WorldWideScience

Sample records for cutaneous water loss

  1. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2002-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T-a) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks

  2. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2003-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T-a) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks

  3. Lipid composition of the stratum corneum and cutaneous water loss in birds along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Champagne, Alex M.; Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Shtayyeh, Tamer; Tieleman, B. Irene; Hegemann, Arne; Clement, Michelle E.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular and covalently bound lipids within the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, are the primary barrier to cutaneous water loss (CWL) in birds. We compared CWL and intercellular SC lipid composition in 20 species of birds from desert and mesic environments.

  4. Lipids of the stratum corneum vary with cutaneous water loss among larks along a temperature-moisture gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, M; Williams, JB; Wertz, P; Tieleman, BI

    2003-01-01

    We explored the relationship between lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the barrier to water-vapor diffusion of the skin, and cutaneous water loss (CWL) of species of free-living larks along a temperature-moisture gradient. Our results showed that free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides were t

  5. Lipids of the stratum corneum vary with cutaneous water loss among larks along a temperature-moisture gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, M; Williams, JB; Wertz, P; Tieleman, BI

    2003-01-01

    We explored the relationship between lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the barrier to water-vapor diffusion of the skin, and cutaneous water loss (CWL) of species of free-living larks along a temperature-moisture gradient. Our results showed that free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides were

  6. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Michael J; Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2003-10-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduce water loss through the skin. In desert environments, where ambient temperatures (T(a)) can reach 50 degrees C, relative humidities are low and drinking water is scarce, integumentary modifications that reduce cutaneous water loss (CWL) could be fundamental to survival. Previous research has shown that hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) from the Arabian desert reduced CWL when acclimated to 35 degrees C compared with individuals at 15 degrees C, but skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea), from The Netherlands, and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni), also from the Arabian desert, did not. Here, we test the idea that hoopoe larks acclimated to 35 degrees C would alter the lipid composition of their stratum corneum (SC), resulting in a decrease in CWL, but that skylarks, woodlarks and Dunn's larks would not. Specifically, we hypothesized that hoopoe larks, acclimated to 35 degrees C, would increase the proportions of polar ceramide content and decrease the proportions of free fatty acids in their SC compared with individuals acclimated to 15 degrees C. Results showed that hoopoe larks at 35 degrees C had lower CWL and higher proportions of total ceramides but lower proportions of free fatty acids and sterols in their SC. We demonstrate that adjustments in ratios of lipid classes in the SC are associated with changes in CWL in hoopoe larks.

  7. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T(a)) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) from the Arabian Desert and skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) from temperate mesic grasslands. The proportional contribution of CWL to TEWL in all larks at moderate T(a) ranged from 50% to 70%. At high T(a) (40 degrees -45 degrees C), larks enhanced CWL by only 45%-78% and relied on an increase in RWL by 676%-2,733% for evaporative cooling. Surface-specific CWL at 25 degrees C was 29% lower in the arid-zone species than in the mesic larks. When acclimated to constant T(a), 15 degrees C-acclimated hoopoe larks increased CWL by 22% compared with 35 degrees C-acclimated birds, but the other species did not change CWL. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that larks from deserts have a reduced CWL at moderate and low T(a) but provided no support for the hypothesis that at high T(a) larks from arid regions rely more on CWL than larks from mesic environments. Interspecific differences in CWL cannot be attributed to acclimation to environmental temperature and are possibly the result of genetic differences due to natural selection or of phenotypically plastic responses to divergent environments during ontogeny.

  8. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A

    2013-01-01

    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  9. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    The outermost 10-20 µm of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Neurotrophic Modulation of Myelinated Cutaneous Innervation and Mechanical Sensory Loss in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Julie A.; Ryals, Janelle M.; Johnson, Megan S.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2007-01-01

    Human diabetic patients often lose touch and vibratory sensations, but to date, most studies on diabetes-induced sensory nerve degeneration have focused on epidermal C-fibers. Here, we explored the effects of diabetes on cutaneous myelinated fibers in relation to the behavioral responses to tactile stimuli from diabetic mice. Weekly behavioral testing began prior to STZ administration and continued until 8 weeks, at which time myelinated fiber innervation was examined in the footpad by immunohistochemistry using antiserum to NF-H and MBP. Diabetic mice developed reduced behavioral responses to non-noxious (monofilaments) and noxious (pin prick) stimuli. In addition, diabetic mice displayed a 50% reduction in NF-H-positive myelinated innervation of the dermal footpad compared to non-diabetic mice. To test whether two neurotrophins NGF and/or NT-3 known to support myelinated cutaneous fibers could influence myelinated innervation, diabetic mice were treated intrathecally for two weeks with NGF, NT-3, NGF and NT-3. Neurotrophin-treated mice were then compared to diabetic mice treated with insulin for two weeks. NGF and insulin treatment both increased paw withdrawal to mechanical stimulation in diabetic mice, whereas NT-3 or a combination of NGF and NT-3 failed to alter paw withdrawal responses. Surprisingly, all treatments significantly increased myelinated innervation compared to control-treated diabetic mice, demonstrating that myelinated cutaneous fibers damaged by hyperglycemia respond to intrathecal administration of neurotrophins. Moreover, NT-3 treatment increased epidermal Merkel cell numbers associated with nerve fibers, consistent with increased numbers of NT-3-responsive slowly adapting A-fibers. These studies suggest that myelinated fiber loss may contribute as significantly as unmyelinated epidermal loss in diabetic neuropathy, and the contradiction between neurotrophin-induced increases in dermal innervation and behavior emphasize the need for multiple

  11. Respiratory water loss in free-flying pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, G; Pinshow, B

    2001-11-01

    We assessed respiratory and cutaneous water loss in trained tippler pigeons (Columba livia) both at rest and in free flight. In resting pigeons, exhaled air temperature T(ex) increased with ambient air temperature T(a) (T(ex)=16.3+0.705T(a)) between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C, while tidal volume V(T) (V(T)=4.7+/-1.0 ml, mean +/- S.D. at standard temperature and pressure dry) and breathing frequency f(R) (f(R)=0.46+/-0.06 breaths s(-1)) were independent of T(a). Respiratory water loss, RWL, was constant over the range of T(a) (RWL=1.2+/-0.4 mg g(-1) h(-1)) used. In flying pigeons, T(ex) increased with T(a) (T(ex)=25.8+0.34T(a)), while f(R) was independent of T(a) (f(R)=5.6+/-1.4 breaths s(-1)) between 8.8 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Breathing frequency varied intermittently between 2 and 8 breaths s(-1) during flight and was not always synchronized with wing-beat frequency. RWL was independent of air temperature (RWL=9.2+/-2.9 mg g(-1) h(-1)), but decreased with increasing inspired air water vapor density (rho(in)) (RWL=12.5-0.362rho(in)), whereas cutaneous water loss, CWL, increased with air temperature (CWL=10.122+0.898T(a)), but was independent of rho(in). RWL was 25.7-32.2 %, while CWL was 67.8-74.3 % of the total evaporative water loss. The data indicate that pigeons have more efficient countercurrent heat exchange in their anterior respiratory passages when at rest than in flight, allowing them to recover more water at rest at lower air temperatures. When evaporative water loss increases in flight, especially at high T(a), the major component is cutaneous rather than respiratory, possibly brought about by reducing the skin water vapor diffusion resistance. Because of the tight restrictions imposed by gas exchange in flight, the amount of water potentially lost through respiration is limited.

  12. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in , , and Their Crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years, Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years. They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR, respiration rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and skin temperature (ST with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p0.05 but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C (p<0.01. Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg and 87.5% (25 kg than HF50% (23 kg which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg (p<0.05. In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.

  13. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). AIM: To determine the role played by APC gene in the genesis of cutaneous SCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allelic imbalance\\/loss of heterozygosity (AI\\/LOH) was examined in twenty-two histologically confirmed cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) using microsatellite markers, proximal to the APC gene. Immunohistochemical analysis of APC protein expression was also examined in the cutaneous SCC. RESULTS: AI\\/LOH was detected in 60% of the SCC samples using D5S346 marker (proximal to the APC gene). Ninty-five percent of the SCC samples showed positive reduced APC expression, however the localization of the APC protein was abnormal. CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of APC suggests that APC gene may play a role in cutaneous SCC development.

  14. Loss of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase is an early event in development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Aleksandar; Kim, Su Y; Hostetter, Galen; Savage, Stephanie; Einspahr, Janine G; Prasad, Anil; Sagerman, Paul; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Krouse, Robert; Bowden, G Timothy; Warneke, James; Alberts, David S; Pittelkow, Mark R; DiCaudo, David; Nickoloff, Brian J; Trent, Jeffrey M; Bittner, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurs commonly and can metastasize. Identification of specific molecular aberrations and mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cutaneous SCC may lead to better prognostic and therapeutic approaches and more effective chemoprevention strategies. To identify genetic changes associated with early stages of cutaneous SCC development, we analyzed a series of 40 archived skin tissues ranging from normal skin to invasive SCC. Using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified deletions of a region on chromosome 10q harboring the INPP5A gene in 24% of examined SCC tumors. Subsequent validation by immunohistochemistry on an independent sample set of 71 SCC tissues showed reduced INPP5A protein levels in 72% of primary SCC tumors. Decrease in INPP5A protein levels seems to be an early event in SCC development, as it also is observed in 9 of 26 (35%) examined actinic keratoses, the earliest stage in SCC development. Importantly, further reduction of INPP5A levels is seen in a subset of SCC patients as the tumor progresses from primary to metastatic stage. The observed frequency and pattern of loss indicate that INPP5A, a negative regulator of inositol signaling, may play a role in development and progression of cutaneous SCC tumors.

  15. Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. I. Relation to ambient humidity and site of measurement and estimation of total transepidermal water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarl-nd, K; Nilsson, G E; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1977-09-01

    Insensible water loss (IWL) is an important factor in the thermoregulation and water balance of the newborn infant. A method for direct measurement of the rate of evaporation from the skin surface has been developed. The method, which is based on determination of the vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface, allows free evaporation. From measurements performed on 19 newborns placed in incubators, a linear relation was found between the evaporation rate (ER) and the humidity of the environment at a constant ambient temperature. A 40% lower ER was recorded at a high relative humidity (60%) than at a low one (20%) in the incubator. At measurements on different sites of the body, a high ER was observed on the face and peripheral parts of the extremities, while ER at other sites was relatively low. By determining ER from different parts of the body and calculating the areas of the corresponding surfaces, the total cutaneous insensible water loss for the infant in question could be obtained. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for the whole body surface area was calculated to be 8.1 g/m2h. On the basis of measurements performed it was found that the total cutaneous insensible water loss can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy by recording ER from only three easily accessible measurement points.

  16. Water losses dynamic modelling in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Valeria; Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In the last decades, one of the main concerns of the water system managers have been the minimisation of water losses, that frequently reach values of 30% or even 70% of the volume supplying the water distribution network. The economic and social costs associated with water losses in modern water supply systems are rapidly rising to unacceptably high levels. Furthermore, the problem of the water losses assumes more and more importance mainly when periods of water scarcity occur or when not sufficient water supply takes part in areas with fast growth. In the present analysis, a dynamic model was used for estimating real and apparent losses of a real case study. A specific nodal demand model reflecting the user's tank installation and a specific apparent losses module were implemented. The results from the dynamic model were compared with the modelling estimation based on a steady-state approach.

  17. Fractional thermolysis by bipolar radiofrequency facilitates cutaneous delivery of peptide and siRNA with minor loss of barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Suen, Shih-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to illustrate the utility of fractional radiofrequency (RF) that generated microchannels in the skin, allowing delivery of peptide and siRNA via the skin. The mechanisms involved in the correlation between macromolecule permeation and skin structure were also elucidated. The morphology of the skin was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), higher harmonic generation microscopy (HGM), and physiological factors. In vivo skin distribution of macromolecules was assessed by fluorescence and confocal microscopies. RF thermolysis selectively created an array of micropores deep into the epidermis without significant removal of the stratum corneum (SC). With energy of 30 mJ, a pore depth of 35 μm was achieved. The bipolar RF resulted in a 3-fold increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) compared with intact skin. The respective skin accumulation and flux of the peptide with a molecular weight (MW) of 2335 Da was 3- and 23-fold greater for the RF-treated group than for the non-treatment group. RF enhanced skin accumulation of siRNAs with MW of 10 and 15 kDa by 6.2- and 2.6-fold, respectively. Cutaneous penetration of the macromolecules with an MW of at least 40 kDa could be accomplished by RF. Confocal microscopy imaging revealed that RF could effectively deliver the peptide up to at least a 74-μm depth. The penetration depth of siRNA by RF irradiation was about 50 μm. The novel RF device efficiently delivered macromolecules into the skin while reserving SC layers to support some barrier functions. In this work, for the first time the assistance of fractional RF on peptide and siRNA transport was demonstrated.

  18. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  19. Water losses during technical snow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    These days, the production of technical snow can be seen as a prerequisite for winter tourism. Huge amounts of water are used for technical snow production by ski resorts, especially in the beginning of the winter season. The aim is to guarantee an appropriate amount of snow to reliably provide optimal ski runs until the date of season opening in early December. Technical snow is generated by pumping pressurized water through the nozzles of a snow machine and dispersing the resulting spray of small water droplets which freeze during their travel to the ground. Cooling and freezing of the droplets can only happen if energy is emitted to the air mass surrounding the droplets. This heat transfer is happening through convective cooling and though evaporation and sublimation of water droplets and ice particles. This means that also mass is lost from the droplets and added in form of vapor to the air. It is important to note that not all water that is pumped through the snow machine is converted to snow distributed on the ground. Significant amounts of water are lost due to wind drift, sublimation and evaporation while droplets are traveling through the air or to draining of water which is not fully frozen when arriving at the ground. Studies addressing this question are sparse and the quantity of the water losses is still unclear. In order to assess this question in more detail, we obtained several systematic field observations at a test site near Davos, Switzerland. About a dozen of snow making tests had been performed during the last winter seasons. We compare the amount of water measured at the intake of the snow machine with the amount of snow accumulating at the ground during a night of snow production. The snow mass was calculated from highly detailed repeated terrestrial laser scanning measurements in combination with manually gathered snow densities. In addition a meteorological station had been set up in the vicinity observing all relevant meteorological

  20. Loss of BAX by miR-365 Promotes Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression by Suppressing Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Gao, Ruirui; Wang, Yinghui; Zhou, Meijuan; Ding, Zhenhua

    2017-05-30

    Pro-apoptotic BCL2 associated X (BAX) is traditionally thought to be regulated by anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, like BCL2-like 1 (BCL-XL), at the protein level. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of BAX is under explored. In this study, we identified BAX as the novel downstream target of miR-365, which is supported by gain- and loss-of-function studies of onco-miR-365. Loss of BAX by either RNA interference or highly-expressed miR-365 in cells of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) enhanced the tumor resistance against apoptosis, while repressing cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. In vivo experiment confirmed that BAX knockdown promotes the growth of CSCC xenografts. Collectively, our results find a miR-365-BAX axis for alleviating the pro-apoptotic effects of BAX, which promotes CSCC development and may facilitate the generation of novel therapeutic regimens to the clinical treatment of CSCC.

  1. Influence of cold water immersion on limb and cutaneous blood flow at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Warren; Black, Mark A; Jones, Helen; Milson, Jordon; Morton, James; Dawson, Brian; Atkinson, Greg; Green, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    Cold water immersion reduces exercise-induced muscle damage. Benefits may partly arise from a decline in limb blood flow; however, no study has comprehensively investigated the influence of different degrees of cooling undertaken via cold water immersion on limb blood flow responses. To determine the influence of cold (8°C) and cool (22°C) water immersion on lower limb and cutaneous blood flow. Controlled laboratory study. Nine men were placed in a semireclined position and lowered into 8°C or 22°C water to the iliac crest for two 5-minute periods interspersed with 2 minutes of nonimmersion. Rectal and thigh skin temperature, deep and superficial muscle temperature, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, thigh cutaneous blood velocity (laser Doppler), and superficial femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound) were measured during immersion and for 30 minutes after immersion. Indices of vascular conductance were calculated (flux and blood flow/mean arterial pressure). Reductions in rectal temperature (8°C, 0.2° ± 0.1°C; 22°C, 0.1° ± 0.1°C) and thigh skin temperature (8°C, 6.2° ± 0.5°C; 22°C, 3.2° ± 0.2°C) were greater in 8°C water than in 22°C (P water compared with 22°C (P = .01). These data suggest that immersion at both temperatures resulted in similar whole limb blood flow but, paradoxically, more blood was distributed to the skin in the colder water. This suggests that colder temperatures may be associated with reduced muscle blood flow, which could provide an explanation for the benefits of cold water immersion in alleviating exercise-induced muscle damage in sports and athletic contexts. Colder water temperatures may be more effective in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage and injury rehabilitation because of greater reductions in muscle blood flow.

  2. Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence shows frequent loss of INK4A and gain of KIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniotti, Maria; Ferrari, Andrea; Frigerio, Simona; Casieri, Paola; Miselli, Francesca; Zucca, Elisa; Collini, Paola; Della Torre, Gabriella; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Bono, Aldo; Santinami, Mario; Parmiani, Giorgio; Rivoltini, Licia; Pilotti, Silvana; Rodolfo, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Childhood cutaneous melanoma is a rare disease with increasing incidence. It is not clear whether it differs from adult melanoma in etiology and clinical evolution. To genetically characterize childhood melanoma, 21 pediatric patients were studied by germ-line analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, and MC1R genes. In addition, alterations in CDKN2A, c-Kit, BRAF, and NRAS genes were evaluated at the somatic level by direct gene sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and immunohistochemistry. As a control group of susceptible patients, we studied patients from 23 melanoma-prone families. At the germ-line level, CDKN2A and MC1R gene variants were detected in 2/21 and 12/21 pediatric patients and in 9/23 and 19/22 in familial patients. At the somatic level, most lesions (9/14) from pediatric patients showed CDKN2A locus homozygous deletions and a null p16 immunophenotype, whereas most lesions (5/8) from familial patients were disomic and immunoreactive. A c-Kit low-polysomy profile seems to parallel CDKN2A homozygous deletions in pediatric melanoma whereas the single activating mutation observed segregates with familial patients. Loss of KIT protein expression was frequent (7/14) in pediatric melanomas, where metastatic cases were prevalent. BRAF(V600E) mutation occurred at a similar rate (approximately 50%) in lesions from pediatric and familial patients, whereas no NRAS mutations were detected.

  3. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  4. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  5. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  6. Water Loss Under Hot Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Basu

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available Male 4 rates were ambient temperature (40 degree,42 degree, and 44 degree calcius for different durations of time upto a maximum of 3 hours. It was observed that there was a rapid loss in body weight accompanied by considerable increase in body temperature of the animals during the first hour of exposure. Thereafter the rate of body weight loss and increase in body temperature were slow till the end of observation period. Intolerance to heat appears to be more correlated with critical body temperature rather than the extent of dehydration.

  7. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C...

  8. Role of cutaneous surface fluid in frog osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30 °C–34 °C was 191 ± 9...

  9. Monitoring water loss form fresh concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    . This paper concerns in particular a new method for site measurement of evaporation from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. Compared to the methods used today for determination of the desiccation process in the early hardening phase, the so-called Curing Meter permits a simple, safe and accurate...... determination of the evaporation loss from hardening concrete and thus better possibility for preventing curing problems, including detrimental crack damage due to plastic shrinkage....

  10. [Covering losses of cutaneous substance of the leg and foot using skin flaps. Apropos of 76 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Duparc, J

    1988-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1987, 76 flap grafts were performed in the leg and foot. In general, 3 types of flap were used: --51 ipsilateral flaps, the majority of which were musculo-cutaneous flaps from the medial head of gastrocnemius (17 cases). --17 cross-leg flaps from the opposite limb, the majority of which were medial fascio-cutaneous flaps (13 cases). --8 free flaps, making use of microsurgical techniques. The indications for cross-leg flaps and free flaps have become more limited in favour of local regional pedicle flaps. The lower part of the leg and amputation stumps in the foot are easily covered by distal leg pedicle flaps and amputation stumps of the upper third of the leg can be covered by a flap of fascia lata with a distal pedicle based on the superolateral branches of the peri-articular plexus of the knee.

  11. Decision model to control water losses in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The losses in the urban water supply networks have become a growing concern. There are several alternatives for the quantification, detection and monitoring of water losses. However, in general, water companies have budgetary and other constraints that hinder implementation. Therefore, this paper presents a model to aid the selection of a subset of preventive maintenance actions to control water losses while accounting for the water companies’ restrictions. The model combines an additive multi-attribute value analysis by applying the SMARTER method to evaluate alternatives with Integer Linear Programming (ILP. The model shows to be efficient in order to achieve a portfolio of preventive maintenance actions, particularly when the decision maker considers that, there is a compensation for attribute evaluations.

  12. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological control of water hyacinth at New ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that ...

  13. Water Loss from Terrestrial Planets with CO2-rich Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO2-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ~270 W m-2 (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H2O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N2/CO2 early on. Because of the variability of H2O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many "Earth-like" exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO2/H2O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  14. Cutaneous amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, M E; Berg, R A

    1983-04-01

    An infant with cutaneous amebiasis of the vulva and amebic liver abscess is described. Epidemiologic investigations and serologic studies were crucial in establishing the diagnosis. The vulvar amebic ulcers responded dramatically to metronidazole therapy. Cutaneous amebiasis is a rare complication of Entamoeba histolytica infection which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of perineovulvar or penile ulcers. Cutaneous amebiasis may also occur on the abdominal wall surrounding a draining hepatic abscess, colostomy site, or laparotomy incision.

  15. Changes in transepidermal water loss and the composition of epidermal lecithin after applications of pure fatty acid triglycerides to skin of essential fatty acid-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, P J; Prottey, C

    1976-09-01

    The importance of various unsaturated fatty acid triglycerides to the repair of faulty skin barrier function was studied in essential fatty acid-deficient rats. Following cutaneous application of the pure triglycerides for up to 5 days, the hitherto high rate of transepidermal water loss, characteristic of essential fatty acid deficiency in rats, was reduced by the triglycerides of linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids. Incorporation of the applied fatty acids into the lecithin of the epidermis accompanied these changes in water loss, indicating that cutaneously applied triglycerides may be metabolized by the skin and incorporated into complex lipids. Other fatty acid triglycerides, including alpha-linolenic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic and omega-7-heneicosatrienoic acid, did not lower the rate of transepidermal water loss, although all were incorporated into epidermal structural lipids. The non-essential oleic acid also had no effect upon the rate of transepidermal water loss. These data suggest that of the two main essential fatty acids that occur in skin, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, the former specifically plays an important role in regulating barrier function whereas the later may have a separate function, such as serving as a precursor of prostaglandins.

  16. Water loss during incubation in red bishop (Euplectes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verloor teen 'n tempo (16,6 mg dag -1) gelykstaande aan die wat voorspel kan word op grond van .... temperature and to have a water vapour pressure of satu- ration at that .... LOMHOLT, J.P. 1976. Relationship of weight loss to ambient humi-.

  17. Household water demand and welfare loss for future Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis; de Roo, Ad

    2015-04-01

    Matching the availability of water to its demand in Europe is a major challenge for the future due to expected economic and demographic developments and climate change. This means there is a growing need to estimate future water demand and to optimize the water allocation to all end users to counteract welfare loss. At the European scale it is currently not possible to assess the impact of social and economic changes on future water demand or to prioritize water allocation amongst different sectors based on economic damage without extensive use of assumptions and generalizations. Indeed, our review of existing regional optimization models for Europe reveals that the social-economic component of the water use system needs to be improved by complementing them with detailed water use estimates and cost/benefit functions in order to determine the optimal situation. Our study contributes to closing this knowledge gap for the European household sector by quantifying future water demand and the effect of water pricing, as well as providing a method for the calculation of monetary damage due to unmet demand at the highest spatial resolution possible. We used a water demand function approach in which household water consumption depends upon some exogenous drivers including water price, household income, population and household characteristics and climate conditions. For each European country, the annual water consumption per capita was calculated at regional level (NUTS3) and subsequently disaggregated to five kilometer grid level based on a population density map. In order to produce estimates of water demand, the evolution of the explanatory variables of the water demand functions and population density map were simulated until 2050 based on related variables such as GDP and demographic projections. The results of this study will be integrated into the JRC hydro-economic modelling framework for an assessment of the Water-Agriculture-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus.

  18. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P principles governing heat transfer.

  19. Metabolic rate, evaporative water loss and thermoregulatory state in four species of bats in the Negev desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Larraín, Paloma; Ben-Hamo, Miriam; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo; Williams, Joseph B; Pinshow, Berry; Korine, Carmi

    2016-01-01

    Life in deserts is challenging for bats because of their relatively high energy and water requirements; nevertheless bats thrive in desert environments. We postulated that bats from desert environments have lower metabolic rates (MR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) than their mesic counterparts. To test this idea, we measured MR and TEWL of four species of bats, which inhabit the Negev desert in Israel, one species mainly restricted to hyper-arid deserts (Otonycteris hemprichii), two species from semi-desert areas (Eptesicus bottae and Plecotus christii), and one widespread species (Pipistrellus kuhlii). We also measured separately, in the same individuals, the two components of TEWL, respiratory water loss (RWL) and cutaneous evaporative water loss (CEWL), using a mask. In all the species, MR and TEWL were significantly reduced during torpor, the latter being a consequence of reductions in both RWL and CEWL. Then, we evaluated whether MR and TEWL in bats differ according to their geographic distributions, and whether those rates change with Ta and the use of torpor. We did not find significant differences in MR among species, but we found that TEWL was lowest in the species restricted to desert habitats, intermediate in the semi-desert dwelling species, and highest in the widespread species, perhaps a consequence of adaptation to life in deserts. Our results were supported by a subsequent analysis of data collected from the literature on rates of TEWL for 35 bat species from desert and mesic habitats.

  20. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO2-rich atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on atmospheric composition (CO2 and N2 levels), planetary mass, and external parameters (stellar spectrum, orbital distance and impacts). From coupled 1D climate and escape modeling, we show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1 to 1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but XUV/UV luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on moist...

  1. Cockroaches breathe discontinuously to reduce respiratory water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R

    2009-09-01

    The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.

  2. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  3. Wound Healing Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Cutaneous Wounds in Hairless Mice via Immune-Redox Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hae Sun; Fadriquela, Ailyn; Sajo, Ma Easter Joy; Bajgai, Johny; Ara, Jesmin; Kim, Cheol Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Oh, Jin Rok; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water is an innovative sanitizer having a wide-spectrum of applications in food industry, and healthcare industry but little is known on its effect and mechanism in wound healing. The study was conducted to identify the effect and mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on cutaneous wounds in hairless mice. SAEW (pH: 5-6.5, oxidation reduction potential: 800 mV, chlorine concentration: 25 ppm) was prepared through electrolysis of water and was applied to the wounds of hairless mice three times a day for seven days. Wound size, immune response and oxidative stress were explored and compared to conventional agents such as Betadine and alcohol. We found that SAEW-treated group showed the highest wound reduction percentage (phealing. In line, SAEW treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and tumor necrosis factor-α] in serum. Other hallmarks of wound healing, matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP)1 and MMP9 were also upregulated. Collectively, our study indicates that SAEW is effective in wound healing of hairless mice via immune-redox modulation, and heals better/faster than conventional agents.

  4. Sequential exercise in triathletes: variations in GH and water loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Galy

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH may stimulate water loss during exercise by activating sweating. This study investigated GH secretion and water loss during sequential cycling and running, taking postural changes into account. The two exercise segments had similar durations and were performed at the same relative intensity to determine their respective contributions to water loss and the plasma volume variation noted in such trials. Eight elite triathletes first performed an incremental cycle test to assess maximal oxygen consumption. Then, the triathletes performed one of two trials in randomized order: constant submaximal cycling followed by treadmill running (C1-R2 or an inversed succession of running followed by cycling (R1-C2. Each segment of both trials was performed for 20 minutes at ∼75% of maximal oxygen consumption. The second trial, reversing the segment order of the first trial, took place two weeks later. During cycling, the triathletes used their own bicycles equipped with a profiled handlebar. Blood sampling (for GH concentrations, plasma viscosity and plasma volume variation was conducted at rest and after each segment while water loss was estimated from the post- and pre-measures. GH increases were significantly lower in R2 than C2 (72.2±50.1 vs. 164.0±157 ng x ml(-1 x min(-1, respectively; P<0.05. Water loss was significantly lower after C1-R2 than R1-C2 (1105±163 and 1235±153 ml, respectively; P<0.05. Plasma volume variation was significantly negative in C1 and R1 (-6.15±2.0 and -3.16±5.0%, respectively; P<0.05, not significant in C2, and significantly positive for seven subjects in R2 (4.05±3.1%. We concluded that the lower GH increases in R2 may have contributed to the smaller reduction in plasma volume by reducing sweating. Moreover, this lower GH response could be explained by the postural change during the transition from cycling to running. We recommend to pay particular attention to their hydration status during R1 which

  5. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2011-05-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).

  6. Cutaneous loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purohit S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of spider bitea presenting as cutaneous loxoscelism is reported. The clinical features and management of spider bite are highlighted and the relevant literature has been reviewed

  7. Up to what point is loss reduction environmentally friendly?: The LCA of loss reduction scenarios in drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillot, Julie; Catel, Laureline; Renaud, Eddy; Augeard, Bénédicte; Roux, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    In a context of increasing water shortage all over the world, water utilities must minimise losses in their distribution networks and draw up water loss reduction action plans. While leak reduction is clearly an important part of sustainable water management, its impacts have to be reconsidered in a broader objective of environmental protection than strictly the avoided losses in cubic metres of water. Reducing the volume of water abstracted reduces also environmental impacts associated to water production (the operation and infrastructure needed for abstraction, treatment, supply). In the mean time, activities for reducing water losses generate their own environmental impacts, notably as a result of the work, equipment, and infrastructures used for this purpose. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to assess and compare two sets of environmental impacts: those resulting from the production and supply of water which will never reach subscribers, and those caused by water loss reduction activities. This information can then be used to establish whether or not there is a point beyond which loss reduction is no longer effective in reducing the environmental impacts of drinking water supply. Results show that the improvement actions that start from a low water supply efficiency are clearly beneficial for ecosystems, human health and preservation of resources. When seeking to improve the efficiency beyond certain values (about 65%), the uncertainty makes it impossible to conclude for an environmental benefit on all impact categories.

  8. Collisional water transport and water-loss relevant to formation of habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C. M.; Haghighipour, N.; Burger, C.; Dvorak, R.

    2017-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the vast majority of Earth's water was delivered to its accretion zone by water-carrying planetesimals and planetary embryos from the outer regions of the asteroid belt while Earth was still forming. While modern simulations of terrestrial planet formation show this process with high resolution, their treatment of the actual delivery of water is still rudimentary assuming that a water-carrying object will maintain all its water content during its journey from its original orbit to the accretion zone of Earth. Models of the ice longevity have, however, shown that the water-ice may not stay intact, and asteroids and planetary embryos may lose some of their original water in form of ice sublimation during their dynamical evolution. Also, collisions among these bodies while on their journey to Earth's accretion zone will result in the loss of large amounts of their water. These effects could be especially important during the formation of terrestrial planets as this process takes tens to hundreds of millions of years. In this study, we present results on collisional water loss obtained from collision simulations involving differently sized planetary embryos. We find that in most cases of realistic collision velocities and impact angles water loss is not negligible and may change the water inventory of formed terrestrial planets considerably. Finally, we get indication that it is not sufficient to specify collisional water loss just by the collision velocity in terms of the mutual escape velocity and the impact angle. Rather, factors like mass ratio, absolute masses (Burger & Schäfer, 2017, this volume), and the objects' water distribution need to be considered.

  9. Simulation of Irrigation Water Loss Based on VSMB Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwen ZHOU; Luxin ZHAI; Wenxing LU; Dongxu LIU

    2016-01-01

    The low degree of development and utilization as well as the contradiction between supply and demand of water resources in Huangshui River basin are the main restricting factors of the local agricultural development. The study on the simulation of irrigation water loss based on the VSMB model has very important significance to strengthening regional water management and improving water resource utilization efficiency. Five groundwater wells were set up to carry out the farmland irrigation water infiltration and the experimental study on groundwater dynamic effect. Two soil moisture monitoring sites were set up in two typical plots of Daxia and Guanting irrigation area at the same time and TDR300 was used to monitor four kinds of deep soil moisture( 10 cm,30 cm,50 cm and 70 cm). On this basis,the VSMB model was used to study the irrigation water loss in the irrigation area of Yellow River valley of Qinghai Province,including soil moisture content,the actual evapotranspiration,infiltration,runoff,groundwater buried depth and so on. The results showed that the water consumption caused by soil evaporation and crop transpiration accounted for 46. 4% and 24. 1% of the total precipitation plus irrigation,respectively,and the leakage accounted for 30. 3% and 60. 6% of the total precipitation plus irrigation,respectively,from March 1,2013 to April 30,and from August 1 to September 30. The actual evaporation of the GT- TR1 and GT- TR2 sites in the whole year of 2013 was 632. 6 mm and 646. 9 mm,respectively,and the leakage accounted for 2. 6% and 1. 2% of the total precipitation plus irrigation,respectively. RMSE of the simulation results of the groundwater depth in Daxia irrigation area during the two periods was 92. 3 mm and 27. 7 mm,respectively. And RMSE of the simulation results of the water content of soil profile in the two monitoring sites of Guanting irrigation area was 2. 04% and 5. 81%,respectively,indicating that the simulation results were reliable.

  10. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis: a strategic planning tool for water loss management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.; Sharma, S.K.; Vairavamoorthy, K.

    2011-01-01

    Water utilities particularly in the developing countries continue to operate with considerable inefficiencies in terms of water and revenue losses. With increasing water demand and scarcity, utilities require effective strategies for optimum use of available water resources. Diverse water loss reduc

  12. Cutaneous zygomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous zygomycosis is a fungal infection caused by zygomycetes that affects the skin. It occurs in uncontrolled diabetic patients and immunosuppressed individuals. It has 2 clinical forms: primary cutaneous zygomycosis and secondary cutaneous zygomycosis. The first is characterized by necrotic lesions and the fungus is usually inoculated by trauma. If diagnosed early, it generally has a good prognosis. Secondary zygomycosis is usually a complication and extension of the rhinocerebral variety that starts as a palpebral fistula and progresses to a necrotic lesion with a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is made by identification of the fungus by direct KOH examination, culture, and biopsy. Treatment for the primary disease is surgical debridement plus amphotericin B. The secondary type is treated with amphotericin B and/or posaconazole.

  13. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water lossand lipids of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, MJ; Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2003-01-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to

  14. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N J; King, C M

    1998-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ granulomatous disorder of unknown cause. Skin sarcoidosis occurs in about 25% of patients with systemic disease and may also arise in isolation. A wide range of clinical presentations of cutaneous sarcoidosis is recognised. The diagnosis rests on the presence of non-caseating granulomas on skin biopsy and the exclusion of other granulomatous skin disease. The treatment and overall prognosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily dependent on the degree of systemic involvement. In patients with aggressive disease limited to the skin immunosuppressive therapy may be indicated.

