisien. Level Total Factor Productivity selama perioda pengukuran memperlihatkan level pertumbuhan positif. Ini melukiskan perusahaan sukses dalam mengelola input tenaga kerja dan modal kolektif yang dimiliki. Level Total Productivity selama perioda pengukuran menunjukkan level pertumbuhan yang berubah-ubah. Ini melukiskan perusahaan itu belum dapat mengelola input yang dimiliki keseluruhan dengan sukses. Untuk melukiskan hubungan antara produktivitas total dengan profitabilitas dari hasil penelitian bisa diketahui faktor produktivitas (0,998 mempunyai pengaruh lebih besar dibandingkan pemulihan harga (0,457 untuk peningkatan profitabilitas perusahaan selama kurun waktu satu tahun perioda pengukuran. Diperlukan usaha untuk meningkatkan profitabilitas perusahaan untuk periode mendatang disertai usaha untuk meningkatkan produktivitas yang memusatkan pada peningkatan produktivitas material dan produktivitas modal sebagai input yang sangat mempengaruhi profitabilitas perusahaan dengan cara berkelanjutkan dan berkesinambungan. Kata kunci: pengukuran evaluasi dan produktivitas, profitabilitas    CV. Citra Jepara is an export furniture

  12. Novel circulatory connection from the acupoint Zhong Wan(CV12 to pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Demonstrating a novel circulatory path from the acupoint(CV12 to the pancreas. Method : Alcian blue(1% solution, 20μl, pH 7.4 was injected into the acupoint(CV12. Two hours later the surfaces of internal organs were observed by using a stereomicroscope. Results : Alcian blue arrived and colored the omental fat band(OFB on the pancreas. The OFB connected the head and tail of the pancreas, the pancreas and the spleen, and the pancreas and the stomach. Conclusion : The existence of a novel circulatory path from the acupoint CV12 to the pancreas and its OFB was demonstrated.

  13. Analisis Strategi Mitigasi Resiko Pada Supply Chain CV Surya Cip Dengan House of Risk Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pertiwi, Yoana Ellen; Susanty, Aries

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of Risk Mitigation Strategies on CV Surya CIP's Supply Chain Using House of Risk Model. In the supply chain activities always has the potential of risk, therefore risk management is necessary for handling the risks. At the company that produces plastic molding machine such as CV Surya CIP, in its supply chain activities have a chance to arise risks. The purpose of this study is to identify the various risks that occur in the CV Surya CIP and its causes, severity and determine the ...

  14. Analisis Pengawasan Logistik Produk Aqua Ukuran 330ml Pada CV. Dlu'x Resto Samarinda

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana, Ali Masuhud, H. Mulyadi Syp

    2016-01-01

    The problem in this research is "Are Determination Against Aqua Products Logistics Control 330ml sizes on CV. DLux Resto has been optimized? "This study aims to determine the amount of inventory on the CV aqua 330ml sizes. Dlu'x Resto in Samarinda.Formulation of the problem in this study is whether the determination of the logistical monitoring product inventory aqua 330ml sizes that have been carried out on the CV. Dlu'x Resto Samarinda already performed optimally.The hypothesis in this stud...

  15. Efeito de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc Effect of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc, nas safras de 1987 a 1990. As vinificações foram realizadas em escala industrial, pelos processos clássico, de termovinificação e de maceração carbônica. Avaliaram- se teor alcoólico, acidez total, açúcares redutores, cinzas, extrato seco, compostos fenólicos e voláteis e elementos minerais. Procedeu-se, também, à análise sensorial dos vinhos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP e à análise de variância, sendo que os três primeiros eixos explicaram 68,2% da variação total. Através da ACP, foi possível separar os vinhos de maceração carbônica dos outros dois processos de vinificação. As variáveis que apresentaram maior efeito na variação foram os álcoois superiores, os cátions e os compostos fenólicos. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que a maceração carbônica originou vinhos leves e com menor intensidade de cor, e a termovinificação e a vinificação clássica originaram vinhos com mais corpo, melhor qualidade e equilíbrio gustativo e maior tipicidade varietal.The effects of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine were evaluated from the 1987 to the 1990 vintages. The vinifications were made in an industrial scale by the following processes: conventional vinification, thermovinification and carbonic maceration. The analyses performed were alcohol, total acidity, reducing sugar, ash, dry extract, phenolic and volatile compounds and mineral elements. The quality was evaluated by sensory analysis. Data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA and to analysis of variance, where the three first axes explained 68.2% of the total variation. The PCA permitted to separate the wines of carbonic maceration from the other two vinification processes. The variables presenting important

  16. Light response and potential interacting proteins of a grape flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), a member of cytochrome P450 protein family, introduces B-ring hydroxyl group in the 3' position of the flavonoid. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a F3'H gene (VviF3'H), which contains an open reading frame of 1530 bp encoding a polypeptide of 509 amino acids, was cloned and characterized from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. VviF3'H showed high homology to known F3'H genes, especially F3'Hs from the V. vinifera reference genome (Pinot Noir) and lotus. Expression profiling analysis using real-time PCR revealed that VviF3'H was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues including berries, leaves, flowers, roots, stems and tendrils, suggesting its important physiological role in plant growth and development. Moreover, the transcript level of VviF3'H gene in grape berries was relatively higher at early developmental stages and gradually decreased during véraison, and then increased in the mature phase. In addition, the promoter of VviF3'H was isolated by using TAIL-PCR. Yeast one-hybrid screening of the Cabernet Sauvignon cDNA library and subsequent in vivo/vitro validations revealed the interaction between VviF3'H promoter and several transcription factors, including members of HD-Zip, NAC, MYB and EIN families. A transcriptional regulation mechanism of VviF3'H expression is proposed for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L.) and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Dayse Cristina de; Silva, André Luís Lopes da; Schuck, Mariane Ruzza; Purcino, Marivel; Tanno, Guilherme Nakao; Biasi, Luiz Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine wa...

  18. LACTIC ACID AND ACETIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was the identification of red wine microbiota during the fermentation process using a classical microbiological method and real-time PCR. The changes in different groups of microorganisms were monitored in total counts of bacteria, Lactobacillus cells and Acetobacter cells. Microbiological parameters were observed during the current collection and processing of wine in 2012. Samples were taken during the fermentation process in wine enterprises and were storaged with different conditions. During this period were examined 4 bottles of wine berween Cabernet Sauvignon and Frankovka modra. The total counts of bacteria ranged from 4.98±0.08 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 5.63±0.13 log CFU.ml-1 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The number of lactobacilli ranged from 2.18±0.10 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C to 2.49±0.04 log CFU.ml-1 in the Frankovka modra wine at 25 °C of storage and the number of Acetobacter cells ranged from 4.21±0.04 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 4.52±0.15 log CFU.ml-1 in Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The presence and sensitivity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter orleaniensis were detected using Real time PCR.

  19. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  20. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F L; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2014-02-05

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease.

  1. Analisis Pengaruh Lingkungan Kerja dan Pemberian Kompensasi terhadap Kinerja Karyawan CV Mum Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Logahan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mum CV is a company engaged in the sale of bread. To increase sales of bread (performance it needs to investigate the influence of work environment and compensation of employees. The method of analysis used in this study is descriptive, Pearson Regression, and Multiple Regression. The data were obtained from the employees performance by completing the questionnaires provided using Likert scale which was useful to determine the level of disagreement questions on the questionnaires. Results achieved in this study are the work environment has no significant influence on employees performance in CV Mum Indonesia, amounting to 0,068. Compensation has significant, no influence on employees performance in CV Mum Indonesia that is equal to 0,580 and there is a significant effect of 33.6%. Work environment and compensation have a significant impact on employees performance in CV Mum Indonesia. It is equal to 0,580 and there is a significant effect of 33.6%.

  2. Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV. The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of emulsion fuel with and without FWM-CV cells was conducted using ultrasound to overcome the problems of large size microalgae colonies and to form homogenized emulsions. The emulsified water fuels, prepared using ultrasound, were found to be stable and the size of FWM-CV colonies were effectively reduced to pass through the engine nozzle safely. Engine tests at 3670 rpm were conducted using three fuels: cottonseed biodiesel CS-B100, emulsified cottonseed biodiesel water fuel, water and emulsifier (CS-E20 and emulsified water containing FWM-CV cells CS-ME20. The results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC was increased by about 41% when the engine was fueled with emulsified water fuels compared to CS-B100. The engine power, exhaust gas temperature, NOx and CO2 were significantly lower than that produced by CS-B100. The CS-ME20 produced higher power than CS-E20 due to the heating value improvement as a result of adding FWM-CV cells to the fuel.

  3. Analisis Pengaruh Kemampuan, Usaha dan Dukungan Perusahaan terhadap Kinerja Karyawan pada CV Sandang Gloria Konveksindo

    OpenAIRE

    Logahan, Jerry; Sari, Synthia Atas; Marisa, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Clothing Konveksindo CV Gloria is a trading company engaged in the sale of products and clothing items. Therefore, the performance of employees is very important in achieving that goal. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of ability, effort, and support the company towards the employee's performance CV Gloria Konveksindo Clothing. The method of analysis used in this study is descriptive, Pearson Regression, and Multiple Regression. Data obtained from the appraisal of employ...

  4. Cyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Perse, Amanda; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Desmecht, Daniel; Mbunkah, Herbert Afegenwi; Daniel, Achukwi Mbunkah; Kingsley, Manchang Tanyi; Campos, Renata de Mendonca; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Randriamampionona, Njary; Poppert, Sven; Tannich, Egbert; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2014-12-18

    Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution.

  5. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-01-01

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with IκB-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy

  6. Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of faba beans ( Vicia faba cv. Fiord) and sweet lupins ( Lupizus albus cv. Kiev) as protein sources for ... P igsi n the metabolisrna ndN balance trial consurned5 % less( P < 0.01)o 1'thel upind ietc omparedto the fabab eand iet (l 370 vs. | 440 gld).N o significandt ift'erenceisn the digestiblee nergy( DE) contenta nd ...

  7. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan di Rental Mobil CV. Ilham Motor Gandu Mlarak Ponorogo

    OpenAIRE

    Dhika Amalia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of quality customer service and loyalty to know a very dominant factor affecting customer loyalty in the CV . Ilham Motor. This research method is the primary data from the questionnaires , sampling technique is a technique associated with customer 100 CV Ilham Motor . Data analysis is a quantitative method to test the validity , reliability testing , multiple linear regression analysis , the correlation coefficient analytic , analytic det...

  8. [Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

    2008-11-01

    Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species.

  9. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  10. [Regularity of Clinical Application of Lianquan (CV 23) in Chinese Ancient Times According to Literature of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mei-Jun; Liu, Chun-Yan; Xie, Yu; Zhu, Jie-Bin; Xu, Zhen-Hua

    2018-03-25

    To summarize the regularity of application of Lianquan (CV 23) in clinical practice in Chinese ancient times through analysis of ancient traditional Chinese medical (TCM) literature. A total of 60 books involving CV 23 from the 1 156 ancient TCM books listed in the fifth edition of Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine were collected by using CV 23 as the main keyword and "Sheben" "Benchi", and "Jieben" (the other names of CV 23 in TCM)as the supplementary keywords and analyzed systematically. A database was then constructed from the collected data, including the related types of disorders or symptoms, acupoint recipes, and methods of needling and moxibustion, contraindications, etc. A total of 196 articles related to the application of CV 23 from 60 ancient classical books were collected in accordance with the inclusive criteria. Among them, 155 articles are referred to the indications of CV 23, 35 to types of disorders such as asthma, cough, tongue swelling with difficulty in speaking, protracted tongue, acute contraction of tongue root, vomiting, spasm syndrome, stroke, aphtha, problems of mouth and teeth, throat problems, etc. of the internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and five-sense organs; 64 items are referred to the application of single CV 23, 91 to CV 23-included recipes containing 111 adjunct acupoints, and 78 to stimulation of CV 23 with acupuncture needle, moxibustion, pricking blood, and fire needle. Moreover, of the 111 adjunct acupoints, the most commonly used are Shaoshang (LU 11), Tiantu (CV 22), Hegu (LI 4), Yuye (EX-HN 13), Zhongchong (PC 9), etc. Lianquan (CV 23) is mainly used for glossopharyngeal problems chiefly by syndrome-meridian differentiation. The supplement of complementary acupoints or five-shu points in combination with CV 23 has a synergistic effect. Moxibustion (3 moxa- cones in general) is often employed, and the needling depth is usually about 7.5 mm. The common contraindication of CV 23 is severe tongue swelling.