  15. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water lossand lipids of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, MJ; Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2003-01-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduc

  16. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water lossand lipids of the stratum corneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haugen, MJ; Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB

    2003-01-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduc

  17. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daesslé, L.W., E-mail: walter@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Geldern, R. van [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Orozco-Durán, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Barth, J.A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  18. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daesslé, L W; van Geldern, R; Orozco-Durán, A; Barth, J A C

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132×10(6) m(3) were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area.

  19. Effects of forced convection of heated air on insensible water loss and heat loss in preterm infants in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okken, A; Blijham, C; Franz, W; Bohn, E

    1982-07-01

    To assess the effect of forced convection of heated air exchange in preterm infants in conventional incubators, we measured insensible water loss and total heat loss in preterm infants in a conventional forced convection incubator (air velocity 15 to 25 cm/second) and in a specially constructed still-air incubator (air velocity 0 to 2 cm/second) at equal operative temperature and humidity. Under the forced conditions, insensible water loss in the preterm infants increased by a mean 52% from 1.04 +/- 0.24 (mean +/- SD) to 1.58 +/- 0.51 ml/kg/hour (P less than 0.001). The ensuing increase in evaporative heat loss was partly reflected in the small but significant increase in total heat loss from 1.65 +/- 0.47 to 1.80 +/- 0.44 kcal/kg/hour (P less than 0.02). In the forced convection incubator, the increased evaporative heat loss in preterm infants was apparently partly compensated by a decreased nonevaporative heat loss. If reduction of insensible water loss is required, preterm infants should not be subjected to forced convection in incubators.

  20. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  1. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christopher J W; Januszkiewicz, Janek S

    2002-03-01

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma with negligible metastatic potential, but local recurrence rates after surgical excision have ranged from 14 percent to 42 percent. Unlike other sarcomas, guidelines for the optimal surgical excision margin of cutaneous leiomyosarcoma are not clearly defined in the existing literature. A review of local experience with this condition revealed eight patients over 12 years, none of whom developed local recurrence or distant metastases. This is despite poor prognostic factors in seven patients and excision margins ranging from 1 to 27 mm. These findings are compared with previously published data, and conclusions are drawn based on analysis of the collective results. Complete surgical excision with a narrow margin is recommended, and patients should be observed for a minimum of 5 years after surgery.

  2. Water economy in rodents: evaporative water loss and metabolic water production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Cortés

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on water balance in desert-dwelling granivorous rodents use evaporative water loss (EWL and metabolic water production (MWP to evaluate the efficiency of water regulation, expressed by the model Ta @ MWP = EWL, defined by an ambient temperature (Ta value at (@ which MWP/EWL = 1. Here we evaluate and apply this model (1 - r² determining water regulation efficiency, based on the energetic cost (MR to maintain water balance (WB, that is MR-WB. To test the model, EWL was measured and MWP estimated in nine species of rodents from different localities of northern and north-central Chile (II and IV Regions: Octodon degus (Od and O. lunatus (Olu (Octodontidae, Abrothrix olivaceus (Ao, A. longipilis (Al, A. andinus (Ad, Phyllotis darwini (Pd, P. rupestris (Pr, P. magister (Pm, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Ol (Muridae and Chinchilla lanigera (Cl (Chinchillidae. Literature information on rodents from xeric and mesic habitats was also analyzed. Results indicate that: 1 Cl has the lowest EWL (0.58 mg H2O/g h, followed by Od Para evaluar la eficiencia en la regulación hídrica de roedores granívoros desertícolas se usa la pérdida de agua por evaporación (EWL y la producción de agua metabólica (MWP, estando esta expresada por el modelo Ta @ MWP = EWL, que representa el valor de una temperatura ambiente (Ta al cual (@ MWP/EWL = 1. En este trabajo se evalua este modelo (1- r² y se estima la eficiencia en la regulación de agua basados en el costo energético (MR de mantención del balance hídrico (WB, es decir MR-WB. Se midió EWL y se estimó MWP en las siguientes nueve especies de roedores de diferente localidades del norte y centro de Chile (Regiones II y IV: Octodon degus (Od y O. lunatus (Olu (Octodontidae, Abrothrix olivaceus (Ao, A. longipilis (Al, A. andinus (Ad, Phyllotis darwini (Pd, P. rupestris (Pr, P. magister (Pm, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Ol (Muridae and Chinchilla lanigera (Cl (Chinchillidae. Se analizó además información de

  3. Transepidermal water loss during halogen spotlight phototherapy in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhagen, Dirk J; de Boer, Mark G J; de Beaufort, Arnout Jan; Walther, Frans J

    2002-03-01

    Among preterm infants there is a relationship between skin blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The aim of this study was to assess whether halogen spotlight phototherapy without significant heat stress increases TEWL and affects maintenance fluid requirements in preterm infants. TEWL was measured noninvasively before the start and after 1 h of halogen spotlight phototherapy in a group of preterm infants, nursed in double-walled incubators with moderately high relative humidity. Relative humidity and ambient temperature in the incubator were tightly controlled. Mean +/- SD birth weight of the 18 infants was 1412 +/- 256 g, gestational age 30.6 +/- 1.6 wk, and age at measurement 5 +/- 3 d. Nine infants received ventilatory assistance. Relative humidity was 40-80% (mean 52%). Average TEWL increased from 13.6 to 16.5 g/m(2)/h during phototherapy. These data show that TEWL increases by approximately 20% during phototherapy despite constant skin temperature and relative humidity. Maintenance fluids of preterm infants should be increased by 0.35 mL/kg/h during exposure to halogen spotlight phototherapy.

  4. Respiratory water loss in relation to gestational age in infants on their first day after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenfeld, T; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1995-09-01

    Respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured in 32 infants on their first day after birth. Gestational age was between 27 and 41 weeks. All infants were studied in incubators with 50% ambient relative humidity and an ambient temperature that allowed the infant to maintain a normal and stable body temperature. During the measurements the infants were usually asleep. Respiratory water loss was found to be highest in the most preterm infants and lower in more mature infants. Respiratory water loss per breath (mg/kg) was almost the same at all gestational ages and the higher respiratory water loss found in the most preterm as compared with the more mature infants is thus and increased with increasing gestational age. Thus, in full-term infants respiratory water loss and transepidermal water loss are of approximately equal magnitude at an ambient humidity of 50%, while respiratory water loss constitutes a smaller proportion than transepidermal water loss in very preterm infants. Respiratory water loss increases with the rate of breathing.

  5. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  6. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  7. Relative specificities of water and ammonia losses from backbone fragments in collision-activated dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a database containing over 20,000 high-resolution collision-activation mass spectra of tryptic peptide dications was employed to study the relative specificity of neutral losses from backbone fragments. The high resolution of the FTMS instrument allowed for the first time the first...... isotope of the water loss and the monoisotope of the ammonia loss to be distinguished. Contrary to a popular belief, water losses from y' ions are not specific enough to rely upon for detecting the presence of amino acids with oxygen in the side chains. At the same time, ammonia loss from b ions...

  8. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ (*)) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h 0 (*) ) as [Formula: see text].

  9. Design of runoff water harvesting systems and its role in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, P.; Carmi, G.; Leake, S.; Agam, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the major water sources for agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. Rainfalls are limited, erratic and not always coincide with the crop growing season. Only a part of the rain is absorbed by the soil. Soil evaporation is most severe in these regions and the large part of the absorbed water is lost to evaporation. The technique of collecting and conveying the runoff is known as runoff harvesting. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect of the design of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile. The study was carried out during two years using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The first year study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments once with the same amount of water (1.5 m3) and the second year study included flooding four times with 0.25 m3 each time. Flooding was followed by monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular

  10. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Hochberg, M; Ingber, A; Ruzicka, T

    2003-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa, Leishmania, which resides in macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis approaches 2 million new cases per year with 90% of the cases occurring in the "Old World", while the "New World" accounts for the rest. Infection may be restricted to the skin with development of characteristic ulcers, or may affect the mucous membranes in its mucocutaneous form. The clinical diagnosis is verified by the presence of amastigotes in slit-skin smears. Therapeutic modalities include systemic treatments such as the pentavalent antimony compound sodium stibogluconate, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole or itraconazole, as well as topical paromomycin sulphate, local heat, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or photodynamic therapy. An effective vaccine is not available.

  11. Cutaneous mucormycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Pérez, Ana Daniela; Welsh, Esperanza C.; Miranda, Ivett; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection caused by opportunistic fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. It is frequent in poorly controlled diabetic patients and individuals with immunosuppression. It is usually acquired by direct inoculation through trauma. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, but an indurated plaque that rapidly evolves to necrosis is a common finding. Diagnosis should be confirmed by demonstration of the etiological agent and new molecular diagnostic tools have recently been described. It is an invasive life-threatening disease and in order to improve survival, a prompt diagnosis and multidisciplinary management should be provided. The treatment of choice is amphotericin B, but new azoles, such as posaconazole and isavuconazole, must be considered.

  12. Components of evaporative water loss in the desert tenebrionid beetles, Eleodes armata and Cryptoglossa verrucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Water loss in Eleodes armata and Cryptoglossa verrucosa increased with increasing temperature and decreasing vapor activity (a/sub v/). Rates of evaporative water loss were always about 4 times greater in E. armata than in C. verrucosa at the different temperatures and 0.0 a/sub v/, while as a/sub v/ increased the ratio of E. armata loss to C. verrucosa decreased from 4 at 0.0 a/sub v/ to about 2 at 0.94 a/sub v/. A method for determining mesothoracic spiracular, sub-elytral abdominal, and cuticular water loss rates was described and validated for living E. armata. Sub-elytral abdominal water loss through the caudal opening was 8.0 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/, meso-thoracic spiracular water loss was approximately 7.9 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/, and cuticular loss was 26.2 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/ at 30 C and 0.0 a/sub v/. Evaporative water loss was shown to have two unidirectional components, efflux and influx, for both beetles with the use of tritiated water (H/sup 3/HO). Efflux was independent of a/sub v/, while influx increased linearly with a/sub v/, with both components having lower rates in C. verrucosa compared to E. armata.

  13. Quantification of the types of water in Eudragit RLPO polymer and the kinetics of water loss using FTIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirayavaraporn, Chompak; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    . Using a curve fitting procedure, the water region (3100-3,700 cm(-1)) of the spectra was analyzed, and used to identify water present in differing environments in the polymer and to determine the water loss kinetics upon purging the sample with dry compressed air. It was found that four environments can...

  14. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  15. Expanded Prediction Equations of Human Sweat Loss and Water Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    5) using facl 1 0.2 AD. (10) The algebraic sum of the total (dry) heat loss by radiant and convec- tive heat exchange (R C), in watts (1, 9...1982. 29. Tseng YT, Durbin P, Tzeng GH. Using fuzzy piecewise regression analysis to predict the non-linear time series of turbulent flows with

  16. WATER LOSS OF KOKA RESERVOIR, ETHIOPIA: COMMENTS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PREVIOUS STUDIES AND NEW DETERMINATIONS. Sileshi Mamo ... However, Meacham's (1972) report is not available to the author so as to ... FAO (1965) evaluated water balance on annual basis, and estimated leakage rates of 435 m3/ ...

  17. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  18. Cutaneous mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiada, Anna; Petrikkos, George

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales, mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. Cutaneous mucormycosis is the third most common clinical form of the disease, after pulmonary and rhino-cerebral. The usual factors predisposing to this infection are hematological malignancies and diabetes mellitus, but a significant proportion of patients are immunocompetent. The agents of mucormycosis are ubiquitous in nature and are transmitted to the skin by direct inoculation, as a result of various types of trauma. These include needle sticks, stings and bites by animals, motor vehicle accidents, natural disasters, and burn injuries. The typical presentation of mucormycosis is the necrotic eschar, but it can present with various other signs. The infection can be locally invasive and penetrate into the adjacent fat, muscle, fascia, and bone, or become disseminated. Diagnosis is difficult because of the nonspecific findings of mucormycosis. Biopsy and culture should be performed. The treatment of mucormycosis is multimodal and consists of surgical debridement, use of antifungal drugs (amphotericin B and posaconazole), and reversal of underlying risk factors, when possible. Mortality rates, although lower than in other forms of the disease, are significant, ranging from 4% to 10% when the infection is localized.

  19. Consumption and loss of potable water in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Before the water problem that has taken place in Brazil and the need to reduce energy consumption in the country, it was thought the objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of use and loss of potable water in the Baixada Fluminense, part of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ, since it is the emergency waste reduction and the efficient and sustainable use of water. This exploratory study aims through a documentary approach, identify the number of water loss in the region. It proves that the loss in the region is more serious than in other states and that awareness campaigns should be implemented as local public policies. Also suggests that cleantech water use can be incorporated into the daily lives of homes and businesses enabling the reduction of water consumption.

  20. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  1. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  2. Onboard Prediction of Propagation Loss in Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-16

    substrate roughn*p, (4) modal coupling, and (6) biologia scAtterers;,6. Grain asiz distribution Is not an adequate predctor of acoustical properties; heuce...INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 GENERAL COMMENTS ................................... 2 SEDIMENT SOUND SPEED AND DENSITY...for an onboard perfor- mance prediction capability in shallow water. There is a general requirement for an onboard performance prediction capability

  3. Nutrient losses by wind and water, measurements and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Chardon, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of West-Africa, erosion by both wind and water causes a serious decline in fertility of the already low fertile soils. Despite the fact that the flow of nutrients has been intensively investigated by the use of nutrient balances, little attention has been paid to the contributio

  4. Inhibition of IgE-dependent Mouse Triphasic Cutaneous Reaction by a Boiling Water Fraction Separated from Mycelium of Phellinus linteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Inagaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Phellinus linteus, a mushroom, contains constituents that exhibit potent antitumor effects through activating immune cells. Recently, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of P. linteus extracts have also been implicated. In the present study, therefore, we separated the constituents of mycelium of P. linteus into five fractions—chloroform-soluble (CF, ethyl acetate-soluble (EA, methanol-soluble (AE, water-soluble (WA and boiling water-soluble (BW fractions—and examined their suppressive effects on the IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction. The triphasic reaction was induced in the ear of BALB/c mice passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol IgE by painting with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene 24 h later. Ear swelling appeared triphasically with peak responses at 1 h, 24 h and 8 days after the challenge. ME, WA and BW given orally at a dose of 100 mg kg−1 significantly inhibited the first and second phase ear swelling, and BW also inhibited the third phase response. CF only inhibited the second phase. The inhibition by BW was the most potent and almost dose-dependent at doses of 30–300 mg kg−1. BW also inhibited vascular permeability increase caused by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine, and ear swelling caused by tumor necrosis factor-α. In contrast, BW apparently potentiated the production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ from anti-CD3-stimulated mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that BW derived from mycelium of P. linteus contains some constituents with anti-allergic as well as immunopotentiating properties.

  5. Inhibition of IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction by a boiling water fraction separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Naoki; Shibata, Tomonori; Itoh, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Yukihito; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Nagai, Hiroichi

    2005-09-01

    Phellinus linteus, a mushroom, contains constituents that exhibit potent antitumor effects through activating immune cells. Recently, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of P. linteus extracts have also been implicated. In the present study, therefore, we separated the constituents of mycelium of P. linteus into five fractions-chloroform-soluble (CF), ethyl acetate-soluble (EA), methanol-soluble (AE), water-soluble (WA) and boiling water-soluble (BW) fractions-and examined their suppressive effects on the IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction. The triphasic reaction was induced in the ear of BALB/c mice passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol IgE by painting with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene 24 h later. Ear swelling appeared triphasically with peak responses at 1 h, 24 h and 8 days after the challenge. ME, WA and BW given orally at a dose of 100 mg kg significantly inhibited the first and second phase ear swelling, and BW also inhibited the third phase response. CF only inhibited the second phase. The inhibition by BW was the most potent and almost dose-dependent at doses of 30-300 mg kg. BW also inhibited vascular permeability increase caused by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine, and ear swelling caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In contrast, BW apparently potentiated the production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma from anti-CD3-stimulated mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that BW derived from mycelium of P. linteus contains some constituents with anti-allergic as well as immunopotentiating properties.

  6. Estimating business and residential water supply interruption losses from catastrophic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozović, Nicholas; Sunding, David L.; Zilberman, David

    2007-08-01

    Following man-made or natural catastrophes, widespread and long-lasting disruption of lifelines can lead to economic impacts for both business and residential lifeline users. As a result, the total economic losses caused by infrastructure damage may be much higher than the value of damage to infrastructure itself. In this paper, we consider the estimation of economic impacts on businesses and residential consumers resulting from water supply disruption. The methodology we present for estimating business interruption losses assumes that marginal losses are increasing in the severity of disruption and that there may be a critical water availability cutoff below which business activity ceases. To estimate residential losses from water supply interruption, we integrate consumers' demand curves, calibrated to water agency price and quantity data. Our methodologies are spatially disaggregated and explicitly account for the time profile of infrastructure repair and restoration. As an illustration, we estimate the economic losses to business and residential water users of one of the major water supply systems of the San Francisco Bay Area of California resulting from two potential earthquake scenarios, a magnitude 7.9 event on the San Andreas Fault and a magnitude 7.1 event on the Hayward Fault. For the business loss estimation, our modeling framework is general enough to calculate and compare losses using loss functions from several previous studies. Estimated business and residential losses for the San Andreas event are 14.4 billion and 279 million, respectively. For the Hayward event, estimated business and residential losses are 9.3 billion and 37 million, respectively.

  7. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for potable water loss reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available service provision. Traditional approaches of solving water loss problems are not enough to make a significant improvement; for this, new approaches involving increased automation and monitoring are needed. Furthermore, the sensory and automation ICT...

  8. Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Popkin, Barry M; Gardner, Christopher D

    2008-11-01

    Data from short-term experiments suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss by lowering total energy intake and/or altering metabolism. The long-term effects of drinking water on change in body weight and composition are unknown, however. This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the Stanford A TO Z weight loss intervention on 173 premenopausal overweight women (aged 25-50 years) who reported water at baseline. Diet, physical activity, body weight, percent body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference were assessed at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. At each time point, mean daily intakes of drinking water, noncaloric, unsweetened caloric (e.g., 100% fruit juice, milk) and sweetened caloric beverages, and food energy and nutrients were estimated using three unannounced 24-h diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in absolute (g) and relative terms (% of beverages). Mixed models were used to test for effects of absolute and relative increases in drinking water on changes in weight and body composition, controlling for baseline status, diet group, and changes in other beverage intake, the amount and composition of foods consumed and physical activity. Absolute and relative increases in drinking water were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat over time, independent of covariates. The results suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss in overweight dieting women.

  9. 7 CFR 610.12 - Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... erosion. 610.12 Section 610.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... ASSISTANCE Soil Erosion Prediction Equations § 610.12 Equations for predicting soil loss due to water erosion. (a) The equation for predicting soil loss due to erosion for both the USLE and the RUSLE is A = R ×...

  10. Is the evaporation water loss of Knot Calidris canutus higher in tropical than in temperate climates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, N.; Piersma, T.

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate e

  11. Cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongFuhui

    2004-01-01

    The cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is named that, the cutaneous nerve's functional disorder caused by some chronic entrapment, moreover appears a series of nerve's feeling obstacle,vegetative nerve function obstacle, nutrition obstacle, even motor function obstacle in various degree.

  12. The Rate of Water Loss in Relation to Internodes Position and Wood Maturity in Vine Chords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin SALA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to assess the rate of water loss from the strings of vines in relation to internodes position on vine chords and degree of wood maturity. The biological material was represented by Burgund vine cultivar, to which were analyzed individually all internodes distributed on the chord length (internodes number IN2-19. The rate of water loss and associated parameters (maximum rate of water loss - RWLMax, total drying time - T, time to achieve RWLMax - tRWLMax were determined from the Burgund vine cultivar, in controlled condition. Parameters studied were associated with dry matter content (refractometric method, degree of maturity of the wood, and internodes positions on chord. RWL Max had higher values in the basal internodes (IN2; RWL Max = 0.252±0.005 g/min and lower in the apical internodes (IN17-19; RWLMax = 0.202±0.011 g/min. RWLMax distributions values, according to the position of internodes on chord was described by a third degree polynomial function, statistical safety (R2 = 0.949, p<0.01. Dry substance content in internodes (sugar was correlated with the total time of water loss (T; R2 = 0.945, the time to reach the maximum rate of water loss (tRWLMax; R2 = 0.855, and maximum rate of water loss (RWLMax; R2 = 0.984.

  13. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  14. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lip...

  15. The repair of impaired epidermal barrier function in rats by the cutaneous application of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottey, C; Hartop, P J; Black, J G; McCormack, J I

    1976-01-01

    Epidermal barrier function in rats was experimentally impaired by two separate means, namely, by rendering the animals deficient in essential fatty acids and by evoking a primary cutaneous irritant response by treating with a solution of sodium laurate. Impaired barrier function was manifested by a greatly increased rate of transepidermal water loss. Application to the skin of sunflower seed oil, which is rich in linoleic acid, rapidly restored to normal the abnormally high rates of transepidermal water loss in both experimental cases, and it was shown with the essential fatty acid-deficient rats that there was a concomitant incorporation of linoleic acid of the sunflower seed oil into epidermal lipids. Cutaneous application of olive oil, which is low in linoleic acid but rich in the non-essential oleic acid, did not influence epidermal barrier function. A close relationship of barrier function and essential fatty acids is indicated.

  16. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations.The results...

  17. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... registration. The eThekwini meter replacement database was used to estimate the effect of meter age on meter accuracy. ... According to the American Water Works ... water in terms of volume, but 69% in terms of financial loss.

  19. How Does Tree Density Affect Water Loss of Peatlands? A Mesocosm Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Holmgren, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Karofeld, E.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree

  20. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: rwordsworth@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 60637 IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO{sub 2} can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO{sub 2} atmospheric partial pressures (0.1-1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but X-ray and ultraviolet/ultravoilet luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on water loss for planets like Earth. In contrast, for a CO{sub 2}-rich early Venus, diffusion limits on water loss are only important if clouds caused strong cooling, implying that scenarios where the planet never had surface liquid water are indeed plausible. Around M-stars, water loss is primarily a function of orbital distance, with planets that absorb less flux than ∼270 W m{sup –2} (global mean) unlikely to lose more than one Earth ocean of H{sub 2}O over their lifetimes unless they lose all their atmospheric N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} early on. Because of the variability of H{sub 2}O delivery during accretion, our results suggest that many 'Earth-like' exoplanets in the habitable zone may have ocean-covered surfaces, stable CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O-rich atmospheres, and high mean surface temperatures.

  1. Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012-2015 California drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Brodrick, Philip G; Anderson, Christopher B; Vaughn, Nicholas; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E

    2016-01-12

    The 2012-2015 drought has left California with severely reduced snowpack, soil moisture, ground water, and reservoir stocks, but the impact of this estimated millennial-scale event on forest health is unknown. We used airborne laser-guided spectroscopy and satellite-based models to assess losses in canopy water content of California's forests between 2011 and 2015. Approximately 10.6 million ha of forest containing up to 888 million large trees experienced measurable loss in canopy water content during this drought period. Severe canopy water losses of greater than 30% occurred over 1 million ha, affecting up to 58 million large trees. Our measurements exclude forests affected by fire between 2011 and 2015. If drought conditions continue or reoccur, even with temporary reprieves such as El Niño, we predict substantial future forest change.

  2. Quantitative nanoscale water mapping in frozen-hydrated skin by low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Sergey [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Misra, Manoj; Shi, Shanling [Unilever Research and Development, Trumbull, CT 06611 (United States); Firlar, Emre [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Libera, Matthew, E-mail: mlibera@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a powerful method to quantitatively determine the water distribution in frozen-hydrated biological materials at high spatial resolution. However, hydrated tissue, particularly its hydrophilic protein-rich component, is very sensitive to electron radiation. This sensitivity has traditionally limited the achievable spatial resolution because of the relatively high noise associated with low-dose data acquisition. We show that the damage caused by high-dose data acquisition affects the accuracy of a multiple-least-squares (MLS) compositional analysis because of inaccuracies in the reference spectrum used to represent the protein. Higher spatial resolution combined with more accurate compositional analysis can be achieved if a reference spectrum is used that better represents the electron-beam-damaged protein component under frozen-hydrated conditions rather than one separately collected from dry protein under low-dose conditions. We thus introduce a method to extract the best-fitting protein reference spectrum from an experimental spectrum dataset. This method can be used when the MLS-fitting problem is sufficiently constrained so that the only unknown is the reference spectrum for the protein component. We apply this approach to map the distribution of water in cryo-sections obtained from frozen-hydrated tissue of porcine skin. The raw spectral data were collected at doses up to 10{sup 5} e/nm{sup 2} despite the fact that observable damage begins at doses as low as 10{sup 3} e/nm{sup 2}. The resulting spatial resolution of 10 nm is 5-10 times better than that in previous studies of frozen-hydrated tissue and is sufficient to resolve sub-cellular water fluctuations as well as the inter-cellular lipid-rich regions of skin where water-mediated processes are believed to play a significant role in the phenotype of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum.

  3. [NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, J-P

    2002-01-01

    In the stratum corneum, the water binds to the intracellular hygroscopic and hydrosoluble substances called "natural moisturizing factors" or NMF. These "natural moisturizing factors" contained in the corneocytes are formed during epidermal differentiation and may represent up to 10 p. cent of the corneocyte mass. They are principally amino acids, carboxylic pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, urea, glucose and mineral ions. Keratinization plays an important part in the formation of NMF that exhibit strong osmotic potential attracting the water molecules. The binding of water to NMF is the static aspect of cutaneous hydration. The second, dynamic, aspect is related to the selective permeability of the stratum corneum and to its lipid barrier properties, the permeability of which depends on the integrity and nature of the inter-corneocyte lipids and their lamellar organization between the cells. In these conditions, hydration cosmetics rely on two concepts that can be isolated or associated: the supply of hydrophilic substances to the stratum corneum, capable of attracting and retaining water (moisturizer) or capable of restoring the barrier in order to restore normal water loss or of protecting it against aggression (occlusive).

  4. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Backman, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  5. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  6. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  7. Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yasunori; Ogushi, Yuji; Shibata, Yuki; Okada, Reiko; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs.

  8. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  9. How does tree density affect water loss of peatlands? A mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Holmgren, Milena; Jacobs, Cor M J; Van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Karofeld, Edgar; Berendse, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Raised bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon than any other terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. Climate-induced expansion of trees and shrubs may turn these ecosystems from net carbon sinks into sources when associated with reduced water tables. Increasing water loss through tree evapotranspiration could potentially deepen water tables, thus stimulating peat decomposition and carbon release. Bridging the gap between modelling and field studies, we conducted a three-year mesocosm experiment subjecting natural bog vegetation to three birch tree densities, and studied the changes in subsurface temperature, water balance components, leaf area index and vegetation composition. We found the deepest water table in mesocosms with low tree density. Mesocosms with high tree density remained wettest (i.e. highest water tables) whereas the control treatment without trees had intermediate water tables. These differences are attributed mostly to differences in evapotranspiration. Although our mesocosm results cannot be directly scaled up to ecosystem level, the systematic effect of tree density suggests that as bogs become colonized by trees, the effect of trees on ecosystem water loss changes with time, with tree transpiration effects of drying becoming increasingly offset by shading effects during the later phases of tree encroachment. These density-dependent effects of trees on water loss have important implications for the structure and functioning of peatbogs.

  10. Examining water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in a southern ontario watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanhong; Liu, Yongbo; Ou, Chunping; Gabor, Shane

    2016-06-01

    Wetland conservation has two important tasks: The first is to halt wetland loss and the second is to conduct wetland restoration. In order to facilitate these tasks, it is important to understand the environmental degradation from wetland loss and the environmental benefits from wetland restoration. The purpose of the study is to develop SWAT based wetland modelling to examine water quality effects of riparian wetland loss and restoration scenarios in the 323-km(2) Black River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. The SWAT based wetland modelling was set up, calibrated and validated to fit into watershed conditions. The modelling was then applied to evaluate various scenarios of wetland loss from existing 7590 ha of riparian wetlands (baseline scenario) to 100% loss, and wetland restoration up to the year 1800 condition with 11,237 ha of riparian wetlands (100% restoration). The modelling was further applied to examine 100% riparian wetland loss and restoration in three subareas of the watershed to understand spatial pattern of water quality effects. Modelling results show that in comparing to baseline condition, the sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loadings increase by 251.0%, 260.5%, and 890.9% respectively for 100% riparian wetland loss, and decrease by 34.5%, 28.3%, and 37.0% respectively for 100% riparian wetland restoration. Modelling results also show that as riparian wetland loss increases, the corresponding environmental degradation worsens at accelerated rates. In contrast, as riparian wetland restoration increases, the environmental benefits improve but at decelerated rates. Particularly, the water quality effects of riparian wetland loss or restoration show considerable spatial variations. The watershed wetland modelling contributes to inform decisions on riparian wetland conservation or restoration at different rates. The results further demonstrate the importance of targeting priority areas for stopping riparian wetland loss

  11. Loss of water transport capacity due to xylem cavitation in roots of two CAM succulents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, M J; Nobel, P S

    1999-11-01

    Loss of axial hydraulic conductance as a result of xylem cavitation was examined for roots of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) succulents Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica. Vulnerability to cavitation was not correlated with either root size or vessel diameter. Agave deserti had a mean cavitation pressure of -0.93 ± 0.08 MPa by both an air-injection and a centrifugal method compared to -0.70 ± 0.02 MPa by the centrifugal method for O. ficus-indica, reflecting the greater tolerance of the former species to low water potentials in its native habitat. Substantial xylem cavitation would occur at a soil water potential of -0.25 MPa, resulting in a predicted 22% loss of conductance for A. deserti and 32% for O. ficus-indica. For an extended drought of 3 mo, further cavitation could cause a 69% loss of conductance for A. deserti and 62% for O. ficus-indica. A model of axial hydraulic flow based upon the cavitation response of these species predicted that water uptake rates are far below the maximum possible, owing to the high root water potentials of these desert succulents. Despite various shoot adaptations to aridity, roots of A. deserti and O. ficus-indica are highly vulnerable to cavitation, which partially limits water uptake in a wet soil but helps reduce water loss to a drying soil.

  12. Physical calculations of resistance to water loss improve species range models: Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Eric A; Sears, Michael W

    2017-09-13

    Christian et al. (2017) proposed several possible flaws in the methods and logic presented by Riddell et al. (2017) that included potential activity of salamanders during measurements, trimming of the agar model's legs, misinterpretations of the empirical data, limitations on agar models, and the relationship between body size and skin resistance to water loss (ri ). We argue that these criticisms are easily addressable, and here, we reinforce our original claim that the agar method for determination of resistance to water loss is flawed. Before responding to these individual critiques, we begin with a deeper criticism of the agar model method and general methodology for determining resistance to water loss that has resulted in the reification of the boundary layer's ecological and physiological importance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. A Temperature-Based Bioimpedance Correction for Water Loss Estimation During Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Mester, Joachim; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-11-01

    The amount of total body water (TBW) can be estimated based on bioimpedance measurements of the human body. In sports, TBW estimations are of importance because mild water losses can impair muscular strength and aerobic endurance. Severe water losses can even be life threatening. TBW estimations based on bioimpedance, however, fail during sports because the increased body temperature corrupts bioimpedance measurements. Therefore, this paper proposes a machine learning method that eliminates the effects of increased temperature on bioimpedance and, consequently, reveals the changes in bioimpedance that are due to TBW loss. This is facilitated by utilizing changes in skin and core temperature. The method was evaluated in a study in which bioimpedance, temperature, and TBW loss were recorded every 15 min during a 2-h running workout. The evaluation demonstrated that the proposed method is able to reduce the error of TBW loss estimation by up to 71%, compared to the state of art. In the future, the proposed method in combination with portable bioimpedance devices might facilitate the development of wearable systems for continuous and noninvasive TBW loss monitoring during sports.

  14. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  15. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  16. Study on Soil and Water Loss Characteristic of the Railway Construction in Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The factor of human project activity is often the immediate cause resulting in soil and water loss. The Baoji-Lanzhou second railway in construction is an example. The soil and water loss law caused by earth and stone mountain railway engineering construction in the northwestern China is studied systematically and that caused possibly by the road bed project, the road moat project, the field project, the tunnel project and the service road project in construction is probed. At the same time, the type, t...

  17. Soil and water losses on citrus orchards under Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Organic against chemical farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; García-Orenes, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems is highly dependent on the land use and land management (Cerdà et al., 2010). This is due mainly to the impact of agriculture (Cerdà et al., 2009) as a consequence of tillage and the use of herbicides. Both strategies contribute to a reduction in the vegetation cover and the soil biological activities (García-Orenes et al., 2009). The impact of soil erosion on agronomic productivity and environmental quality is widely known (Lal, 1998), although little has been researched in the Mediterranean. The impact of agriculture on soil erosion and water losses in the Mediterranean basin has been studied in olive orchards (Gómez, 2004); vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2004), citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), cereals (De Santisteban et al., (2005), and the high erosion rates were found to be related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). The current Mediterranean agriculture is based on tillage and herbicides, which contribute to high soil and water losses. The development of sustainable agriculture practices is a challenge for farmers, technicians and politicians. Organic farming use strategies to reduce the soil losses and develop new strategies of soil conservation. Moreover organic farming recover the soil fertility and biodiversity (Maeder et al., 2002). Organic farming is growing in the Mediterranean but little is know about his effect on soil conservation. There is a lack in the knowledge of how organic farming affect the soil properties and, there is no information on his effect on soil and water losses. This paper aims to measure the impact of organic farming on soil and water losses. 10 plots of 1 x 0,5 m were selected in a chemically managed farm in Montesa (Eastern Spain) and 10 plots in a nearby organic farming managed farm. Both of them were cultivated with citrus. The ten paired plots were monitored. After earch rainfall event the sediment and water collected were measured and analized

  18. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  19. The Discuss of the Formula of Flow Loss and Water Using Coefficient on Seepage Proofed Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis about present water resource situation in China ,the disadvantage of the for mula of flow loss and water using coefficient on anti-seep channel which have been applying in channel de sign and water saving irrigation administration will be indicated in the paper. The characteristics of that the loss of conveying water is changeable with the flow changing have been take into account in the new formula. The formula is validated by the example of middle permeable channel (A = 1.90,m = 0.40). The calculate re sult is more precision. Also some formula has been given,they can be referred to the worker of the irrigation administration.