  11. Conservação de tangerina cv. Clemenules utilizando diferentes recobrimentos = Conservation of Mandarins cv. Clemenules with different cuticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Oliveira Treptow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos de diferentes recobrimentos e períodos de armazenamento na conservação de tangerinas Clemenules. Após a colheita, as frutas foram submetidas ao pré-resfriamento por 12 horas a 5ºC e em seguida, aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 testemunha; T2 filme de polietileno microperfurado; T3 filme de polietileno não perfurado; T4 cera de carnaúba a 50%, diluída em água; T5 cera de carnaúba a 100% (não diluída. As tangerinas foram armazenadas por 20, 40 e 60 dias em temperatura de 5ºC e UR de 90-95%, depois foram mantidas em temperatura de 15±1ºC e UR de 75-80%, durante quatro dias simulando a comercialização. Na colheita e após cada período de armazenamento, seguido de simulação decomercialização, foram avaliadas as variáveis: perda de massa; cor; sólidos solúveis (SS; acidez titulável (AT; relação SS/AT; podridões, distúrbios fisiológicos e características sensoriais. Amodificação da atmosfera reduziu a perda de massa, a incidência de distúrbios e podridões de tangerinas Clemenules durante o armazenamento. As frutas acondicionadas em filme de polietilenosem perfuração ou aquelas revestidas com cera sem diluição apresentaram sabor estranho e menor qualidade geral. Tangerinas ‘Clemenules’ acondicionadas em filme de polietileno microperfurado ecera diluída em 50% de água podem ser armazenadas durante 60 dias a 5ºC e comercializadas durante quatro dias a 15±1ºC sem comprometer a qualidade sensorial.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different cuticles and storage periods on the conservation of mandarins cv. Clemenules. After harvest the fruits were kept at 5ºC during 12 hours. Then, they were submitted to the following treatments: T1 control; T2 micro perforated polyethylene bag; T3 non-perforated polyethylene bag; T4 carnauba wax at 50% in water; T5 carnauba wax at 100% (without dilution. The mandarins were stored for 20, 40 and 60 days at 5

  12. Produtividade e valor nutritivo da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em um sistema silvipastoril Productivity and nutritional value of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in a silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Sousa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em sistema silvipastoril (Ssp localizado no bioma de Cerrado, no município de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, no ano agrícola de 2004-2005. Avaliou-se a influência do Ssp composto pela arbórea bolsa-de-pastor (Zeyheria tuberculosa sobre os parâmetros produção, atributos morfogênicos, composição bromatológica e valor nutritivo da gramínea Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, e os efeitos sobre as condições microclimáticas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco blocos (épocas de corte, dois tratamentos (T1 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu sombreada com a Z. tuberculosa e T2 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu, a pleno sol e três repetições (parcelas. O sombreamento proporcionado pela Z. tuberculosa, apesar de reduzir a produção de matéria seca (MS da gramínea, favoreceu o aumento do teor de proteina bruta (PB e não alterou a produção de PB/ha e nem afetou a concentração de FDN. Os teores de FDA foram mais altos que os encontrados a pleno sol, o que provavelmente resultou em menor degradabilidade in vitro da MS e da matéria orgânica, não alterando a degradabilidade efetiva.The experiment was carried out in a Silvopastoral system (Sps located in Brazilian Savannah, Lagoa Santa county, Minas Gerais State, during the agricultural year of 2004-2005. It was studied the influence of Sps formed by "Bolsa de Pastor" (Zeyheria tuberculosa on the production, morphogenic attributes, bromatological composition and nutritional value of the graminaceous Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu as well as on the microclimatic aspects. The Sps was established in 1982, in a red-yellow latossol by the natural regeneration process. The experiment was based on a randomized block design, with 5 blocks (cutting times, 2 treatments (T1 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu shaded by Z. tuberculosa and T2 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu at open sky and three repetitions (plots. Although the DM production of the graminaceous in the Sps

  13. FORMULASI STRATEGI PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DOMBA CV MITRA TANI FARM, CIAMPEA, BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Sholehana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research was conducted to formulate to increase the sheep production at CV Mitra Tani Farm (CV MT Farm, Ciampea, Bogor. The research was conducted using descriptive analysis by analyzing the problem experienced by CV. MitraTani Farm. Primary data and secondary data were gathered at this research. The research was also conducted using several analytical methods such as value chain mapping, internal factor evaluation (IFE and external factor evaluation (EFE matrix, SWOT and quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM. Based on the value chain analysis, the current production of sheep at CV MT farm is highly depending on the supply from its partners and internal farmers. According to the IFE and EFE results, the differences of each weighted values were respectively 2,120 and 0,686 so the position of the company in the SWOT matrix was situated at Quadrant I. Therefore the company needs to use a growth strategy. The QSPM sequenced the strategy priority as follow (1 increasing the number of lambs, (2 developing the management, (3 strengthening the capital and ownership, (4 improving the quality through technology. The result of the gross profit margin calculation, if the sheep‘s selling is increased up to 1000 sheep per month then the possible annual profit that can be earned by CV MT farm is 40,34% of the total production.Keywords: MT Farm, sheep production, strategies, SWOT, QSPM, gross profit marginABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk memformulasikan strategi peningkatan produksi domba di CV Mitra Tani Farm (CV MT Farm, Ciampea, Bogor. Pendekatan penelitian yang diterapkan adalah analisis deskriptif yang dilakukan dengan mempelajari permasalahan dari objek yang diteliti. Data yang dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan alat analisis berupa pemetaan rantai nilai,  matriks IFE (Internal Factor Evaluation dan EFE (External Factor Evaluation, SWOT, dan QSPM (Quantitative

  14. 3CV+2: modelo de calidad para la construcción de la vivienda 3CV+2: quality model for dwelling construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador García Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el modelo y los resultados que, desde Junio de 2005, se han alcanzado en el desarrollo del Programa Nacional de Certificación de los Procesos Constructivos de la Vivienda en base al Modelo 3cv+2. El programa se ha desarrollado con base a un convenio entre el Tecnológico de Monterrey y la Cámara Nacional de la Industria de Desarrollo y Promoción de Vivienda. Actualmente se encuentran voluntariamente en el programa 52 empresas inmobiliarias de diferentes estados de la República Mexicana. El modelo de calidad 3cv+2 es una metodología que busca establecer en los niveles operativos de la construcción criterios que permitan reducir la variabilidad del proceso de construcción, y además permita de manera sistemática, y en un proceso de mejora continua, evaluar el desempeño de calidad en proyectos de construcción de vivienda. El modelo 3cv+2 define en su nombre el alcance del mismo, 3 criterios de calidad para la vivienda (insumos, proceso y producto, apoyado por 2 auditorías (+2, la auditoría interna de la propia empresa, mas la auditoría externa hecha por el Tecnológico de Monterrey. El modelo 3cv+2 busca garantizar que los insumos utilizados en la construcción de las viviendas sean de calidad superior, y que los procesos de ejecución posean características de calidad, productividad, eficiencia, racionalización, y estandarización; de tal manera que insumos y productos sean de alto valor agregado, y garanticen la calidad especificada en las etapas parciales y en la vivienda terminada.This paper presents the model and the results that have been achieved during the development of the National Quality Certification Program based on the model 3cv +2 from June 2005. This program has been developed based on an agreement between the Monterrey Tech and the National Chamber of Housing Industry. Nowadays, the program has 52 voluntary real estate companies from different states of Mexico. The 3cv+2 quality model is a

  15. Studies of frequency dependent C-V characteristics of neutron irradiated p+-n silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Kraner, H.W.

    1990-10-01

    Frequency-dependent capacitance-voltage fluence (C-V) characteristics of neutron irradiated high resistivity silicon p + -n detectors have been observed up to a fluence of 8.0 x 10 12 n/cm 2 . It has been found that frequency dependence of the deviation of the C-V characteristic (from its normal V -1/2 dependence), is strongly dependent on the ratio of the defect density and the effective doping density N t /N' d . As the defect density approaches the effective dopant density, or N t /N' d → 1, the junction capacitance eventually assumes the value of the detector geometry capacitance at high frequencies (f ≤ 10 5 Hz), independent of voltage. A two-trap-level model using the concept of quasi-fermi levels has been developed, which predicts both the effects of C-V frequency dependence and dopant compensation observed in this study

  16. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater.

  17. Light equation in eclipsing binary CV Boo: third body candidate in elliptical orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomazov, A. I.; Kozyreva, V. S.; Satovskii, B. L.; Krushevska, V. N.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Ehgamberdiev, S. A.; Karimov, R. G.; Khalikova, A. V.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    A short period eclipsing binary star CV Boo is tested for the possible existence of additional bodies in the system with a help of the light equation method. We use data on the moments of minima from the literature as well as from our observations during 2014 May-July. A variation of the CV Boo's orbital period is found with a period of {≈}75 d. This variation can be explained by the influence of a third star with a mass of {≈}0.4 M_{⊙} in an eccentric orbit with e≈0.9. A possibility that the orbital period changes on long time scales is discussed. The suggested tertiary companion is near the chaotic zone around the central binary, so CV Boo represents an interesting example to test its dynamical evolution. A list of 14 minima moments of the binary obtained from our observations is presented.

  18. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  19. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  20. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  1. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  2. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  4. Possibility of Recombination Gain Increase in CV Ions at 4.0 nm Via Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Morozov, A.; Gordon, D.; Sprangle, P.; Svidzinsky, A.; Xia, H.; Scully, M.; Suckewer, S.

    This paper is about the recent experimental results on amplification of the CV line in the "water window" at 4.03 nm from resonance transition to the ground level of He-like ions in recombination scheme. The indication of the amplification of the CV line has been observed when an elongated narrow plasma channel was created, where high intensity 100 fs beams, optimal for creating CV ions in high density plasma, was propagated up to 0.5-0.6 mm. Without channeling the effective plasma length was much shorter and there was no indication of amplification.The large interest in gain generation in He-like ions in the transition to ground state is due to the possibility of applying a recently developed theory of Lasing Without Inversion (LWI) in XUV and X-ray regions to largely increase the gain for such transitions. The presented results of the indication of CV line amplifications are being discussed from the point of view of using LWI as a superradiance gain increase, hence to construct a very compact soft X-ray laser in the "water window".The last part of the paper is related to the application of the ultra-intensive fs plasma laser, which is currently in the process of development by using stimulated Raman backscattering (SRBS) to create a plasma amplifier and compressor, as the pump for compact laser operating in the "water window" and also at shorter wavelengths.

  5. RADISH CV. MOKHOVSKIY IS A SOURCE OF MS- AND MF-LINES AT BREEDING FOR HETEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on hybrid and inbreed population of radish cv. Mokhovskiy using CMS-ogura nine lines with 100% of male sterility and fertile maintainers were selected. Using the multiplex PCR, the presence of cytoplasm of Ogura type in ms-lines and its absence in mf-lines were confirmed.

  6. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D.; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS

  7. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  8. Cherry Picking Robot Vision Recognition System Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through OpenCV function, the cherry in a natural environment image after image preprocessing, color recognition, threshold segmentation, morphological filtering, edge detection, circle Hough transform, you can draw the cherry’s center and circular contour, to carry out the purpose of the machine picking. The system is simple and effective.

  9. Production of calibration sources and/or radioactive tracers with the cyclotron CV-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    1995-01-01

    The present stage of production of calibration sources and radioactive tracers with the Cyclotron CV-28 is described. Among the methods already developed special attention is given to the production of 57 Co, 109 Cd and 111 In. (author). 3 refs

  10. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  11. Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program, Comprehensive Installation Plan - WYDOT CV Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    The Wyoming Department of Transportation's (WYDOT) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment Program is intended to develop a suite of applications that utilize vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology to re...

  12. NALISIS PENGAKUAN PENDAPATAN BERDASARKAN PSAK NOMOR 23 PADA CV TILZAK KABUPATEN PINRANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILHAM ARIFIN

    2017-05-01

    This research was conducted at CV. Tilzak Pinrang which is a business as a cog in the business of selling. Based on research that has been done, it is not all revenue recognition in accordance with IAS 23 is not dibuatkannya marked revenue balance sheet and income statement, so that the impact to the company's earnings were only included proceeds earned in one year.

  13. STRATEGI SEGMENTASI PASAR TERHADAP VOLUME PENJUALAN BUSANA MUSLIM PADA CV RABBANI ASYSA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    KARASE, HASNAWATI

    2014-01-01

    2014 Hasnawati Karase Haris Maupa Mukhtar Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis strategi segmentasi pasar terhadap volume penjualan busana muslim pada CV Rabbani Asysa Makassar. Data penelitian ini diperoleh dari kuesioner (primer) mengenai segmentasi pasar Rabbani Makassar dengan mengambil sampel sebanyak 75 responden. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa variabel strategi segmentasi pasar yang terdiri dari segmentasi geografis, segmentasi demografis, segm...

  14. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A micropropagation method is described for banana (Musa Spp.) Cv. Grand Naine. Suckers were surface sterilized with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 6 min which gave minimum contamination with maximum culture establishment. Of various treatment combinations, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + BAP 4.00 mg/l with IAA 2.00 ...

  15. PlantCV v2: Image analysis software for high-throughput plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia A. Gehan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems for collecting image data in conjunction with computer vision techniques are a powerful tool for increasing the temporal resolution at which plant phenotypes can be measured non-destructively. Computational tools that are flexible and extendable are needed to address the diversity of plant phenotyping problems. We previously described the Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV software package, which is an image processing toolkit for plant phenotyping analysis. The goal of the PlantCV project is to develop a set of modular, reusable, and repurposable tools for plant image analysis that are open-source and community-developed. Here we present the details and rationale for major developments in the second major release of PlantCV. In addition to overall improvements in the organization of the PlantCV project, new functionality includes a set of new image processing and normalization tools, support for analyzing images that include multiple plants, leaf segmentation, landmark identification tools for morphometrics, and modules for machine learning.

  16. The influence of virus diseases on grape polyphenols of cv. 'Refosk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, I.; Vrhovsek, U.; Korosec-Koruza, Z.

    2003-01-01

    External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors can modulate the synthesis of polyphenols in the plants. Cv. 'Refosk' was used to show the influence of the GLRaV-1 and rugose wood (RW) on the polyphenols in grape. The infection shifted polyphenols from seeds to grape skins but had no impact on anthocyanins

  17. Endogenous auxin regulates the sensitivity of Dendrobium (cv. Miss Teen) flower pedicel abscission to ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rungruchkanont, K.; Ketsa, S.; Chatchawankanphanich, O.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium flower buds and flowers have an abscission zone at the base of the pedicel (flower stalk). Ethylene treatment of cv. Miss Teen inflorescences induced high rates of abscission in flower buds but did not affect abscission once the flowers had opened. It is not known if auxin is a regulator

  18. ANALISIS SEWA MENYEWA PARALEL PADA PERUSAHAAN RENT CAR CV. HARKAT DALAM PERSPEKTIF EKONOMI ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuardi Samsuardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the parallel process of car rental agreement between Harkat Rent Car Company and the owner of the car, and between the company and its customers in an Islamic economics perspective. This study also aims to analyze the risk coverage of the leased car. The data for this study was gathered through interviews, observation and documentation studies. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive analysis method. Results showed that the process of car leasing begin when customer rented a car from CV. Harkat which was owned by its partner. The company provided a shared price for car owners according to a mutual agreement and applied only for a certain period. Furthermore, the partner has to allocate 20 percent of the income for the company. In addition, the company also required the partner to cover for maintenance costs, insurance, equipment, and spare parts. In the context of Islamic economics, the practice of leasing parallel conducted by the company was not fully Shariah compliance due to practice a lease above a lease and using two contracts in one transaction. =========================================== Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perjanjian sewa menyewa mobil secara paralel antara Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Harkat dengan pemilik mobil dan dengan konsumennya dalam perspektif ekonomi Islam. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk menanganalisis pertanggungan resiko terhadap mobil yang dijadikan objek sewa menyewa tersebut sewa menyewa mobil di Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Data untuk penelitian ini bersumber dari wawancara, obesrvasi dan studi dokumentasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa CV. Harkat menyewakan mobil milik mitra kerjanya (pemilik mobil kepada pelanggan yang membutuhkan sewa mobil untuk keperluannya. Pemilik usaha memberikan harga kongsi kepada pemilik mobil sesuai dengan kesepakatan bersama dan untuk jangka waktu

  19. TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Popat, Kris; Llobet, Lau; Santos, Patricia; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Miao, Yongwu; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, P., Popat, K., Llobet, L., Santos, P., Hernandez-Leo, D., Miao, Y., Griffiths, D. & Beauvoir, P. (2009) TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4 This release is composed of three files corresponding to CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI) v3.2-10cv1.4,

  20. ANALISIS KEBUTUHAN TENAGA KERJA RESERVASI TERHADAP PERENCANAAN PENGEMBANGAN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA PADA CV. CAN TOUR & TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Christina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment remains the fundamental probel faced by many countries including Indonesia. One of the efforts the Government of Indonesia in extending employment opportunities is to develop the tourism sector. Bali is one of the potential tourist destinastions and it needs to be marketed. Cooperation between the Travel Bureau with the provider of the accommodation or hotel is one of the ways the potential market and the most instrumental in the development of the company, namely human resources required or called by labor. CV. CAN Tour and Travel is one of the tourist industry in Bali trip with a number of guest handling that quite a lot. This research aims to know the availability of labor needs resevartion in order CV. CAN Tour and Travel development and also to find out how the workforce qualification is required. Determination technique using the key informant that was labor reservation CV. CAN Tour and Travel, while the base of the informant was CV. CAN Tour and Travel Manager. Data analysis technique used is the analysis of workload and workforce needs analysis. The research results obtained indicate that shortage of time working as many as 210 minutes. So the manpower needed by CV. CAN Tour and Travel is two people with the fact that there is only 1 nowaday. It can be seen from the burden of the work done in a day’s work and the workforce absences. So labor needs on the Reservation Department is supposed to be 3 people, with 2 staff 1 reservations and ticketing staff. It was necessary increase manpower in the Labour Departmen’s Reservation in the reservation and also training to develop the ability to work.

  1. Comportamento agronômico inicial da cv. Chimarrita enxertada em cinco porta-enxertos de pessegueiro Agronomical behavior of cv. Chimarrita on five rootstocks of peach trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir da Silva Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a resposta agronômica da cv. Chimarrita enxertada em cinco porta-enxertos, nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de Pelotas-RS, no período de 2003 a 2005. Durante o período de execução do experimento, foram avaliados o diâmetro do tronco do porta-enxerto e da cultivar-copa, comprimento médio dos ramos principais, volume de copa, massa fresca e massa seca do material vegetal retirado nas podas verde e de inverno, índice de intensidade de poda, massa média dos frutos, produção por planta, eficiência produtiva, produção por hectare, sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza da polpa, diâmetro e coloração dos frutos. O porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' induziu o maior crescimento vegetativo na cv. Chimarrita durante os três anos de avaliação, seguido do porta-enxerto 'Okinawa'. Este, por sua vez, induziu o maior rendimento produtivo (1,65 t ha-1. A cv. Capdeboscq proporcionou a obtenção de frutos com maior massa. Os porta-enxertos 'GF 305' e 'Aldrighi' induziram menor desenvolvimento vegetativo e a mais baixa produtividade (0,52 t.ha-1 .The objective for this study was to evaluate the agronomical behavior of cv. Chimarrita on five rootstocks of peach trees in Pelotas- RS from 2003 to 2005. The variables evaluated were: trunk diameters of the rootstock and of the scion; length of the annual terminal growth; volume of the canopy; fresh and dry weight of the material taken by the summer and winter pruning; pruning intensity index; fruit weight; fruit production per tree; production efficiency; productivity per hectare; total soluble solids; pulp firmness; and fruit diameter and color. It was observed that the trees from: rootstock 'Capdeboscq' promoted higher vegetative growth and larger fruits, followed by the ones from the rootstock 'Okinawa' which promoted the highest yield (1, 65 t.ha-1; the rootstock 'GF 305' and 'Aldrighi' had the lowest vegetative development and yield (0, 52 t.ha-1.

  2. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y...

  3. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic characterization of wines by grape varieties and production areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ki Myong; van den Berg, Frans; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2008-09-10

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic differences in wines produced from different grape varieties and different regions. A significant separation among wines from Campbell Early, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Shiraz grapes was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The metabolites contributing to the separation were assigned to be 2,3-butanediol, lactate, acetate, proline, succinate, malate, glycerol, tartarate, glucose, and phenolic compounds by PCA and PLS-DA loading plots. Wines produced from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes harvested in the continental areas of Australia, France, and California were also separated. PLS-DA loading plots revealed that the level of proline in Californian Cabernet Sauvignon wines was higher than that in Australian and French Cabernet Sauvignon, Australian Shiraz, and Korean Campbell Early wines, showing that the chemical composition of the grape berries varies with the variety and growing area. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate statistical data sets in determining wine quality and product origin.

  4. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A Vineyard Agroecosystem: Disturbance and Precipitation Affect Soil Respiration under Mediterranean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of agricultural management practices on soil respiration (Rs) in a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vineyard (Oakville, CA; November 2003 – December 2005). We determined 1) Rs’s response to cover cropping, mowing and tillage, 2) environmental drivers of Rs and 3) total ann...

  6. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L. and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.

  7. Effect of mechanical damage and wound healing on the viscoelastic properties of stems of flax cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L. cv. Eden and cv. Drakkar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Victor, Cloé; Dalle Vacche, Sara; Sordo, Federica; Fink, Siegfried; Speck, Thomas; Michaud, Véronique; Speck, Olga

    2017-01-01

    As plant fibres are increasingly used in technical textiles and their composites, underlying principles of wound healing in living plant fibres are relevant to product quality, and provide inspiration for biomimetic healing in synthetic materials. In this work, two Linum usitatissimum cultivars differing in their stem mechanical properties, cv. Eden (stems resistant to lodging) and cv. Drakkar (with more flexible stems), were grown without wound or with stems previously wounded with a cut parallel or transversal to the stem. To investigate wound healing efficiency, growth traits, stem biomechanics with Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and anatomy were analysed after 25-day recovery. Longitudinal incisions formed open wounds while transversal incisions generated stem growth restoring the whole cross-section but not the original stem organisation. In the case of transversal wound healing, all the bast fibre bundles in the perturbed area became lignified and pulled apart by parenchyma cells growth. Both Linum cultivars showed a healing efficiency from 79% to 95% with higher scores for transversal healing. Morphological and anatomical modifications of Linum were related to mechanical properties and healing ability. Alongside with an increased understanding of wound healing in plants, our results highlight their possible impact on textile quality and fibre yield.