  20. The Econometric Assessment of Losses Caused by Water Pollution in Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钢; 陈刚才; 常永官

    2004-01-01

    As an important industrial city, Chongqing has experienced rapid economic growth in recent years, but at the same time the growth has been accompanied by serious pollution problems. Water quality monitoring shows that the waters of Chongqing are widely polluted. In this paper, the human capital approach is applied to assessing the economic losses and damages caused by water pollution in Chongqing. Based on previous studies and empirical investigations,water pollution-induced damage can be categorized into two general types: damage to ecosystems, including agriculture; and damage to non-ecosystems, including industry. The economic loss estimation of each type of the damage is conducted by taking into account a group of relevant parameters and methods.

  1. The effect of fibers on the loss of water by evaporation and shrinkage of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. P. Pillar

    Full Text Available Shrinkage is one of the least desirable attributes in concrete. Large areas of exposed concrete surfaces , such as in shotcrete tunnel linings, where it is practically impossible to make a moist cure, are highly susceptible to plastic shrinkage at early ages. The autogenous and drying shrinkage can lead to states of greater than threshold strength, causing fracture, mechanical damage and lack of durability of concrete structures. The addition of fibers can greatly reduce plastic shrinkage, but has limited effect in mitigating autogenous and drying shrinkage. To evaluate the performance of polypropylene and steel fibers to understand their effect on shrinkage of concrete, a study was carried out to relate the loss of water from the paste and the shrinkage during the first 28 days of age, and compare it with a control mix without fiber. The loss of water was obtained by the weight loss of the specimens at different ages, since the only component that could contribute for the loss of weight was the water lost by the paste of the concrete. And the paste itself is the only source of shrinkage. Uniaxial compressive tests from very early ages enabled the determination of time when plastic shrinkage ended. It was observed that the control concrete mix lost three times more water and developed plastic and drying shrinkage 60 % higher than the fiber reinforced concrete mixes. It was possible to demonstrate that the reduced loss of water caused by the incorporation of fibers is related to the mitigation of plastic shrinkage. It was observed that the fibers are effective to restrain the movement of water through the cement paste in the plastic state, however such effect is limited after concrete starts the hardening state.

  2. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a western river's water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, R. M.; Arabi, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Duffy, W. G.; Ahmadi, M.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and the protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss (e.g., via increased evapotranspiration and lower growing season flows leading to reduced riparian wetland inundation) or altered land use patterns. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrient loads in the snowmelt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, western US. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. Our findings suggest that, in the Sprague River, (1) mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high-flow season under warmer, wetter climate projections or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2) although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3) increases in stream total phosphorus (TP) concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4) loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  3. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a Western river's water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Records

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrients loads in the historically snow melt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, Western United States. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5 using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA method. Our findings suggest that in the Sprague River (1 mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high flow season under warmer-wetter climate projections, or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2 although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3 increases in stream total phosphorus (TP concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4 loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  4. Evaluation of Heat Loss and Water Temperature in a Spent Fuel Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Chihiro; Murase, Michio; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Iwaki, Takanori; Nagae, Takashi

    Three-dimensional calculations of ventilation air flow and thermal-hydraulic behavior in a spent fuel pit (SFP) were made using the CFD software, FLUENT6.3.26 to evaluate the heat loss and water temperature in the SFP after shutdown of its cooling systems. The air and water velocities near the water surface were evaluated from the calculated results and referred to conditions of evaporation heat transfer tests, which were carried out at Shinshu University. From the test data, a correlation for evaporation heat fluxes was introduced and incorporated into the calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP. Then, a three-dimensional calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP was done. It was confirmed that the higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat loss from water was, and that the major heat loss was the evaporation heat transfer from the water surface to ventilation air, which was about ten times larger than the heat transfer to concrete walls.

  5. Respiratory water loss and oxygen consumption in newborn infants during phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Riesenfeld, T; Sedin, G

    1992-10-01

    Respiratory water loss was measured together with oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) in 11 full-term and eight preterm infants (mean gestational age 34 weeks, range 31-36 weeks) before and during 1 h of phototherapy. The method for determination of respiratory water loss, VO2 and VCO2 was based on an open flow-through system with a mass spectrometer for measurement of gas concentrations. All infants were studied naked in an incubator with an ambient relative humidity of 50% and with a controlled environment with respect to temperature and air velocity. The infants were calm during the measurements. Before phototherapy, in term infants respiratory water loss was 4.4 (SD 0.7) mg/kg min and VO2 5.9 (0.9) ml/kg min and in preterm infants respiratory water loss was 4.7 (0.8) mg/kg min and VO2 6.1 (0.8) ml/kg min. No significant difference was found between values obtained during or after 1 h of phototherapy and those obtained before.

  6. Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Andrew N; Bergström, Lars; Aronsson, Helena; Bechmann, Marianne; Bolster, Carl H; Börling, Katarina; Djodjic, Faruk; Jarvie, Helen P; Schoumans, Oscar F; Stamm, Christian; Tonderski, Karin S; Ulén, Barbro; Uusitalo, Risto; Withers, Paul J A

    2015-03-01

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

  7. Loss Current Analysis of Water Tree Degradation in Polyethylene using Equivalent Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masafumi; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Noboru

    It is well known that the degradation of XLPE cable by water tree gives rise to harmonics in the loss current. Many researches by simulation and experiment have been carried out for the purpose of the elucidation of the mechanism of the harmonics in the loss current generation. In the present study, the loss current was calculated from the equivalent circuit model composed of voltage-dependent resistance and condenser. These elements are being connected with the matrix state. As a result, we were able to obtain the good agreement between the experimental value and the calculated value by appropriately choosing the characteristics of the voltage-dependent resistance. The equivalent circuit model determined in this study can consider not only the electrical characteristic of water tree but also its shape.

  8. Irritancy of low concentrations of soap and synthetic detergents as measured by skin water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, J H; Nater, J P; Bleumink, E

    1982-05-01

    The irritancy of low concentrations of commercially available soaps and detergents (surfactants) in bar form was determined by means of measurements of water loss of the skin. The percentage of increase of vapor (water) loss after application of the soap solutions was taken as a measure of skin irritancy. The tests were performed in 19 human volunteers with 1% solutions of Sporex, Devela, Lux, Lactacyd and Aveenoderm. Devela and Lactacyd were found to provoke marked effects, Lux was less harmful whereas Sporex and Aveenoderm did not lead to a considerable increase of skin vapor loss. Longitudinal studies showed that the irritant properties of soap solutions are additive. The results suggest that the influences of the pH of a soap solution on the skin-damaging effort is less important than assumed thus far.

  9. Evaporative water loss in man in a gravity-free environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Leonard, J. I.; Rambaut, P. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    Daily evaporative water losses (EWL) during the three Skylab missions were measured indirectly using mass and water-balance techniques. The mean daily values of EWL for the nine crew members who averaged 1 hr of daily exercise were: preflight 1,750 + or - 37 (SE) ml or 970 + or - 20 ml/sq m and inflight 1,560 + or - 26 ml or 860 + or - 14 ml/sq m. Although it was expected the EWL would increase in the hypobaric environment of Skylab, an average decrease from preflight sea-level conditions of 11% was measured. The results suggest that weightlessness decreased sweat losses during exercise and possibly reduced insensible skin losses. The weightlessness environment apparently promotes the formation of an observed sweat film on the skin surface during exercise by reducing convective flow and sweat drippage, resulting in high levels of skin wettedness that favor sweat suppression.

  10. Study on water loss of the surface stream affected by longwall mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S.Peng

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the effect of longwalI mining on suface stream water,monitoring stations of water flow rate was established.A lot of water flowing data were collected before,during and after longwall mining.Based on monitoring data,the effects of longwall mining on surface stream water were analyzed.The results demonstrate that longwall mining has effects on the surface stream water:and the stream water would be lost and decrease due to longwall mining but never go into underground through fractured zone.Also.the mechanism of water loss due to longwall mining was presented.The stream water can go into the surface cracks in the intersection of stream and surface cracks.longwall mining subsidence can change the surface stream slope and the downstream water flowing status.The results also show the effects of longwall mining on stream water are temporary and about one or two years later,surface stream water can be recovered.

  11. Hormonal control of integumentary water-loss: evidence for a novel neuroendocrine system in an insect (Periplaneta americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treherne, J E; Willmer, P G

    1975-08-01

    An accelerated water-loss was observed in decapitated individuals, no equivalent increase being obtained following severance of the nervous connectives in the neck. Injection of brain and, to a lesser extent, corpus cardiacum extract resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of loss of water from decapitated individuals. The accelerated water-loss observed following decapitation appeared not to result from significant increase in excretory output or loss of water through the spiracles. It is suggested that integumentary transpiration may be affected by a blood-borne factor, or factors, which originate in the brain and corpus cardiacum.

  12. Influence of ionic strength on the viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Viana Amorim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the influence of ionic strength (S on the apparent (AV and plastic (PV viscosities and water loss (WL of sodium bentonite suspension with polymers. Na-bentonite was dispersed in water (4.86% w/w of different ionic strengths (S = 0.0, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.045 M followed by the addition of polymer. Three polymer samples were studied, i.e., low viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC BV, polyanionic cellulose (PAC, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM. The results indicated that the presence of salts and increased salinity greatly influence the apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions with polymer.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizae reducing water loss in maize plants under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian Can; Song, Feng Bin; Liu, Tie Dong; Liu, Sheng Qun

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic mycorrhizal symbiotic associations with the roots of approximately 80% of all terrestrial plant species while facilitate the uptake of soil mineral nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Also, AM symbiosis increase plants resistance to abiotic stress such as chilling. In a recent study we reported that AM fungi improve low temperature stress in maize plants via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Here, the influence of AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on water loss rate and growth of maize plants was studied in pot culture under low temperature stress. The results indicated that low temperature stress significantly decreases the total fresh weight of maize plants, and AM symbiosis alleviate the water loss in leaves of maize plants.

  14. Water balance and soil losses in an irrigated catchment under conservation tillage in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Patricio; Mateos, Luciano; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena

    2013-04-01

    Conservation tillage based on permanent beds with crop-residue retention and controlled traffic has been recently introduced in irrigated annual crops in Southern Spain as one way to improve water infiltration, reduce soil losses, and save energy. The water balance and soil losses in water runoff have been monitored during 4 years in a 28-ha catchment within a production farm where this kind of soil conservation practice was established in 2004 for a maize-cotton-wheat rotation. The catchment average slope is 6 %. Soils are Typic Calcixerept and Typic Haploxerert. The water balance components that were measured include: applied irrigation water, rainfall, and runoff. Runoff was measured at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrological station that consisted of long-throated flume, ultrasonic water level sensor, automatic water sampler, data logger and transmission system, weather station, and ancillary equipment. We present here results from three hydrological seasons (October to September): 2009-10, 2010-11, and 2011-12. The first season the catchment was grown with wheat, thus the irrigation depth was small (25 mm); rainfall above average, 1103 mm; and the runoff coefficient was 26 %. In the season 2010-11, the catchment was grown with cotton, the irrigation depth was 503 mm, rainfall was 999 mm, and the seasonal runoff coefficient was 7 %. The last season, the crop was maize, rainfall was below average (368 mm), irrigation 590 mm, and the runoff coefficient as the previous year, 7 %. Soil losses were very small: 0.05, 1.26, and 1.33 t per ha and year, the first, second, and third monitored seasons, respectively. A simple water balance model allowed simulating evapotranspiration, deep percolation and runoff. The Curve Number for the catchment was calibrated using the balance model.

  15. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M Zafi S; Sheikh, Adil A; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  16. Use of New Water Soluble Surface Film—Forming Material to Reduce Ammonia Loss from Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINBIN; SHENRENFANG; 等

    1996-01-01

    A new water soluble surface film-forming material was developed and its effect on reducing ammonia volatilization from an alkaline solution was investigated in laboratory,Results showed that the new film formed by the material was not only more effective in reducing ammonia loss than any other films tested but also much cheaper.The optimum amount of addition of the new film-forming material was about 10times the theoretical amount to form a monomolecular film.Under the experimental conditions,the new film could effectively depress the ammonia volatilization for at least 6 days.The cumulative ammonia loss rates for different films were fitted to a simple logistic equation ,and some important parameters such as the cumulative loss,and the maximum and average volatilization rates were calculated.The effect of different films could be,therefore,compared quantitatively,indicating the new film was most effective in depressing ammonia volatilization.

  17. Regulation of transpirational water loss in Quercus suber trees in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, D O; Schmidt, M W T; Kurz-Besson, C; Lobo Do Vale, R; Pereira, J S; Tenhunen, J D

    2007-08-01

    Sap flux density in branches, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potentials were measured in 16-year-old Quercus suber L. trees growing in a plantation in southern Portugal to understand how evergreen Mediterranean trees regulate water loss during summer drought. Leaf specific hydraulic conductance and leaf gas exchange were monitored during the progressive summer drought to establish how changes along the hydraulic pathway influence shoot responses. As soil water became limiting, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration declined significantly. Predawn leaf water potential reflected soil water potential measured at 1-m depth in the rhizospheres of most trees. The lowest predawn leaf water potential recorded during this period was -1.8 MPa. Mean maximum stomatal conductance declined from 300 to 50 mmol m(-2) s(-1), reducing transpiration from 6 to 2 mmol m(-2) s(-1). Changes in leaf gas exchange were attributed to reduced soil water availability, increased resistances along the hydraulic pathway and, hence, reduced leaf water supply. There was a strong coupling between changes in soil water content and stomatal conductance as well as between stomatal conductance and leaf specific hydraulic conductance. Despite significant seasonal differences among trees in predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration and leaf specific hydraulic conductance, there were no differences in midday leaf water potentials. The strong regulation of changes in leaf water potential in Q. suber both diurnally and seasonally is achieved through stomatal closure, which is sensitive to changes in both liquid and vapor phase conductance. This sensitivity allows for optimization of carbon and water resource use without compromising the root-shoot hydraulic link.

  18. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reduction (by 33-50 %) of seasonal ETc losses but was at the cost of delay in tasseling to silking, 47-65 % reduction in dry matter accumulation (DMA), 12-22 days shortening of grain formation period, and complete kernel abortion. Liming @ 4 t ha-1 significantly (p < 0.05) increased ETc losses and DMA across water regimes but the magnitude of increase was higher in severely water deficit (W25) regime. Unlike lime, P nutrition improved DMA only in well-watered regimes (W100) while seasonal ETc loss was unaffected. Vegetative stage (tillering to tasseling) contributed the maximum ETc losses while weekly crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  19. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Falahi, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Haennine, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Porkholm, K. [IVO International, Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  20. Easy Measurement of Different Forces of Water Retention by Hydrocolloids through Water Loss at Same Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schleißinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water binding strength of different polysaccharides (agar-agar, alginate, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, cold swelling starch, guar gum, locust bean gum, pectin, pentosan and xanthan gum. Solutions with similar apparent viscosity were infrared dried with a moisture analyzer at 100°C. Drying times were investigated in order to examine the degree of water binding of hydrocolloids. Agar-agar and cellulose required the shortest drying time and differed significantly from the other tested substances indicating that they bind water in a less tight way.

  1. Surface water seal application to minimize volatilization loss of methyl isothiocyanate from soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Catherine R; Nelson, Shad D; Stratmann, Jerry E; Ajwa, Husein A

    2010-06-01

    Metam-sodium (MS, sodium methyldithiocarbamate) has been identified as a promising alternative chemical to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) in soil preplant fumigation. One degradation product of MS in soil is the volatile gas methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) which controls soilborne pests. Inconsistent results associated with MS usage indicate that there is a need to determine cultural practices that increase pest control efficacy. Sealing the soil surface with water after MS application may be a sound method to reduce volatilization loss of MITC from soils and increase the contact time necessary for MITC to control pests. The objective of this research was to develop a preliminary soil surface water application amount that would potentially inhibit the off-gassing rate of MITC. Off-gassing rate was consistently reduced with increasing water seal application. The application of a 2.5-3.8 cm water seal provided significantly lower (71-74% reduction in MITC volatilization) total fumigant loss compared with no water seal. The most favorable reduction in MITC off-gassing was observed in the 2.5 cm water seal. This suggests that volatilization of MITC-generating compounds can be highly suppressed using adequate surface irrigation following chemical application in this soil type (sandy clay loam), based on preliminary bench-scale soil column studies. .

  2. Water suppression without signal loss in HR-MAS 1H NMR of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Kennealey, Peter T.; O'Connor, Rachael B.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Cory, David G.; Singer, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    In cell and tissue samples, water is normally three orders of magnitude more abundant than other metabolites. Thus, water suppression is required in the acquisition of NMR spectra to overcome the dynamic range problem and to recover metabolites that overlap with the broad baseline of the strong water resonance. However, the heterogeneous cellular environment often complicates water suppression and the strong coupling of water to membrane lipids interferes with the NMR detection of membrane associated lipid components. The widely used water suppression techniques including presaturation and double pulsed field gradient selective echo result in more than a 70% reduction in membrane associated lipid components in proton spectra of cells and tissues compared to proton spectra acquired in the absence of water suppression. A water suppression technique based on the combination of selective excitation pulses and pulsed field gradients is proposed to use in the acquisition of high resolution MAS NMR spectra of tissue specimens and cell samples. This pulse sequence methodology enables efficient water suppression for intact cells and tissue samples and eliminates signal loss from cellular metabolites.

  3. RAPID WATER LOSS CAN EXTEND THE LIFETIME OF PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Takanori; Abe, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Genda, Hidenori [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Zahnle, Kevin J., E-mail: koda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than if it had remained an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions necessary to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface (M{sub ml}) consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (M{sub cv}) that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-sized aqua planets with initial oceans <10% of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M{sub cv} = 3 m in precipitable water and M{sub ml} = 5% of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyr. The initial amount of water and M{sub cv} are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.

  4. The Inner Boundary of the Habitable Zone: Loss Processes of Liquid Water from Terrestrial Planet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, B.; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Rauer, H.

    2012-04-01

    The question of habitability is very important in the context of terrestrial extrasolar planets. Generally, the Habitable Zone (HZ) is defined as the orbital region around a star, in which life-supporting (habitable) planets can exist. Taking into account that liquid water is a commonly accepted, fundamental requirement for the development of life - as we know it - the habitable region around a star is mainly determined by the stellar insolation of radiation, which is sufficient to maintain liquid water at the planetary surface. This study focuses on different processes that can lead to the complete loss of a liquid water reservoir from the surface of a terrestrial planet to determine the inner boundary of the HZ. The investigated criteria are, for example, reaching the temperature of the critical point of water at the planetary surface, the runaway greenhouse effect and the diffusion-limited escape of water from the atmosphere, which could lead to the loss of the complete water reservoir within the lifetime of a planet. We investigate these criteria, which determine the inner boundary of the HZ, with a one-dimensional radiative-convective model of a planetary atmosphere, which extends from the surface to the mid-mesosphere. Our modelling approach involves the step-by-step increase of the incoming stellar flux and the subsequent iterative calculation of resulting changes in the temperature profiles, the atmospheric water vapour content and the radiative properties. Therefore, this climate model had to be adapted to account for high temperatures and water mixing ratios. For example, the infrared radiative transfer scheme was improved to be suitable for such high temperature and pressure conditions. Modelling results are presented determining the inner boundary of the HZ affected by these processes, which can result in no liquid water on the planetary surface. In this context, especially the role of the runaway greenhouse effect is discussed in detail.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of

  6. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Tank design parameters such as tank volume, height to diameter ratio and insulation and different initial conditions of the tank are investigated.It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how...

  7. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  8. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  9. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  10. Electron-induced hydrogen loss in uracil in a water cluster environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; Kohanoff, J. [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Fabrikant, I. I., E-mail: ifabrikant1@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA and Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-14

    Low-energy electron-impact hydrogen loss due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to the uracil and thymine molecules in a water cluster environment is investigated theoretically. Only the A{sup ′}-resonance contribution, describing the near-threshold behavior of DEA, is incorporated. Calculations are based on the nonlocal complex potential theory and the multiple scattering theory, and are performed for a model target with basic properties of uracil and thymine, surrounded by five water molecules. The DEA cross section is strongly enhanced when the attaching molecule is embedded in a water cluster. This growth is due to two effects: the increase of the resonance lifetime and the negative shift in the resonance position due to interaction of the intermediate negative ion with the surrounding water molecules. A similar effect was earlier found in DEA to chlorofluorocarbons.

  11. Impact of slash disposal on soil and water loss and the growth of planted seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The three methods of slash disposal in this experiment were no treatment, strip piling and burning. The results obtained from this study showed that the soil erosion, water and nutrient loss were higher in the logged areas by burning than in the logged areas by no treatment and strip piling. The soil and water loss was not serious when the slope degree of the logged area was less than 16°. The survival rate of planted seedlings was higher and the growth was better in the logged areas followed by burning than in the logged areas by no treatment and strip piling. Burning should not be used when the slope was more than 23°

  12. Rapid Water Loss can Extend the Lifetime of the Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, T; Abe, Y; Zahnle, K J

    2015-01-01

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than had it stayed an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface M_ml consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere M_cv that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-size aqua planets with initial oceans < 10 % of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M_cv = 3 m in precipitable water and M_ml = 5 % of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on t...

  13. Soil tillage, water erosion, and calcium, magnesium and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Ildegardis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage influences water erosion, and consequently, losses of calcium, magnesium and organic carbon in surface runoff. Nutrients and organic carbon are transported by surface runoff in particulate form, adsorbed to soil colloids or soluble in water, depending on the soil tillage system. This study was carried out on an Inceptisol, representative of the Santa Catarina highlands, southern Brazil, between November 1999 and October 2001, under natural rainfall. The soil tillage treatments (no replications were: no-tillage (NT, minimum soil tillage with chiseling + disking (MT, and conventional soil tillage with plowing + two diskings (CT. The crop cycles sequence was soybean (Glycine max, oats (Avena sativa, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and vetch (Vicia sativa. Conventional soil tillage treatment with plowing + two disking in the absence of crops (BS was also studied. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in both water and sediments of the surface runoff, while organic carbon was measured only in sediments. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were greater in sediments than in surface runoff, while total losses of these elements were greater in surface runoff than in sediments. The greatest calcium and magnesium concentrations in surface runoff were obtained under CT, while in sediments the greatest concentration occurred under MT. Organic carbon concentration in sediments did not differ under the different soil tillage systems, and the greatest total loss was under CT system.

  14. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  15. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  16. Methodology of risk assessment of loss of water resources due to climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israfilov, Yusif; Israfilov, Rauf; Guliyev, Hatam; Afandiyev, Galib

    2016-04-01

    For sustainable development and management of rational use of water resources of Azerbaijan Republic it is actual to forecast their changes taking into account different scenarios of climate changes and assessment of possible risks of loss of sections of water resources. The major part of the Azerbaijani territory is located in the arid climate and the vast majority of water is used in the national economic production. An optimal use of conditional groundwater and surface water is of great strategic importance for economy of the country in terms of lack of common water resources. Low annual rate of sediments, high evaporation and complex natural and hydrogeological conditions prevent sustainable formation of conditioned resources of ground and surface water. In addition, reserves of fresh water resources are not equally distributed throughout the Azerbaijani territory. The lack of the common water balance creates tension in the rational use of fresh water resources in various sectors of the national economy, especially in agriculture, and as a result, in food security of the republic. However, the fresh water resources of the republic have direct proportional dependence on climatic factors. 75-85% of the resources of ground stratum-pore water of piedmont plains and fracture-vein water of mountain regions are formed by the infiltration of rainfall and condensate water. Changes of climate parameters involve changes in the hydrological cycle of the hydrosphere and as a rule, are reflected on their resources. Forecasting changes of water resources of the hydrosphere with different scenarios of climate change in regional mathematical models allowed estimating the extent of their relationship and improving the quality of decisions. At the same time, it is extremely necessary to obtain additional data for risk assessment and management to reduce water resources for a detailed analysis, forecasting the quantitative and qualitative parameters of resources, and also for

  17. Response of water deficit regime and soil amelioration on evapotranspiration loss and water use efficiency of maize ( Zea mays l.) in subtropical northeastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwein, M. A.; Choudhury, B. U.; Chakraborty, D.; Kumar, M.; Das, A.; Rajkhowa, D. J.

    2017-05-01

    Rainfed maize production in the hilly ecosystem of Northeastern Himalayas often suffers from moisture and soil acidity induced abiotic stresses. The present study measured evapotranspiration loss (ETc) of maize crop under controlled condition (pot experiment) of water deficit (W25-25 % and W50-50 % of field capacity soil moistures) and well watered (W100 = 100 % of field capacity (FC)) regimes in strong acid soils (pH = 4.3) of the Northeastern Himalayan Region of India. The response of soil ameliorants (lime) and phosphorus (P) nutrition under differential water regimes on ETc losses and water use efficiency was also studied. The measured seasonal ETc loss varied from 124.3 to 270.9 mm across treatment combinations. Imposition of water deficit stress resulted in significant ( p crop ETc loss was estimated highest during 11th-14th week after sowing (coincided with blistering stage) and then declined. Water use efficiency estimated from dry matter produced per unit ETc losses and irrigation water used varied from 4.33 to 9.43 g dry matter kg-1 water and 4.21 to 8.56 g dry matter kg-1, respectively. Among the input factors (water, P, and lime), water regime most strongly influenced the ETc loss, growth duration, grain formation, and water use efficiency of maize.

  18. Naevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanan C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Naevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS in an eighteen year old female is reported. She had asymptomatic nodules and plaques on her lower back since birth. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology

  19. Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo de Sá Menezes; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; Herênio, Alzinira Souza; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; de Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa; Gonçalves, Sergio Paulo Mendes

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis of Hoffman-Zurhelle (NCLS), with multiple lesions, in a ten-year-old child. The NLCS is considered rare. The classical clinical presentation is characterized by multiple skin-colored or yellowish papules and nodules, which can have a linear distribution. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. The main therapeutic option is surgical excision. The classical Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis is reported in this case.

  20. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose

  1. A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-09-01

    The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

  2. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  3. Hydrological responses in water loss due to thinning of forested watersheds in Japan using the short-term water balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, K.; Gomi, T.; Hiraoka, M.; Sato, T.; Onda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We examined the changes in seasonal patterns of catchment-scale evapotranspiration (i.e., water loss) using Short-Term Water Balance Model (STWBM) developed. STWBM is applied to estimate the value of water loss based on precipitation minus discharge volume during short-periods(8 to 80 days). This method can be applicable for examining seasonal characteristics of water loss that relets to ET. We applied STWBM for investigating the effects of 50% thinning in nested headwater catchments draining Japanese cypress (Cryptomeria japonica) and cedar (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forests. Study areas is located to 70 km north of Tokyo with 1250 mm annual precipitation and 14℃ mean annual temperature. 50% of the stems (46% of timber volume) were removed by strip thinning in 17 ha treatment catchment, 9 ha catchment remained untreated as a control. We installed 4 nested gauging stations in treated and control catchments with 3 to 10 ha of drainage areas. Runoff in each nested gauging station was measured in the pre- (from April, 2010 to June 2011) and the post-thinning periods (from January 2012 to December 2012). Total runoff coefficient in treated and control catchment was 54% and 26%, respectively. , . Estimated annual water loss by STWBM was 585 mm in treated and 969 mm in control catchments. Because annual evapotranspiration of Japanese cypress and cedar was about ranging from 400 to 800 mm in this catchment, our estimated water loss mostly associated with ET and partially by water loss by deep bedrock percolation. Estimated water loss after thinning in growth season (May to October) decreased 45 to 60 (in 2012) % and 51 to 60 (in 2013) % for all nested gauging station, while estimated water loss in control catchment was consistent. This result suggested that 50% of thinning decreased water loss by ET but changes can be varied among nested gauging station.

  4. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  5. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss.

  6. PERBEDAAN SKIN CAPACITANCE DAN TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS PADA KULIT NON-LESI PASIEN PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR DENGAN NON-PITIRIASIS VERSIKOLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPada pitiriasis versikolor sering timbul kekambuhan, diduga salah satu penyebabnya adalah kelembaban kulit yang tinggi. Kelembaban kulit dipengaruhi oleh skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss.Mengetahui skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan perbedaannya dengan non-pitiriasis versikolor.Penelitian ini merupakan studi potong lintang perbandingan antar kelompok, yang dilakukan pada bulan September sampai dengan Nopember 2004 di Rumah Sakit Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Subyek penelitian pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor yang dipasangkan dalam hal umur dan jenis kelamin dan dilakukan pemeriksaan skin capacitance dan transepidermal water loss pada kulit yang tampak normal di punggung menggunakan alat Tewameter/Corneometer 350.Dalam kurun waktu tersebut telah diperiksa sebanyak 32 pasien pitiriasis versikolor dan 32 kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor. Skin capacitance pasien pitiriasis versikolor secara statistik tidak berbeda dengan kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor (p = 0,730. Transepidermal water loss pasien pitiriasis versikolor secara bermakna lebih rendah dari pada kelompok kontrol non-pitiriasis versikolor (p = 0,000.Tidak ada perbedaan skin capacitance kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor dengan non-pitiriasis versikolor. Transepidermal water loss kulit pasien pitiriasis versikolor lebih rendah daripada non-pitiriasis versikolor.Kata kunci: pitiriasis versikolor, skin capacitance, transepidermal water lossAbstractThe recurrence of pityriasis versicolor is high, it could be caused by high skin hydration. Skin hydration was influenced by skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss.ARTIKEL PENELITIAN168The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of the skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss between the pityriasis versicolor skin and healthy non-pityriasis versicolor skin.The design of this study was comparative cross-sectional study

  7. Dynamics of organic carbon losses by water erosion after biocrust removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid ecosystems, plant interspaces are frequently covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts. These crusts often act as runoff sources and are involved in soil stabilization and fertility, as they prevent erosion by water and wind, fix atmospheric C and N and contribute large amounts of C to soil. Their contribution to the C balance as photosynthetically active surfaces in arid and semiarid regions is receiving growing attention. However, very few studies have explicitly evaluated their contribution to organic carbon (OC lost from runoff and erosion, which is necessary to ascertain the role of biocrusts in the ecosystem C balance. Furthermore, biocrusts are not resilient to physical disturbances, which generally cause the loss of the biocrust and thus, an increase in runoff and erosion, dust emissions, and sediment and nutrient losses. The aim of this study was to find out the influence of biocrusts and their removal on dissolved and sediment organic carbon losses. One-hour extreme rainfall simulations (50 mm h-1 were performed on small plots set up on physical soil crusts and three types of biocrusts, representing a development gradient, and also on plots where these crusts were removed from. Runoff and erosion rates, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and organic carbon bonded to sediments (SdOC were measured during the simulated rain. Our results showed different SdOC and DOC for the different biocrusts and also that the presence of biocrusts substantially decreased total organic carbon (TOC (average 1.80±1.86 g m-2 compared to physical soil crusts (7.83±3.27 g m-2. Within biocrusts, TOC losses decreased as biocrusts developed, and erosion rates were lower. Thus, erosion drove TOC losses while no significant direct relationships were found between TOC losses and runoff. In both physical crusts and biocrusts, DOC and SdOC concentrations were higher during the first minutes after runoff

  8. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  9. Foraging Activity Pattern Is Shaped by Water Loss Rates in a Diurnal Desert Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Porter, Warren P; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2016-08-01

    Although animals fine-tune their activity to avoid excess heat, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of such behaviors. As the global climate changes, such understanding is particularly important for projecting shifts in the activity patterns of populations and communities. We studied how foraging decisions vary with biotic and abiotic pressures. By tracking the foraging behavior of diurnal desert spiny mice in their natural habitat and estimating the energy and water costs and benefits of foraging, we asked how risk management and thermoregulatory requirements affect foraging decisions. We found that water requirements had the strongest effect on the observed foraging decisions. In their arid environment, mice often lose water while foraging for seeds and cease foraging even at high energetic returns when water loss is high. Mice also foraged more often when energy expenditure was high and for longer times under high seed densities and low predation risks. Gaining insight into both energy and water balance will be crucial to understanding the forces exerted by changing climatic conditions on animal energetics, behavior, and ecology.

  10. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  11. Cutaneous histiocytosis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, S S; Spraker, M K

    1985-11-01

    Cutaneous histiocytosis may take two principal forms. It is either a benign proliferative process or a relentless, progressive process with a poor prognosis. In histiocytic medullary reticulosis, histiocytes demonstrate nuclear atypia and the outcome is uniformly fatal. Benign cephalic histiocytosis X causes lesions similar to those of histiocytosis X, but Langerhans' cells are absent. In congenital self-healing histiocytosis X, the Letterer-Siwe-like cutaneous infiltrate contains Langerhans' cells, but the lesions heal spontaneously without treatment. The nodular cutaneous lesions of juvenile xanthogranuloma appear in infancy and resolve without treatment; however, the higher percentage (10%) of associated ocular lesions may lead to glaucoma and blindness. In histiocytosis X, the cutaneous lesions show a marked proliferation of Langerhans' cells, with prognosis dependent on the patient's age and the extent of organ dysfunction. Patients who survive the acute form of the disease may develop diabetes insipidus, growth retardation, pulmonary fibrosis, and biliary cirrhosis. A subtle immunologic defect has been identified in patients with histiocytosis X, yet the pathogenesis of the disease is still speculative. Familial disease occurring in early infancy should be differentiated from complete or partial immunodeficiency syndromes. Guidelines for evaluating patients with cutaneous histiocytosis are reviewed.

  12. The efficiency of trenches as runoff water harvesting systems and the role of their design in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit; Leake, Solomon

    2016-04-01

    fluxes computed for the time intervals that correspond to the soil water measurements. The study included flooding trenches and regular micro-catchments with the same amount of water (1 m3), monitoring the water balance components and estimation of evaporation losses and water use efficiency by olive trees. Evaporation from trenches and regular micro-catchments was estimated as the difference between evapotranspiration obtained by soil water content monitoring and transpiration estimated by sap flow measurements. The results clearly show that the evaporation from the regular micro-catchments was significantly larger than that of trenches during the entire duration of the experiment. The fractional loss due to evaporation for the entire experimental period was 53 and 22% for micro-catchments and trenches, respectively.

  13. History of water loss and atmospheric O2 buildup on rocky exoplanets near M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    2015-12-01

    It is recently proposed that early stellar luminosity evolution of M dwarfs leads to severe water loss and the buildup of massive O2 atmospheres on rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of these stars if interactions of such O2 atmospheres with planetary surfaces are inefficient. Here we show that even without considering atmosphere-surface interactions, the existence of a massive O2 atmosphere on such exoplanets is not an unavoidable consequence around M0-M3 stars and depends on stellar XUV properties, the mass of the exoplanets, and most importantly the initial planetary water inventories. In the case of inefficient atmosphere-surface interactions, the distribution of atmospheric O2 contents on these exoplanets should be bi-modal and such a distribution could be verified by future surveys of rocky exoplanets.

  14. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  15. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  16. Loss of Water From Mars: What Can We Expect From Mars Express and Nozomi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, H.; Lichtenegger, H.; Kolb, C.