  8. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in triticale cv. Clercal mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were aimed to determine the inoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was done by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (134 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule (120. Average mixture green mass yields were ranging from 20.9 t ha-1 (control up to 30.1 t ha-1 (inoculation + nitrogen top-dressing. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3.71 t ha-1 (control up to 5.36 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Pea crude protein yields in 2001 were ranging from 500 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing up to 642 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for triticale, those values were from 322 kg ha-1 (control up to 498 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total mixture crude proteins yields were from 845 kg ha-1 (control up to 998 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing.

  9. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in wheat cv. Sana mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999 - 2001 were performed to determine theinoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and wheat cv. Sana mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was accomplished by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (159 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule 144. Average mixture green mass yield were ranging from 24,65 t ha-1 (control up to 35,50 t ha-1 (inoculation. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3,93 t ha-1 (control up to 5,66 t ha-1 (inoculation. Yields crude proteins pea in 2001 were ranging from 692 kg ha-1 (control up to 1058 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for wheat, those values ranged from 199 kg ha-1 (control up to 454 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total crude proteins mixture yields were in range from 891 kg ha-1 (control up to 1360 kg ha-1 (inoculation.

  10. Avaliação da Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu em sistemas silvipastoris Evaluation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu in silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS da Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu colhida em dois sistemas silvipastoris compostos pelas arbóreas, ipê felpudo (Zeyheria tuberculosa e aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, localizados no bioma Cerrado, município de Lagoa Santa, MG. O período de coleta da forragem foi de dezembro de 2004 a abril de 2005. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, segundo esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas os tratamentos e as sub-parcelas os tempos de degradação. O sombreamento com as arbóreas não influenciou a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca da forrageira.In situ degradability of dry matter of Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu harvested in two silvopastoral systems was evaluated. One system was composed by Zeyheria tuberculosa tree and the other by Myracrodruon urundeuva, both located at Brazilian Savannah, Lagoa Santa, MG. A completely ramdomized block experimental design in a splitplot arrangement was used. The treatments were allocated in the plots and the times in the splitplot. No effect of shade was observed for in situ dry matter degradability.

  11. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  13. Modificação da atmosfera na qualidade pós-colheita de ameixas cv. Reubennel Modified atmosphere on postharvest quality of plums cv. Reubennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameixas, de modo geral, têm curto período de conservação pós-colheita, havendo necessidade de otimizar as condições de colheita e de armazenamento. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes modificadores de atmosfera, durante o armazenamento refrigerado, na qualidade pós-colheita de ameixas cv. Reubennel. Frutas no estádio de maturação meio-maduro foram submetidas aos seguintes modificadores de atmosfera: filmes de polietileno de 12,5 e 15µm de espessura e cera à base de carnaúba e avaliadas após 10; 20; 30 e 40 dias de armazenamento a 0ºC e UR de 90-95%. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa, cor, firmeza da polpa, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT, incidência de podridões, escurecimento interno e características sensoriais. Essas avaliações foram realizadas 3 dias após a retirada das frutas da câmara fria. Verificou-se que a cera à base de carnaúba GARFRESH N (BL9,5, sem diluição, e filmes de polietileno de 12,5 e 15µm reduziram a perda de massa, porém são impróprios para a modificação da atmosfera, em ameixas cv. Reubennel durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Ameixas cv. Reubennel mantêm a qualidade quando armazenadas durante 30 dias a 0ºC sem atmosfera modificada.Plums quickly loose postharvest quality, which makes imperative to optimize harvest and storage conditions. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of various atmosphere modifiers on the postharvest quality of cold storage plums, cv. Reubennel. Semi-mature fruits were stored under the following atmosphere modifiers conditions: polyethylene films 12,5 or 15µm of thickness; or carnauba wax. After submitted to these conditions the fruits were stored for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in a cold room at 0ºC and 90-95% RH. Three days after taken out from the cold storage, the fruits were evaluated about: weight loss; color; firmness; pH; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; SS/TA ratio; incidence of

  14. Flavan-3-ol Compounds from Wine Wastes with in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Salvador

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant supplements could be a useful strategy to reduce the incidence of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aim of present work is to study the possibility to obtain compounds with antioxidant activity from wine wastes using water as solvent. Results have shown that it is possible to obtain flavan-3-ol compounds from wine wastes both from V. vinifera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot and V. labrusca (cv. Bordo and Isabella species. The main phenolic compounds found in the extracts were catechin and epicatechin, followed by procyanidin B3, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, gallic acid, epigallocatechin, and procyanidin B4. All flavan-3-ol extracts showed significant in vitro and in vivo activities. It was found that the extracts were able to prevent lipid and protein oxidative damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus tissues of rats. Although further studies are necessary, these flavan-3-ol extracts show potential to be used to reduce the incidence of degenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  15. Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined δ(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. An improved technique for quasi-static C-V measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turan, R.; Finstad, T.G.

    1990-10-01

    A new automated quasi-static C-V measurement technique for MOS capacitors has been developed. This techniques uses an integrating electrometer to measure the charge accumulated on a MOS capacitor in response of a small voltage step. Making use of the internal data storage system of a commercial electrometer and a personal computer, the charge Q on the MOS capacitor is measured as a function of time t and stored. The capacitance is then obtained by analyzing this Q-t data set. A Si MOS sample is measured and analyzed in terms of interface charges as an example. Advantages over a commercial quasi-static meter which uses similar measurement technique are presented. It is also shown that this technique is potentially capable of measuring both high and low frequency C-V curves simultaneously. 9 refs. 5 figs

  17. Sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. `CIAP 7247F' plants to Glufosinate ammonium herbicide in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding in Phaseolus by genetic transformation requires an efficient selection system. The present investigation was aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration of glufosinate-ammonium (Finale ® in beans plants cv. `CIAP 7247F' grown in greenhouse. Different concentrations of the herbicide were applied to the foliage of plants in acclimatization phase (20, 30 y 40 mg l-1 and the control. Results showed that the minimum lethal concentration in plants in acclimatization phase was 30 mg l-1. Results also demonstrated that is possible the use of the herbicide as a selective agent of beans transformants cv. `CIAP 7247F' carrying the bar gene. Keywords: genetic transformation, herbicide, selective agent, tissue culture

  18. Diagnosis of Elevator Faults with LS-SVM Based on Optimization by K-CV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several common elevator malfunctions were diagnosed with a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM. After acquiring vibration signals of various elevator functions, their energy characteristics and time domain indicators were extracted by theoretically analyzing the optimal wavelet packet, in order to construct a feature vector of malfunctions for identifying causes of the malfunctions as input of LS-SVM. Meanwhile, parameters about LS-SVM were optimized by K-fold cross validation (K-CV. After diagnosing deviated elevator guide rail, deviated shape of guide shoe, abnormal running of tractor, erroneous rope groove of traction sheave, deviated guide wheel, and tension of wire rope, the results suggested that the LS-SVM based on K-CV optimization was one of effective methods for diagnosing elevator malfunctions.

  19. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  20. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  1. Vigor tests to evaluate the physiological quality of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira dos Anjos Sena

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The vigor tests are intended to monitor the quality of seeds as it allows reliably distinguish lots of low and high vigor, providing additional information to the germination test. So in this study the objective was to identify the most efficient vigor tests on stratification of lots of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo'. The experiment was conducted at Laboratory of Seed Analysis at the Center of agricultural Science of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, using samples from 20 seed lots in a completely randomized design. For characterization of the lots it was evaluated water content, germination and vigor (cold test, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, seedling emergence in field and germination at low temperatures. The accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and field emergence of seedlings tests are the most efficient for classification of lots of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo' in levels of vigor, been the seeds of lot 1 the most vigorous.

  2. ANALISIS WANPRESTASI KEAGENAN PENJUALAN KENDARAAN BERMOTOR (Studi CV Nobel Perdana Kabupaten Tulang Bawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Yulianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Standard by PT Sumber Trada Motor leads to no availability of vehicles to be sold by outlets CV Nobel Perdana. Giving great discounts and gifts, making consumers tend to buy directly from outlets PT Sumber Trada Motor. This agency system turns into competition due to the sales and market share CV Nobel Perdana excellent. The usefulness of this study as a researcher competence in the field of business law violations agreement. The problem of research is how the legal provisions breach agreement, the implementation of competition law to businesses which violate the agreement. Is expected to the Government through the KPPU to crack down on employers who violate the law No. 5 of 1999 on Competition, so as to control the businesses that destroy the independence of other businesses.   Keywords: Standard, Agreement, Agency

  3. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  4. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Pedro R.; Gil, Raul A.; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D.

    2009-01-01

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 μg L -1 Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 μg L -1 Hg

  5. Le « CV multilingue automatisé »

    OpenAIRE

    Terrier, Linda; Vaillant Sirdey, Christine; Arino, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    De par leur mission d’insertion professionnelle, les IUT ont depuis longtemps inscrit dans leurs programmes pédagogiques nationaux l’élaboration du curriculum vitae en langue(s) étrangère(s). La politique de mobilité internationale encourage aujourd’hui toutes les formations universitaires du secteur LANSAD à intégrer la création d’un CV dans leur formation en langue.La rédaction d’un CV, déjà complexe en langue maternelle, réclame pour d’autres langues la maîtrise de savoir-faire spécifiques...

  6. Sim4CV: A Photo-Realistic Simulator for Computer Vision Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Matthias

    2018-03-24

    We present a photo-realistic training and evaluation simulator (Sim4CV) (http://www.sim4cv.org) with extensive applications across various fields of computer vision. Built on top of the Unreal Engine, the simulator integrates full featured physics based cars, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and animated human actors in diverse urban and suburban 3D environments. We demonstrate the versatility of the simulator with two case studies: autonomous UAV-based tracking of moving objects and autonomous driving using supervised learning. The simulator fully integrates both several state-of-the-art tracking algorithms with a benchmark evaluation tool and a deep neural network architecture for training vehicles to drive autonomously. It generates synthetic photo-realistic datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets and provides extensive synthetic data variety through its ability to reconfigure synthetic worlds on the fly using an automatic world generation tool.

  7. Maintaining Growth and Sustainable Strategy in Brown Sugar Business, and the Investment Financing Alternative Decision (Case Study: CV. Delovry Sukses Gemilang)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyani, Laurentia Nindita; Siahaan, Uke MMP

    2013-01-01

    CV. Delovry Sukses Gemilang (CV. DSG) is a brown sugar supplier from manufacturers in Maron Village, Blitar, to the warehouse of distributors which is located in Tambun, Bekasi. In doing the business, CV. DSG provides the working capital to the collectors in Blitar to produce and pack the brown sugar. Fluctuating commodity prices of sugar cane leads CV. DSG to be difficult to continually maintain the business and shipping costs which is a way further from Blitar to Bekasi. These issues lead C...

  8. Crimson Viper, Phase IV: Field Experimentation Venue Report and CV14 Combined Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    battery sources. The system consists of a master node and other nodes used to create a wireless dark network. The wireless mesh nodes are self...create a wireless dark network. The wireless mesh nodes are self-configuring and self-healing. During CV14 Phase IV, separation of nodes averaged...the southern tip of the province, close to the tourism center Pattaya. The Sattahip Naval Base is the largest base of the Royal Thai Navy and is home

  9. Qualitative analysis of laser cutting of CV joints for automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboites, Vicente; Ramirez, Roberto; Rayas, Juan

    2005-02-01

    The optimization of an automatic laser cutting system is reported. This CO2 laser system assisted by an O2 gas jet is used in the cutting of Constant Velocity (CV) joint for the automotive industry. The experimental parameters varied in order to obtain cuts with low roughness were the laser power, cutting speed and oxygen pressure. A mathematical model is presented which explains many of the features of the qualitative optimization realized.

  10. Qualitative analysis of laser cutting of CV joints for the automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboites, V.; Ramírez, R.; Rayas, J.

    2006-02-01

    The optimization of an automatic laser cutting system is reported. This CO II laser system assisted by an O II gas jet is used in the cutting of Constant Velocity (CV) joint for the automotive industry. The experimental parameters varied in order to obtain cuts with low roughness were the laser power, cutting speed and oxygen pressure. A mathematical model is presented which explains many of the features of the qualitative optimization realized.

  11. Analisis Dan Rekayasa Supplier Relationship Management System Pada CV. Softcom Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sukiman

    2012-01-01

    CV. SOFTCOM is a business entity engages in the computer sales and repair services. At the beginning of its establishment, the company did not see the importance of specialized brand in selling its product. The background of this study was the phenomenon in which many suppliers and different brands of the products found in the market that the company found it difficult to serve its customers claiming the damage of the sold products, the time of product delivered by the suppliers was frequentl...

  12. Auditory extinction and dichotic listening cv task in cerebral infarction preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Muszkat

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Six stroke patients were studied using a dichotic listening¹ CV task, 4 with left hemisphere infarction, 2 with right hemisphere infarction. It was observed a «lesion--effect», a shift of hemisphere prevalence to the side opposite a brain lesion. The authors suggest that the lesion-effect can be explained by the auditory extinction phenomenon at the linguistic level.

  13. Implementasi JSON Parsing Pada Aplikasi Mobile E-commerce Studi Kasus : CV V3 Tekno Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Destian Wijaya, Bhakti; E.M.A, Fenty; Fiade, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sistem operasi Android saat ini merupakan salah satu dari sekian banyak sistem operasi padasmartphone yang sedang mengalami pertumbuhan pesat di dunia, khususnya di Indonesia. CV VitigaTekno Indonesia bergerak di bidang pemasaran gadget membutuhkan media marketing yang dapatdiakses secara online selain website yaitu melalui smartphone. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini berfokuspada bagaimana membuat aplikasi mobile e-commerce pada smartphone Android, dengan caramengambil data yang berasal dari w...

  14. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coluccia, Maria R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n + /n/p + silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  15. Real-time detecting and tracking ball with OpenCV and Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecki, Tomasz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a way to detect and track ball with using the OpenCV and Kinect. Object and people recognition, tracking are more and more popular topics nowadays. Described solution makes it possible to detect ball based on the range, which is set by the user and capture information about ball position in three dimensions. It can be store in the computer and use for example to display trajectory of the ball.

  16. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  17. A Geometric Correction Method of Plane Image Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaopeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Using OpenCV, a geometric correction method of plane image from single grid image in a state of unknown camera position is presented. The method can remove the perspective and lens distortions from an image. The method is simple and easy to implement, and the efficiency is high. Experiments indicate that this method has high precision, and can be used in some domains such as plane measurement.

  18. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analisis Potensi Kecelakaan Kerja Pada CV. Automotive Workshop Dengan Metode Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Syauqi, Qiqi Azwani; Susanty, Aries

    2016-01-01

    [Potential Analysis of Work Accidents at CV. Automotive Workshop using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Method] Nowadays the global automotive industry, especially in developing countries has increased along with the increasing number of internet users and mobile penetration, the GDP rate increase of the developing countries and the growth of middle class-society, which makes the car sales in these countries increased anually. According to Carmudi, Semarang was the second-highest of the car l...

  20. CV Raman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    formatted to take advantage of the changes in publishing methods in the past thirty ..... This work would not have been possible without the support and en- couragement of ..... in which Raman made his decision, have a deeper significance than .... Light in Water and the Colour of the Sea within a month of his return to India ...

  1. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C., E-mail: Duane.F.Carbon@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility, Moffett Field, CA, 94035-1000 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  2. Analisis Pengaruh Kemampuan, Usaha dan Dukungan Perusahaan terhadap Kinerja Karyawan pada CV Sandang Gloria Konveksindo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Logahan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clothing Konveksindo CV Gloria is a trading company engaged in the sale of products and clothing items. Therefore, the performance of employees is very important in achieving that goal. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of ability, effort, and support the company towards the employee's performance CV Gloria Konveksindo Clothing. The method of analysis used in this study is descriptive, Pearson Regression, and Multiple Regression. Data obtained from the appraisal of employee performance by filling in the questionnaire that has been provided by using a Likert scale that is useful to know the degree of disagreement and agreement existing employees to the question on the questionnaire. The results achieved in this study were the ability of employees to work have an influence for 28.8% of employee performance, employee efforts in working to have the effect of 50.6% on employee performance, corporate support for work processes have the effect of 47.7% the performance of employees, while the ability of employees, employee efforts, and support the company has influence for 66.3% of the employee's performance CV Gloria Konveksindo Clothing. With this capability expected of employees, employee efforts, and support the company serve as the main factor to improve employee performance.

  3. MANAJEMEN RANTAI PASOKAN JAGUNG ASALAN PADA CV AMIN DI LAMPUNG TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Budiono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu komoditi palawija yang memiliki peranan yang penting di Indonesia adalah jagung, karena merupakan sumber protein dan kalori yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh ayam peternak. Pengiriman yang belum tepat waktu merupakan penyebab belum efisiennya kinerja rantai pasokan jagung. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 mengidentifikasi dan mengkaji pengelolaan rantai pasokan jagung pada CV. AMIN, (2 menganalisis kinerja rantai pasokan jagung dalam hal efisiensi dan pelaksanaan kemitraan, dan (3 menganalisis alternatif kebijakan pengembangan manajemen rantai pasokan berdasarkan hasil evaluasi rantai pasokan.Penelitian akan dilakukan di CV. AMIN, Jl. Raya Merapi, Lampung Tengah dan petani mitra yang berada di kabupaten Nganjuk. Penelitian mengenai manajemen rantai pasokan Jagung tersebut dilakukan pada bulan Desember 2012 hingga Januari 2013. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah petani jagung yang berada di Nganjuk, Pengepul, pihak CV. AMIN, dan Gudang Ternak. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode analisis deskriptif kerangka Food Supply Chain Networking (FSCN, analisis tataniaga, dan analisis deskriptif dengan menggunakan kesesuaian atribut.

  4. Programación de Aplicaciones OpenCV sobre Sistemas Heterogéneos SoC-FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis Cases, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    OpenCV es una biblioteca de primitivas de procesado de imagen que permite crear algoritmos de Visión por Computador de última generación. OpenCV fue desarrollado originalmente por Intel en 1999 para mostrar la capacidad de procesamiento de los micros de Intel, por lo que la mayoría de la biblioteca está optimizada para correr en estos micros, incluyendo las extensiones MMX y SSE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenCV. Actualmente es ampliamente utilizada tanto por la comunidad científica como p...

  5. Aminoethoxivinilglicina no controle do amadurecimento de frutos de caqui cv. Fuyu Aminoethoxyvinylglycine in the ripening control of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fuentes Fagundes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG, aplicado na pós-colheita, no amadurecimento de frutos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, armazenados à temperatura de 0 ± 2 ºC. Os frutos foram imersos durante dois minutos em solução de AVG, na concentração de 0; 415; 830 e 1.200 g ha-1 e dissolvidos em água destilada e adição de espalhante adesivo (óleo vegetal a 0,02% (v/v, secos à temperatura ambiente no barracão e armazenados em câmara fria a 0 ± 2 ºC e 95±2 % UR, e avaliados aos 32 e 52 dias com relação à firmeza, sólidos solúveis, pH da polpa, acidez titulável e injúria por frio. O AVG mostrou-se promissor no uso pós-colheita em caqui, onde os frutos tratados conservaram índices de firmeza linear em função da dose e teores de AT, SS e pH aceitáveis para o 'Fuyu'. Porém os frutos apresentaram translucidez, característica de injúria por frio, indicando a necessidade de novos estudos para se compreender a fisiologia pós-colheita deste fruto.An experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of the application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in post harvest application in persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu stored at a temperature of 0 ± 2ºC. The fruits were immersed for two minutes into an AVG solution at a concentration of 0; 415; 830; 1200 g ha-1 and dissolved in distillated water. Then it was added adhesive spreader (vegetable oil 0.02% (v/v, dried at room temperature and stored at 0 ± 2 ºC and 95±2 % humidity. The treatments were evaluated on the 32nd and 52nd days to check the firmness, soluble solids, pH of the pulp, tritable acidity and chilling injury. The AVG may be promising in post harvest use with persimmon fruits, where treated fruits preserved linear levels of firmness in function of the doses and TA, SS and pH levels are acceptable for cv. Fuyu. However, fruits showed translucency, which are characteristics of chilling injury, indicating that new studies are

  6. BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL IN BANANA EXPLANTS (Musa AAA cv. CAIPIRA) CONTROLE DE BACTÉRIAS CONTAMINANTES EM EXPLANTES DE BANANEIRA (Musa AAA cv. CAIPIRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Domingues Lima; Wilson da Silva Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Esse trabalho teve por objetivo testar métodos de controle de contaminação bacteriana no processo de multiplicação in vitro de bananeira (Musa AAA cv. Caipira), utilizando-se hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), antibiótico rifampicina e suas combinações. Não houve oxidação excessiva dos explantes após a imersão em NaOCl ou rifampicina. O melhor tratamento para explantes recém isolados foi imersão em NaOCl a 1% (v/v), dura...

  7. WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Gennaro; Maisto, Maria; Bottone, Sara; Badolati, Nadia; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-11-18

    Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. 'Annurca' and Malus domestica cv 'Limoncella'; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

  8. WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Riccio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

  9. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  10. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Crashes involving transit vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians are a concern in Texas, especially in urban areas. This research explored the potential of automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) technology to reduce or eliminate these crashes. The pr...

  11. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  12. Kedudukan Para Pihak Dalam Perjanjian Waralaba Studi : Perjanjian Waralaba Antara PT. Indomarco Prismatama Dengan CV. E. Makmur

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, M. S. Feroni

    2011-01-01

    The rapid franchising business development occurs because the franchising system in general has more probable success compared to the self-performed business with a new trade mark, yet this franchising business agreement of Indomaret between PT. Indomarco Prismatama and CV. E. Makmur. The research question to be answered in this study were that were the rights what were the constraints faced by PT. Indomarco Prismatama and CV. E. Makmur in this agreement, and how did PT. Indomarco Prismatama ...