    In 1969 UV spectrometers on board of NASA`s Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft observed the Lyman-alpha dayglow of atomic hydrogen atoms in an altitude range between 200 and 24000 kilometers. It is suggested that these hydrogen atoms originate from the planetary water inventory hidden in subsurface ice and permafrost. When water evap- orates from the Martian surface and subsurface ice reservoirs, its vapour reaches the upper atmosphere where solar UV radiation can break up the molecules into hydro- gen and oxygen. The hydrogen atoms and molecules can escape by Jeans escape but they can also be transformed into ions via charge exchange reactions resulting in ion loss not studied by the Mariner 10 observations. On the other hand solar wind pro- tons can be transformed into energetic hydrogen atoms and thus also contribute to the observed neutral H flux and are therefore interpreted as planetary atoms. For getting a better idea of how much water is really lost to space we re-evaluated all known es- cape rates and processes of hydrogen and oxygen ions and atoms by using a Monte Carlo model where we can study particles in the upper Martian atmosphere. Further a test particle model which involves the motion in the external electric and magnetic fields allowing the separation between the planetary and solar wind atoms. We discuss also relevant atmosphere-surface interaction processes which may result in a perma- nent loss of oxygen into the Martian soil and surface layers. We show that correlated observations of various atmospheric parameters by ESA`s Mars Express and Japan`s Nozomi spacecraft should give us the possibility to adjust our models resulting in a better understanding of the Martian atmospheric evolution with respect to its water inventory.

  17. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  18. Update on cutaneous calciphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calciphylaxis is a devastating disorder with a mortality rate of 80% due to sepsis and organ failure. Hallmarks of this rare disease are arteriolar media calcification, thrombotic cutaneous ischemia, and necrotic ulcerations. Different mechanisms of vascular calcification can lead to calciphylaxis. Early diagnosis by deep cutaneous ulcer biopsy is most important for prognosis. Here, dermatologists play a significant role although treatment usually needs an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical procedures had been the cornerstone of treatment in the past including parathyroidectomy, but recently new medical treatments emerged aiming to normalize disturbances of minerals to reduce the serum concentration of sodium phosphate and to prevent precipitation and calcification. Multimodal therapy is warranted but only aggressive surgical debridement of cutaneous ulcers has shown significant outcome improvement.

  19. Cutaneous signs of piety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2014-07-01

    It is important for dermatologists to be aware of cutaneous changes related to religious practices to help in their recognition and management. The anatomic location of cutaneous lesions associated with friction from praying varies based on religious practice. Allergic contact dermatitis from products and substances commonly used in worshipping also vary by religion. Some religious practices may render individuals prone to infections that manifest on the skin. Tattoos of godly figures also may adorn the body. Religious practices also have been implicated in cases of urticaria, köbnerization, and leukoderma. This article reviews the clinical presentation of some of the most common cutaneous changes that occur in individuals who practice the following religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism.

  20. IS THE EVAPORATIVE WATER-LOSS OF KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS HIGHER IN TROPICAL THAN IN TEMPERATE CLIMATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBOVEN, N; PIERSMA, T

    1995-01-01

    To test whether Knot Calidris canutus wintering in the tropics suffer higher rates of water loss through evaporation than do Knot wintering at temperate latitudes, we tried to develop a physically realistic model to predict evaporative heat loss from air temperature, wind and humidity. In separate e

  1. Estimation of soil loss by water erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau using Universal Soil Loss Equation and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, S.; Seitz, F.; Eicker, A.; Güntner, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Menzel, A.

    2013-06-01

    For the estimation of soil loss by erosion in the strongly affected Chinese Loess Plateau we applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) using a number of input data sets (monthly precipitation, soil types, digital elevation model, land cover and soil conservation measures). Calculations were performed in ArcGIS and SAGA. The large-scale soil erosion in the Loess Plateau results in a strong non-hydrological mass change. In order to investigate whether the resulting mass change from USLE may be validated by the gravity field satellite mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), we processed different GRACE level-2 products (ITG, GFZ and CSR). The mass variations estimated in the GRACE trend were relatively close to the observed sediment yield data of the Yellow River. However, the soil losses resulting from two USLE parameterizations were comparatively high since USLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio. Most eroded soil stays in the study area and only a fraction is exported by the Yellow River. Thus, the resultant mass loss appears to be too small to be resolved by GRACE.

  2. Effects of cropping systems on water runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss in the Moldavian Plateau, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailincai, C.; Jitareanu, G.; Bucur, D.; Ailincai, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.

    2009-07-01

    The experiments carried out at the Podu-lloaiei Agricultural Research Sation, during 1986-2008, had the following objectives: the study of water runoff and soil losses, by erosion, in different crops; the annual rate of erosion process under the influence of anti-erosion protection of different crops; the influence of water runoff and soil erosion on losses of organic matter and mineral elements from soil. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Agarwood Waste as A New Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Agarwood has been used widely in various ways, including traditional medicine and art. The usage of agarwood has grown broader in modern times include in therapeutic medicines and perfumery. In this paper the agarwood waste has been explored to be used as a fluid loss control agent to control fluid loss without affecting the drilling fluid rheological properties which are density, pH, viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Agarwood waste was used as an additive in the drilling fluid system due to its unique characteristic. Rheological and filtration measurements were performed on the formulated water-based drilling fluid. Formulations of a base solution of fresh water, sodium hydroxide, bentonite, barite, and xanthan gum were presented. The performance of the agarwood waste as the fluid loss control agent was compared with based fluid formulation and water-based drilling fluid with treating with conventional fluid loss control agent (starch. The filtrate volume of drilling fluid with agarwood waste was about 13 ml while for drilling fluid with conventional fluid loss control agent, starch gave 12 ml of filtrate volume after undergoing filtration test by using LPLT filter press. The performance of drilling fluid with agarwood was efficient as drilling fluid with starch. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  4. Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, E.-L.S.; Kendall, C.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    California's widespread and economically important vineyards offer substantial opportunities to understand the interface between hydrology and biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. The common use of native sulfur (S) as a fumigant or soil additive provides a novel way to isotopically differentiate among sulfate (SO2-4) pools, allowing the estimation of water and SO2-4 budgets. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the near-surface hydrological flow paths in a vineyard during irrigation and storm events and (2) to determine how those flow paths affect the fate and transport of SO2-4 across seasons. Integrating hydrological theory with measurements of SO2-4concentration and sulfate-S isotopic ratios (expressed as [SO 2-4] and ??34S, respectively) in inputs, soil water, and leachate provided a means of determining flow paths. Low [S04-] and ??34S in leachate during 4-h irrigation events reflect minimal engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that preferential flow was the dominant path for water in the near surface. In contrast, high [SO 2-4] and ??34S values during 8-h irrigation and storm events reflect near-complete engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that lateral flow was the dominant pathway. Because hydrologic response and SO2-4 mobility are tightly coupled in these soils, the magnitude of water fluxes through the near surface controls S cycling both on and off site. These results indicate that preferential flow is an important loss pathway to consider in managing both water resources and water quality (reactive elements) in vineyard land use systems. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Cutaneous histiocytosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, M B; Bergeron, J A

    1986-02-15

    Multifocal cutaneous histiocytic lesions were recognized in 9 dogs. Clinically, the dogs had multiple erythematous plaques or nodules in the skin (1 to 5 cm diameter). Histologically, the lesions were comprised of dermal or pannicular infiltrates of large histiocytic cells, with varying numbers of other inflammatory cells intermixed. By electron microscopy, the cells resembled those of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. The lesions seemed to wax and wane and appeared in new sites, regardless of treatment. The dogs ranged in age from 2 to 13 years; 7 dogs were under 6 years of age. Both sexes and various breeds were represented. An infectious agent could not be identified.

  6. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biazar, Cyrus; Sigges, Johanna; Patsinakidis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study, we assessed clinical and laboratory characteristics from patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) using the Core Set Questionnaire of the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE). 1002 (768 females, 234 males...... included gender, age at onset of disease, LE-specific and LE-nonspecific skin lesions, photosensitivity, laboratory features, and the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. The mean age at onset of disease was 43.0±15.7 years...

  7. Primary cutaneous leiomysarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Vinayak Agale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the skin is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. It arises between the ages of 50 and 70 years, and shows a greater predilection for the lower extremities. Clinically, it presents with solitary, well-circumscribed nodule and, microscopically, consists of fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with "cigar-shaped" nuclei. Local recurrence is known in this tumor. We document a case of primary cutaneous leiomyosarcoma in a 77-year-old man and discuss the histological features and immunohistochemical profile of this uncommon neoplasm.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Core Damage by Loss of Auxiliary Feed Water during the Extended Loss of All AC Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Woo Jae; Chung, Soon Il; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Duk Joo; Lee, Seung Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the reactor core damage time for OPR1000 type Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was analyzed to develop a strategy to handle ELAP and to apply to the EOP. The reactor core damage time in the ELAP condition was calculated according to the time of Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) loss. Fukushima accident was caused by long hours of Station Black Out (SBO) caused by natural disaster beyond Design Based Accident (DBA) criteria. It led to the reactor core damage. After the accident, the regulatory authorities of each country (Japan, US, EU, IAEA, and etc.) recommended developing the necessary systems and strategies in order to cover up the Extended Loss of All AC Power (ELAP) such as one occurred in the Fukushima accident. And the need of procedure or guideline to cope with ELAP has been raised through the stress test for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant unit 1. Current Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) used in domestic nuclear power plant are seemed to be insufficient to cope with ELAP. Therefore, it has been required to be improved. As the result, the time of AFW loss in the ELAP condition influences greatly on core damage time.

  9. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  10. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  11. Primaty Cutaneous Histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year old woman presented with diffuse swelling of the base of the right thumb along with ulceration. X-ray indicated bony damage. Histopathology showed PAS positive intracellular organisms suggestive of histoplasmosis. We are reporting a very rare case of primary cutaneous histoplasmosis from this part of the country.

  12. Effects of centrifugation on transmembrane water loss from normal and pathologic erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaperonis, A.A.; Chien, S.

    1989-02-01

    Plasma /sup 125/I-albumin was used as a marker of extracellular dilution in order to study the effect of high-speed centrifugation on transmembrane water distribution in several types of human red cells, including normal (AA), hemoglobin variants (beta A, AS, SC, beta S, and SS), and those from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. SS and AA erythrocytes were also examined for changes in intracellular hemoglobin concentration of three different density fractions and with increasing duration of spin. The minimum force and duration of centrifugation required to impair water permeability were found to vary with the red cell type, the anticoagulant used (heparin or EDTA), the initial hematocrit of the sample centrifuged, as well as among the individual erythrocyte fractions within the same sample. When subjecting pathologic erythrocytes to high-speed centrifugation, the /sup 125/I-albumin dilution technique can be used to determine whether the centrifugation procedure has led to an artifactual red cell water loss and to correct for this when it does occur. An abnormal membrane susceptibility to mechanical stress was demonstrated in erythrocytes from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and several hemoglobinopathies.

  13. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hepworth

    Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.

  14. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  15. Effects of clear topical ointment on transepidermal water loss in jaundiced pretermm infants receiving phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, S; Praisuwanna, P; Kesorncam, K

    2001-06-01

    Thirty jaundiced preterm infants, gestational age incubators were included. 1.5 ml of clear topical ointment was applied on the right side of the trunk and extremities while the left side was used as control. Data collection included transepidermal water loss (TEWL), ambient temperature and ambient humidity, before and at 30 minutes, 4-6 hours after application of the ointment during phototherapy. The measurements were executed both the right and left side in 3 positions; upper arm, back, lower leg. TEWL was reduced by 29 per cent (P value humidity were not significantly different (P value > 0.18). We concluded that application of clear topical ointment on the skin of jaundiced preterm infants receiving conventional phototherapy in incubators reduced TEWL significantly.

  16. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  17. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Cao; Xue Liu; Yan Zhang; Xiaoqian Xue; X Edward Zhou; Karsten Melcher; Pan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses.ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors,resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling.It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought,cold and soil salinity.However,chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application ofABA itseif.Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors.In Arabidopsis,AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA.Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination,prevent leaf water loss,and promote drought resistance.We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C,which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latchlock interacting network,a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex.Together,these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress.Moreover,the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules.

  18. Daytime changes of skin biophysical characteristics: A study of hydration, transepidermal water loss, ph, sebum, elasticity, erythema, and color index on middle eastern skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m. on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92 and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025, between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001 and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001. Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  19. Skin barrier function in healthy volunteers as assessed by transepidermal water loss and vascular response to hexyl nicotinate: intra- and inter-individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, E; Lavrijsen, A P; Hermans, J; Ponec, M

    1993-02-01

    This study assesses the variability of two non-invasive methods of measuring stratum corneum barrier function in vivo. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the vascular response to hexyl nicotinate (HN) penetration as determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry, were measured in a group of 21 healthy volunteers. Each time profile of the vascular response to HN penetration was analysed using the following parameters: the baseline cutaneous blood flow, the lag-time between application and initial response (t0), the time between application and maximum response (tmax), the maximum response, and the slope of the curve. TEWL measured on the left volar forearm showed a normal range of 3.9-7.6 g/m2h and a small inter-individual variability [coefficient of variation (CV) 19.4%]. TEWL values at three other forearm sites did not show differences of clinical importance compared with the left volar forearm. The parameters of the vascular response to HN penetration spanned a wider normal range than the TEWL values (CV between 33 and 52%). Repeat measurements after a 1-2 month interval showed highly reproducible individual TEWL values. The mean difference between first and second measurements was only 0.03 g/m2h; the relative difference 0.6%. The intra-individual reproducibility of t0 and tmax. for HN penetration was also high (relative differences of 2.8 and 3.1%, respectively). The other vascular response parameters were less reproducible (relative differences of 6.9-18.6%). We conclude that TEWL and selected parameters of HN penetration, as non-invasive tests of the stratum corneum barrier function, yield reproducible results and are hence useful for investigations assessing the skin barrier function in various disorders.

  20. Reducing water loss in a water supply system using a district metering area (DMA: A case study of the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA, Lop Buri Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thee Jitong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water loss from broken or leaking pipe networks is still a major water management problem for the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA in Thailand. To reduce this loss and benefit from the savings, a district metering area (DMA was applied as a management measure to control leaking water losses at the PWA Lop Buri Branch. The DMA was divided into 8 zones, covering about 60.47 % of the total service area. A surveillance system was set up that compared the observed flow rates and the upper limit of warning values for each DMA. Comparison of results before and after implementation of the DMA showed that rate of water loss decreased from 34.55 to 30.87 %. To further reduce these losses, sensitive warning values based on seasonal and daily patterns of water consumption were defined and implemented with an increased number of DMAs covering the entire service area. Financial analysis confirmed that the DMA measures are worth the investment because they significantly reduce the operational costs for water production.

  1. Soil Water Availability Modulation Over Estimated Relative Yield Losses in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Due to Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De la Torre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach developed by Fuhrer in 1995 to estimate wheat yield losses induced by ozone and modulated by the soil water content (SWC was applied to the data on Catalonian wheat yields. The aim of our work was to apply this approach and adjust it to Mediterranean environmental conditions by means of the necessary corrections. The main objective pursued was to prove the importance of soil water availability in the estimation of relative wheat yield losses as a factor that modifies the effects of tropospheric ozone on wheat, and to develop the algorithms required for the estimation of relative yield losses, adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions. The results show that this is an easy way to estimate relative yield losses just using meteorological data, without using ozone fluxes, which are much more difficult to calculate. Soil water availability is very important as a modulating factor of the effects of ozone on wheat; when soil water availability decreases, almost twice the amount of accumulated exposure to ozone is required to induce the same percentage of yield loss as in years when soil water availability is high.

  2. Evaluation of crop yield loss of floods based on water turbidity index with multi-temporal HJ-CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiuhui

    2015-12-01

    Paddy is one of the most important food crops in China. Due to the intensive planting in the surrounding of rivers and lakes, paddy is vulnerable to flooding stress. The research on predicting crop yield loss derived from flooding stress will help the adjustment of crop planting structure and the claims of agricultural insurance. The paper aimed to develop a method of estimating yield loss of paddy derived from flooding by multi-temporal HJ CCD images. At first, the water pixels after flooding were extracted, from which the water line (WL) of turbid water pixels was generated. Secondly, the water turbidity index (WTI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was defined and calculated. By analyzing the relation among WTI, PVI and paddy yield, the model of evaluating yield loss of flooding was developed. Based on this model, the spatial distribution of paddy yield loss derived from flooding was mapped in the study area. Results showed that the water turbidity index (WTI) could be used to monitor the sediment content of flood, which was closely related to the plant physiology and per unit area yield of paddy. The PVI was the good indicator of paddy yield with significant correlation (0.965). So the PVI could be used to estimate the per unit area yield before harvesting. The PVI and WTI had good linear relation, which could provide an effective, practical and feasible method for monitoring yield loss of waterlogged paddy.

  3. Evolutionary shifts in habitat aridity predict evaporative water loss across squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christian L; Cox, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Aridity is an important determinant of species distributions, shaping both ecological and evolutionary diversity. Lizards and snakes are often abundant in deserts, suggesting a high potential for adaptation or acclimation to arid habitats. However, phylogenetic evidence indicates that squamate diversity in deserts may be more strongly tied to speciation within arid habitats than to convergent evolution following repeated colonization from mesic habitats. To assess the frequency of evolutionary transitions in habitat aridity while simultaneously testing for associated changes in water-balance physiology, we analyzed estimates of total evaporative water loss (EWL) for 120 squamate species inhabiting arid, semiarid, or mesic habitats. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed that evolutionary transitions to and from semiarid habitats were much more common than those between arid and mesic extremes. Species from mesic habitats exhibited significantly higher EWL than those from arid habitats, while species from semiarid habitats had intermediate EWL. Phylogenetic comparative methods confirmed this association between habitat aridity and EWL despite phylogenetic signal in each. Thus, the historical colonization of arid habitats by squamates is repeatedly associated with adaptive changes in EWL. This physiological convergence, which may reflect both phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation, has likely contributed to the success of squamates in arid environments.

  4. Design and implementation of spatio-temporal database of water and soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, XinHai; Bian, Fulin; Tan, Xiaojun

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyzed the features and limitations of several typical spatio-temporal data models. "spatio-temporal cube": the main disadvantage is that the target change will produce great data redundancy when under non-consecutive circumstances. "Snapshots": it repeatedly saves graphics and attribute of no changes which resulted in waste of storage spaces, and it is impossible to reflect space objects under the same domain and the relationship between the attributes. "Base State with Amendments": merely modify changing object, but it's not suitable for continuous variation space object. "space-frame composite": currently, the model is lacking of sound framework structure and application model. "Object-oriented spatio-temporal model": The modeling concept, theoretical foundation and technical realization has not yet reached a consensus, it's not mature enough. In allusion to the features of the spatial database of water and soil loss, this essay expounded the characteristics of spatiotemporal databases. Spatial features in many practical circumstances ( such as thematic maps in soil and water conservation projects and space elements of soil erosion distribution map) have spatial data features, and also change with time, consequently, required us to establish spatio-temporal database, STDB, which can capture time data and space data at the same time. This analysis based on "ArcSDE versioning mechanisms" temporal and spatial database implement technologies, discussed the construction methods, process and data features of the database, and introduced the implementation of historical data rebuilding and version merging.

  5. Insensible water loss from the skin during phototherapy in term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1992-10-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin was measured before and during phototherapy in 10 full-term and seven preterm infants (gestational age 29-33 weeks). The method for measurement of rate of evaporation was non-invasive and was based on determination of the water vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface. All infants were studied naked in an incubator with an ambient relative humidity of 50% and with a controlled environment with respect to temperature and air velocity. In the term infants the mean rate of evaporation, measured from an interscapular skin area, was 3.1 g/m2h both before and after 30 min of phototherapy. In the preterm infants the corresponding value was 9.8 g/m2h before and 9.7 g/m2h after 120 min of phototherapy. Thus, in thermally stable infants, non-ionizing radiation from phototherapy equipment does not increase water loss from the skin.

  6. [Livedo-like cutaneous sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboys, S; Cante, V; Monégier du Sorbier, C; Guillet, G

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous signs of sarcoidosis are extremely polymorphous and may be classified under several different headings. Herein, we report the case of a 51-year-old female patient presenting bilateral livedo of the knees accompanied by systemic signs with polyarthralgia, impaired general state of health, weight loss, and a sensation of dyspnoea. Skin biopsy revealed giant-cell granuloma around the dermal vessels, with no caseous necrosis. Histopathological examination of the patient's blood vessels revealed no abnormalities. Laboratory tests showed high levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (1.5×ULN), bilateral mediastinal adenomegaly and incipient pulmonary fibrosis. Systemic sarcoidosis was diagnosed on the basis of the overall clinical and laboratory picture. The patient subsequently presented hepatic involvement and hypercalcaemia associated with the sarcoidosis; systemic corticosteroid therapy (prednisone) was initiated, with slow dose-reduction. The outcome was favourable with a return to normal laboratory values, regression of the adenomegaly and subsidence of the livedo. The literature contains reports of a number of cases of livedo heralding sarcoidosis. The majority of such cases involved young or middle-aged female patients of Asian origin presenting systemic sarcoidosis, with a high frequency of ocular and neural involvement. Livedo could be accounted for by the specific disposition of granulomas around the arterioles, resulting in disturbance of local blood flow, which was probably associated with the mechanical compression of vessels and with the micro-thrombi noted at histology. Livedo may be considered a clinical sign of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Laboratory tests to screen for sarcoidosis may be proposed in the exploration of atypical livedo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  8. Tradeoffs of modifications of storm water managements systems for nitrogen loss pathways in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is altering hydrologic and nitrogen (N) inputs to streams that may substantially increase nitrogen-containing trace gas emissions to the atmosphere with regional and global consequences. In the semi-arid southwestern US, human modifications of ephemerally dry stream channels interact with hydrologic and nitrogen alterations to lead to extremely high fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O). Cumulative N2O losses ranged from 0.04 to 0.97 mg N m-2 in 6 hr for rainfall compared to 22.5-59.3 mg N m-2 for flood pulse events. Impervious channels eliminated N trace gas losses but increased delivery of water and N to downstream ecosystems and areas of focused recharge by 6 fold compared to watersheds with greater pervious channel lengths. In contrast, importation of clay into channels increased total N trace gas losses by 8-32 fold relative to more natural sand dominated channels but this result depended on the degree of wetting. Our integrated findings suggest human modification of storm water management systems to impervious channels increases delivery of water and N to downstream navigable waters and areas of focused recharge whereas importation of clay materials leads to higher N trace gas losses and reduced delivery of nitrate. Management will need to address long-term challenges of balancing tradeoffs of greenhouse N gases and N in water supplies, intermediate scale issues of enhancing recharge, and short-term issues of removing water and preventing flooding.

  9. [Cutaneous tuberculosis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisero, Elsa; Luque, Graciela; Melillo, Karina; Favier, María Inés; Zapata, Alejandra; Cuello, María Soledad

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is not very frequent and particularly difficult to diagnose. It incidence ranges between 1.5 and 4% of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis, according to bibliography. The clinic presentations depend on the arrival via of the bacillus to the skin, the patient's immune state and the environment. We show a cutaneous tuberculosis on a child with chronic dermatologic lesions, with torpid evolution, without response to treatments; the skin biopsy showed caseous granulomas. The aim is to show a patient with an infrequent clinic presentation of this disease, to emphasize the importance of an early recognition and treatment, avoiding the appearance of complications and sequels.

  10. Cutaneous mercury granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana A Bothale; Mahore, Sadhana D.; Sushil Pande; Trupti Dongre

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous mercury granuloma is rarely encountered. Clinically it may pose difficulty in diagnosis. Here, we report a 23-year-old male presented with erythematous, nodular lesions over the forearm and anterior aspect of chest wall. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appear as dark black, opaque, spherical globules of varying size and number. They are surrounded by granulomatous foreign-body reaction. It is composed of foreign body giant cells and mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of hist...

  11. Influence of soil water repellency on runoff and solute loss from New Zealand pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, P.; Müller, K.; Deurer, M.; van den Dijssel, C.; Mason, K.; Green, S.; Clothier, B. E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has been reported in New Zealand, but knowledge on its importance for the country's economy and environment is limited. Our recent survey on the occurrence of SWR under pasture across the North Island of New Zealand showed that most soils exhibited SWR when dry independent of climate but influenced by the soil order. SWR is discussed as an important soil surface condition enhancing run-off and the transfer of fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural land into waterways. So far, the impact of SWR on run-off has rarely been measured. We developed a laboratory-scale run-off measurement apparatus (ROMA) to quantify directly the impact of SWR on run-off from undisturbed soil slabs. We compared the run-off resulting from the run-on of water with that resulting from an ethanol (30% v/v) solution, which is a fully-wetting liquid even in severely hydrophobic soils. Thus, the experiments with the ethanol solution can be understood as a proxy measure of the wetting-up behaviour of hydrophilic soils. We conducted ROMA run-off experiments with air-dried soil slabs (460 mm long x 190 mm wide x 50 mm deep) collected from pastoral sites, representing three major soil orders in the North Island: Recent Soil (Fluvisol), Gley Soil (Gleysol), and Organic Soil (Histosol), with water followed by the ethanol solution at a run-on rate of 60 mm/h. Bromide was applied at 80 kg KBr/ha prior to the water experiments to assess potential solute losses via run-off. The air-dried soils had a high degree and persistence of SWR (contact angles, 97, 98 and 104° , and potential water drop penetration times, 42, 54 and 231 min for the Fluvisol, Gleysol and Histosol, respectively). Under identical soil and experimental conditions, water generated run-off from all soils, but in the experiments with the ethanol solution, the entire ethanol solution infiltrated into the soils. The ranking of the run-off coefficients of the soils directly reflected their ranking in

  12. Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

    Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

  13. FLOW PATTERN AND PRESSURE LOSS OF OIL-WATER TWO-PHASE FLOW IN HORIZONTAL STEEL PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; YAN Da-fan; ZHAO Jing-mei; AN Wei-jie; YAN Da-chun

    2005-01-01

    Experimental Study on oil-water two-phase flow patterns and pressure loss was conducted on a horizontal steel pipe loop with 26.1mm inner diameter and 30m total length.The working fluids are white oil, diesel oil and tap water.Several instruments, including a new type of liquid-probe are successfully integrated to identify 7 different flow patterns.The characteristics of the flow patterns and the transition process were observed and depicted in this paper.Investigation revealed that the pressure loss was mainly depended on the flow patterns.

  14. Consequences of nocturnal water loss: a synthesis of regulating factors and implications for capacitance, embolism and use in models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, M J B; Lewis, J D; Phillips, N G; Tissue, D T

    2014-10-01

    Total daily water use is a key factor influencing the growth of many terrestrial plants, and reflects both day-time and nocturnal water fluxes. However, while nocturnal sap flow (En) and stomatal conductance (gs,n) have been reported across a range of species, ecosystems and microclimatic conditions, the regulation of these fluxes remains poorly understood. Here, we present a framework describing the role of abiotic and biotic factors in regulating En and gs,n highlighting recent developments in this field. Across ecosystems, En and gs,n generally increased with increasing soil water content and vapor pressure deficit, but the interactive effects of these factors and the potential roles of wind speed and other abiotic factors remain unclear. On average, gs,n and En are higher in broad-leaved compared with needle-leaved plants, in C3 compared with C4 plants, and in tropical compared with temperate species. We discuss the impacts of leaf age, elevated [CO2] and refilling of capacitance on night-time water loss, and how nocturnal gs,n may be included in vegetation models. Younger leaves may have higher gs,n than older leaves. Embolism refilling and recharge of capacitance may affect sap flow such that total plant water loss at night may be less than estimated solely from En measurements. Our estimates of gs,n for typical plant functional types, based on the published literature, suggest that nocturnal water loss may be a significant fraction (10-25%) of total daily water loss. Counter-intuitively, elevated [CO2] may increase nocturnal water loss. Assumptions in process-based ecophysiological models and dynamic global vegetation models that gs is zero when solar radiation is zero are likely to be incorrect. Consequently, failure to adequately consider nocturnal water loss may lead to substantial under-estimation of total plant water use and inaccurate estimation of ecosystem level water balance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  15. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  16. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  17. Water sources and controls on water-loss rates of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps during summer drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Todd E. Dawson; Francisco J. Camacho

    2009-01-01

    Access to deeper soil water and water-conserving traits should reduce water stress for ectomycorrhizal fungi, permitting function during drought. Here, we explored whether epigeous fruiting of ectomycorrhizal fungi during drought was facilitated by access to deep soil water, how much water was lost from sporocarps, and how sporocarp surface to volume ratios affected...

  18. Measurement of elasticity and transepidermal water loss rate of burn scars with the Dermalab(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonissen, Mieke; Daly, Daniel; Fieuws, Steffen; Massagé, Patrick; Van Brussel, Michel; Vranckx, Jan; Van den Kerckhove, Eric

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the reproducibility of repeated elasticity and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements with the DermaLab(®) on 32 active burn scars and healthy skin. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was examined by means of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM). Results showed good ICC values and rather high SEM values for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of elasticity measurements. For TEWL measurements, ICC values were good and SEM values were high for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the estimated mean elasticity values of normal skin and grafted scars and between normal skin and spontaneously healed scars (p≤0.003). For the estimated mean TEWL values, there was a significant difference between normal skin and spontaneously healed scars (p=0.036). A significant negative relation was reported between mean TEWL and time after burn (p=0.008). In clinical trials it is necessary to interpret patient-specific changes in elasticity and TEWL with caution, since the SEMs of both modes are rather high. We therefore recommend the use of a mean of repeated measurements of elasticity and TEWL to decrease the SEM.

  19. Heat production and heat loss responses to cold water immersion after 35 days horizontal bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Keramidas, Michail E; Biolo, Gianni; Narici, Marco; Eiken, Ola

    2012-05-01

    Bed rest is a terrestrial experimental analogue of unloading experienced during exposure to microgravity. Such unloading causes atrophy predominantly of the postural muscles, especially those of the lower limbs. We tested the hypothesis that 35 d horizontal bed rest alters thermoregulatory responses of subjects (N = 10) immersed in 15 degrees C water, particularly the heat produced by the shivering tremor of the skeletal muscles. Before and after bed rest we measured the thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles by ultrasonography. During the immersions, we monitored rectal and skin temperatures, heat flux, heart rate, and oxygen uptake. After bed rest, muscle thickness decreased significantly by 12.2 +/- 8.8% and 8.0 +/- 9.1% in the GM and VL, respectively. No changes were observed in the TA and BB muscles. The 35-d bed rest caused a significant reduction in aerobic power, as reflected in maximal oxygen uptake. There were no significant differences in any of the observed thermoregulatory responses between the pre- and post-bed rest immersions. Cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning had no effect on the heat production and heat loss responses. Due to the significant reduction in the mass of the muscles in the lower limbs, concomitant with no change in heat production, we conclude that leg muscles do not play a significant role in shivering thermogenesis.

  20. Interfacing systems LOCAs (Loss of Coolant Accidents) at boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Fitzpatrick, R.; Stoyanov, S.

    1987-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) effort towards the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) at Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs).'' For BWRs, intersystem LOCA have typically either not been considered in probabilistic risk analyses, or if considered, were judged to contribute little to the risk estimates because of their perceived low frequency of occurrence. However, recent operating experience indicates that the pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in BWRs may not adequately protect against overpressurization of low pressure systems. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a study which analyzed interfacing system LOCA at several BWRs. The BWRs were selected to best represent a spectrum of BWRs in service using industry operating event experience and plant-specific information/configurations. The results presented here include some possible changes in test requirements/practices as well as an evaluation of their reduction potential in terms of core damage frequency (CDF).

  1. Solar XUV and ENA-driven water loss from early Venus' steam atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Odert, P.; Erkaev, N. V.; Lammer, H.; Gröller, H.; Johnstone, C. P.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Tu, L.; Güdel, M.; Holmström, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study on the influence of the upper atmosphere hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen, driven by the solar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV), on an expected outgassed steam atmosphere of early Venus. By assuming that the young Sun was either a weak or moderately active young G star, we estimated the water loss from a hydrogen dominated thermosphere due to the absorption of the solar XUV flux and the precipitation of solar wind produced energetic hydrogen atoms (ENAs). The production of ENAs and their interaction with the hydrodynamic extended upper atmosphere, including collision-related feedback processes, have been calculated by means of Monte Carlo models. ENAs that collide in the upper atmosphere deposit their energy and heat the surrounding atmosphere mainly above the main XUV energy deposition layer. It is shown that precipitating ENAs modify the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere, but the enhancement of the thermal escape rates caused by these energetic hydrogen atoms is negligible. Our results also indicate that the majority of oxygen arising from dissociated H2O molecules is left behind during the first 100 Myr. It is thus suggested that the main part of the remaining oxygen has been absorbed by crustal oxidation.

  2. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  3. Route Planning and Estimate of Heat Loss of Hot Water Transportation Piping for Fuel Cell Local Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The method of supplying the electric power and heat energy for the energy demand of buildings by Centralized system type and distributed system type of fuel cell network is studied. The hot-water piping route planning program of fuel cell network was developed by using genetic algorithm based on the view of TSP ( Traveling salesman problem) . In this program, the piping route planning which minimizes the quantity of heat loss in hot-water piping can be performed. The residential section model of Sapporo city of 74 buildings was analyzed, and the quantity of heat loss from the hot-water piping of both systems was estimated. Consequently, the ratio of the quantity of heat loss of a distributed system to a centralized system was about 50% in the full year average. This program is introduced into the route planning of hot- Water piping system of the fuel cell network, and plan to reduce the quantity of heat loss in a distributed system will be made.

  4. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, L.; Abdelhamid, A.; Attreed, N.J.; Campbell, W.W.; Channell, A.M.; Chassagne, P.; Culp, K.R.; Fletcher, S.J.; Fortes, M.B.; Fuller, N.; Gaspar, P.M.; Gilbert, D.J.; Heathcote, A.C.; Kafri, M.W.; Kajii, F.; Lindner, G.; Mack, G.W.; Mentes, J.C.; Merlani, P.; Needham, R.A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Perren, A.; Powers, J.; Ranson, S.C.; Ritz, P.; Rowat, A.M.; Sjostrand, F.; Smith, A.C.; Stookey, J.J.D.; Stotts, N.A.; Thomas, D.R.; Vivanti, A.; Wakefield, B.J.; Waldreus, N.; Walsh, N.P.; Ward, S.; Potter, J.F.; Hunter, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that water-loss dehydration is common in older people and associated with many causes of morbidity and mortality. However, it is unclear what clinical symptoms, signs and tests may be used to identify early dehydration in older people, so that support can be mobilised t

  5. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G

    1989-01-01

    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  6. Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidian M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.

  7. [Cutaneous histiocytosis X].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J; Metz, G; Lechner, W

    1980-09-01

    Histiocytosis X comprises three clinical entities whose common substrate is a localized or systemic proliferation of atypical histiocytes. On the basis of the age of manifestation, acuity of the clinical course and organ involvement Abt-Letterer-Siwe's disease, Hand-Schüller-Christian's disease and eosinophilic granuloma can be differentiated from each other, although transitional varieties of these syndromes are possible. Not infrequently oligosymptomatic forms are misinterpreted, especially when the skin is the only involved organ. In the following case report cutaneous histiocytosis X will be discussed in terms of its clinical expression. Electron-microscopy has proved to be the best methods to make the diagnosis of such atypical cases.