  13. ANALISIS KUALITAS KEHIDUPAN KERJA, KINERJA, DAN KEPUASAN KERJA PADA CV DUTA SENENAN JEPARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Arifin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of Work Quality, Performance, and Job Satisfaction in CV. Duta Senenan Jepara. This study aims to analyze the effect of the quality work life of employees to their performance, analyze the effect of the quality of work life to the job satisfaction, and analyze the effect of the job satisfaction to employee performance. Variables used in this study are: quality of work Life developed by Wayne Cascio 1992; the performance of employees, developed by Elmuti and Kathawala, 1997; and variables Job Satisfaction, provided by Robbin, 1996 and Wexley et al, 1992. The sample of this study consists of 65 employees. The data Analysis were performed using structural equation modeling with partial least square approach. The result suggests that the quality of work life affects the performance; the satisfaction affects the employee performance; and the quality of working life has no effect on employee satisfaction.   Keywords :  quality of work life, on job satisfaction, employee performance   Abstrak: Analisis Kualitas Kehidupan, Kinerja, dan Kepuasan Kerja pada CV. Duta Senenan Jepara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh kualitas kehidupan kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan, menganalisis pengaruh kualitas kehidupan kerja terhadap kepuasan kerja, dan menganalisis pengaruh kepuasan kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah: Kualitas Kehidupan Kerja, dari Cascio Wayne 1992. kemudian kinerja karyawan, dari Elmuti dan Kathawala, 1997, dan Kepuasan Kerja, yang dikembangkan oleh Robbin, 1996 serta Wexley et.al., 1992. Penelitian ini mengambil sampel 65 karyawan dari CV DUTA Senenan Jepara. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modeling (SEM dengan pendekatan Partial Least Square (PLS. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa kualitas kehidupan kerja sangat berpengaruh terhadap kinerjanya; kepuasan berpengaruh terhadap kinerja karyawan dan kualitas kehidupan kerja tidak

  14. IMPLEMENTASI SIX SIGMA UNTUK PENINGKATAN KUALITAS SANDAL DI CV. SANCU CREATIVE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Koeswara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma adalah metodologi yang terstruktur untuk memperbaiki proses yang difokuskan pada usaha mengurangi variasi pada proses sekaligus mengurangi defect pada produk dengan menggunakan pendekatan statistik dan Problem solving tools secara intensif. Tujuan dari metode Six Sigma ini adalah untuk mendapatkan zero defect dengan menjalankan 5 tahapan yaitu : Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve ,dan Control (DMAIC. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan metode Six Sigma di Cv. Sancu Creative Indonesia yang merupakan badan usaha yang memproduksi sandal karakter. Masalah yang terjadi adalah adanya defect sol sandal mudah mengelupas yang berakibat pada kualitas sandal dan salah satu penghambat visi dan misi perusahaan. Penelitian ini dibagi dalam 5 tahap. Tahap pertama adalah Define, yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi masalah yang terjadi yang berasal dari kebutuhan konsumen berdasarkan data DCA dan OQC defect di CV. SANCU. Tahap kedua adalah Measure yaitu mengukur kondisi level performance proses saat ini (Z-Level. Pada tahap ini dilakukan validasi sistem pengukuran  dengan  menghitung  Dpo,Dpmo,Yield  dan  Sigma  level.  Tahap  ketiga  adalah Analyze yaitu menentukan faktor-faktor penyebab terjadinya sol sandal mengelupas dan sekaligus menentukan vital faktor. Hasil dari pengujian menunjukkan bahwa vital faktor adalah waktu penempelan.Tahap keempat adalah improvement yaitu melakukan perbaikan dengan memberikan timer diarea lokasi penempelan. Control yaitu kegiatan melakukan pemantauan dari hasil perbaikan yang telah di implementasikan Kondisi   setelah   perbaikan   menghasilkan   perubahan   yang   signifikan   terhadap kapabilitas performance pada sandal, yaitu perubahan nilai sigma level setelah perbaikan 4.74s dari yang sebelum perbaikan adalah 4.26 s. Dari nilai tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode waktu penempelan dan kontrol pada performance sandal Cv. Sancu sudah membaik.

  15. Herpes simplex virus produces larger plaques when assayed on ultraviolet irradiated CV1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.A.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-01-01

    Plaque development for either untreated or UV treated irradiated Herpes simplex virus Type 1 was faster when assayed on UV irradiated CV1 cells. This Large Plaque Effect only occurred if a minimum delay of 12h between cell irradiation and viral inoculation was allowed. Shorter delays gave plaques that were smaller than controls (unirradiated virus-unirradiated cells). The effect was maximal for a 48-h delay and remained unchanged for delays as long as 84h. The effect was greatest for cell exposures of 10Jm -2 . (author)

  16. Development of high yielding mutants of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection through gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.A.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Khan, M.K.R.; Khatri, A.; Khan, I.A.; Dahar, N.A.; Khanzada, M.H.; Khan, R.

    2003-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of Brassica campestris L. cv. Toria selection were treated with different doses of gamma rays (750, 1000 and 1250 Gy) to induce genetic variability for the selection of new genotypes with improved agronomic traits. After passing through different stages of selection, two promising mutants were selected for further studies. Two selected mutants along with 5 other entries including parent variety were evaluated for yield and yield components in yield trials for two consecutive years. The mutant TS96-752 was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) superior to all other entries in grain yield but at par with FSD 86028-3

  17. In Vivo and in Vitro Micrografting of Pistachio, Pistacia vera L. cv. "Siirt"

    OpenAIRE

    ONAY, Ahmet; PİRİNÇ, Vedat; ADIYAMAN, Filiz; IŞIKALAN, Çiğdem; TİLKAT, Engin; BAŞARAN, Davut

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the success of in vivo and in vitro micrografts of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. "Siirt") materials are presented. The only variable tested was age (1, 5, 10, and 30-year-old trees). Ten- to 12-day-old axenic seedlings germinated in vitro or seedlings (3 to 5 months-old) grown in pots in vivo were used as rootstocks. Shoot tips collected from the four age classes of mature trees of pistachio were the source of scions. Firm contact between the scion and roots...

  18. Study of the activation of the parts components of the CV-28 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.

    1986-08-01

    The CV-17 cyclotron, isochronous, compact, of variable energy is an accelerator of charged particles and is applied in several situations such as: radioisotopes production, neutron production, irradiation damage analysis, activation analysis. During the production of the particle beams, the parts components of the interior of the cyclotron are irradiated and become radioactive. Due the fact of the cyclotron require maintenance, the knowledgement of the radionuclides present is of primordial importance of the view point of the radioprotection. Taking the excitation function of a nuclear reaction is observed that determined reaction may happen and produce a radionuclide. The radionuclides formed in the parts components by charged particles are presented. (V.R.B.)

  19. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  20. Induction of chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations in mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Yadav, R.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Uniform and healthy seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44 were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and combination treatment of gamma rays with EMS. The data were recorded for seed germination, plant survival, frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll chimeras in M 1 and chlorophyll mutations in M 2 generation. Among all, the combination treatments were found most effective for inducing chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations than the gamma rays or EMS alone. Of the mutants under reference, the albino, xantha and chlorina showed monogenic recessive while viridis exhibited digenic recessive inheritance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A.; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  2. INDIVIDUAL PACKAGING OF MANGOS CV. TOMMY ATKINS IN PLASTIC FILM: EFFECT ON SHELF LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA, FÁBIO; TONZAR, ANAMARIA CALDO; FERNANDES, JOICELENA GEORGETTI; MORIYA, SUELY; BENASSI, MARTA DE TOLEDO

    2001-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito da embalagem de policloreto de vinila (PVC) sobre a vida de prateleira de mangas cv. Tommy Atkins armazenadas sob refrigeração. Mangas no estádio de maturidade fisiológica, com casca verde ou levemente avermelhada, foram embaladas individualmente, com filme de 10mm de espessura, e armazenadas por 28 dias a 12ºC (80-90% UR). Frutos sem embalagem serviram de controle. Durante o período de armazenagem, foram feitas avaliações sensoriais utilizando o método de escala hedônica ...

  3. 123 I production using CV-28 cyclotron from IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik, S.A.C.; Mengatti, J.; Nieto, W.; Yanagawa, S.I.; Sumiya, L.C.A.; Silva, C.P.G.; Osso Junior, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The main conditions for iodine 123 production by 124 Te (p,2 n) 123 I reaction were presented, using the cyclotron CV-28 at IPEN-CNEN/SP, with protons of E max = 24 MeV. Two types of targets (Te O 2 and Te O 2 + 2% Al 2 O 3 ) and the influence of Al 2 O 3 in iodine release were studied. After the selection, the 124 Te O 2 (96,2%) target, was melted in platinum support and irradiated with proton current until 12 mu A. The separation of 123 I was made by dry distillation, using induction furnace and O 2 atmosphere. (C.G.C.)

  4. PERDAS QUALITATIVAS DE MAÇÃS CV. GALA EM ARMAZENAMENTO REFRIGERADO

    OpenAIRE

    BENDER, RENAR JOÃO; LUNARDI, ROSÂNGELA

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de dimensionar as perdas de qualidade de maçãs cv. Gala durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Para determinar estas perdas, foi feito um acompanhamento durante três anos consecutivos, com frutos de três tamanhos: calibre em torno de 100 frutos/caixa de 18kg, calibre 130 e calibre acima de 200. Quinzenalmente, durante os primeiros 90 dias de armazenagem no primeiro ano, 144 dias no segundo ano e 211 dias no terceiro ano, amostras de 20 a 30 ma...

  5. Crecimiento en clavel estándar cv. Nelson, en suelo y en sustratos Crescimento de cravo estandar cv. Nelson, em solo e em substratos Growth of standard carnation cv. Nelson, in soil and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Del Pilar Baracaldo Argüello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de clavel en la sabana de Bogotá ha sido importante, ya que representa en la actualidad el segundo lugar de exportación en flores de corte. Recientemente, su producción en sistema de cultivo en sustrato ha aumentado debido fundamentalmente a limitantes de tipo sanitario, por lo cual es importante el estudio del crecimiento de las plantas establecidas en este sistema de cultivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento del clavel estándar cv. Nelson establecido en sustratos y en suelo, a segundo pico de cosecha, para lo cual, en el SENA - Centro Multisectorial de Mosquera, plantas de clavel se sometieron a los siguientes tratamientos: 100% de cascarilla de arroz quemada; 65% cascarilla de arroz quemada - 35% fibra de coco; 35% cascarilla de arroz quemada - 65% fibra de coco y suelo. En muestreos continuos se evaluaron las variables número de hojas, longitud del tallo, diámetro de tallo, número de nudos y diámetro y longitud del botón floral y se ajustaron curvas de crecimiento. Las plantas cultivadas en el tratamiento suelo presentaron mayor número de tallos. En este tratamiento los tallos florales también presentaron un mayor número de nudos y de hojas; sin embargo, fueron más cortos. Así mismo, presentaron menor diámetro de tallo y menor longitud y diámetro del botón floral; características determinantes de la calidad. Por tanto, la producción de tallos exportables de grado "select" fue significativamente inferior en el tratamiento suelo, en comparación con los demás tratamientos.O cultivo de cravo no planalto de Bogotá tem sido importante, visto que representa, na atualidade, o segundo lugar nas exportações colombianas de flores de corte. Recentemente, sua produção em sistemas de cultivo em substrato tem aumentado em consequência de fatores sanitários. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento do cravo tipo estandar cv. Nelson, estabelecido em substratos e em solo, na segunda

  6. ORGANIC FERTILIZER AS PHOSPHORUS SUPPLIER FOR Brachiaria brizantha CV. MARANDÚ FERTILIZANTE ORGÂNICO COMO FONTE DE FÓSFORO NO CULTIVO INICIAL DE Brachiaria brizantha CV. MARANDÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Henriques Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Phosphorus is considered an essential element for plants, but it is found in low amounts in Brazilian soils, mainly in areas destined to pastures, and the application of organic matter contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and biological soil attributes. The research had the objective of evaluating the application effects of the Bokashi organic compound on soil macro and micronutrients contents and leaves, as well as on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú dry mass yield, evaluating the potential of the organic fertilizer as phosphorus source, in comparison with conventional chemical fertilizers. Different organic compound doses supplied the soil with 17 kg P2O5 ha-1, 34 kg P2O5 ha-1, 68 kg P2O5 ha-1, 136 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 204 kg P2O5 ha-1, comparing it with the conventional chemical fertilizer and the control. The results revealed that the organic fertilizer Bokashi can adequately replace the conventional chemical fertilizer of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú, supplying the soil and plant with appropriate nutrients levels and maintaining the dry mass yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Organic matter; organic fertilizers; plants mineral nutrition; Bokashi

  7. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  8. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek

    2016-01-01

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste

  9. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  10. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pacheco-Ordaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5% when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s. In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  11. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  12. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  13. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Nurmala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%. Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to identify the formulation of business strategy alternative, and to identify the recommendation of functional strategy for CV Jaya Sampurna. Research used descriptive method; and the type of research used was case study. Data were gathered from questionnaires and interview to three member of managers: Director, Operational Manager, and Finance Manager. Data wereanalyzed by using EFE, IFE, SWOT, IE, Grand Strategy Matrix and QSPM. The result of this research implies that the alternative strategy based on QSPM’s result was market penetration

  14. A FAST SEGMENTATION ALGORITHM FOR C-V MODEL BASED ON EXPONENTIAL IMAGE SEQUENCE GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the island coastline segmentation, a fast segmentation algorithm for C-V model method based on exponential image sequence generation is proposed in this paper. The exponential multi-scale C-V model with level set inheritance and boundary inheritance is developed. The main research contributions are as follows: 1 the problems of the "holes" and "gaps" are solved when extraction coastline through the small scale shrinkage, low-pass filtering and area sorting of region. 2 the initial value of SDF (Signal Distance Function and the level set are given by Otsu segmentation based on the difference of reflection SAR on land and sea, which are finely close to the coastline. 3 the computational complexity of continuous transition are successfully reduced between the different scales by the SDF and of level set inheritance. Experiment results show that the method accelerates the acquisition of initial level set formation, shortens the time of the extraction of coastline, at the same time, removes the non-coastline body part and improves the identification precision of the main body coastline, which automates the process of coastline segmentation.

  15. Information Hiding In Digital Video Using DCT, DWT and CvT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Shukur, Wisam; Najah Abdullah, Wathiq; Kareem Qurban, Luheb

    2018-05-01

    The type of video that used in this proposed hiding a secret information technique is .AVI; the proposed technique of a data hiding to embed a secret information into video frames by using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Curvelet Transform (CvT). An individual pixel consists of three color components (RGB), the secret information is embedded in Red (R) color channel. On the receiver side, the secret information is extracted from received video. After extracting secret information, robustness of proposed hiding a secret information technique is measured and obtained by computing the degradation of the extracted secret information by comparing it with the original secret information via calculating the Normalized cross Correlation (NC). The experiments shows the error ratio of the proposed technique is (8%) while accuracy ratio is (92%) when the Curvelet Transform (CvT) is used, but compared with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), the error rates are 11% and 14% respectively, while the accuracy ratios are (89%) and (86%) respectively. So, the experiments shows the Poisson noise gives better results than other types of noises, while the speckle noise gives worst results compared with other types of noises. The proposed technique has been established by using MATLAB R2016a programming language.

  16. Verbal cues effectively orient children's auditory attention in a CV-syllable dichotic listening paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phélip, Marion; Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-12-18

    In their groundbreaking work featuring verbal dichotic listening tasks, Mondor and Bryden showed that tone cues do not enhance children's attentional orienting, in contrast to adults. The magnitude of the children's right-ear advantage was not attenuated when their attention was directed to the left ear. Verbal cues did, however, appear to favour the orientation of attention at around 10 years, although stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs), which ranged between 450 and 750 ms, were not rigorously controlled. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the role of both types of cues in a typical CV-syllable dichotic listening task administered to 8- to 10-year-olds, applying a protocol as similar as possible to that used by Mondor and Bryden, but controlling for SOA as well as for cued ear. Results confirmed that verbal cues are more effective than tone cues in orienting children's attention. However, in contrast to adults, no effect of SOA was observed. We discuss the relative difficulty young children have processing CV syllables, as well as the role of top-down processes in attentional orienting abilities.

  17. Testing Anchoring effect in CV Data from Dichotomous Choice with a Follow-up Questioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Cheol [Dae-Jin University, Pocheon (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    A questionnaire of dual bisected selection of CVM, which is an induced approach of intended payment, was suggested to overcome statistical inefficiency of a questionnaire of single bisected selection. In spite of several advantages of it, it is doubted that there would be an occurrence of anchoring effect, which is a psychological source of convenient starting point. Therefore, the general intended payment model, which can review the anchoring effect from CV questionnaire of dual bisected selection, was suggested and a mechanism that can review the anchoring effect from the model. This model is combining the dual variation model by Cameron and Quiggin (1994) with the results of bisected selective responses of a firstly presented particular amount as an explanatory variable of the second interior intended payment amount. If the sign of coefficient of the results of bisected selective responses of a firstly presented particular amount was negative and statistically significant, then it can be said that there is an anchoring effect. However, when there is uncertainty of occurrence of anchoring effect from the coefficient review, there is no need to worry about the anchoring effect if the average of estimated values of intended payment amount from two responses were different. As a result of applying this model and mechanism to CV materials on the improvement of water quality of the Han River, there is no need to worry about the anchoring effect. (author). 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Obtaining of potato microtubers cv. ‘Andinita’ in Temporary Immersion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA, Venezuela, is producing potato seed by biotechnology in its National Seed Plan. The seeds needed are greater than the installed capacity. The acquisition of temporary immersion system (ITS enables developing research in the production of seed potatoes to ensure quality, efficiency and reduced production costs. The purchase of seeds will decrease and contribute to food security and sovereignty of the country. This work was aimed to obtain potato microtubers cv. ‘Andinita’ in SIT. In vitro plants propagated by organogenesis and SIT in 10 liters capacity were used. Explants (100 were inoculated per pot. After five weeks in multiplication a change of culture medium was carried out to induce tuberization. Three immersion frequencies were tested. Plant height was measured and the number of microtubers and fresh dough was quantified. Potato microtubers cv. ‘Andinita’ in SIT were obtained. The best results were achieved with immersions every four hours, averaging five to seven microtubers per plant (approximately 600 microtubers per culture vessel, with sizes between 4 and 16 mm, with an average of 3 g fresh weight, which ensured budding efficiency and allow direct field planting. This result constitutes the first report of the use of SIT for propagation of potatoes in Venezuela. This is a new possibility to use SIT in other varieties. Key words: shoot tip, immersion frequency, seed

  19. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  20. Heliconia cv. Golden Torch cultivated under different irrigation depths in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcilane Arnaldo Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heliconia is commercially detached by the exotic appearance of the inflorescences but is susceptible to lack of moisture in the soil, being necessary the irrigation management. In this sense, the objective was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation levels on the plant growth and productive characters of Heliconia psittacorum cv. Golden Torch cultivated in vase. The experiment was conducted from March to October 2014, in a randomized blocks design. Five treatments corresponding to the different irrigation levels were used [50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of the evaporation measured in Class A (ECA] with four replicates and two plants per replicate. The following evaluations were carried out: number of days for the emergence of the first tiller, number of days for the emergence of the first inflorescence, number of days for the inflorescence harvest, crop cycle, diameter of the flower stem, length of the flower stem, inflorescence length, plant high, number of tillers and productivity of flower stems. Chlorophyll and leaf area measurements were performed. The irrigation levels tested significantly influenced the number of days for the first inflorescence harvest, length of the flower stem and inflorescence length. The irrigation level of 150% ECA provided better results for the length of the flower stem, inflorescence length and for leaf area but without differences from 75%, 100% and 125% ECA. Thus, for the cultivation of the heliconia cv. Golden Torch in pot can be recommended the level corresponding from 75% to 150% ECA.

  1. Storage and methyl jasmonate in postharvest conservation of roses cv. Avalanche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of methyl jasmonate has demonstrated its efficiency to extend the vase life of cut flowers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate associated with storage at low temperatures on the postharvest quality of Rosa cv. Avalanche stems. The treatments consisted of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μM of methyl jasmonate, besides the control with distilled water. The flower buds were sprayed with 4 mL of the solution, according to the treatments, and then kept in a cold chamber (1 °C for periods of 2 and 6 days. Subsequently, the stems were taken to the postharvest laboratory at a temperature of 16 °C. Better quality, higher fresh weight and water absorption were observed in flower stems stored for 2 days. The application of methyl jasmonate caused less turgescence and greater darkening of roses. It was possible to conclude that two days is the best storage time at 1 °C and the use of methyl jasmonate does not maintain the quality of roses cv. Avalanche after harvest.

  2. a Fast Segmentation Algorithm for C-V Model Based on Exponential Image Sequence Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Lu, L.; Xu, J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    For the island coastline segmentation, a fast segmentation algorithm for C-V model method based on exponential image sequence generation is proposed in this paper. The exponential multi-scale C-V model with level set inheritance and boundary inheritance is developed. The main research contributions are as follows: 1) the problems of the "holes" and "gaps" are solved when extraction coastline through the small scale shrinkage, low-pass filtering and area sorting of region. 2) the initial value of SDF (Signal Distance Function) and the level set are given by Otsu segmentation based on the difference of reflection SAR on land and sea, which are finely close to the coastline. 3) the computational complexity of continuous transition are successfully reduced between the different scales by the SDF and of level set inheritance. Experiment results show that the method accelerates the acquisition of initial level set formation, shortens the time of the extraction of coastline, at the same time, removes the non-coastline body part and improves the identification precision of the main body coastline, which automates the process of coastline segmentation.

  3. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  4. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  5. C-V characterization of Schottky- and MIS-gate SiGe/Si HEMT structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onojima, Norio; Kasamatsu, Akihumi; Hirose, Nobumitsu; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Electrical properties of Schottky- and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS)-gate SiGe/Si high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were investigated with capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The MIS-gate HEMT structure was fabricated using a SiN gate insulator formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN thin film (5 nm) was found to be an effective gate insulator with good gate controllability and dielectric properties. We previously investigated device characteristics of sub-100-nm-gate-length Schottky- and MIS-gate HEMTs, and reported that the MIS-gate device had larger maximum drain current density and transconductance (g m ) than the Schottky-gate device. The radio frequency (RF) measurement of the MIS-gate device, however, showed a relatively lower current gain cutoff frequency f T compared with that of the Schottky-gate device. In this study, C-V characterization of the MIS-gate HEMT structure demonstrated that two electron transport channels existed, one at the SiGe/Si buried channel and the other at the SiN/Si surface channel

  6. C-V characterization of Schottky- and MIS-gate SiGe/Si HEMT structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onojima, Norio [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)], E-mail: nonojima@nict.go.jp; Kasamatsu, Akihumi; Hirose, Nobumitsu [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Mimura, Takashi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan); Matsui, Toshiaki [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2008-07-30

    Electrical properties of Schottky- and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS)-gate SiGe/Si high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were investigated with capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The MIS-gate HEMT structure was fabricated using a SiN gate insulator formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). The Cat-CVD SiN thin film (5 nm) was found to be an effective gate insulator with good gate controllability and dielectric properties. We previously investigated device characteristics of sub-100-nm-gate-length Schottky- and MIS-gate HEMTs, and reported that the MIS-gate device had larger maximum drain current density and transconductance (g{sub m}) than the Schottky-gate device. The radio frequency (RF) measurement of the MIS-gate device, however, showed a relatively lower current gain cutoff frequency f{sub T} compared with that of the Schottky-gate device. In this study, C-V characterization of the MIS-gate HEMT structure demonstrated that two electron transport channels existed, one at the SiGe/Si buried channel and the other at the SiN/Si surface channel.

  7. Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wample, R.L.; Smithyman, R.