  8. Pure cutaneous histiocytosis X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-García, M

    1986-03-01

    A 38-month-old boy presented with nodules in the skin of the genital region present for 2 1/2 years. These later spread to the skin of the trunk, head, and extremities. A complete clinical workup could not reveal involvement in any other organ sites and biopsy of one of the cutaneous lesions was diagnosed as histiocytosis X. Because the child was in generally good condition, no treatment was given. Follow-up revealed that the disease had remained limited to the skin, where 15% of the lesions disappeared spontaneously.

  9. Cutaneous mucormycosis postcosmetic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarrah, Khaled; Abdelaty, Mahmoud; Behbahani, Ahmad; Mokaddas, Eman; Soliman, Helmy; Albader, Ahdi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mucormycosis is a rare, aggressive, and life-threatening infection that is caused by organisms belonging to the order Mucorales. It is usually acquired through direct means and virtually always affects immunocompromised patients with the port of entry reflecting the site of infection, in this case, cutaneous. Unlike other mucormycoses, patients affected by Apophysomyces elegans (A elegans) are known to be immunocompetent. This locally aggressive disease penetrates through different tissue plains invading adjacent muscles, fascia, and even bone causing extensive morbidity and may prove fatal if treated inadequately. Cutaneous mucormycosis is associated with disruption of cutaneous barriers such as trauma. However, rarely, it may be iatrogenic. No cases have been previously reported postcosmetic surgery, especially one that is so commonly performed, lipofilling. Case Report: The patient is a, previously healthy, 41-year-old middle-eastern female who was admitted to the plastic surgery department 17 days after undergoing cosmetic surgery. She suffered from extensive tissue inflammation and necrosis in both gluteal regions. Following admission, she was initially started on empirical antimicrobial therapy which was changed to an antifungal agent, voriconazole, when preliminary microbiological results showed filamentous fungi. This was discontinued and liposomal amphotericin B was commenced when further mycological analysis identified A elegans. Furthermore, she underwent a total of 10 sessions of extensive debridement to the extent that portions of the sacrum and left femoral head became exposed. Her clinical status and wounds improved with the appropriate management and she remained an inpatient for 62 days. Subsequently, she had defects in both gluteal regions which required reconstructive surgery. Conclusion: A elegans is an uncommon cause of iatrogenic cutaneous mucormycosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is required, especially in the

  10. Quantifying blue and green virtual water contents in global crop production as well as potential production losses without irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Stefan; Döll, Petra

    2010-04-01

    SummaryCrop production requires large amounts of green and blue water. We developed the new global crop water model GCWM to compute consumptive water use (evapotranspiration) and virtual water content (evapotranspiration per harvested biomass) of crops at a spatial resolution of 5' by 5', distinguishing 26 crop classes, and blue versus green water. GCWM is based on the global land use data set MIRCA2000 that provides monthly growing areas for 26 crop classes under rainfed and irrigated conditions for the period 1998-2002 and represents multi-cropping. By computing daily soil water balances, GCWM determines evapotranspiration of blue and green water for each crop and grid cell. Cell-specific crop production under both rainfed and irrigated conditions is computed by downscaling average crop yields reported for 402 national and sub-national statistical units, relating rainfed and irrigated crop yields reported in census statistics to simulated ratios of actual to potential crop evapotranspiration for rainfed crops. By restricting water use of irrigated crops to green water only, the potential production loss without any irrigation was computed. For the period 1998-2002, the global value of total crop water use was 6685 km 3 yr -1, of which blue water use was 1180 km 3 yr -1, green water use of irrigated crops was 919 km 3 yr -1 and green water use of rainfed crops was 4586 km 3 yr -1. Total crop water use was largest for rice (941 km 3 yr -1), wheat (858 km 3 yr -1) and maize (722 km 3 yr -1). The largest amounts of blue water were used for rice (307 km 3 yr -1) and wheat (208 km 3 yr -1). Blue water use as percentage of total crop water use was highest for date palms (85%), cotton (39%), citrus fruits (33%), rice (33%) and sugar beets (32%), while for cassava, oil palm and cocoa, almost no blue water was used. Average crop yield of irrigated cereals was 442 Mg km -2 while average yield of rainfed cereals was only 266 Mg km -2. Average virtual water content of cereal

  11. Loss of Propiconazole and its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-wa...

  12. Corynebacterium ulcerans cutaneous diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Luke S P; Leslie, Asuka; Meltzer, Margie; Sandison, Ann; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient with cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans who developed a right hand flexor sheath infection and symptoms of sepsis such as fever, tachycardia, and elevated C-reactive protein, after contact with domestic cats and dogs, and a fox. We summarise the epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, diagnosis, therapy, and public health aspects of this disease, with emphasis on improving recognition. In many European countries, C ulcerans has become the organism commonly associated with cutaneous diphtheria, usually seen as an imported tropical disease or resulting from contact with domestic and agricultural animals. Diagnosis relies on bacterial culture and confirmation of toxin production, with management requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and prompt administration of antitoxin, if necessary. Early diagnosis is essential for implementation of control measures and clear guidelines are needed to assist clinicians in managing clinical diphtheria. This case was a catalyst to the redrafting of the 2014 national UK interim guidelines for the public health management of diphtheria, released as final guidelines in March, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat by Breeding Lines with Low Rate of Water Loss of Excised-Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui-kun; JIA Xiu-ling; ZHANG Quan-guo

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective of improvement of water use efficiency (WUE) andyield of winter wheat for Lowland Dryland Farming systems through a breeding approach. Various genotypeswere screened in 1988 for rate of water loss of excised leaves (RWL), followed by inter-crossing of diverseparents in 1993. Analysis of the relationship between RWL and yield components and plant traits demon-strated significant differences in RWL among genotypes. Under most circumstances, RWL was correlatednegatively with yield and grain weight, and positively with plant height. The results demonstrated a basis forsimultaneous selection for high yield and low RWL. It was found that genotypic rank varied with the dura-tion of water loss. Correlation between RWL and yield was reduced by extended water loss duration. Analy-sis of the genetic variation and segregation of RWL of progenies and the effect of simultaneous screening forRWL and agronomic traits showed that good lines with improved yield and water use performance could beobtained.

  14. Cutaneous ulceration: an unusual complication of intravenous pentamidine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1991-01-01

    Pentamidine is one of two agents currently used to treat infections with Pneumocystis carinii. The intramuscular route of administration is associated with cutaneous side effects such as dermal necrosis, sterile abscesses and ulcer formation at the injection site, while urticaria may develop near the site of intravenous drug infusion. This is a report of a renal transplant patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia who developed chemical cellulitis and ulceration following the extravasation of intravenous pentamidine into the soft tissues of the left hand and forearm. The area healed slowly over 7 weeks, but there was a residual loss of cutaneous sensation. In a review of the literature no report of a similar case was found.

  15. A framework for assessing technology and management options to reduce water losses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Tim M.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Water saving in agriculture often refers to reducing the amount of water abstracted or diverted and used for different purposes. However, this is not the only option: reductions in water use can also be achieved by using appropriate techniques for irrigation, applying relevant management practices, using water from alternative sources or influencing behaviour – for example, via awareness-raising, dissemination of best practices, regulation, water pricing and/or the use of financial incentives...

  16. Variability of herbicide losses from 13 fields to surface water within a small catchment after a controlled herbicide application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian; Müller, Stephan R; Schwarzenbach, René P

    2004-07-15

    Diffuse losses from agricultural fields are a major input source for herbicides in surface waters. In this and in a companion paper, we present the results of a comprehensive field study aimed at assessing the overall loss dynamics of three model herbicides (i.e., atrazine, dimethenamid, and metolachlor) from a small agricultural catchment (2.1 km2) and evaluating the relative contributions of various fields having different soil and topographical characteristics. An identical mixture of the three model herbicides as well as an additional pesticide for identification of a given field were applied within 12 h on 13 cornfields (total area approximately 12 ha), thus ensuring that the herbicides were exposed to identical meteorological conditions. After the simultaneous application, the concentrations of the compounds were monitored in the soils and at the outlets of three subcatchments containing between 4 and 5 cornfields each. Particular emphasis was placed on the two rain events that led to the major losses of the herbicides. The rank orders of herbicide dissipation in the soils and of the compound-specific mobilization into runoff were the same in all three subcatchments and were independent of the field characteristics. In contrast, the field properties caused the relative losses from two subcatchments to differ by up to a factor of 56 during the most important event, whereas compound-specific differences of the three neutral herbicides caused the losses to vary only by a factor of 2 during the same event. The enormous spatial variability was mainly caused by factors influencing the fraction of rain that was lost to surface water by fast transport mechanisms. Thus, the key factors determining the spatially variable herbicide losses were the permeability of the soils, the topography, and the location of subsurface drainage systems. These results illustrate the large potential to reduce herbicide losses by avoiding application on risk areas.

  17. Performance of water and hybrid stabilized electric arcs: the impact of dependence of radiation losses and plasma density on pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeništa, J.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.

    2006-10-01

    Processes in the worldwide unique type of thermal plasma generator with water vortex stabilization and combined stabilization of arc by argon flow and water vortex have been numerically studied. Two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model assumes laminar and compressible plasma flow in the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The calculation domain includes the arc discharge area between the near-cathode region and the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch. Radiation losses from the arc are calculated by the partial characteristics method for atmospheric pressure water and argon-water discharges. Thermal, electrical and fluid-dynamic characteristics of such arcs have been studied for the range of currents 150÷600 A under the assumption that radiation losses and plasma density depend linearly on pressure. It was proved that, taking this dependence into account, plasma velocity decrease while power losses from the arc by radiation and radial conduction increase with current. Outlet plasma temperature as well as electric potential drop remain practically unchanged.

  18. Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on epidermal O-acylsphingolipids and transepidermal water loss in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J L; Wertz, P W; Swartzendruber, D C; Downing, D T

    1987-09-25

    Linoleate-rich O-acylglucosylceramides and acylceramides are thought to be of major significance for the physical structure and function of the epidermal permeability barrier. In the present investigation, the effects of a linoleate-free diet on O-acylsphingolipids and their associated functions were investigated. Starting at 5 days of age, male pigs were fed diets containing 12% of either lard or hydrogenated coconut oil. Transepidermal water loss was measured with an electrolytic water analyzer at weekly intervals. Pigs were killed at intervals, and epidermal lipids were isolated and analyzed. Fatty acid compositions were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Within 2-3 weeks, pigs on the diet containing coconut oil began to display biochemical and physiological symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency. Within 2 months, this group had extremely scaly skin and transepidermal water loss was elevated to five times that of controls. The progressive increase in transepidermal water loss correlated with replacement of linoleate by oleate in both acylceramide and acylglucosylceramide. The formation of lamellar granules and intercellular lipid sheets in the stratum corneum was not impaired in essential fatty acid deficiency as judged by electron microscopy. These results suggest that the linoleic acid normally found in the O-acylsphingolipids is not essential for formation of the epidermal membrane system. Rather, it appears that the nature of the ester-linked fatty acid in the O-acylsphingolipids regulates the permeability of this membrane system.

  19. Characteristics of Soil and Organic Carbon Loss Induced by Water Erosion on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Chang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Lin; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion has been a common environmental problem in the Loess Plateau in China. This study aims to better understand the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by water erosion. Laboratory-simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of SOC loss induced by water erosion. The applied treatments included two rainfall intensities (90 and 120 mm h-1), four slope gradients (10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°), and two typical soil types- silty clay loam and silty loam. Results showed that the sediment OC enrichment ratios (ERoc) in all the events were relative stable with values ranged from 0.85 to1.21 and 0.64 to 1.52 and mean values of 0.98 and 1.01 for silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively. Similar to the ERoc, the proportions of different sized particles in sediment showed tiny variations during erosion processes. No significant correlation was observed between ERoc values and the proportions of sediment particles. Slope, rainfall intensity and soil type almost had no impact on ERoc. These results indicate that the transportation of SOC during erosion processes was nonselective. While the mean SOC loss rates for the events of silty clay loam and silty loam were 0.30 and 0.08 g m-2 min-1, respectively. Greater differences in SOC loss rates were found in events among different soil types. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SOC loss and soil loss for all the events were observed. These results indicated that the amount of SOC loss was influenced primarily by soil loss and the SOC content of the original soil. Erosion pattern and original SOC content are two main factors by which different soils can influence SOC loss. It seems that soil type has a greater impact on SOC loss than rainfall characteristics on the Loess Plateau of China. However, more kinds of soils should be further studied due to the special formation processes in the Loess Plateau.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Taxillusi chinensis (DC.) Danser Seeds in Response to Water Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shugen; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Limei; Miao, Jianhua; Fu, Jine; Bai, Longhua; Zhang, Zhonglian; Guan, Yanhong; Mo, Changming; Huang, Hao; Chen, Maoshan

    2017-01-01

    seeds in response to water loss and expand our current understanding of drought tolerance and germination of seeds. PMID:28046012

  1. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: A rare isolated cutaneous vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar A Subbanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN is a rare form of cutaneous vasculitis that involves small and medium sized arteries of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue without systemic involvement. It presents with tender subcutaneous nodules, digital gangrene, livedo reticularis and subcutaneous ulcerations. The diagnosis is by skin biopsy and characteristic pathologic feature is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the small to medium-sized arterioles of the dermis. We report a rare case of benign cutaneous PAN in a 14-year-old girl who presented with history of fever, subcutaneous nodules with cutaneous ulcer and digital gangrene. The skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis in the dermal vessels. She received treatment with steroids and lesions resolved completely over a period of month.

  2. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  3. Streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Slattery, Richard N.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, the Real Edwards Conservation and Reclamation District, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-investigated streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, specifically in the watersheds of the West Nueces, Nueces, Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers upstream from the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Streamflow in these rivers is sustained by groundwater contributions (for example, from springs) and storm runoff from rainfall events. To date (2012), there are few data available that describe streamflow and water-quality conditions of the rivers within the upper Nueces River Basin. This report describes streamflow gain-loss characteristics from three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys (hereinafter referred to as "surveys") during 2008-10 in the upper Nueces River Basin. To help characterize the hydrology, groundwater-level measurements were made, and water-quality samples were collected from both surface-water and groundwater sites in the study area from two surveys during 2009-10. The hydrologic (streamflow, springflow, and groundwater) measurements were made during three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys occurring in July 21-23, 2008; August 8-18, 2009; and March 22-24, 2010. These survey periods were selected to represent different hydrologic conditions. Streamflow gains and losses were based on streamflow and springflow measurements made at 74 sites in the study area, although not all sites were measured during each survey. Possible water chemistry relations among sample types (streamflow, springflow, or groundwater), between surveys, and among watersheds were examined using water-quality samples collected from as many as 20 sites in the study area.

  4. Estimating water losses as a result of food waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally there are sufficient land and water resources to produce food over the next 50 years, but only if water for agriculture is better managed (Molden, 2007). Water is a critical and strategic natural resource in South Africa. It is essential...

  5. Radiotherapy of cutaneous lymphomas; Radiotherapie des lymphomes cutanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirova, Y.M.; Piedbois, Y.; Pan, Q.; Guo, J.P.; Le Bourgeois, J.P. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France). Dept. de cancerologie

    1999-03-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of cutaneous lymphomas. In the treatment of Mycosis fungoides, total skin electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited and superficial forms of the disease. Radiotherapy is also efficient for the locally advanced forms of non-epidermo-tropic lymphomas. The palliative radiotherapy is indicated for advanced, nodular and treatment resistant forms of cutaneous lymphomas and for voluminous lymphadenopathies. (authors)

  6. Analysis of factors causing signal loss in the measurement of lung tissue water by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuzaki, Minoru [Tokai Univ. Junior Coll., Tokyo (Japan); Shioya, Sumie; Haida, Munetaka

    1997-05-01

    The water content of lung, brain, and muscle tissue was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and compared with gravimetric determinations. The NMR signal intensity of water was measured by a single 90 degree pulse and by a spin-echo sequence. The absolute water content was determined by the difference in the sample`s weight before and after desiccation. The NMR detectable water in each tissue was expressed as a percentage of the signal intensity for an equal weight of distilled water. Using the single pulse measurement, 67% of the gravimetrically-measured water was detected in collapsed lung samples (consisting of about 47% retained air), in contrast to 96% for brain and 98% for muscle. For degassed lung samples, the NMR detectability of water increased to 87% with the single pulse measurement and to 90% with the spin-echo measurement, but the values remained significantly less than those of brain or muscle. Factors that caused the NMR signal loss of 33% in collapsed lung samples were: air-tissue interfaces (20%), microscopic field inhomogeneity (3%), and a water component with an extremely short magnetization decay time constant (10%). (author)

  7. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  8. A Study on Distribution Measurement and Mechanism of Deformation due to Water Loss of Overburden Layer in Vertical Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on FBG fiber Bragg grating technology and BOTDA distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this study uses fine sand to simulate overburden layer in vertical shaft model equipment. It studies the placing technique and test method for optical fiber sensors in the overburden layer, combined with MODFLOW software to simulate the change of the water head value when the overburden layer is losing water, and obtains the deformation features of overburden layer. The results show, at the beginning of water loss, the vertical deformation increases due to larger hydraulic pressure drop, while the deformation decreases gradually and tends to be stable with the hydraulic pressure drop reducing. The circumferential deformation is closely related to such factors as the distance between each drainage outlet, the variations of water head value, and the method of drainage. The monitoring result based on optical fiber sensing technology is consistent with the characteristics of water loss in overburden layer simulated by MODFLOW software, which shows that the optical fiber sensing technology applied to monitor shaft overburden layer is feasible.

  9. Determination of fractional energy loss of waves in nearshore waters using an improved high-order Boussinesq-type model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hailun; SONG Jinbao; Patrick J. Lynett; LI Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Fractional energy losses of waves due to wave breaking when passing over a submerged bar are studied systematically using a modified numerical code that is based on the high-order Boussinesq-type equations. The model is first tested by the additional experimental data, and the model's capability of simulating the wave transformation over both gentle slope and steep slope is demonstrated. Then, the model's breaking index is replaced and tested. The new breaking index, which is optimized from the several breaking indices, is not sensitive to the spatial grid length and includes the bottom slopes. Numerical tests show that the modified model with the new breaking index is more stable and efficient for the shallow-water wave breaking. Finally, the modified model is used to study the fractional energy losses for the regular waves propagating and breaking over a submerged bar. Our results have revealed that how the nonlinearity and the dispersion of the incident waves as well as the dimensionless bar height (normalized by water depth) dominate the fractional energy losses. It is also found that the bar slope (limited to gentle slopes that less than 1:10) and the dimensionless bar length (normalized by incident wave length) have negligible effects on the fractional energy losses.

  10. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  11. Drought tolerance as predicted by leaf water potential at turgor loss point varies strongly across species within an Amazonian forest

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1. Amazonian droughts are predicted to become increasingly frequent and intense, and the vulnerability of Amazonian trees has become increasingly documented. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms and the diversity of drought tolerance of tropical trees due to the lack of quantitative measurements. 2. Leaf water potential at wilting or turgor loss point (pi(tlp)) is a determinant of the tolerance of leaves to drought stress and contributes to plant-level physiological...

  12. Repression of ARF10 by microRNA160 plays an important role in the mediation of leaf water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Dong, Xiufen; Liu, Zihan; Shi, Zihang; Jiang, Yun; Qi, Mingfang; Xu, Tao; Li, Tianlai

    2016-10-01

    Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor 10 (SlARF10) is post-transcriptionally regulated by Sl-miR160. Overexpression of a Sl-miR160-resistant SlARF10 (mSlARF10) resulted in narrower leaflet blades with larger stomata but lower densities. 35S:mSlARF10-6 plants with narrower excised leaves had greater water loss, which was in contrast to the wild type (WT). Further analysis revealed that the actual water loss was not consistent with the calculated stomatal water loss in 35S:mSlARF10-6 and the WT under the dehydration treatment, indicating that there is a difference in hydraulic conductance. Pretreatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and HgCl2 confirmed higher hydraulic conductance in 35S:mSlARF10, which is related to the larger stomatal size and higher activity of aquaporins (AQPs). Under ABA treatment, 35S:mSlARF10-6 showed greater sensitivity, and the stomata closed rapidly. Screening by RNA sequencing revealed that five AQP-related genes, fourteen ABA biosynthesis/signal genes and three stomatal development genes were significantly altered in 35S:mSlARF10-6 plants, and this result was verified by qRT-PCR. The promoter analysis showed that upregulated AQPs contain AuxRE and ABRE, implying that these elements may be responsible for the high expression levels of AQPs in 35S:mSlARF10-6. The three most upregulated AQPs (SlTIP1-1-like, SlPIP2;4 and SlNIP-type-like) were chosen to confirm AuxRE and ABRE function. Promoters transient expression demonstrated that the SlPIP2;4 and SlNIP-type-like AuxREs and SlPIP2;4 and SlTIP1-1-like ABREs could significantly enhance the expression of the GUS reporter in 35S:mSlARF10-6, confirming that AuxRE and ABRE may be the main factors inducing the expression of AQPs. Additionally, two upregulated transcription factors in 35S:mSlARF10-6, SlARF10 and SlABI5-like were shown to directly bind to those elements in an electromobility shift assay and a yeast one-hybrid assay. Furthermore, transient expression of down-regulated ARF10 or up

  13. Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure,however,the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those in low pressure,Therefore,the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University.The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of -coolant accident for pressurized water reacor.The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of -coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop.Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for :hot leg” break,while three types for “cold leg”break and the effect parameters on the break geometries.Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur.A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergentdivergent nozzles.

  14. No-Loss Transportation of Water Droplets by Patterning a Desired Hydrophobic Path on a Superhydrophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibao; Yu, Sixiao; Song, Dong

    2016-07-26

    The directional transportation of droplets on solid surfaces is essential in a wide range of engineering applications. It is convenient to guide liquid droplets in a given direction by utilizing the gradient of wettability, by which the binding forces can be produced. In contrast to the mass-loss transportation of a droplet moving along hydrophilic paths on a horizontal superhydrophobic surface, we present no-loss transportation by fabricating a hydrophobic path on the same surface under tangential wind. In experimental exploration and theoretical analysis, the conditions of no-loss transportation of a droplet are mainly considered. We demonstrate that the lower (or upper) critical wind velocity, under which the droplet starts on the path (or is derailed from the path), is determined by the width of the path, the length of the contact area in the direction parallel to the path, the drift angle between the path and the wind direction, and the surface wettability of the pattern. Meanwhile, the no-loss transportation of water droplets along the desired path zigzagging on a superhydrophobic surface can be achieved steadily under appropriate conditions. We anticipate that such robust no-loss transportation will find an extensive range of applications.

  15. Cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Dosal, F L; Estrada, J A; Piérard, G E

    1991-04-01

    We report an unusual cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells characterized by the presence of intraepidermal cells resembling Toker's cells of the nipple. These cells were EMA positive and could be related to the histogenesis of some Paget's disease.

  16. [Ocular metastasis of cutaneous melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, F; Balansard, B; Conrath, J; Forzano, O; Ridings, B

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of vitreal metastases from cutaneous melanoma. We describe the clinical findings and the histological aspects of the lesions, which allows us to discuss the diagnosis of masquerade syndrome and highlight the diagnostic importance of vitreous biopsy.

  17. Homeostasis in leaf water potentials on leeward and windward sides of desert shrub crowns: water loss control vs. high hydraulic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iogna, Patricia A; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabián G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in morphophysiological leaf traits in response to wind was studied in two dominant shrub species of the Patagonian steppe, used as model systems for understanding effects of high wind speed on leaf water relations and hydraulic properties of small woody plants. Morpho-anatomical traits, hydraulic conductance and conductivity and water relations in leaves of wind-exposed and protected crown sides were examined during the summer with nearly continuous high winds. Although exposed sides of the crowns were subjected to higher wind speeds and air saturation deficits than the protected sides, leaves throughout the crown had similar minimum leaf water potential (ΨL). The two species were able to maintain homeostasis in minimum ΨL using different physiological mechanisms. Berberis microphylla avoided a decrease in the minimum ΨL in the exposed side of the crown by reducing water loss by stomatal control, loss of cell turgor and low epidermal conductance. Colliguaja integerrima increased leaf water transport efficiency to maintain transpiration rates without increasing the driving force for water loss in the wind-exposed crown side. Leaf physiological changes within the crown help to prevent the decrease of minimum ΨL and thus contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis, assuring the hydraulic integrity of the plant under unfavorable conditions. The responses of leaf traits that contribute to mechanical resistance (leaf mass per area and thickness) differed from those of large physiological traits by exhibiting low phenotypic plasticity. The results of this study help us to understand the unique properties of shrubs which have different hydraulic architecture compared to trees.

  18. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  19. Cutaneous actinomycosis: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metgud S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare presentation. Here we present a case of cutaneous actinomycosis with no history of trauma or systemic dissemination. The isolate was identified as Actinomyces viscosus by standard methods. The isolate was found to be penicillin resistant by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Therefore, the patient was treated with cotrimoxazole and improved. Thus, this case highlights the importance of isolation and susceptibility testing in actinomycotic infection. The sinuses have healed, and the patient has recovered.

  20. Systemic diseases with cutaneous manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the following cutaneous manifestations of selected systemic diseases: poxvirus; feline leukemia virus (FeLV); feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); herpesvirus; calcivirus; pseudorabies; plague; tularemia; toxoplasmosis; leishmania; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; hyperadrenocorticism; diabetes mellitus; acromegaly; thallium poisoning; pancreatic disease; hypereosinophilic syndrome; mucopolysaccharidosis; and pansteatitis. Recognition of these cutaneous signs may help alert the clinician to the possibility of an internal disorder so that the appropriate diagnostic tests can be considered.

  1. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  2. Membrane permeability and the loss of germination factor from Neurospora crassa at low water activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlang, G.; Horowitz, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Neurospora crassa conidia incubating in buffer at low water activities release a germination-essential component as well as 260-nm absorbing and ninhydrin-positive materials, regardless of whether an electrolyte or nonelectrolyte is used to reduce water activity. Chloroform and antibiotics known to increase cell-membrane permeability have a similar effect. This suggests that membrane damage occurs in media of low water activity and that an increase in permeability is responsible for the release of cellular components. The damage caused in media of low water activity is nonlethal in most cases, and the conidia recover when transferred to nutrient medium.

  3. No runoff, no soil loss: soil and water conservation in hedgerow barrier systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiepe, P.

    1995-01-01

    Land degradation by water erosion represents a serious, and fast increasing, environmental threat. Hedgerow barriers control water erosion through the presence of the tree stem and through an increase in infiltration beneath the hedgerow. The infiltration rate beneath hedgerows is 3-8 times higher t

  4. Water loss from terrestrial planets orbiting ultracool dwarfs: implications for the planets of TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmont, E.; Selsis, F.; Owen, J. E.; Ribas, I.; Raymond, S. N.; Leconte, J.; Gillon, M.

    2017-01-01

    Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; Teff TRAPPIST-1. Despite assumptions maximizing the FUV photolysis of water and the XUV-driven escape of hydrogen, we find that planets can retain significant amount of water in the HZ of UCDs, with a sweet spot in the 0.04-0.06 M⊙ range. We also studied the TRAPPIST-1 system using observed constraints on the XUV flux. We find that TRAPPIST-1b and c may have lost as much as 15 Earth oceans and planet d - which might be inside the HZ - may have lost less than 1 Earth ocean. Depending on their initial water contents, they could have enough water to remain habitable. TRAPPIST-1 planets are key targets for atmospheric characterization and could provide strong constraints on the water erosion around UCDs.

  5. Use of Equivalent Loss Models Under Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent loss models encompass a variety of life table-based approaches that can be used to convert age- and life stage-specific estimates of entrainment and impingement loss to a common, easily understood currency. This common currency can be expressed in terms of numbers of individuals, yield to the fishery, or biomass to the ecosystem. These models have at least two key uses in the Section 316(b assessment process: screening for adverse environmental impact (AEI and determination of environmental benefits associated with intake alternatives. This paper reviews the various forms of equivalent loss models, their data input requirements, and their assumptions and limitations. In addition, it describes how these models can be used as a second-level screening tool as part of the assessment of the potential for AEI. Given their relative simplicity and ease of use, equivalent loss models should prove to be an important tool in the arsenal of impact assessment methods for Section 316(b.

  6. Managing the water-energy-food nexus: Gains and losses from new water development in Amu Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Shokhrukh-Mirzo; Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli; Amer, Saud; Ward, Frank A.

    2016-08-01

    According to the UN, the population of Central Asia will increase from its current approximately 65 million people to a well over 90 million by the end of this century. Taking this increasing population into consideration, it is impossible to project development strategies without considering three key factors in meeting the demands of a growing population: water, food and energy. Societies will have to choose, for instance, between using land and fertilizer for food production or for bio-based or renewable energy production, and between using fresh water for energy production or for irrigating crops. Thus water, food and energy are inextricably linked and must be considered together as a system. Recently, tensions among the Central Asian countries over the use of water for energy and energy production have increased with the building of Rogun Dam on the Vakhsh River, a tributary of the Amu Darya River. The dam will provide upstream Tajikistan with hydropower, while downstream countries fear it could negatively impact their irrigated agriculture. Despite recent peer reviewed literature on water resources management in Amu Darya Basin, none to date have addressed the interconnection and mutual impacts within water-energy-food systems in face of constructing the Rogun Dam. We examine two potential operation modes of the dam: Energy Mode (ensuring Tajikistan's hydropower needs) and Irrigation Mode (ensuring water for agriculture downstream). Results show that the Energy Mode could ensure more than double Tajikistan's energy capacity, but would reduce water availability during the growing season, resulting in an average 37% decline in agricultural benefits in downstream countries. The Irrigation Mode could bring a surplus in agricultural benefits to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in addition an increasing energy benefits in Tajikistan by two fold. However, energy production in the Irrigation Mode would be non-optimally distributed over the seasons resulting in the most of

  7. Extreme water loss and abiotic O2 buildup on planets throughout the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, R; Barnes, R

    2015-02-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than ∼1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred million years following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bar of abiotically produced O2, resulting in potential false positives for life. The amount of O2 that builds up also scales with the planet mass; we find that O2 builds up at a constant rate that is controlled by diffusion: ∼5 bar/Myr on Earth-mass planets and up to ∼25 bar/Myr on super-Earths. As a result, some recently discovered super-Earths in the habitable zone such as GJ 667Cc could have built up as many as 2000 bar of O2 due to the loss of up to 10 Earth oceans of water. The fate of a given planet strongly depends on the extreme ultraviolet flux, the duration of the runaway regime, the initial water content, and the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by the surface. In general, we find that the initial phase of high luminosity may compromise the habitability of many terrestrial planets orbiting low-mass stars.

  8. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jenkins, T.B. (Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from clean'' areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  9. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, T.B. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from ``clean`` areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  10. Genotyping of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glitza, Isabella C; Davies, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    Until recently, treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma were very limited. This landscape has evolved dramatically since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF gene in ~45% of cutaneous melanomas. Vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib have all received regulatory approval for the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients with a BRAF(V600) mutation. Based on the necessity to document the presence of a BRAF(V600) mutation to prescribe these agents, molecular testing is now the standard of care in this disease. However, the options and rationale for testing are evolving rapidly due to an improved understanding of the molecular drivers and heterogeneity of melanoma. Such testing may identify rational combinatorial approaches to prevent or overcome resistance for the approved BRAF inhibitors. In addition, new clinical strategies have been identified for a number of other molecular changes that are detected in this disease, including somatic changes in NRAS, PTEN, CDKN2A, and c-KIT, among others. This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic landscape of mutations in melanoma, their associations with clinicopathological features, and their implications for clinical testing and treatment.

  11. Loss of deuterium in faecal solids and by sequestration in reindeer: effect on doubly labelled water studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Gotaas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An underlying assumption when estimating total energy expenditure (TEE using doubly labelled water (DLW is that the injected isotopes (lsO and 2H leave the body only in the form of CO, and H20. However, both isotopes have additional routes of loss. We quantified the loss of 2H (i attached to faecal solids and (ii by sequestration into newly synthesised fat in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Estimates of the errors caused by these processes were applied to data from DLW studies with reindeer in summer and in winter. Given the net rate of faecal dry matter output and lipid synthesis in the present study, ignoring both sources of error caused the TEE of reindeer to be underestimated by approximately 5% in winter and approximately 9% in summer. The separate effect of each source of error was evaluated in summer. If ignored, loss of 2H through sequestration alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 3.7%. Similarly, if ignored, loss of 2H attached to faecal solids alone caused TEE to be underestimated by approximately 5.9%.

  12. Magnitude of Annual Soil Loss from a Hilly Cultivated Slope in Northern Vietnam and Evaluation of Factors Controlling Water Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kurosawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A soil erosion experiment was conducted in northern Vietnam over three rainy seasons to clarify the magnitude of soil loss and factors controlling water erosion. The plot had a low (8% or medium (14.5% slope with land-cover of cassava or morning glory or being bare. Annual soil loss (177 to 2,361 g/m2 was a tolerable level in all low-slope plots but was not in some medium-slope plots. The effects of slope gradient and seasonal rainfall on the mean daily soil loss of the season were confirmed, but the effect of land-cover was not, owing to the small canopy cover ratio or leaf area index during the season. The very high annual soil loss (>2,200 g/m2 observed in the first year of some medium-slope plots was the site-specific effect from initial land preparation. Since the site-specific effect was large, the preparation must be done carefully on the slope.

  13. Lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathy following the long head of the biceps rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, David M; Bishop, Allen T; Spinner, Robert J; Shin, Alexander Y

    2012-04-01

    Lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathies present as purely sensory lesions, manifesting as elbow pain or dysesthetic pain over the lateral forearm. Classically, entrapment of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve has been documented at the lateral edge of the biceps tendon as it exits the deep fascia in the antecubital fossa. We report a case of lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve traction neuritis, rather than entrapment, resulting from a rupture of the long head of the biceps. The biceps displaced the nerve laterally, resulting in sensory loss and severe allodynia. The patient's symptoms were relieved with proximal biceps tenodesis.

  14. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... noise, they are small (approximately one-third the size of mosquitoes), and their bites might not be ...

  15. Measuring surface-water loss in Honouliuli Stream near the ‘Ewa Shaft, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.