    2002-01-01

    An initial six-year study in a commercial vineyard located in the Columbia River Valley of Washington State, United States of America, examined the management practices and potential benefits of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on Vitis vinifera cv. Sauvignon blanc. The objective of the treatments was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation prior to, compared with after, veraison. Each of four irrigation treatments was applied to 1.6 ha and replicated four times for a total 27.0 ha. Irrigation treatments were based on desired soil moisture levels in the top metre of the profile where most of the root system is found. Soil moisture was monitored using a neutron probe and the information was combined with calculations of evaporative demand to determine the irrigation required on a weekly basis. Vine growth, yield, fruit quality and cold hardiness were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that RDI prior to veraison was effective in controlling shoot growth, as determined by shoot length and elongation rate, as well as pruning weights. Sixteen wine lots, each of approximately 12,000 litres, were prepared each season. Although there was some effect on berry weight, yield was not always significantly reduced. Full irrigation prior to veraison resulted in excessive shoot growth. RDI applied after veraison to vines with large canopies resulted in greater water deficit stress. Fruit quality was increased by pre-veraison RDI compared to postveraison RDI based on wines made. Regulated deficit irrigation applied at anytime resulted in better early-season lignification of canes and cold hardening of buds. There was a slight improvement in mid-winter cold hardiness of vines subjected to RDI. However, this effect was inconsistent. Studies on Cabernet Sauvignon and White Riesling are underway to confirm these results and to investigate the impact of RDI on fruit quality and winemaking practices. (author)

  8. Efeito da relação das fases líquida e sólida da uva na composição química e na característica sensorial do vinho Cabernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZZON Luiz Antenor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A intensidade de cor, os polifenóis totais, o extrato seco e os minerais do vinho variam em função da proporção entre as fases líquida e sólida da uva. O rendimento em mosto é variável de uma cultivar a outra e, para a mesma cultivar, sendo que aumentos importantes podem ocorrer em conseqüência de precipitações pluviométricas durante a maturação da uva. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da relação das fases líquida e sólida da uva na composição química e na qualidade do vinho, foram realizados estudos através de microvinificação com uvas Cabernet Franc nas safras de 1987 a 1990. Os tratamentos consistiram em variar a fase líquida em relação à fase sólida da uva, nas proporções (% de 78/22, 74/26, 72/28, 70/30, 68/32, 66/34 e 62/38. O aumento da proporção da fase sólida em relação à líquida foi responsável principalmente por um acréscimo dos componentes que constituem o corpo do vinho (extrato seco, cinzas e compostos fenólicos enquanto que o aumento da fase líquida contribuiu para a obtenção de vinhos mais leves.

  9. Avaliação da cv. Merlot para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Merlot to make red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A uva Merlot é uma das responsáveis pelas características dos vinhos tintos de Saint Émillion, região de Bordeaux, França. Foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É, atualmente, uma das cultivares tinta de Vitis vinifera L. com maior volume de produção da Serra Gaúcha. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial enológico da cv. Merlot para a elaboração de vinho tinto fino. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho nas safras de 1987 a 1994, em Bento Gonçalves, RS. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Merlot tem cacho com peso médio de 161,9g e baga esférica e pequena, pesando 1,61g. No mosto, o valor médio de açúcar é de 18,4ºBrix; o da acidez total, de 104meqL-1; e o do pH, de 3,21. O vinho se caracteriza por ter teores médios de 10,8% v/v de álcool; 70,3meqL-1 de acidez titulável; e pH de 3,49. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Merlot apresenta cor vermelho-violáceo com boa intensidade. Gustativamente distingue-se pela maciez, equilíbrio e fineza.Merlot is a traditional grape of the Saint Émillion wines, Bordeaux region - France. It was introduced into, the State of Rio Grande do Sul by the Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Today, of the red grape cultivars it shows the largest production in the Serra Gaúcha region. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the enological potential of Merlot grapes for red winemaking. To achieve this purpose, variables related to berry clusters, must and wine were measured between 1987 and 1994 vintages, from Merlot vineyards located in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves. The results showed that Merlot grapes have clusters of medium size (161.9g and small berries (1.61g. The must showed adequate sugar level (18.4ºBrix, high titratable acidity (104mqL-1 and medium pH 3.21. The wine Merlot had an

  10. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o

  11. Avaliação da cv. Tannat para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Tannat to elaborate red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A uva Tannat, originária do Sudoeste da França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul, pela Estação Experimental de Caxias do Sul. É uma cultivar difundida na Serra Gaúcha para elaboração de vinho tinto, utilizado para corte e para a produção de vinho varietal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial enológico da cv. Tannat para a elaboração de vinho tinto fino nessa região vitícola. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho nas safras de 1987 a 1994, a partir de um vinhedo localizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Tannat tem cacho com peso médio de 216,1g e baga esférica pequena (1,54g. O mosto apresenta teor elevado de acidez titulável (155meq/L-1. O vinho se caracteriza por teores elevados em: polifenóis totais (I 280= 43,0, taninos (1,9g/L, antocianinas (539mg/L, potássio (1.856mg/L-1 e soma dos álcoois superiores (512mg/L-1. As características sensoriais do vinho Tannat na Serra Gaúcha evidenciam uma cor vermelha-violácea intensa, tânicos, nervosos, relativamente duros e aromas de frutas vermelhas. É recomendável para corte com outros vinhos tintos finos para intensificar sua cor e estrutura e também para a produção de vinho varietal podendo melhorar com o amadurecimento em barricas de carvalho.The Tannat grape is native to the Southwest of France, and was introduced into the State of Rio Grande do Sul by the Caxias do Sul Experimental Station. It is a cultivar diffused in the Serra Gaucha region with the purpose of elaborating varietal red wine for blending. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the enological potential of the Tannat grape for red wine in this region. To achieve this objective, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were evaluated from the 1987 to 1994 vintages, in a vineyard established in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. The results showed that Tannat grapes have large clusters (216.1g and

  12. Energy saving in Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V.; Ahorro de energia en Bellota Mexico S.A de C.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Lopez, Jose Albeiro [Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article intends to make a general description of the different activities that were developed in Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. during year 2001 and which lead to obtaining the national prize of energy saving granted by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). In the executed actions stands out an entirely coordinated program that includes: lighting systems, motors, refrigeration systems, transformers, special projects (settling tanks), capacitors, compressed air pipeline, induction furnaces, machinery in general, maximum demand control, preventive maintenance, measuring systems, operational and organizational systems. In all these subjects a fast description is made of the performed actions and the obtained results. It is mentioned in addition the importance of making a power diagnosis and the use of historical data for the planning of the strategies to follow. Also reference is made of the use of appropriate technology that considers the use of high-energy efficiency equipment, such as motors, lamps, compressors, etc. Finally an evaluation is made of the obtained results where the improvement of the electrical parameters stands out such as: reduction of the power index in 35.06%, reduction of the maximum demand in 11.94%, increase of the power factor from 93.53% in 98.21%. The obtained results demonstrate that investing in energy saving it is a good business. [Spanish] El presente trabajo tiene por objeto hacer una descripcion general de las diferentes actividades que se desarrollaron en Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. durante el ano 2001 y que condujeron a la obtencion del premio nacional de ahorro de energia otorgado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). En las acciones ejecutadas se destaca todo un programa coordinado que abarca: sistemas de iluminacion, motores, sistemas de refrigeracion, transformadores, proyectos

  13. Estiolamento na micropropagação do Abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Etiolated in micropropagation of cv. Pérola Pineapple plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Moreira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do estiolamento na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola e posterior recuperação dos brotos estiolados, realizando-se dois experimentos. No primeiro, os caules utilizados como explantes foram obtidos de brotos pré-estabelecidos in vitro, dos quais foram retiradas as folhas. O estiolamento foi induzido colocando-se os explantes em tubos de ensaio no escuro por 20, 40 e 80 dias, contendo os seguintes meios de cultura: 1 MS suplementado com 0,1 mg.L-1 de ANA e 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 2 MS suplementado com 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP e 3 MS sem reguladores de crescimento. Para número de brotos, o melhor meio foi o MS + 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se média de 10,26 brotações aos 40 dias no escuro. Para comprimento de brotos estiolados, o meio MS sem reguladores de crescimento foi significativamente melhor quando os explantes foram mantidos por 80 dias no escuro, apresentando comprimento médio de 10,86 cm. No segundo experimento, os brotos estiolados, com e sem o ápice, foram colocados horizontalmente em placas contendo meios de cultura com idêntica formulação aos descritos anteriormente. Para número total de brotos, brotações estioladas sem ápice em meio MS suplementado com 1,8mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP promoveram o melhor resultado, correspondendo a 10,61 brotações por explante.It was aimed to produce micropropagated plantlets of pineapple cv. Pérola by using the etiolated technique and subsequent recovery of etiolated shoots. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, the stalks used as explant were obtained from in vitro shoots established without leaves. The etiolation was induced by putting the explants in test tubes in the darkness for 20, 40 and 80 days with the media: 1 MS supplemented with ANA 0.1mg.L-1 and BAP 0.5mg.L-1, 2 MS supplemented with ANA 1.8mg.L-1 and BAP 2mg.L-1 and 3 MS without growth regulators. The best results for shoot number were obtained

  14. Reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus in UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, K.; Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus was investigated by the plaque assay on CV-1 monkey kidney monolayer cells irradiated with UV light or X-rays. Both UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells showed enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated virus, while little or no enhancement was detected for γ-irradiated virus assayed on UV- or X-irradiated cells. The enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus was greater when virus infection was delayed 24 or 48 h, than for infection immediately following the irradiation of cells. Thus the UV- or X-irradiated CV-1 cells are able to enhance the repair of UV damaged herpes virus DNA, but not of γ-ray damaged ones. (author)

  15. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Huailing; Ji, Feng; Lin, Ying; Zhang, Mulan; Qin, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague‑Dawley rats (4.5‑months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non‑acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three‑point‑bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β‑catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (Pelectroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt‑β‑catenin signaling pathway.

  16. Analysis and modeling of wafer-level process variability in 28 nm FD-SOI using split C-V measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Krishna; Poiroux, Thierry; Scheer, Patrick; Juge, André; Gouget, Gilles; Ghibaudo, Gérard

    2018-07-01

    This work details the analysis of wafer level global process variability in 28 nm FD-SOI using split C-V measurements. The proposed approach initially evaluates the native on wafer process variability using efficient extraction methods on split C-V measurements. The on-wafer threshold voltage (VT) variability is first studied and modeled using a simple analytical model. Then, a statistical model based on the Leti-UTSOI compact model is proposed to describe the total C-V variability in different bias conditions. This statistical model is finally used to study the contribution of each process parameter to the total C-V variability.

  17. Paraneoplastic Choreoathetosis in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Anti-CRMP5/CV2: A Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Lisbeth Landschoff; Somnier, Finn; Aydin, Dogu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The occurrence of more or less monosymptomatic paraneoplastic choreoathetosis associated with anti-CRMP5/CV2 antibodies is rare. Typically, such autoantibodies are associated with a more classical syndrome - paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Frequently, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC...... 14 months after the onset of the symptoms. Conclusion: We report paraneoplastic choreoathetosis associated with anti-CRMP5/CV2 antibodies. Such published case histories are rare. Although expected, we did not find any reduced signal intensity at the basal ganglia on the T1-weighted or increased...

  18. Increasing sustainability through the use of organic matters/manures in banana production. cv. harichal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, T.F.; Baloch, M.A.; Baloch, A.F.; Miano, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    A banana experiment was carried out with cv. Harichal under the ecological conditions of Tando Jam to study the effect of organic manures/matter on the growth and bunch weight (yield) of banana. The treatments applied were ; FYM, Dry leaves, Stalk of the banana bunch and control with constant doses of NPK (136g + 57g + 148g per plant). Minimum days (490.33) from planting to harvest were observed under the treatment of FYM followed by stalk of the bunch and dried leaves. The highest single fruit weight (107 g), fruit length( 18.30 cm) bunch weight (25.46 kg) and calculated yield per hectare (33.80 tons) were observed under FYM with NPK fertilizer followed by stalk of the bunch and dried leaves. (author)

  19. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  20. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)