    2017-05-30

    The Honolulu Board of Water Supply is currently concerned with the possibility of bacteria in the pumped water of the ‘Ewa Shaft (State well 3-2202-21). Groundwater from the ‘Ewa Shaft could potentially be used to meet future potable water needs in the ‘Ewa area on the island of O‘ahu. The source of the bacteria in the pumped water is unknown, although previous studies indicate that surface water may be lost to the subsurface near the site. The ‘Ewa Shaft consists of a vertical shaft, started near the south bank of Honouliuli Stream at an altitude of about 161 feet, and two horizontal infiltration tunnels near sea level. The shaft extracts groundwater from near the top of the freshwater lens in the Waipahu-Waiawa aquifer system within the greater Pearl Harbor Aquifer Sector, a designated Water Management Area.The surface-water losses were evaluated with continuous groundwater-level data from the ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well, continuous stream-discharge data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 16212490 (Honouliuli Stream at H-1 Freeway near Waipahu), and seepage-run measurements in Honouliuli Stream and its tributary. During storms, discharge at the Honouliuli Stream gaging station increases and groundwater levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well also increase. The concurrent increase in water levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and the nearby monitoring well during storms indicates that regional groundwater-level changes related to increased recharge, reduced withdrawals (due to a decrease in demand during periods of rainfall), or both may be occurring; although these data do not preclude the possibility of local recharge from Honouliuli Stream. Discharge measurements from two seepage runs indicate that surface water in the immediate area adjacent to ‘Ewa Shaft infiltrates into the streambed and may later reach the groundwater system developed by the ‘Ewa Shaft. The estimated seepage loss rates in the vicinity of

  16. Contrasting recovery of shallow and deep water seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Michael A; McKenna, Skye A; Carter, Alexandra B; Coles, Robert G

    2014-06-30

    Tropical seagrass decline and recovery from severe storm impacts was assessed via quarterly measurements of seagrass biomass, species composition and experimental investigations of recovery in north Queensland. Shallow and deep seagrass meadows suffered major declines. Significant recovery in the two years following loss only occurred at deeper sites. Halophila spp. in deep water areas had a high capacity for recovery through the availability of seed banks. In contrast, the shallow species did not recover quickly from experimental disturbance, had poor seed reserves and relied on asexual propagation. The potential for shallow species to recover rapidly from widespread losses was limited as seed banks were limited or non-existent. Understanding inter- and intra-specific differences in seagrass recovery and how this interacts with location is critical to predict the consequences of climate events to tropical seagrasses. This is especially important as more frequent severe storms are predicted as a consequence of climate change.

  17. Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Miller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC, the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil.

  18. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  20. Onychomadesis Following Cutaneous Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damevska, Katerina; Gocev, Gorgi; Pollozahani, Nora; Nikolovska, Suzana; Neloska, Lence

    2017-04-01

    Beau lines are transverse, band-like depressions extending from one lateral edge of the nail to the other and affecting all nails at corresponding levels (1). Onychomadesis is considered an extreme form of Beau line with subsequent separation of the proximal nail plate from the nail bed. Both fall along a spectrum of nail plate abnormalities that occur secondary to temporary nail matrix arrest (NMA). Various systemic and dermatologic conditions have been reported in association with onychomadesis (2-7) (Table 1). Nail changes can affect all or some of the nails and both the fingernails and toenails; however, fingernails are more frequently affected. The severity of the nail changes varies depending on the underlying cause, its duration, and environmental factors (8). We present a case of onychomadesis following cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (CLCV). A 61-year-old woman presented to the Dermatology Clinic complaining of a purpuric rash that began on her lower extremities and rapidly progressed to her abdomen and upper extremities over the previous five days. Her medical history was remarkable for hypertension and diet-controlled diabetes mellitus. Her medications included enalapril, which she had been taking for the past four years. On three consecutive days before the skin eruption, the patient took oral diclofenac sodium for hip pain. A clinical examination revealed non-blanching petechial rash on the legs, abdomen, and upper limbs up to the elbow (Figure 1, A) with leukocytoclastic vasculitis on biopsy (Figure 1, B). Direct immunofluorescence was negative. Laboratory investigations revealed a white blood cell count of 14.5 × 109/L with a normal differential count, and a platelet count of 380 × 109/L. Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 65 mm/1st h, and C reactive protein was at 8.5 mg/dL. Antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, immune complexes, and cryoglobulinemia were negative, as were B and C hepatitis virus serological tests. Her renal

  1. Assessment, management rehabilitation of surface water losses due to longwall coal mining subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawkins, A.P. [Coffey Geosciences Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Subsidence due to longwall coal mining has generated notable effects on surface water and groundwater above numerous longwall coal mines in Queensland and NSW. This paper deals with the methods which can be used to assess, predict and rehabilitate the effects of longwall surface subsidence on surface water bodies. Aspects discussed cover the subsidence model, hydrological and hydrogeological assessment, hydrogeochemical changes and subsidence rehabilitation issues. The paper concludes that longwall surface subsidence can significantly affect the mine's local environment. However, with sufficient baseline data and a thorough assessment of site specific issues, longwalls can be planned to account for subsidence effects on surface water, and possible deleterious effects can be mitigated. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Preliminary phenomena identification and ranking tables for simplified boiling water reactor Loss-of-Coolant Accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, P.G.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, J.H.; Slovik, G.C.

    1998-04-01

    For three potential Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenarios in the General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactors (SBWR) a set of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) is presented. The selected LOCA scenarios are typical for the class of small and large breaks generally considered in Safety Analysis Reports. The method used to develop the PIRTs is described. Following is a discussion of the transient scenarios, the PIRTs are presented and discussed in detailed and in summarized form. A procedure for future validation of the PIRTs, to enhance their value, is outlined. 26 refs., 25 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. Modifications to the steady-state 41-node thermoregulatory model including validation of the respiratory and diffusional water loss equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.

  4. Aspects of cutaneous ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, K L

    1991-09-01

    'Ageing is a multistep, multifaceted, time-dependent phenomenon characterized by the decreased ability of a system to respond to exogenous and endogenous stress from either physical, chemical or biologic agents'. Cutaneous ageing provides a visible model of the interaction between endogenous (intrinsic) factors and exogenous (extrinsic) factors. In skin, the principal extrinsic-factor is ultraviolet light (UV) which is responsible for the constellation of changes termed photoageing. In recent years, much interest has been directed towards defining the ageing processes in skin and excellent comprehensive reviews have been compiled. This review aims to highlight several areas of developing knowledge, and focuses on the potential importance of environmental changes as they influence skin ageing and carcinogenesis. Repeated reference to the effects of UV on the skin are inevitable in any review of skin ageing and this is scarcely surprising as the skin contains many cells as well as subcellular and extracellular chromophores which are capable of absorbing energy within the UV spectrum. Cellular chromophores include among others keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, dermal fibroblasts and mast cells. Subcellular chromophores include keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin and a number of proteins, lipids and steroids (such as vitamin D). Urocanic acid, a photoisomerization product of the amino-acid histidine, may provide some limited photoprotection and some believe it to be important in UV induced immunosuppression. Understanding events at the molecular and biochemical level has unfortunately not been paralleled by clinical advances and the common, troublesome skin-problems of old age such as cancer, xerosis and pruritus remain a major cause of morbidity and yet are poorly explained.

  5. The stoichiometric approach in determining total evaporative water loss and the relationship between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss in two resting bird species: passerine and non-passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valery M.Gavrilov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaporation is of significant ecological interest.Evaporation from an animal always results in a decrease in the temperature of the surface from which the evaporation occurs.Therefore,evaporation is a one-way transfer which causes heat loss from the organism.Biological evaporation always involves the loss of water which is a vital resource for nearly all biochemical processes.Evaporation is loss of heat via loss of body mass.Methods: The simultaneous determination of energy expenditure and loss of body mass in resting birds allows us to estimate evaporative heat loss.This method includes direct measurements of the energetic equivalent of the loss of body mass as the ratio between heat production,determined by the rate of oxygen consumption and the loss of body mass at various ambient temperatures.Results: The data indicate that evaporation was minimal at lower critical temperature and that the rate of evaporation increased at lower or higher temperatures.Obtained results indicate that passerine and non-passerine species have the ability to change their non-evaporative heat conductance the same number of times(approximately fourfold),and that their abilities in this respect are similar.Conclusions: The novelty of the study resides in the stoichiometric approach to determination of total evaporative water loss.The analysis shows that determinations by stoichiometric approach of total evaporative water loss yielded the values,which fit into the confidence intervals of all equations from literatures.The basal metabolic rate and nonevaporative thermal conductance are fundamental parameters of energetics and determine the level of physiological organization of an endothermic animal.

  6. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  7. Subirrigation reduces water use, nitrogen loss, and moss growth in a container nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremy R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; Baron Horiuchi

    2006-01-01

    With about half the amount of water, subirrigated Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud. (Myrtaceae) grown 9 mo in a greenhouse were similar to those irrigated with an existing fixed overhead irrigation system; moss growth was about 3X greater in the fixed overhead system after 3 mo. Moss growth was affected by the rate of preplant controlled release fertilizer added (more...

  8. Self-Capacitance and Resistive Losses of Saline-Water-Filled Inductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Bakker, S.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of water-filled inductors are relevant for underwater wireless energy transfer. The influence of the relative permittivity and resistivity of the core material on the impedance of an inductor can be modeled with a lumped parameter circuit. The relative permittivity of the core material ha

  9. Analysis of the Pipe Heat Loss of the Water Flow Calorimetry System in EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; Chen, Yu; Xu, Yongjian; Yu, Ling; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Weitang

    2016-11-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is one of the main auxiliary heating methods in controllable nuclear fusion research. In the EAST neutral beam injector, a water flow calorimetry (WFC) system is applied to measure the heat load on the electrode system of the ion source and the heat loading components of the beamline. Due to the heat loss in the return water pipe, there are some measuring errors for the current WFC system. In this paper, the errors were measured experimentally and analyzed theoretically, which lay a basis for the exact calculation of beam power deposition distribution and neutralization efficiency. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB101001) and the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950)

  10. Cutaneous Plasmacytosis with Perineural Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Brezinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis are rare conditions of unknown etiology with characteristic red-brown skin lesions and a mature polyclonal plasma cell infiltrate within the dermis. Perineural plasma cell infiltrates may be a histologic clue to the diagnosis of cutaneous plasmacytosis. Observations. Our patient had a five-year history of persistent reddish-brown plaques on the neck and trunk without systemic symptoms. Histologic examination showed dermal perivascular and perineural plasma cells with excess lambda light chain expression. Due to decreased quality of life caused by his skin lesions, he was placed on a chemotherapeutic regimen with bortezomib. Conclusions and Relevance. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous plasmacytosis based on classic histopathology results with a recently characterized pattern of perineural involvement. Bortezomib therapy was initiated to manage his skin eruption, which has not been previously described as a treatment for this chronic condition.

  11. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Mara Therese Padilla; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Lopez-Villafuerte, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increased to 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments.

  12. The effects of nutrient losses from agriculture on ground and surface water quality: the position of science in developing indicators for regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Scholefield, D.; Cabral, F.; Hofmans, G.

    2004-01-01

    The magnitude of current nutrient losses from agriculture to ground and surface water calls for effective environmental policy, including the use of regulation. Nutrient loss is experienced in many countries despite differences in the organisation and intensity of agricultural production. However, a

  13. "Pure" cutaneous histiocytosis-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, S L; Botero, F; Hurwitz, S; Pearson, H A

    1981-11-15

    The case histories of two young children who experienced skin rashes involving various areas of the body are reported. The diagnosis of pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X was established after extensive studies revealed no other organ involvement. The patients were treated with oral corticosteroids. Currently, both children are in good health, show no evidence of disease, and have been followed over a four-to-five-year period. Therapy with corticosteroids may not be indicated with pure cutaneous histiocytosis-X unless there is evidence of extracutaneous dissemination or rapid progression of the disease.

  14. Interfacing systems LOCA (loss-of-coolant accidents): Pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes a study performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Reactor and Plant Safety Issues Branch, Division of Reactor and Plant Systems, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This study was requested by the NRC in order to provide a technical basis for the resolution of Generic Issue 105 ''Interfacing LOCA at LWRs.'' This report deals with pressurized water reactors (PWRs). A parallel report was also accomplished for boiling water reactors. This study focuses on three representative PWRs and extrapolates the plant-specific findings for their generic applicability. In addition, a generic analysis was performed to investigate the cost-benefit aspects of imposing a testing program that would require some minimum level of leak testing of the pressure isolation valves on plants that presently have no such requirements. 28 refs., 31 figs., 64 tabs.

  15. Extreme Water Loss and Abiotic O$_2$ Buildup On Planets Throughout the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Luger, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred Myr following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bars of abiotically produced O$_2$, resulting in potential false positives fo...

  16. Coastal retreat and improved water quality mitigate losses of seagrass from sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Megan I; Leon, Javier; Phinn, Stuart R; Callaghan, David P; O'Brien, Katherine R; Roelfsema, Chris M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Lyons, Mitchell B; Mumby, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    The distribution and abundance of seagrass ecosystems could change significantly over the coming century due to sea level rise (SLR). Coastal managers require mechanistic understanding of the processes affecting seagrass response to SLR to maximize their conservation and associated provision of ecosystem services. In Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, vast seagrass meadows supporting populations of sea turtles and dugongs are juxtaposed with the multiple stressors associated with a large and rapidly expanding human population. Here, the interactive effects of predicted SLR, changes in water clarity, and land use on future distributions of seagrass in Moreton Bay were quantified. A habitat distribution model of present day seagrass in relation to benthic irradiance and wave height was developed which correctly classified habitats in 83% of cases. Spatial predictions of seagrass and presence derived from the model and bathymetric data were used to initiate a SLR inundation model. Bathymetry was iteratively modified based on SLR and sedimentary accretion in seagrass to simulate potential seagrass habitat at 10 year time steps until 2100. The area of seagrass habitat was predicted to decline by 17% by 2100 under a scenario of SLR of 1.1 m. A scenario including the removal of impervious surfaces, such as roads and houses, from newly inundated regions, demonstrated that managed retreat of the shoreline could potentially reduce the overall decline in seagrass habitat to just 5%. The predicted reduction in area of seagrass habitat could be offset by an improvement in water clarity of 30%. Greater improvements in water clarity would be necessary for larger magnitudes of SLR. Management to improve water quality will provide present and future benefits to seagrasses under climate change and should be a priority for managers seeking to compensate for the effects of global change on these valuable habitats.

  17. Distribution of natural water loss in the mountains in the mountains of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Harold C.

    1956-01-01

    Observational data obtained at various points in the mountains of Southern California indicate that a considerable part of the basin's precipitation is lost to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Occasionally the engineer is called upon to obtain the arcal distribution of this basin-wide loss. Currently one of the most promising methods for accomplishing this distribution in Southern California is based on the well-known P/E factor, where P represents the moisture availability and E the opportunity for evapotranspiration. The moisture availability is based on the precipitation and the opportunity for evapotranspiration on the evaporation from a type-A Weather Bureau pan. Where evaporation records are not available, suitable substitute values can often be estimated from regional temperature, humidity, and wind records.

  18. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  19. Cutaneous cancer and xeroderma pigmentosum; Cancer cutane et xeroderma pigmentosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Mnejja, W.; Siala, W.; Daoud, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Radiotherapie Carcinologique, Sfax (Tunisia); Sallemi, T. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Sfax (Tunisia); Turki, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Dermatologie, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2007-11-15

    The cutaneous cancer at the patients affected by xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by its multifocal character and its strong radiosensitivity. A premature care and a regular follow-up for life of these patients is indispensable for the detection and the treatment of new hurts. The precautionary measures are also important by the school eviction. (N.C.)

  20. Chronic Urticaria: A Cutaneous Manifestation of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Haussmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an immune-mediated disease of the small bowel that results in malabsorption. It classically presents with gastrointestinal symptoms including chronic diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal bloating and anorexia. It is becoming more frequently identified in asymptomatic patients with a diagnosis of deficiencies related to malabsorption of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. It is increasingly identified as a cause for early or refractory osteoporosis. Occasionally, celiac disease presents with cutaneous manifestations alone. Dermatitis herpetiformis is a well-recognized cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease. Other cutaneous manifestations include alopecia, angular stomatitis and aphthous ulcerations. Described here is a case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with intermittent urticaria and gastrointestinal complaints. She was found to have celiac disease on small-bowel biopsy. Both her gastrointestinal symptoms and urticaria resolved when she was put on a gluten-free diet, suggesting that her urticaria was a cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease.

  1. Temperature and water loss affect ADH activity and gene expression in grape berry during postharvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; De Santis, Diana; Botondi, Rinaldo; Colao, Maria Chiara; Muleo, Rosario; Mencarelli, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    Clusters of Aleatico wine grape were picked at 18°Brix and placed at 10, 20, or 30°C, 45% relative humidity (RH) and 1.5m/s of air flow to dehydrate the berries up to 40% of loss of initial fresh weight. Sampling was done at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight loss (wl). ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene expression, enzyme activity, and related metabolites were analysed. At 10°C, acetaldehyde increased rapidly and then declined, while ethanol continued to rise. At 20°C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased significantly with the same pattern and declined at 40%wl. At 30°C, acetaldehyde did not increase but ethanol increased rapidly already at 10%wl. At the latter temperature, a significant increase in acetic acid and ethyl acetate occurred, while at 10°C their values were low. At 30°C, the ADH activity (ethanol to acetaldehyde direction), increased rapidly but acetaldehyde did not rise because of its oxidation to acetic acid, which increased together with ethyl acetate. At 10°C, the ADH activity increased at 20%wl and continued to rise even at 40%wl, meaning that ethanol oxidation was delayed. At 20°C, the behaviour was intermediate to the other temperatures. The relative expression of the VvAdh2 gene was the highest at 10°C already at 10%wl in a synchrony with the ADH activity, indicating a rapid response likely due to low temperature. The expression subsequently declined. At 20 and 30°C, the expression was lower and increased slightly during dehydration in combination with the ADH activity. This imbalance between gene expression and ADH activity at 10°C, as well as the unexpected expression of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) gene, opens the discussion on the stress sensitivity and transcription event during postharvest dehydration, and the importance of carefully monitoring temperature during dehydration.

  2. The impact of land use on water loss and soil desiccation in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Farmlands have gradually been replaced by apple orchards in Shaanxi province, China, and there will be a risk of severe soil-water-storage deficit with the increasing age of the apple trees. To provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in the Loess Plateau, soil water content in a 19-year-old apple orchard, a 9-year-old apple orchard, a cornfield and a wheat field in the Changwu Tableland was investigated at different depths from January to October 2014. The results showed that: (1) the soil moisture content is different across the soil profile—for the four plots, the soil moisture of the cornfield is the highest, followed by the 9-year-old apple orchard and the wheat field, and the 19-year-old apple orchard has the lowest soil moisture. (2) There are varying degrees of soil desiccation in the four plots: the most serious degree of desiccation is in the 19-year-old apple orchard, followed by the wheat field and the cornfield, with the least severe desiccation occurring in the 9-year-old apple orchard. Farmland should replace apple orchards for an indefinite period while there is an extremely desiccated soil layer in the apple orchard so as to achieve the purpose of sustainable development. It will be necessary to reduce tree densities, and to carry out other research, if development of the economy and ecology of Changwu is to be sustainable.

  3. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and neurocutaneous cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous cysticerci are often a pointer to the involvement of internal organs. A series of 33 patients including 5 vegetarians, between 10 to 48 years age, were investigated. Almost half the patients presented with cutaneous cysts of less than one month duration or were unaware of it. In the, other the duration varied upto 10 years. Cutaneous cysts were present in the case&Mental retardation, diminished vision and flashes of lights were, recorded in one case each, raised intracranial tension in 11 and seizures in 29 patients. Four, of the 6 patients with solitary cysts had no involvement of the internal- organs, whereas all the 27 patients with multiple had in nt of brain. Trunk was the commonest site in 16 patients. The other sites involved were scalp, eyelids, face, tongue neck, breast and limbs. Stool examination -for tapeworm segments/ eggs was positive in 2,calcification was seen on X-ray examination of skull in one and of soft tissues in 3, CT scan of skull was suggestive of cysticerci in 27 and skin biopsy for cysticercosis was confirmatory in all the 33 patients. Four patients with a solitary cutaneous cyst were treated by excision. One patients with neurocutaneous cysts was treated with albendazole without response. Out of 16patients with mucocutaneous and neurocutaneous cysticercosis treated with praziquantel, one did not respond. 7 responded partially and 8 had complete relief.

  4. Ultraviolet light and cutaneous lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining th

  5. Ultraviolet light and cutaneous lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining th

  6. Vitiligo associated with cutaneous amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar V

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is known to be associated with a variety of dermatoses and systemic diseases. We describe a case of vitiligo developing in a patient having cutaneous amyloidosis. To our knowledge this is the first report of its kind in the literature.

  7. TUBERCULOUS SIALO-CUTANEOUS FISTULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapi Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis of the parotid gland is a rare clinica l entity. We present a case of parotid gland tuberculosis that presented with a sial o-cutaneous fistula. This case was successfully treated with antituberculous drugs onl y without any surgical excision.

  8. Multiple Cutaneous (pre)-Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.T. van der Leest (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The three most common cutaneous malignancies are derived from melanocytes and keratinocytes (ordered in decreasing aggressiveness): melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). This thesis focuses only on these three types of cancer and their

  9. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  10. “Malignant Cutaneous Ulcer”

    OpenAIRE

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Kotwal, Sumedha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an aggressive malignancy and the rich vascular supply enables it to metastasize early via haematogenous route. Skin lesions are a late manifestation of the disease. Clinicians should be aware of cutaneous presentation of RCC while evaluating a case of unknown primary with skin lesions.

  11. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: cutaneous manifestations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Polizel, Juliana Ocanha; Munhoz, Tânia; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is the current name for clinical manifestations of diseases previously known as “infantile systemic hyalinosis” and “juvenile hyaline fibromatosis”. The authors report representative clinical cases of each one of the above subtypes with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations and difficulties for early diagnosis in this syndrome, essentially of multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27192526

  12. Cutaneous Metastases From Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Georgia, Doulami; Gavriella-Zoi, Vrakopoulou; Dimitrios, Mpistarakis; Stulianos, Katsaragakis; Theodoros, Liakakos; Georgios, Zografos; Dimitrios, Theodorou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present 2 rare cases of cutaneous metastases originated from adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, thus, underline the need for early diagnosis and possible treatment of suspicious skin lesions among patients with esophageal malignancy. Metastatic cancer to the skin originated from internal malignancies, mostly lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, constitute 0.5 to 9% of all metastatic cancers.5,8,15 Skin metastases, mainly from squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, are rarely reported. Cutaneous metastasis is a finding indicating progressiveness of the disease.17 More precisely, median survival is estimated approximately 4.7 months.2,14 This study is a retrospective review of 2 cases of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and a review of the literature. Two patients aged 60 and 32 years old, respectively, underwent esophagectomy. Both pathologic reports disclosed adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction staged T3 N2 M0 (stage IIIB). During follow-up time, the 2 patients were diagnosed with cutaneous metastases originated from the primary esophageal tumor 11 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The first patient is alive 37 months after diagnosis, while the second one died 16 months after surgery. Cutaneous metastasis caused by esophageal adenocarcinoma is possible. Therefore, follow-up of patients who were diagnosed with esophageal malignancy and underwent esophagectomy is mandatory in order to reveal early surgical stages. PMID:25785344

  13. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases.

  14. Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorraine; Wilson, Jared; Holden, Joseph; Johnstone, Ian; Armstrong, Alona; Morris, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The potential for restoration of peatlands to deliver benefits beyond habitat restoration is poorly understood. There may be impacts on discharge water quality, peat erosion, flow rates and flood risk, and nutrient fluxes. This study aimed to assess the impact of drain blocking, as a form of peatland restoration, on an upland blanket bog, by measuring water chemistry and colour, and loss of both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The restoration work was designed to permit the collection of a robust experimental dataset over a landscape scale, with data covering up to 3 years pre-restoration and up to 3 years post-restoration. An information theoretic approach to data analyses provided evidence of a recovery of water chemistry towards more 'natural' conditions, and showed strong declines in the production of water colour. Drain blocking led to increases in the E4:E6 ratio, and declines in specific absorbance, suggesting that DOC released from blocked drains consisted of lighter, less humic and less decomposed carbon. Whilst concentrations of DOC showed slight increases in drains and streams after blocking, instantaneous yields of both DOC and POC declined markedly in streams over the first year post-restoration. Attempts were made to estimate total annual fluvial organic carbon fluxes for the study site, and although errors around these estimates remain considerable, there is strong evidence of a large reduction in aquatic organic carbon flux from the peatland following drain-blocking. Potential mechanisms for the observed changes in water chemistry and organic carbon release are discussed, and we highlight the need for more detailed information, from more sites, to better understand the full impacts of peatland restoration on carbon storage and release.

  15. Effectiveness of cuticular transpiration barriers in a desert plant at controlling water loss at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ann-Christin; Burghardt, Markus; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Bueno, Amauri; Hedrich, Rainer; Leide, Jana; Thomas, Jacob; Riederer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the cuticular transpiration barrier even at elevated temperatures is of vital importance especially for hot-desert plants. Currently, the temperature dependence of the leaf cuticular water permeability and its relationship with the chemistry of the cuticles are not known for a single desert plant. This study investigates whether (i) the cuticular permeability of a desert plant is lower than that of species from non-desert habitats, (ii) the temperature-dependent increase of permeability is less pronounced than in those species and (iii) whether the susceptibility of the cuticular permeability barrier to high temperatures is related to the amounts or properties of the cutin or the cuticular waxes. We test these questions with Rhazya stricta using the minimum leaf water vapour conductance (gmin) as a proxy for cuticular water permeability. gmin of R. stricta (5.41 × 10(-5) m s(-1) at 25 °C) is in the upper range of all existing data for woody species from various non-desert habitats. At the same time, in R. stricta, the effect of temperature (15-50 °C) on gmin (2.4-fold) is lower than in all other species (up to 12-fold). Rhazya stricta is also special since the temperature dependence of gmin does not become steeper above a certain transition temperature. For identifying the chemical and physical foundation of this phenomenon, the amounts and the compositions of cuticular waxes and cutin were determined. The leaf cuticular wax (251.4 μg cm(-2)) is mainly composed of pentacyclic triterpenoids (85.2% of total wax) while long-chain aliphatics contribute only 3.4%. In comparison with many other species, the triterpenoid-to-cutin ratio of R. stricta (0.63) is high. We propose that the triterpenoids deposited within the cutin matrix restrict the thermal expansion of the polymer and, thus, prevent thermal damage to the highly ordered aliphatic wax barrier even at high temperatures.

  16. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent with Backscattering at X and Ku Band Based on Absorption Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurong Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow water equivalent (SWE is a key parameter in the Earth’s energy budget and water cycle. It has been demonstrated that SWE can be retrieved using active microwave remote sensing from space. This necessitates the development of forward models that are capable of simulating the interactions of microwaves and the snow medium. Several proposed models have described snow as a collection of sphere- or ellipsoid-shaped ice particles embedded in air, while the microstructure of snow is, in reality, more complex. Natural snow usually forms a sintered structure following mechanical and thermal metamorphism processes. In this research, the bi-continuous vector radiative transfer (bi-continuous-VRT model, which firstly constructs snow microstructure more similar to real snow and then simulates the snow backscattering signal, is used as the forward model for SWE estimation. Based on this forward model, a parameterization scheme of snow volume backscattering is proposed. A relationship between snow optical thickness and single scattering albedo at X and Ku bands is established by analyzing the database generated from the bi-continuous-VRT model. A cost function with constraints is used to solve effective albedo and optical thickness, while the absorption part of optical thickness is obtained from these two parameters. SWE is estimated after a correction for physical temperature. The estimated SWE is correlated with the measured SWE with an acceptable accuracy. Validation against two-year measurements, using the SnowScat instrument from the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx, shows that the estimated SWE using the presented algorithm has a root mean square error (RMSE of 16.59 mm for the winter of 2009–2010 and 19.70 mm for the winter of 2010–2011.

  17. Thermographic Imaging of Material Loss in Boiler Water-Wall Tubing by Application of Scanning Line Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water-wall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proven to be very manpower and time intensive. This has resulted in a spot check approach to inspections, documenting thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler water-walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented which explains the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of applying this technology to actual water-wall tubing samples and in situ inspections will be presented.

  18. Using the soil water balance to analyze the deep percolation losses and the irrigation adequacy of irrigated citrus crops (Haouz plain, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassah, Houda; Fakir, Younes; Er-raki, Salah; Khabba, Said; Merlin, Olivier; Mougenot, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    In the semi-arid Haouz plain, located in central Morocco, agriculture consumes about 85% of the available water resources. Therefore, the management of irrigation water is important to avoid the water loss by soil evaporation and by deep percolation (DP) below the plant root zone. Estimating the irrigation water demand has been investigated by many studies in the Haouz plain, but DP losses beneath the irrigated areas have not been quantified yet. In this context, the objectives of the persent work are threefold :1) to evaluate DP over irrigated citrus orchard under drip and flood irrigation systems using the soil water balance equation; 2) to compare the obtained results to direct measurements of DP by a "flux-meter"; and 3) to optimize the irrigation rates that avoid excessive DP losses and water stress. The results showed that the weekly DP losses vary in average from 15 mm/week to more than 40 mm/week depending to the amount of water supply. The irrigation systems have also an important impact on DP losses evaluated to 38 % in drip irrigation and 12% in flood irrigation. Additionally the density of canopy influences the DP percentage inducing a difference of 10% between the denser citrus site and the sparse one. The comparison of DP losses calculated by soil water balance with those measured by a flux-meter installed beneath the root zone show that the first method gives higher values than the second does. Finally we evaluated the adequacy of the water supply for the crop needs based on two performance indices: depleted fraction (DF) and relative evapotranspiration (RET), showing that the drip irrigation has respond to the culture demands with an excessive quantity of irrigation, unlike to the flood one.

  19. Integrating Phosphorus Movement with Soil and Water Loss in the Daily Erosion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenar, Tim; Perez-Bidegain, Mario; Cruse, Richard; Gelder, Brian; Herzmann, Daryl

    2016-04-01

    The Daily Erosion Project (DEP) is an ongoing modelling effort which is now in its second generation. DEP provides comprehensive and dynamic estimates of sediment delivery, soil erosion, and hill slope runoff for agricultural land areas across the Midwestern United States every day for Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC 12) size watersheds. Results are posted every morning on the Internet at dailyerosion.org. Currently DEP covers all of Iowa and portions of Kansas and Minnesota, but expansion of coverage is ongoing. The integration of highly resolute spatial and temporal climate data, soil properties, crop rotation and residue management data affords the opportunity to test the effects of using multiple conservation practices on the transport and fate of water borne nutrients, especially phosphorus, on the Midwestern United States agricultural landscapes. Understanding the interaction of different environmental and land management practices on phosphorus movement will allow data from the DEP to guide conservation efforts as expansion continues into surrounding Midwestern states. The presentation will provide an overview of the DEP technology, including how input data are derived and used to make daily erosion estimates on over 200,000 flowpaths in the modelling area, as well as a discussion of the ongoing phosphorus transport modelling efforts and plans for future expansion (both land area and model functionality).

  20. Dynamic Monitoring of Soil and Water Losses Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: a Case Study of Jialing River, Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Zhu, Y. J.; Li, G. E.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Li, R. H.; Wang, L.; Wu, Y. J.

    2016-06-01

    Water and soil loss problems are serious in China, especially in the upper and middle reaches of big rivers. This paper dynamically observed water and soil loss in key control regions in Jialing River Basin. Based on remotely sensed images, the method used in this paper is a combination of field investigation and indoor artificial interpretation under the technologies of RS and GIS. The method was proven to be effective of improving the accuracy of interpreting. The result shows the land use types of the researched regions and how they changed among the previous years. Evaluation of water and soil conservation was made. This result can provide references for further policy-making and water and soil loss controlling.

  1. An information system design for watershed-wide modeling of water loss to the atmosphere using remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a study intended to develop a general location-specific remote-sensing procedure for watershed-wide estimation of water loss to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. The general approach involves a stepwise sequence of required information definition (input data), appropriate sample design, mathematical modeling, and evaluation of results. More specifically, the remote sensing-aided system developed to evaluate evapotranspiration employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Based on the discussed design, documentation, and feasibility analysis to yield timely, relatively accurate, and cost-effective evapotranspiration estimates on a watershed or subwatershed basis, work is now proceeding to implement this remote sensing-aided system.

  2. ROSA-III base test series for a large break loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasaka, K.; Abe, N.; Anoda, Y.; Koizumi, Y.; Shiba, M.

    1982-05-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. It is confirmed from the experimental results obtained so far that the ROSA-III test facility can simulate major aspects of a BWR LOCA, such as boiling transition by lowering of the mixture level in the core, rewetting by the lower plenum flashing, and final quenching by the ECCS. The overall agreement between the calculated results by the RELAP5/ MOD0 code and the experimental results is good; however, the calculated lower plenum flashing rewetted the whole core and the calculated cladding temperature considerably underpredicts the measured value at the upper part of the core.

  3. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    of regulations will require very detailed information concerning e.g. climate, soil, geological settings, and hydrological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitrate (concentrations and losses) from drainage water at three fields (1.3-2.3 ha) located across Denmark.......g. climate, soil type and local hydraulic conditions. By the end of 2013, the Danish Commission of Nature and Agriculture issued a report which recommend that for the future protection of surface nitrogen regulations should be locally adapted, and if possible, at the level of field scale. This kind...... varying in climate, soil type and geology. Each site, is systematically subsurface tile drained in a depth of about 1.1 meters and with a horizontal spacing of 18-20 meters. On each site detailed information are recorded regarding crop development, tillage, N-fertilization (amount, type and time...

  4. Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Lawrence, Gregory B; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-04-15

    Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha(-1) in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Protoplasmic Water Loss on the Control of Protein Synthesis in the Desiccation-Tolerant Moss Tortula ruralis 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melvin J.

    1991-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance of the moss Tortula ruralis is characterized by a desiccation-induced change in gene expression that becomes evident upon rehydration. As reported earlier, this change in gene expression is apparently brought about by a change in the control of translation and does not include a major shift in mRNA abundance. A full qualitative and quantitative analysis of the alteration in gene expression, which is characterized by the loss of (or greater than fivefold decrease in) the synthesis of 25 hydration (h) proteins and initiation (or greater than fivefold increase) of the synthesis of 74 rehydration (r) proteins, is given in this report. Exposure to a desiccating atmosphere, for times that result in varying levels of water loss, enabled the determination that the control of synthesis of r proteins is different from the control of synthesis of h proteins. The r and h protein synthesis responses are internally coordinate, however. Similarly, the return to normal levels of h protein synthesis differs from that of the r proteins. The return to normal synthetic levels for all h proteins is synchronous, but the rate of loss of r protein synthesis varies with each individual r protein. Run-off translation of polysomes isolated from gametophytes during the drying phase demonstrates that there are no novel mRNAs recruited and no particular mRNA is favored for translation during desiccation. These findings add credence to the argument that translational control is the major component of the desiccation-induced alteration in gene expression in this plant, as discussed. Aspects of the response of protein synthesis to desiccation are consistent with the hypothesis that T. ruralis exhibits a repair-based mechanism of desiccation tolerance. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668577

  6. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Since 1985, several political agreements have been adopted to protect the aquatic environment and nature in Denmark. The farmers have repeatedly been ordered to reduce the consumption of nitrogen in their agricultural production. The reductions have been imposed nation-wide regardless of e.g. cli...... in concentrations and leaching losses of nitrate as well as in the dynamic over time. The results highlight some of the problems ahead when future regulations change from nation-wide to local scale........g. climate, soil type and local hydraulic conditions. By the end of 2013, the Danish Commission of Nature and Agriculture issued a report which recommend that for the future protection of surface nitrogen regulations should be locally adapted, and if possible, at the level of field scale. This kind...... of regulations will require very detailed information concerning e.g. climate, soil, geological settings, and hydrological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitrate (concentrations and losses) from drainage water at three fields (1.3-2.3 ha) located across Denmark...

  7. Efficiency of a Grass Buffer Strip for Limiting Diuron Losses from an Uphill Vineyard Towards Surface and Subsurface Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.-G. LACAS; N. CARLUER; M. VOLTZ

    2012-01-01

    Grass buffer strips limit the transfer of pesticides from cultivated fields to rivers.These solutions are generally efficient at reducing polluted surface flows,mainly by infiltration of the soil,raising the question of the fate of the infiltrated pollutants.An environmental evaluation was conducted on the efficiency of a grass strip receiving diuron-contaminated water from an uphill vineyard in France.During two runoff events,the following measurements were taken:surface inflow and outflow with Venturi flumes,vertical percolated flow below the root layer (0-50 cm),and variations in water and solute content of the root layer.One runoff event occurred under natural rainfall conditions,while the other runoff event was artificially provoked with water doped by diuron and bromide.For the natural runoff event,representative of medium intensity events,94% of the diuron was retained in the root layer,whereas 2% left the grass strip by surface runoff and 4% left the grass strip in the water percolating under the root zone.For the artificial event,representative of intense runoff events,more than half of the incoming diuron was retained by the grass strip,whereas 24% and 18%of it were transferred by surface runoff and percolation,respectively.These results showed that the capacity of the root layer to retain diuron was highly significant despite a large percolation flux.However,for large runoff events,surface and subsurface losses can still be considerable,up to 40% of the pesticide load entering the strip.

  8. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  9. Mycobacterium marinum cutaneous infections acquired from occupations and hobbies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullavanijaya, P; Sirimachan, S; Bhuddhavudhikrai, P

    1993-07-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTB) infections are not commonly diagnosed in Thailand. The dissertation of reported cases among 10 published reports of 44 cases within 20 years revealed only six cases of cutaneous infections in which M. marinum was not included. The proven cases of M. marinum infection were studied at the Institute of Dermatology, Bangkok from 1981 to 1990. The clinical data, histopathology, tuberculin test, chest x-ray, and treatments were recorded. M. marinum skin infection accounted for 18 cases (81.8% of NTB skin infection), 10 men and 8 women. A history of preceding trauma occurred in 11 cases (61.1%), most of which were negligible wounds or minor abrasions. Twelve cases (66.7%) were in contact with organisms in their occupations and hobbies associated with fish and water exposure. Eighteen cases of M. marinum cutaneous infection acquired from occupations and hobbies were reported. The term "M. marinum cutaneous infection" or "M. marinum granuloma" instead of swimming pool granuloma or fish tank granuloma was proposed. According to this study, cotrimoxazole was the most appropriate drug for the treatment of M. marinum cutaneous infection.

  10. The noncondensable gas effects on loss-of-coolant accident steam condensation loads in boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Namatame, K.; Shiba, M.; Takeshita, I.

    1983-11-01

    The noncondensable gas effects on the loss-ofcoolant-accident-induced steam condensation loads in the boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool have been investigated with regard to experimental data obtained from a large-scale multivent test program. Previous studies have noted that the presence of the noncondensable gas (air), which initially fills the containment drywell space, stabilizes the direct-contact condensation in the pressure suppression pool and hampers onset of the chugging phenomenon, which induces most significant steam condensation load onto the pool boundary. This was found to be true for the tests with relatively small-break diameters, where the maximum steam mass fluxes in the vent pipe were lower than the upper threshold value for the onset of chugging. However, in the tests with the maximum vent steam mass fluxes moderately higher than the chugging upper threshold value, early depletion of the noncondensable gas tended to result in significant stabilization of steam condensation accompanied by an excursion of temperature of pool water surrounding the vent pipe outlets, which led to a delayed onset of chugging. Due to this combined influence of the noncondensable gas and nonuniform pool temperature, and due to dependence of magnitude of chugging load on the vent steam mass flux, the peak magnitude of the steam condensation load appearing in a blowdown can be very sensitive to the initial and break conditions.

  11. Three Cases of Oropharyngeal Tularemia with Non spesific Cutaneous Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgül Muştu Koryürek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. Oropharyngeal tularemia is the most common form of disease in our country, which spreads by intake of contaminated water or food. We presented 3 oropharengeal tularemia cases with cutaneous signs. The patients with oral and/or pharangeal ulcers or sore throat, especially when the disease does not respond to beta lactam antibiotics, the skin of patient must be examined carefully and tularemia must be one of the differantial diagnosis.

  12. Cutaneous manifestations of human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavignet, Béatrice; Piarroux, Renaud; Aubin, François; Millon, Laurence; Humbert, Philippe

    2008-12-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic disease characterized by the presence of larvae of the genus Toxocara in human tissues. T canis and T cati, the adult roundworms of which are found in dog and cat intestines, respectively, are the most common causative agents of the disease. Toxocaral larvae usually cause two severe syndromes: visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans, depending on the location of the larvae. Two other syndromes, covert toxocariasis and common toxocariasis, which are less typical and not as severe, have also been described. During the last two decades, cutaneous manifestations such as chronic urticaria, chronic pruritus, and miscellaneous eczema, in patients with Toxocara antibodies, have been studied by different authors. In some cases, these cutaneous manifestations are the only signs indicating the presence of the disease, and they are cured after antihelmintic treatment when there is good patient compliance. In this review, we focus on these particular skin manifestations regarding their clinical description, diagnosis, and treatment.

  13. Cutaneous myiasis from Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, S T; Tieszen, M E

    1997-08-01

    We present a case report of cutaneous myiasis in a foreign traveler who was infected by Dermatobia hominis while visiting South America. This patient developed a painful furuncular lesion on the anterior scalp and noted that the lesion drained a serosanguinous fluid for more than a month before definitive treatment. Invasion of mammalian tissue by the larval forms of D. hominis typically results in the formation of a classic furuncular lesion. For persons who present with a lesion that contains a central draining stoma located on an exposed body surface, the diagnosis of myiasis should always be considered. In addition to the case report, we present a discussion of furuncular myiasis and describe the peculiar life cycle of the human botfly. We also describe the various therapies that may be employed for treating cutaneous myiasis, including surgical extraction of the larva and asphyxiation of the larva by application of petroleum jelly or other fat derivatives to the central stoma or breathing aperture.

  14. Multiple isolated cutaneous plexiform schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. S. Attia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform schwannoma is a rare neurogenic tumor, arising from skin and subcutaneous tissue. The presence of multiple schwannomas suggests a possible association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2. A 50-year old male patient presented with multiple papulo-nodular cutaneous lesions on both arms and forearms. Histopathological examination revealed a dermal multinodular pattern of well-circumscribed masses of closely packed cells, with peripheral myxoid tissue, well-encapsulated in a thin collagenous capsule. S-100 immunohistochemical staining was diffusely and strongly positive. Neuron-specific enolase was positive, confirming a neural tissue tumor. An audiogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of cerebro-pontine angle showed no detected abnormality, excluding acoustic neuroma. Thus, we present a case of multiple bilateral isolated cutaneous plexiform schwannomas, not associated with NF2. Multiple plexiform schwannomas is a very rare entity, distinct from neurofibromatosis (NF, and being confined to the dermis is even more rarely reported.

  15. Carcinoma in cutaneous Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma occurring in the cutaneous lesions of Lichen Planus though rarely mentioned in literature does occur and should be kept in mind while treating such lesions. We report a 16 year female who developed a squamous cell carcinoma in a long standing verrucous lichen planus in the lower leg. This case is being presented to indicate the possibility of malignant transformation of cutaneous lichen planus to carcinoma, especially in the hypertrophic forms and the need to have an early diagnosis so that it can be treated in the initial stages. A high degree of suspicion should be present whenever we come across a non healing lesion in a patient with lichen planus. A few markers, which may give us a clue for increased chances of malignant transformation in these cases is presented.

  16. Cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Ahmed; Said, Adnan

    2015-02-01

    There are several extrahepatic cutaneous manifestations associated with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection. Serum sickness and polyarteritis nodosa are predominantly associated with hepatitis B infection, whereas mixed cryoglobulinemia associated vasculitis and porphyria cutanea tarda are more frequently seen in hepatitis C infection. The clinico-pathogenic associations of these skin conditions are not completely defined but appear to involve activation of the host immune system including the complement system. Management of the aforementioned cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis is often similar to that done in cases without viral hepatitis, with control of immune activation being a key strategy. In cases associated with hepatitis B and C, control of viral replication with specific antiviral therapy is also important and associated with improvement in most of the associated clinical manifestations.

  17. Predicting and evaluating losses from a drinking water distribution network; Prediccion y evaluacion de perdidas en una red de distribucion de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias Bazan, E.; Pelayo Martin, I.

    1998-06-01

    The ratio m``3 lost/m``3 supplied is a good indicator of the level of non-registered water in a distribution water net. However, this ratio doesn`t give any further information, especially what can be done to improved it. This document explains how it was introduce all the information avalaible in 22 water nets (e.g. pressure, net length, number of subscribers, age of the accountants,...) and using multiple regression methods, identify which variables are significative and moreover obtain an equation that calculates the prospective losses. Besides, these methods can be used to evaluate and compare different water nets, analyzing the discrepancy between real and prospective losses as a result on the effect (los water) of definated causes, that can also be minimized eliminated. (Author)

  18. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  19. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  20. Pathophysiology of cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Achtman, Jordan C; Werth, Victoria P.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses the complex interactions between genetics, the environment, and cells and their products. Recent data have provided enhanced understanding of these interactions and the mechanism by which they cause disease. A number of candidate genes have been identified which increase the risk of developing CLE. Ultraviolet radiation, the predominant environmental exposure associated with CLE, appears to initiate CLE lesion formation by...

  1. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Fukumi

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous symptoms are observed in 25%-60% of polyarteritis nodosa (PN) patients. On the other hand, cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPN) is designated for the cutaneous limited form of PN and demonstrates benign prognosis. However, there has been much debate on whether or not CPN can progress to PN. Although CPN lesions are fundamentally limited to skin, some CPN cases show extracutaneous symptoms such as peripheral neuropathy and myalgia. According to PN diagnostic criteria, a disease with both cutaneous and at least one extracutaneous symptom with appropriate histopathological findings can be diagnosed as PN. The same is true according to diagnostic criteria established by American College of Rheumatology (ACR). In addition, there are no specific diagnostic criteria for CPN. In this study, CPN cases were retrospectively collected from multiple Japanese clinics, and analyzed for detailed clinical and histopathological manifestations, in order to redefine the clinical entity of CPN and to propose appropriate diagnostic criteria for CPN and PN. According to the CPN description in Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, one of global standard textbooks, we collected 22 cases with appropriate histopathological findings. Of the 22 cases, none progressed to PN or death during the follow-up period, 32% had peripheral neuropathy, and 27% had myalgia. Regarding extracutaneous symptoms with CPN, 17 dermatological specialists in vasculitis sustained the opinion that CPN can be accompanied by peripheral neuropathy and myalgia, but these symptoms are limited to the same area as skin lesions. Based on these results, we devised new drafts for CPN and PN diagnostic criteria. Our study shows the efficacy of these criteria, and most dermatologists recognized that our new diagnostic criteria for CPN and PN are appropriate at the present time. In conclusion, this study suggests that CPN does not progress to PN, and introduces new drafts for CPN and PN diagnostic criteria. (*English

  2. Newly recognized cutaneous drug eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, Jeffrey P

    2007-04-01

    Many new drugs are entering the marketplace and although some cutaneous reactions might be noted in the preclinical evaluation, some of the reactions, particularly those that are rare, will not be noted until the drugs enter widespread use. In addition, distinctive reactions may occur, as is the case with epidermal growth factor-receptor inhibitors. Careful observation and evaluation might result in a better understanding of "naturally" occurring skin disease.

  3. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapnashree Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a case of leiomyoma cutis because of its rarity and unusual presentation. The case presented with a solitary leiomyoma lesion which was painless. However, the adjacent normal appearing area was tender. A biopsy of the lesion as well as of a portion of the adjacent normal appearing area was taken, which confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. This may suggest the dormant nature of the disease which has not yet become apparent.

  4. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Sapnashree; Jaiswal, Ashok K; Madhu, SM; Santosh, KV

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of leiomyoma cutis because of its rarity and unusual presentation. The case presented with a solitary leiomyoma lesion which was painless. However, the adjacent normal appearing area was tender. A biopsy of the lesion as well as of a portion of the adjacent normal appearing area was taken, which confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. This may suggest the dormant nature of the disease which has not yet become apparent. PMID:25484434

  5. Immunogenetics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Aimee O; Arkin, Lisa M; Prahalad, Sampath

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic autoimmune condition, often affecting multiple organ systems, including the skin. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is distinct from SLE and may be skin limited or associated with systemic disease. Histopathologically, the hallmark of lupus-specific manifestations of SLE and CLE is an interface dermatitis. The cause of SLE and CLE is likely multifactorial and may include shared genetic factors. In this review, we will discuss the genetic findings related to the cutaneous manifestations of SLE and isolated CLE, with a particular focus on the lupus-specific CLE subtypes. Several major histocompatibility complex and nonmajor histocompatibility complex genetic polymorphisms have been identified which may contribute to the cutaneous manifestations of SLE and to CLE. Most of these genetic variants are associated with mechanisms attributed to the pathogenesis of SLE, including pathways involved in interferon and vitamin D regulation and ultraviolet light exposure. Although there is overlap between the genetic factors associated with SLE and CLE, there appear to be unique genetic factors specific for CLE. Improved understanding of the genetics of CLE may lead to the creation of targeted therapies, improving outcomes for patients with this challenging dermatologic condition.

  6. Cutaneous Chromatophoromas in Captive Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, J F; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Chromatophoromas are neoplasms arising from pigment-bearing cells (chromatophores) of the dermis. While isolated cases have been reported in the literature, the prevalence and biological behavior of chromatophoromas in snakes are unknown. Forty-two chromatophoromas were identified among 4663 submissions (0.9%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in a 16-year period. The most commonly affected snakes were colubrids (23 cases, 55%) and vipers (8 cases, 19%). The San Francisco garter snake was the most commonly affected species (6 cases; 14% of all affected snake species and 3.7% of all garter snake submissions). No sex predilection was found. The age of 28 snakes ranged from 5 to 27 years. Single cutaneous chromatophoromas were most commonly observed and presented as pigmented cutaneous masses or plaques along any body segment. Euthanasia or death due to progressive neoplastic disease or metastasis was reported in 8 (19%) and 4 (10%) cases, respectively. The survival time of 4 animals ranged from 4 to 36 months. Microscopically, xanthophoromas, iridophoromas, melanocytic neoplasms, and mixed chromatophoromas were identified, with melanocytic neoplasms being most common. Microscopic examination alone was generally sufficient for the diagnosis of chromatophoroma, but immunohistochemistry for S-100 and PNL-2 may be helpful for diagnosing poorly pigmented cases. Moderate to marked nuclear atypia appears to be consistently present in cutaneous chromatophoromas with a high risk of metastasis, while mitotic count, lymphatic invasion, the level of infiltration, and the degree of pigmentation or ulceration were not reliable predictors of metastasis.

  7. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ayyamperumal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many malignancies affecting the internal organs display cutaneous manifestations which may be either specific (tumor metastases or nonspecific lesions. Aims: The study is aimed at determining the frequency and significance of cutaneous manifestations among patients with internal malignancy. Materials and Methods: 750 cases of proven internal malignancy, who attended a cancer chemotherapy center in South India, were studied. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and marker studies. Results: Out of the 750 patients with internal malignancy, skin changes were seen in a total of 52 (6.93% patients. Conclusion: Cutaneous metastases (specific lesions were seen in 20 patients (2.66%: contiguous in 6 (0.8%, and non-contiguous in 14 (1.86%. Nonspecific skin changes were seen in 32 patients (4.26%. None of our patients presented with more than one type of skin lesions. Herpes zoster was the most common nonspecific lesion noticed in our patients, followed by generalized pruritus, multiple eruptive seborrheic keratoses, bullous disorder, erythroderma, flushing, purpura, pyoderma gangrenosum, insect bite allergy and lichenoid dermatitis.

  8. Ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare gastrointestinal tumor. Additionally, cutaneous metastasis from such an internal malignancy is also uncommon. We reported the case of a 55-year-old man afflicted with ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. The patient did not undergo the standard Whipple procedure but received chemotherapy due to apparent left neck lymph node metastasis noted by initial PET/CT imaging. The skin metastasis presented as a left neck infiltrating purpuric lesion, which was confirmed by skin biopsy approximately one year after the patient's disease was first diagnosed. Thereafter, the patient received further chemotherapy pursuant to his course of medical management. Skin metastasis usually represents a poor patient prognosis. In these cases, treatment of cutaneous metastasis typically includes systemic chemotherapy and local management such as radiation therapy or tumor excision. And when choosing a chemotherapy regimen for the ampullary cancer, the histological subtypes (intestinal or pancreatobiliary should be comprehensively considered. In our review of the literature, the intestinal type seems to have less distant lymph node metastasis, advanced local invasion, as well as recurrence than pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.

  9. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Roujayee Abdulaziz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has many extraintestinal manifestations, and skin lesions are one of the most frequently described extraintestinal findings. Reports indicate an incidence of cutaneous manifestations ranging from 2 to 34%, Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. In this review we aim to address the various cutaneous manifestations associated with IBD, their impact on the disease course, and the treatment options available.

  11. Soil and water losses in eucalyptus plantation and natural forest and determination of the USLE factors at a pilot sub-basin in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Christofaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring water erosion and the factors that control soil and water loss are essential for soil conservation planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and water losses by water erosion under natural rainfall in eucalyptus plantations established in 2001 (EF2, and 2004 (EF1, native forest (NF and bare soil (BS, during the period of 2007 to 2012; and to determine the USLE factors: rain erosivity (R, erodibility (K of a Red Argisol and the cover-management factor (C for EF1, EF2 and NF at a pilot sub-basin, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The R factor was estimated by the EI30 index, using rainfall data from a gauging station located at the sub-basin. The soil and water losses were monitored in erosion plots, providing consistent data for the estimation of the K and C factors. The sub-basin presented an average erosivity of 4,228.52 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. The average annual soil losses em EF1 and EF2 (0.81 e 0.12 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively were below of the limit of tolerance, 12.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. The percentage values of water loss relating to the total rainfall decreased annually, approaching the values observed at the NF. From the 5th year on after the implantation of the eucalyptus systems, soil losses values were similar to the ones from NF. The erodibility of the Red Argisol was of 0.0026 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1mm-1 and the C factor presented values of 0.121, 0.016 and 0.015 for EF1, EF2 and NF, respectively.

  12. Where does all the water go? Partitioning water transmission losses in a data-sparse, multi-channel and low-gradient dryland river system using modelling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, Abdollah A.; Larsen, Joshua R.; Callow, John N.; McVicar, Tim R.; Johansen, Kasper

    2015-10-01

    Drylands cover approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, are home to nearly 40% of the Earth's population and are characterised by limited water resources and ephemeral river systems with an extremely variable flow regime and high transmission losses. These losses include actual evaporation, infiltration to the soil and groundwater and residual (terminal) water remaining after flood events. These critical components of the water balance of dryland river systems remain largely unknown due to the scarcity of observational data and the difficulty in accurately accounting for the flow distribution in such large multi-channel floodplain systems. While hydrodynamic models can test hypotheses concerning the water balance of infrequent flood events, the scarcity of flow measurement data inhibits model calibration, constrains model accuracy and therefore utility. This paper provides a novel approach to this problem by combining modelling, remotely-sensed data, and limited field measurements, to investigate the partitioning of flood transmissions losses based on seven flood events between February 2006 and April 2012 along a 180 km reach of the Diamantina River in the Lake Eyre Basin, Australia. Transmission losses were found to be high, on average 46% of total inflow within 180 km reach segment or 7 GL/km (range: 4-10 GL/km). However, in 180 km reach, transmission losses vary non-linearly with flood discharge, with smaller flows resulting in higher losses (up to 68%), which diminish in higher flows (down to 24%) and in general there is a minor increase in losses with distance downstream. Partitioning these total losses into the major components shows that actual evaporation was the most significant component (21.6% of total inflow), followed by infiltration (13.2%) and terminal water storage (11.2%). Lateral inflow can be up to 200% of upstream inflow (mean = 86%) and is therefore a critical parameter in the water balance and transmission loss calculations. This study

  13. Spontaneous crystallinity loss of drugs in the disordered regions of poly(ethylene oxide) in the presence of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Patrick J; Romary, Daniel P; Shamblin, Sheri L; Baird, Jared A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2008-08-01

    The physical stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) formulated in the crystalline state may be compromised in the presence of excipients. In the present study, it is shown that at high relative humidity, several model crystalline drugs compacted into a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) may dissolve into the disordered regions of the polymer. The purpose of this project is to identify both the physicochemical properties of the API and the polymer which may lead to such a transformation and the mechanism of transformation. Crystalline drugs and PEO were physically mixed, compressed into tablets, and stored in a dessicator at 94% RH. The physical state of the drug and the polymer were determined using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility of each drug in PEG 400 was measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy, the thermal properties of each compound were measured using differential scanning calorimetry, and the amount of water sorbed into these systems from the vapor phase was determined by gravimetric analysis. A spontaneous loss of crystallinity was observed for many of the model drugs when stored at high relative humidity and in the presence of PEO. In the absence of PEO, no changes in the crystalline material were observed. However, the structure of PEO was dramatically altered when exposed to high relative humidity. Specifically, it was found that PEO undergoes a very slow deliquescence increasing the disordered fraction of the polymer which facilitates the "dissolution" of the crystalline drug into these disordered regions. The degree of transformation, estimated from Raman spectroscopy, was found to qualitatively correlate with the aqueous solubility of the compounds. It can be concluded that for the systems studied here, the phase stability of the polymer was compromised at high relative humidity and the polymer underwent deliquescence. The equilibrium phase of several of the crystalline drugs studied here was then altered

  14. Understanding the fluvial loss of carbon from the UK - implications for terrestrial carbon, greenhouse gases and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a number of methods to estimate the fate of fluvial organic matter through UK catchments. Here we include dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POC), and dissolved gases to estimate losses from the terrestrial biosphere; in-stream losses and production (including the role of water and waste treatment); and export to the continental shelf and atmsophere. We use multiple approaches, including: mass balance studies, modelling and experimentation. Mass balance studies suggest that the UK terrestrial biosphere losses 5 Mtonnes C/yr (21.8 tonnes C/km2/yr) in the proportion of 7:22:4 (POC:DOC:diss. CO2). The mass balance studies suggest 3.5 Mtonnes C/yr (15.2 tonnes C/km2/yr) is lost to the atmosphere in the proportion 8:75:17 (POC:DOC:diss. CO2); UK rivers have short residence times (typically 1-2 days) and so the diurnal cycle becomes critical. Experiments show that turnover rates are close to zero overnight but that these can be periods of DOM production from turnover of POM and that the presence of POM may inhibit turnover of DOM; The development and modelling using physically-explicit rate laws showed that the loss of DOC was between 24 and 37% - lower than that estimated from mass balance studies, but that the loss rate of TOC (DOC + POC) was between 57 and 80% - close to that estimated from mass balance studies; The turnover of organic particles within rivers means that any notion that soil erosion leads to net carbon drawdown is entirely negated and the emission factor for gross soil erosion is estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.66 tonnes CO2eq/yr for every 1 tonne of gross erosion; and, Studies of molecular change of DOM and POM along rivers shows that, while POM represents an admixture of its sources (soils and vegetation), the DOM which enters rivers as highly oxidised becomes more reduced in channel. The release of greenhouse gases from UK rivers is now estimated to be between 15,800 - 33,000 ktonnes CO2eq/yr equivalent

  15. Cutaneous dermatomyositis in the era of biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Vleugels, Ruth Ann; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by cutaneous and muscle findings, in addition to potential involvement of other organ systems. A distinct subtype of DM exists that is categorized by cutaneous findings with absent or minimal muscle involvement, referred to as clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis or dermatomyositis sine myositis. A variety of topical, immunosuppressive, and immunomodulatory therapies have been utilized to treat cutaneous DM. The advent of biological agents including tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, and others has allowed for the use of these agents with varying degrees of success for the treatment of cutaneous DM.

  16. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aslan, Mehmet; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Demir, Halit; Oncu, Mehmet Resit; Karahocagil, Mustafa Kasım; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Aypak, Cenk

    2014-07-06

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been discovered in several inflammatory conditions; however, there are no data associated with cutaneous anthrax. The aim of this study was to investigate serum ADA activity in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Sixteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 17 healthy controls were enrolled. We measured ADA activity; peripheral blood leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; and C reactive protein levels. Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in the controls (panthrax.

  17. Cutaneous histoplasmosis in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, N Z; Augustine, J J; Gerstenblith, M R

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous histoplasmosis is a rare entity, although it can be seen in a substantial portion of renal transplant recipients with disseminated disease. The prognosis of disseminated disease is worse than isolated cutaneous involvement, and significant delays in diagnosis are reported. We reviewed reports of cutaneous histoplasmosis with and without dissemination in the setting of renal transplantation to examine incidence, timing of diagnosis, clinical features, and prognosis. Remarkable morphologic variability and the non-specific appearance of skin findings suggest that tissue culture is required for definitive diagnosis. Cutaneous lesions represent an easily accessible source for early diagnosis.

  18. Remote Cutaneous Breast Carcinoma Metastasis Mimicking Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annakan V Navaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastases from primary internal malignancies are an uncommon presentation. Cutaneous metastases are more frequently seen in breast cancer than in any other visceral malignancy in women. Medical practitioners should be vigilant of the possibility of unusual presentations of metastatic disease in breast cancer patients with lobular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous lesions mimicking benign dermatological conditions. Herein, we present a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous lobular breast carcinoma metastases on her anterior right leg, which had previously been misdiagnosed as dermatitis for 9 years.

  19. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  20. Cutaneous Manifestations in Dermatomyositis: Key Clinical and Serological Features-a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Yoshinao; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Akiyama, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. The pathogenesis is considered to be microangiopathy affecting skin and muscle. The cutaneous manifestations of DM are the most important aspect of this disease, and their correct evaluation is important for early diagnosis. The skin signs are various: Some are pathognomonic or highly characteristic, and others are compatible with DM. Recently, DM has been categorized into several disease subsets based on the various autoantibodies present in patients. Sometimes, characteristic cutaneous manifestations are strongly associated with the presence of specific autoantibodies. For example, anti-Mi-2 antibody is associated with the classic features of DM, including heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, the V-neck sign, the shawl sign, cuticular overgrowth, and photosensitivity. Frequent cutaneous features in anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma (TIF1γ)-positive patients are diffuse photoerythema, including "dusky red face," while skin ulcerations, palmar papules (inverse Gottron), diffuse hair loss, panniculitis, and oral pain and/or ulcers are sometimes associated with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 product (MDA5) antibody. Here, we review important cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with DM, and we examine the relationship between the skin changes and myositis-associated autoantibodies. Correct evaluation of cutaneous manifestations and myositis-associated autoantibodies should help the clinician in the early diagnosis of DM, for a quick recognition of cutaneous signs that may be the symptom of onset before muscle inflammation.

  1. Effect of chemical amendments to dairy soiled water and time between application and rainfall on phosphorus and sediment losses in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, A; Fenton, O; Murphy, P N C; Grant, J; Healy, M G

    2012-07-15

    Dairy soiled water (DSW) is a dilute, low nutrient effluent produced on Irish dairy farms through the regular washing down of milking parlours and holding areas. In Ireland, there is no closed period for the land application of DSW except where heavy rain is forecast within 48 h. Chemical amendments have the potential to decrease phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) loss from DSW applied to land. This study examined the impact of three time intervals (12, 24 and 48 h) between DSW application and rainfall and five treatments (control, unamended DSW, and DSW amended with lime, alum or ferric chloride (FeCl(2))) on P and sediment losses from an intact grassland soil in runoff boxes. Rainfall was simulated at 10.5 ± 1 mm h(-1). Phosphorus concentrations (1-1.6 mg L(-1)) in runoff from DSW application, while not quantitative measures of P loss to surface waters in the field, indicated the importance of incidental P losses and that the current 48 h restriction in Ireland is prudent. Unamended DSW application increased P loss by, on average, 71%, largely due to an increase in particulate phosphorus (PP) loss. All three amendments were effective in decreasing P and SS losses in runoff and, apart from the SS results for lime, were significantly different (p<0.05) to the control at at least one time point. Lime (a 64% reduction in total phosphorus (TP) in comparison with DSW only) was less effective than alum or FeCl(2), likely due to the lower solubility of CaCO(3) in water. Chemical amendment showed potential to decrease P losses from land application of DSW, but the efficacy of such amendments would need to be assessed in field trials and a cost-benefit analysis conducted to further examine whether they could be practically implemented on farms.

  2. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  3. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  5. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  6. Targeted therapies for cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Damien; McArthur, Grant

    2014-06-01

    Melanoma is resistant to cytotoxic therapy, and treatment options for advanced disease have been limited historically. However, improved understanding of melanoma driver mutations, particularly those involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has led to the development of targeted therapies that are effective in this previously treatment-refractory disease. In cutaneous melanomas with BRAF V600 mutations the selective RAF inhibitors, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, and the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, have demonstrated survival benefits. Early signals of efficacy have also been demonstrated with MEK inhibitors in melanomas with NRAS mutations, and KIT inhibitors offer promise in melanomas driven through activation of their target receptor.

  7. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  9. Mechanics of cutaneous wound rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2016-11-07

    A cutaneous wound may rupture during healing as a result of stretching in the skin and incompatibility at the wound-skin interface, among other factors. By treating both wound and skin as hyperelastic membranes, and using a biomechanical framework of interfacial growth, we study rupturing as a problem of cavitation in nonlinear elastic materials. We obtain analytical solutions for deformation and residual stress field in the skin-wound configuration while emphasizing the coupling between wound rupture and wrinkling in the skin. The solutions are analyzed in detail for variations in stretching environment, healing condition, and membrane stiffness.

  10. 安溪县水土流失及防治对策%Soil and Water Loss and Countermeasures in Anxi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金堂; 查轩

    2001-01-01

    安溪县是福建省7个重点水土流失县之一,水土流失面积大,流失程度剧烈。从安溪县水土流失的历史和现状分析人手,对水土流失的成因及其发展趋势进行系统地分析,提出安溪县水土流失的综合防治对策。%Anxi county is oneof the seven main county with serious soil and water loss in Fujian province. The area of soil and water loss is wide and the degree is acute. Based on analysis of the history and present situation of soil and water loss in Anxi county, the formation and developing trend of soil and water loss is analyzed by the numbers and several integrative countermeasures of prevention and cure are put forward.

  11. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  12. Effect of in situ water harvesting techniques on soil and nutriënt losses in semi-arid Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum, Berhane; Assefae, Dereje; Hessel, R.; Woldearegay, Kifle; Kessler, C.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Land degradation, mainly due to soil erosion and nutrient losses, is a global problem for sustainable agriculture. Farmlands in the Ethiopian
    highlands are susceptible to water erosion because of steep slopes and extensive cultivation. A field experiment was conducted in the

  13. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for spec

  14. Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, J P

    2010-08-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a subset of cutaneous lupus erythematosus with unique immunologic and clinical features. The first description dates back to 1985 when a series of five patients were found to have hydrochlorothiazide-induced SCLE. Since that time, at least 40 other drugs have been implicated in the induction of SCLE.

  15. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in agriculture land, which is a world-wide problem (Cerdà et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Biwas et al., 2015, Colazo and Buschiazzo, 2015; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015). High erosion rates result in the loss of soil and also changes the hydrological, erosional, biological, and geochemical cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Berendse et al., 2015; Decock et al., 2015; Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). Thus, there is a need to reduce the soil losses to achieve soil sustainability. However, although some findings show that straw, geotextiles, vegetation cover and tillage reduction are efficient strategies (Gimenez Morera et al., 2010; Cerdà et al., 2015; Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Taguas et al., 2015) there is still a need to find easy strategies for farmers to adopt in their fields that will protect, and also recover, their soils. Chipped branches are usually burned in many orchards to remove them from the fields. However, when they would be chipped and spread on the fields, they can be a source of organic matter, and in addition this might reduce soil losses and improve the water retention capacity of the soils (Mukherjee et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). The hypothesis is that the chipped branches reduce soil loss. To test this hypothesis we selected 3 study sites in which chipped branches were applied, and paired sites with bare soil to check the changes introduced by the chipped branches on the soils. We selected 3 sites of the Cànyoles river watershed (Montesa municipality), SW Spain, with 10 plots in each site. At each site, 10 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Paired plots were selected in the nearby (less than 10 m in distance) orchard where the pruned branches were removed. Then, 60 rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour were carried out in small 0.25 m2 plots to determine the soil particle detachment. The results show that in all

  16. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  17. Diffuse nitrogen loss simulation and impact assessment of stereoscopic agriculture pattern by integrated water system model and consideration of multiple existence forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Gao, Yang; Yu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural nitrogen loss becomes an increasingly important source of water quality deterioration and eutrophication, even threatens water safety for humanity. Nitrogen dynamic mechanism is still too complicated to be well captured at watershed scale due to its multiple existence forms and instability, disturbance of agricultural management practices. Stereoscopic agriculture is a novel agricultural planting pattern to efficiently use local natural resources (e.g., water, land, sunshine, heat and fertilizer). It is widely promoted as a high yield system and can obtain considerable economic benefits, particularly in China. However, its environmental quality implication is not clear. In our study, Qianyanzhou station is famous for its stereoscopic agriculture pattern of Southern China, and an experimental watershed was selected as our study area. Regional characteristics of runoff and nitrogen losses were simulated by an integrated water system model (HEQM) with multi-objective calibration, and multiple agriculture practices were assessed to find the effective approach for the reduction of diffuse nitrogen losses. Results showed that daily variations of runoff and nitrogen forms were well reproduced throughout watershed, i.e., satisfactory performances for ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH4-N and NO3-N) loads, good performances for runoff and organic nitrogen (ON) load, and very good performance for total nitrogen (TN) load. The average loss coefficient was 62.74 kg/ha for NH4-N, 0.98 kg/ha for NO3-N, 0.0004 kg/ha for ON and 63.80 kg/ha for TN. The dominating form of nitrogen losses was NH4-N due to the applied fertilizers, and the most dramatic zones aggregated in the middle and downstream regions covered by paddy and orange orchard. In order to control diffuse nitrogen losses, the most effective practices for Qianyanzhou stereoscopic agriculture pattern were to reduce farmland planting scale in the valley by afforestation, particularly for orchard in the

  18. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. Results: The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7–93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD

  19. Cutaneous sporotrichosis: Unusual clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three unusual clinical forms of sporotrichosis described in this paper will be a primer for the clinicians for an early diagnosis and treatment, especially in its unusual presentations. Case 1, a 52-year-old man, developed sporotrichosis over pre-existing facial nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma of seven-year duration, due to its contamination perhaps from topical herbal pastes and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis over right hand/forearm from facial lesion/herbal paste. Case 2, a 25-year-old woman, presented with disseminated systemic-cutaneous, osteoarticular and possibly pleural (effusion sporotrichosis. There was no laboratory evidence of tuberculosis and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATT did not benefit. Both these cases were diagnosed by histopathology/culture of S. schenckii from tissue specimens. Case 3, a 20-year-old girl, had multiple intensely pruritic, nodular lesions over/around left knee of two-year duration. She was diagnosed clinically as a case of prurigo nodularis and histologically as cutaneous tuberculosis, albeit, other laboratory investigations and treatment with ATT did not support the diagnosis. All the three patients responded well to saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI therapy. A high clinical suspicion is important in early diagnosis and treatment to prevent chronicity and morbidity in these patients. SSKI is fairly safe and effective when itraconazole is not affordable/ available.

  20. Cutaneous signs of classical dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, M; Capo, A; Meogrossi, G; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic immune myopathies (IIM) are an heterogeneous group of autoimmune muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle involvement. Dermatomyositis (DM) is the most common form of IIM. It is a multisystem disorder characterized by symmetric proximal, extensor, inflammatory myopathy, vascular involvement and a characteristic cutaneous eruption. Six types of DM have been identified: idiopathic, juvenile (JDM), cancer-related other autoimmune diseases-related, iatrogenic DM and amyopathic DM. Cutaneous manifestations of DM are the most important aspect of this disease and can precede from several months to years muscle or systemic involvement. Three groups of signs have been described: pathognomonic, highly characteristic and compatible. Although differences exist among the different clinical presentation of skin lesions, they share common histological findings including the presence of interface dermatitis with epidermal atrophy, basement membrane degeneration, vacuolar alteration of basal keratinocytes, and dermal changes consisting of interstitial mucin deposition and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. DM is a serious disease; the correct evaluation of any skin lesion suggesting an early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Skin signs may, also, represent a marker of treatment efficacy even though systemic symptoms worsening may not always be followed by more severe skin lesions.

  1. Drug-induced cutaneous vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiga, E; Verdelli, A; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Quintarelli, L; Volpi, W; Fabbri, P; Caproni, M

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous vasculitides (CV) can be idiopathic or secondary to several triggers, including drugs, which account for up to 30% of all the cases of CV. Several drugs can induce CV, including some medications commonly used in dermatology, including minocycline, and several new drugs, such as anti-TNF agents. Different pathomecanisms are involved in the development of drug-induced CV, including the formation and deposition of immune complexes, the induction of neutrophil apoptosis, the formation of neoantigens between the drugs and proteins from the host, the shift of the immune response, and others. Although the diagnosis is difficult, because the clinical picture of drug-induced CV is in general indistinguishable from that of other forms of CV, it is important to recognize such entities in order to correctly manage the patient. Anamnesis, diagnostic algorithms to assess the likelihood of the association between a drug and a cutaneous reaction, skin biopsy and laboratory testing (including the search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) are useful tools to make a diagnosis of drug-induced CV. About the therapy, while in idiopathic vasculitides the treatment is usually more aggressive and long-lasting, very often requiring a maintenance therapy with immunosuppressive drugs, in drug-induced CV the discontinuation of the suspected drug alone is usually enough to achieve complete remission, making the prognosis usually very good.

  2. Anti-melasma codrug of retinoic acid assists cutaneous absorption with attenuated skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Hung, Chi-Feng; Lin, Chih-Hung; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-05-01

    Melasma treatment with combined retinoic acid (RA) and hydroquinone (HQ) usually causes unsatisfactory outcomes and safety concerns. This study attempted to evaluate the cutaneous absorption and skin tolerance of the codrug conjugated with RA and HQ via ester linkage. The codrug's permeation of the pig skin was estimated using Franz diffusion cell. The codrug and parent drugs were comparatively examined for anti-inflammatory activity and tyrosinase inhibition. In vivo cutaneous irritation was assessed on nude mouse skin. Chemical conjugation of RA with HQ increased the lipophilicity and thus the skin absorption. The codrug absorption produced a 5.5- and a 60.8-fold increment compared to RA skin deposition at an equimolar (1.2mM) and saturated solubility dose, respectively. The cumulative amount of HQ derived from the codrug in the receptor was comparable to or less than that of topically applied HQ. The RA-HQ codrug was partly hydrolyzed on penetrating the skin. The hydrolysis rate in intact skin was significantly lower than that in esterase medium and skin homogenates. The codrug showed an interleukin (IL)-6 inhibition activity comparable to RA. A therapeutic index 6-fold greater than RA was obtained with the topical codrug. The tyrosinase inhibition percentage of the codrug and HQ was 13% and 21%, respectively. The skin tolerance test determined by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, and histopathology had exhibited minor skin irritation caused by the codrug compared to the physical mixture of RA and HQ at an equivalent dose. Topical codrug delivery not only promoted RA absorption, but also diminished the adverse effects of the parent agents.

  3. Assessment of the effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetens, W.; Vanmaercke, M.; Poesen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion by water is recognised as a major soil degradation process that requires a global approach. Large regions all over the world are in need of integrated conservation strategies that sustainable prevent and remediate soil erosion. therefore, quantitative and globally interpretable data are needed in support of models and decision making. the effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. Hence, many data are available. However, the insights gained hereby remain mostly local and often qualitative whereas the full potential of the available data is not exploited yet. This is mainly due to the fragmentation of knowledge and extrapolation difficulties inherently linked with this type of data. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Flexibility in basal metabolic rate and evaporative water loss among hoopoe larks exposed to different environmental temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Tieleman, B I

    2000-10-01

    The 'energy demand' hypothesis for short-term adjustments in basal metabolic rate (BMR) posits that birds adjust the size of their internal organs relative to food intake, a correlate of energy demand. We tested this hypothesis on hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes), inhabitants of the Arabian desert, by acclimating birds for 3 weeks at 15 degrees C and at 36 degrees C, then measuring their BMR and total evaporative water loss (TEWL). Thereafter, we determined the dry masses of their brain, heart, liver, kidney, stomach, intestine and muscles of the pectoral region. Although mean body mass did not differ initially between the two groups, after 3 weeks, birds in the 15 degrees C group had gained mass (44.1+/-6.5 g), whereas larks in the 36 degrees C group had maintained a constant mass (36.6+/-3.6 g; means +/- s.d., N=6). Birds in the 15 degrees C group had a mean BMR of 46.8+/-6.9 kJ day(-1), whereas birds in the 36 degrees C group had a BMR of 32.9+/-6.3 kJ day(-1), values that were significantly different when we controlled for differences in body mass. When measured at 35 degrees C, larks in the cold-exposure group had a TEWL of 3.55+/-0.60 g H(2)O day(-)(1), whereas TEWL for birds in the 36 degrees C group averaged 2.23+/-0.28 g H(2)O day(-1), a difference of 59.2%. Mass-independent TEWL differed significantly between groups. Larks in the 15 degrees C group had a significantly larger liver, kidney and intestine than larks in the 36 degrees C group. The total increase in organ mass contributed 14.3% towards the total mass increment in the cold exposure group. Increased food intake among larks in the cold group apparently resulted in enlargement of some of the internal organs, and the increase in mass of these organs required a higher rate of oxygen uptake to support them. As oxygen demands increased, larks apparently lost more evaporative water, but the relationship between increases in BMR and TEWL remains unresolved.

  5. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Straw has been demonstrated to be a very efficient mulch to reduce soil losses. This has been found by different authors and in different regions such as the Mediterranean Region, where there is a need to reduce the non-sustainable soil and water losses caused by the compaction of soil, lack of vegetation and intense thunderstorms. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team from the University of Valencia with the collaboration of other research areas is developing a holistic research program to understand how straw mulch can be introduced and applied with success in traditional rainfed and modern irrigated orchards and vineyards. The research is based on three approaches: i) the perception of the farmers; ii) the economic cost; iii) and the biophysical impact of the straw mulch on soils, runoff generation and soil erosion. Farmer perception has been researched by means of interviews and the results shows that farmers prefer a tidy and clean soil (if possible ploughed in the vineyards) rather than vegetation or straw cover. There is a need to inform the farmers about how important it is to protect the soil and to find the right covers. It is also important to find adequate subsidies to encourage this management. Without financial support most farmers will be not convinced to use catch-crops, mulches or chipped branches. The cost of the straw is about 0.05 € Kg-1, the transport is 0.02 € Kg-1 and the application 0.04 € Kg-1. The cost is affordable for farms that have high incomes and mechanization. The results of rainfall simulation experiments and measurements under plot conditions demonstrate a reduction of one order of magnitude in soil erosion rates and 30 % in runoff discharge when straw mulch is used. The straw reduces soil erodibility due to the protective cover, which reduces raindrop impact energy on the soil surface and slows runoff, encouraging infiltration. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework

  6. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmisholt, Jesper; Andersen, Stig; Laurberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, resting energy expenditure (REE) is reduced and weight gain is common. Physical activity contributes to the total daily energy expenditure, and changes in physical activity might contribute to hypothyroid-associated weight changes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mechanisms involved in body weight changes associated with hypothyroidism. We conducted a 1-yr controlled follow-up study on outpatients newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism (n = 12) and a euthyroid measurement control group (n = 10). MAIN OUTCOME AND INTERVENTIONS: Changes in body mass and composition (dual-energy x-ray analysis scan), REE (indirect calorimetry), and spontaneous physical activity (pedometers and two different questionnaires) were studied before and after 12 months of L-T(4) therapy or observation (control group). TSH changed from 102 (85) to 2.2 (2.1) mU/liter mean (SD) and free T(4) from 4.5 (2.1) to 18 (3.3) pmol/liter after 1 yr of treatment. Body weight decreased from 83.7 (16.4) to 79.4 (16.0) kg (P = 0.002) due to change in the lean mass subcompartment only (P = 0.001) because fat and bone mass was virtually unchanged. Significant increase was observed in REE and in physical activity measured with questionnaires but not measured as daily steps. No significant changes were observed in the control group. L-T(4) therapy of hypothyroidism associated with significant decrease in body weight and increase in REE. Physical activity measured with questionnaires increased significantly, but not number of daily steps. Despite changes in REE and body weight, fat mass was unchanged during the study. We propose that total body energy equilibrium is maintained during treatment of hypothyroidism and that weight loss observed during such treatment is caused by excretion of excess body water associated with untreated myxoedema.

  7. Decadal changes in turbid-water coral communities at Pandora Reef: loss of resilience or too soon to tell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Terry; Turak, Emre; Wakeford, Mary; Devantier, Lyndon; McDonald, Abbi; Fisk, David

    2007-12-01

    Coral communities were monitored at Pandora Reef, nearshore Great Barrier Reef from 1981 to 2005 using photography and videography. In the 1980s, regional elevation of land-based nutrients in coastal waters (ca. 2-6 times pre-European levels of early 1800s) did not prevent overall recovery of coral cover and diversity following a sequence of environmental disturbances in the 1970s. However, prospects for a repeat of such resilience following catastrophic mortality from high-temperature bleaching in 1998 and a cyclone in 2000 are not clear. Different coral communities around the reef varied greatly in relation to impacts and recovery. Fore-reef communities dominated by acroporids (fast growing branching and tabular Acropora and foliose Montipora) recovered strongly in the 1980s following apparently severe impacts by cyclone, flood and heat wave disturbances in the 1970s, attaining 60-90% cover by stabilizing rubble and outgrowing macro-algae in reef, by contrast, poritid-dominated communities (massive and finger Porites and columnar Goniopora and Alveopora) had more stable trajectories and smaller impact from recent disturbances: recovery was well underway in 2005. The contrasting trajectories of different parts of the reef reflect differential survival of more persistent versus more ephemeral taxa, notably poritids and acroporids, respectively, both major contributors to framework and cover on reefs globally. A repeat of earlier resilience appears possible in the shallow fore-reef, but unlikely in the deeper fore-reef, which had few viable fragments or recruits in 2005. The main limits on recovery may be (1) reduced supply of coral larvae due to widespread regional losses of coral brood stock and (2) the reduced intervals between disturbances associated with global climate change. The presence of a high abundance of Acroporidae is a major pre-disposing risk factor for climate change impacts.

  8. In vivo transungual iontophoresis: effect of DC current application on ionic transport and on transonychial water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutet, Julie; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña

    2009-12-03

    The potential use of iontophoresis to improve drug penetration into the nail has been suggested. However, there is little information concerning transungual iontophoresis in vivo. This work describes the application of transungual iontophoresis to six healthy human volunteers in order to investigate key issues such as the effect of current application on ionic transport and on transonychial water loss (TOWL), and the magnitude of the voltages required for a practical use of the technique. Each volunteer participated in three experiments: passive control, 0.2 mA anodal transungual iontophoresis and 0.2 mA cathodal transungual iontophoresis. A commercial electrode on a skin site was used to complete the electrical circuit. The outward transungual extraction of sodium and chloride ions by passive diffusion and iontophoresis was quantified. Iontophoresis enhanced chloride and sodium transport approximately 8 and 27 fold respectively compared to passive diffusion. Sodium transport numbers were measured to be t(Na+)=0.51+/-0.11. TOWL was used as a potential marker of nail damage and hydration. Basal TOWL was measured before each experiment, and the return to baseline values was monitored for 1h after the treatment (passive or iontophoresis application) was finished. TOWL was increased after both iontophoretic and passive experiments and typically returned to baseline values in 1h post-treatment. The voltage of the nail-to-skin circuit was monitored during iontophoresis and compared to those observed in a skin-to-skin circuit. Nail-to-skin circuit voltages were generally approximately 50 V when the current was started and dropped fast to 20-30 V, a value comparable to that observed in the skin-to-skin circuit. On the whole, the clear enhancement of ionic transport observed, the feedback from volunteers, the small effects in TOWL, and the magnitude of voltages indicate that nail DC current iontophoresis is feasible and probably a safe technique.

  9. Streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and characterization of surface-water and ground-water quality, southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.

    2002-01-01

    San Francisquito Creek is an important source of recharge to the 22-square-mile San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan ground-water subbasin in the southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara Counties of California. Ground water supplies as much as 20 percent of the water to some area communities. Local residents are concerned that infiltration and consequently ground-water recharge would be reduced if additional flood-control measures are implemented along San Francisquito Creek. To improve the understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction between San Francisquito Creek and the San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and determined the chemical quality and isotopic composition of surface and ground water in the study area.Streamflow was measured at 13 temporary streamflow-measurement stations to determine streamflow gains and losses along a 8.4-mile section of San Francisquito Creek. A series of five seepage runs between April 1996 and May 1997 indicate that losses in San Francisquito Creek were negligible until it crossed the Pulgas Fault at Sand Hill Road. Streamflow losses increased between Sand Hill Road and Middlefield Road where the alluvial deposits are predominantly coarse-grained and the water table is below the bottom of the channel. The greatest streamflow losses were measured along a 1.8-mile section of the creek between the San Mateo Drive bike bridge and Middlefield Road; average losses between San Mateo Drive and Alma Street and from there to Middlefield Road were 3.1 and 2.5 acre-feet per day, respectively.Downstream from Middlefield Road, streamflow gains and losses owing to seepage may be masked by urban runoff, changes in bank storage, and tidal effects from San Francisco Bay. Streamflow gains measured between Middlefield Road and the 1200 block of Woodland Avenue may be attributable to urban runoff and (or) ground-water inflow. Water

  10. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  11. Effect of mulching with maize straw on water infiltration and soil loss at different initial soil moistures in a rainfall simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifu ZHANG,Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Qingjie WANG,Ying CHEN,Wanzhi CHEN,Shaochun MA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mulching and soil water content (SWC have a significant impact on soil erosion, and this study investigated the effect of straw mulching on water infiltration and soil loss under different initial SWC treatments in a rainfall simulation experiment conducted in northern China. Increasing initial SWC can decrease soil infiltration and increase soil loss. During an 80 mm rainfall event (80 mm·h-1 for 60 min, 8%, 12% and 16% initial SWC treatments decreased cumulative infiltration by 8.7%, 42.5% and 58.1%, and increased total sediment yield by 44, 146 and 315 g, respectively, compared to 4% initial SWC. However, in all the straw mulching treatments, there was no significant difference in stable infiltration rate between the different initial SWC treatments. For all initial SWC treatments, straw mulching of 30% or more significantly enhanced water infiltration by over 31% and reduced soil loss by over 49%, compared to the unmulched treatment. Taking into consideration the performance of no-till planters, a maize straw mulching rate of 30% to 60% (1400—3100 kg·hm-2 is recommended for the conservation of water and soil in northern China.

  12. Fibrin/platelet plug counteracts cutaneous wound contraction: the hypothesis of "skipping stone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous wound contraction and epithelialization act collaboratively to minimize the exposed wound surface. However excessive wound contraction is undesirable due to the resultant disfigurement and scarring. Fibrin clot has greater stiffness than surrounding tissue and mechanical strain further enhances its stiffness. On the contrary, skin exhibits diminished stiffness when affected by high strain rates. Therefore during early stages of wound healing, the contractile wound border is confronted by fibrin clot forming a high strain region in the interface of contractile tissue and fibrin clot--which is evidenced by computer simulation. Due to the stress relaxation property of skin, the contractile strain is partly neutralized. Meanwhile, gradually the stiffness of fibrin clot decreases which is followed by another cycle of wound contraction. This cyclic pattern of contraction resembles the movement of a stone over water or "skipping stone". The stone bounces repeatedly when thrown across the surface of water with reduction of jumping altitude with each bounce till the stone stops completely. This hypothesis is further supported by the observed initial delay in wound contraction and the chronological correlation of enhanced wound contraction with loss of superficial eschar and substitution of fibrin clot with granulation tissue. Also there is evidence that fibrin inhibits fibroblast-mediated contraction of collagen. Furthermore, modest increase in wound contraction rate in fibrinogen deficient mice and fibrin-mediated diminished wound contraction are agreement with the proposed hypothesis.

  13. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  14. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity.

  15. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  16. Cutaneous tuberculosis, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamani Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous tuberculosis because of its variability in presentation, wider differential diagnosis, and difficulty in obtaining microbiological confirmation continues to be the most challenging to diagnose for dermatologists in developing countries. Despite the evolution of sophisticated techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA, the sensitivity of new methods are not better than the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosum in culture. Even in the 21 st century, we rely on methods as old as the intradermal reaction purified protein derivative standard test and therapeutic trials, as diagnostic tools. We describe a case which has been diagnosed and treated as eczema by renowned physicians for 2 years. Incisional biopsy showed the presence of well-defined granulomas and ZN staining of the biopsy specimen showed the presence of acid fast bacilli; a trial of ATT (antitubercular therapy for 6 months lead to permanent cure of the lesion.

  17. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management. PMID:26909210

  18. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  19. Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aytekin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection caused by numerous different species of Leishmania protozoa. In our country, CL is due frequently to L. major and L. tropica. Its clinical presentation is extremely diverse. Treatment of CL aims to prevent mucosal invasion, to accelerate the healing of skin lesions, and avoid disfiguring scar. Local and physical treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or pentavalant antimonals can be effective against. Intralesional antimonals are still the drug of choice may patients. WHO recommends an injection of drug under edges of the lesions and the entire lesion until the surface has blanched. Parenteral antimonials are useful for large, persistent or recurrent lesions. Combinations with other drugs such as allopurinol, pentoxifylline must be used for antimony unresponsive lesions.

  20. Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors – Thermo- and fluid-dynamic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, André, E-mail: a.seeliger@hszg.de [Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology, Theodor-Körner-Allee 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Alt, Sören; Kästner, Wolfgang; Renger, Stefan [Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz, Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology, Theodor-Körner-Allee 16, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Kryk, Holger; Harm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Borated coolant supports corrosion at zinc-coated installations in PWR after LOCA. • Dissolved zinc is injected into core by ECCS during sump recirculation phase. • Corrosion products can reach and settle at further downstream components. • Corrosion products can cause head losses at spacers and influence decay heat removal. • Preventive procedures were tested at semi-technical scale facilities. - Abstract: Within the framework of the German reactor safety research, generic experimental investigations were carried out aiming at thermal-hydraulic consequences of physicochemical mechanisms, caused by dissolution of zinc in boric acid during corrosion processes at hot-dip galvanized surfaces of containment internals at lower coolant temperatures and the subsequent precipitation of solid zinc borates in PWR core regions of higher temperature. This constellation can occur during sump recirculation operation of ECCS after LOCA. Hot-dip galvanized compounds, which are installed inside a PWR containment, may act as zinc sources. Getting in contact with boric acid coolant, zinc at their surfaces is released into coolant in form of ions due to corrosion processes. As a long-term behavior resp. over a time period of several days, metal layers of zinc and zinc alloys can dissolve extensively. First fundamental studies at laboratory scale were done at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Their experimental results were picked up for the definition of boundary conditions for experiments at semi-technical scale at the Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz (HSZG). Electrical heating rods with zircaloy cladding tubes have been used as fuel rod simulators. As near-plant core components, a 3 × 3 configuration of heating rods (HRC) and a shortened, partially heatable PWR fuel assembly dummy were applied into cooling circuits. The HRC module includes segments of spacers for a suitable representation of a heating channel geometry. Formations of different solid

  1. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen - Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse.

  2. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  3. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma mimicking cutaneous histiocytosis: differentiation by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, S J; McCormick, D; McInnes, E; Dunn, J K; Dobson, J M; McConnell, I

    2000-07-01

    A two-year-old, neutered female cross-bred labrador had multiple cutaneous nodules, biopsies of which revealed pathological changes consistent with cutaneous histiocytosis. During a period of one month the dog developed multicentric lymphadenopathy, a retrobulbar mass and masses within the quadriceps and cervical muscles. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the cutaneous nodules and lymph nodes and histological examination of the cutaneous nodules and muscle masses suggested the presence of lymphoblastic lymphoma. A definitive diagnosis of CD8+ T cell lymphoma was achieved by immunophenotyping the tumour cells by flow cytometry.

  4. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  5. Particulate organic matter higher concentrations, terrestrial sources and losses in bottom waters of the turbidity maximum, Delaware Estuary, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Anna L.; Sikes, Elisabeth L.

    2016-10-01

    The pathway and fate of land-derived suspended particulate organic matter (POM) as it passes through estuaries remains a poorly constrained component of coastal carbon dynamics. The δ13C of bulk POC (particulate organic carbon; δ13C-POC) and n-alkane biomarkers were used to assess the proportion of algal- and land- (vascular plant) derived POM through the Delaware Estuary, on five cruises in 2010-2011. We found that POC was highly correlated with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). Higher SSC was present in bottom waters, causing bottom waters to have consistently higher concentrations of POC than surface waters, with the bottom waters of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) exhibiting maximum POC concentrations for all seasons and flow regimes. Algal-derived POM seasonally affected the δ13C-POC and n-alkane geochemical signatures of surface waters, whereas bottom waters were dominated by vascular plant-derived POM. δ13C-POC results suggested a gradual loss in vascular plant-derived POM between the riverine and marine endmember stations. In contrast, n-alkane concentrations peaked in bottom waters of the ETM at 2-5 times surface water concentrations. Indices of the relative proportions of n-alkanes and n-alkanes as a proportion of total POC had their levels decrease considerably downstream of the ETM. These biomarker analyses suggest enhanced loss of land-derived material across the ETM and that the ETM acts as a geochemical filter for vascular plant-derived POM in a classic well mixed estuary.

  6. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

    OpenAIRE

    Alenyorege E. A.; Hussein Y. A.; Adongo T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have d...

  7. Water distribution uniformity improvement of microtube-type and button-type drip irrigation system using adjustable pressure-loss lateral takeoff valves

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Keller, J.; Reyes, Manuel R.; R. Yoder

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation application using microtube-type and button-type drip irrigation systems tends to be relatively non-uniform especially under steep slopes and low operating heads. This study was conducted to determine the effect of using a device called Adjustable Pressure-Loss Lateral Takeoff Valves (APLTVs) on water distribution uniformity of both types of drip systems LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  8. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT K2HP04 AND NaCl LEVELS ON THE WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY AND COOKING LOSS OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karakaya

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted on the laboratory conditions. Different levels of K2HP04 (0.00%, 0.25%, 0.30% and NaCl (2.5%, 3.0% were applied on the goat meat and the pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss were observed. According to the results the effects of 0.25% K2HP04 addition was found statistically insignificant (p

  9. [Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer on surface water N dynamics and its runoff loss in double cropping paddy fields in Dongtinghu Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiong-Hui; Zheng, Sheng-Xian; Lu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yu-Lin

    2007-07-01

    By using leakage pond to simulate the double cropping paddy fields in Dongtinghu Lake area, this paper studied the effects of urea (CF) and controlled release nitrogen fertilizer (CRNF) on the dynamics of surface water pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and the runoff loss of TN in alluvial sandy loamy paddy soil and purple calcareous clayed paddy soil, the two main paddy soils in this area. The results showed that after applying urea, the surface water TN and NH4(+)-N concentrations reached the peak at the 1st and 3rd day, respectively, and decreased rapidly then. Surface water NO3(-)-N concentration was very low, though it showed a little raise at the 3rd to 7th day after applying urea in purple calcareous clayed paddy soil. In early rice field, surface water pH rose gradually within 15 days after applying urea, while in late rice field, it did within 3 days. EC kept consistent with the dynamics of NH4(+)-N. CRNF, especially 70% N CRNF, gave rise to distinctly lower surface water pH, EC, and TN and NH4(+)-N concentrations within 15 days after application, but NO3- concentration rose slightly at late growth stages, compared with urea application. The monitoring of TN runoff loss indicated that during double cropping rice growth season, the loss amount of TN under urea application was 7.70 kg x hm(-2), accounting for 2.57% of applied urea-N. The two runoff events occurred within 20 days after urea application contributed significantly to the TN runoff loss. CRNF application resulted in a significantly lower TN concentration in runoff water from the 1st runoff event occurred within 10 days of its application, and thereafter, the total TN runoff loss for CRNF and 70% N CRNF application was decreased by 24.5% and 27.2%, respectively, compared with urea application.

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of Helicobacter cinaedi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoko; Inokuma, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mika; Sakai, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Kikuo; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2013-03-27

    Helicobacter cinaedi causes gastroenteritis and bacter-aemia, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Although cellulitis is sometimes reported to accompany infection by this pathogen, the cutaneous manifestations are poorly understood. To clarify the characteristic cutaneous features, 47 cases of H. cinaedi bacteraemia experienced at Sapporo City General Hospital as nosocomial infection were retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-four percent (16 cases) of the patients showed cutaneous lesions. They all had sudden onset of erythemas accompanied by high temperature. The most common cutaneous manifestations were found to be superficial cellulitis, which results in painful erythemas or infiltrated erythematous plaques on the extremities. These skin lesions can be an early clinical indicator of H. cinaedi bacteraemia in the setting of nosocomial infection.

  11. Cutaneous anthrax cases leading compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Parlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease with three clinical forms. Clinical forms are skin, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is 95% of the cases. Cutaneous anthrax frequently defines itself. Clinical presentation of anthrax may be severe and complicated in some cases. There may seem complications like meningitis, septic shock and compartment syndrome. Compartment Syndrome is a rare complication of cutaneous anthrax and it is life threatening. Physicians working in the endemic area should be aware of this form. In this study, three cases were shown which developed compartment syndrome following cutaneous anthrax. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 214-217

  12. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic tropical parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Neil F; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2009-01-01

    Tropical diseases continue to cause significant health problems in developing nations. An overview of illnesses with notable cutaneous findings caused by protozoans and helminthes is provided. The role of the health care provider in disease management is described.

  13. Cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, Jeffrey P

    2010-06-01

    Dermatomyositis is a condition with pathognomonic and characteristic cutaneous lesions. This article describes the skin manifestations observed in patients with dermatomyositis, their differential diagnosis, their relationship to internal disease (particularly malignancy), and their management.

  14. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  15. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P C; Satterwhite, T K; Monheit, J E; Parks, D

    1987-04-01

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in trauma patients has been rarely reported. We describe three cases occurring in noncompromised hosts and review the literature. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment with vigorous local care and appropriate antibiotics are recommended.

  16. Cutaneous Angiosarcoma of Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Vora; Gopikrishnan Anjaneyan; Rajat Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare aggressive tumor of capillary and lymphatic endothelial cell origin. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head and neck regions seems to be a distinctive neoplasm with characteristic clinicopathologic features that differ from angiosarcoma in other anatomic locations. Angiosarcoma, regardless of their setting, has a bad prognosis. We presented here a case of 80 years old male, with multiple nontender grouped purple to red hemorrhagic vesicular and bullous lesions ove...

  17. Cutaneous pseudovasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome and obstetric misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayaparan, A S; Lowe, S A

    2015-09-01

    We present two women with severe obstetric complications from antiphospholipid (aPL) syndrome associated with a rare dermatological manifestation, cutaneous pseudovasculitis. Both of these women developed a rash on the palmar aspect of the hands during the post partum period, with histology consistent with microthrombotic disease, despite anticoagulation. Cutaneous pseudovasculitis appears to be a maternal manifestation of aPL coagulopathy, possibly reflecting the severity of the underlying pregnancy pathology.

  18. Cutaneous Findings in Patients with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Emre, Selma; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acromegaly is a systemic syndrome caused by overproduction of growth hormone. The syndrome affects cutaneous, endocrine, cardiovascular, skeletal, and respiratory systems. Cutaneous manifestations of acromegaly are various, usually being the first presenting findings of the disease. Methods: Dermatological examinations of 49 patients of acromegaly who were followed-up at a tertiary referral hospital.Results: The study included 27 (55.1%) female and 22 (44.9%) male patients. The on...

  19. Uncommon cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, J M; Herrero, C; Hausmann, G

    1997-01-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus (LE) are, usually, characteristic enough to permit an easy diagnosis. However, some patients may present less typical lesions, associated or not to the classic ones. Therefore, irrespectively of the variety of LE (acute, subacute and chronic), in absence of the typical butterfly rash, erythematosquamous papules or plaques, or any of the characteristic cutaneous alterations, it is important (even though not always easy) to recognize the uncommon and/or atypical changes of the skin.

  20. Cutaneous leismaniasis with unusual appearance: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Havva Erdem; İlteriş Oğuz Topal; Ümran Yıldırım

    2009-01-01

    Leishmaniasis, is a disease that is transmitted by infected sand flies when they suck the blood of mammals. It is estimated that more than 1.5 million new cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases occur throughout the world every year and the disease is endemic in southern and southeastern Turkey. Cutaneous leishmaniasis presents a spectrum of manifestations both clinically and histologically. As is in our case, histopathology can be more important than clinical examination.The diagnosis is made by ...

  1. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Julia T; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-07-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases.

  2. Domestic hot water. Measurements of consumption and heat loss from circulation pipes; Varmt brugsvand. Maaling af forbrug og varmetab fra cirkulationsledninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Schroeder, F.; Bergsoee, N.C.

    2009-07-01

    It is likely that the production and distribution of domestic hot water (DHW) in buildings will constitute a dominant share of both the present and in particular future energy design requirements. The goal of this project has been to propose more energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions for DHW systems based on analyses of existing conditions. The possibilities include new types of circulation pipes, which have the potential of a 40 per cent reduction of heat losses. In addition to the reduction of heat losses inside the building, a low return temperature from the hot water system will have a large impact on the heat losses from the district heating network when the building is being heated by district heating. The results of this project could influence not only future buildings but also existing buildings in case of renovation of the installations. In this project measurements of water and energy consumptions have been carried out in a number of buildings, and heat losses from the production of domestic hot water and the distribution lines have been measured. In addition to the measurements, analyses and simulations have been carried out. Two models have been developed: One of an apartment room with vertical pipes passing through the room, and one of a room above a basement with horizontal heating pipes. The models make it possible to assess how much of the heat loss from the heating pipes is utilised for space heating. The following recommendations are pointed out: 1) In large buildings e.g. apartment buildings and office buildings the technical installations should be provided with meters so that it is possible to separate the energy consumption for DHW, space heating and ventilation, respectively. 2) In new buildings and in case of retrofitting existing buildings, careful planning of the placement and disposition of hot water taps compared with the location of the hot water tank or heat exchanger is recommended. Also, the necessity of a

  3. Application of Geo-Information Technology in the Study of Soil and Nutrients Loss by Water Erosion for three Different Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtak T. Jabbar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research integrated the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and the soil statistical analysis with RS and GIS techniques to quantify soil and nutrient loss risk. The Letianxi watershed, located in the southwest part of Hubei Province of China was taken as a case. A system was established for rating soil erodibility, slope length/gradient, rainfall erosivity and conservation practices. The rating values serve as inputs into a Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE to calculate the risk for soil degradation processes, namely soil water erosion. Two Landsat TM senses in 1997 and ETM 2002, respectively, were used to produce land use/cover maps of the study area based on the maximum likelihood classification method. These maps were then used to generate the conservation practice factor in the RUSLE. In order to assess the effect of land cover and landscape position on soil nutrient consisting of Soil Organic Mater (SOM, Total N (TN, Total P (TP and Total K (TK, soil samples were collected from the top to foot of hill slope in the study area. The three categories consisted of a typical land cover structure for each polygon in the study area: Soil under forest cover (T1, soil under agriculture crops cover (T2 and soil under no vegetation cover (T3. Annual loss of total N (8.24 kg ha‾1, total P (5.88 kg ha‾1 and total K (6.98 kg ha‾1, per unit loss of soil (t ha‾1, was maximum from the soil under no vegetation cover (T3. The loss of total N ranged between 5.30 and 32.27 kg ha‾1, total P ranged between 2.14 and 12.42 kg ha‾1, total K ranged from 2.12 to 10.31 kg ha-1 whereas organic matter loss varied between 10.65 and 236.16 kg ha-1, from three different land covers. ERmapper and Arc/Info software were used to manage and manipulate thematic data, to process satellite images and tabular data source. Results showed that 110.72 km2 (27.09% was exposed to very slight soil loss and 227.01 km2 (55.55% was

  4. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too ... conversations when two or more people are talking Difficulty ...

  5. Sporotrichoid-Like Spread of Cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Marley Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found in water and soil that can cause local cutaneous infections in immunocompetent hosts but more frequently affects immunocompromised patients. Typically, patients will present with painful subcutaneous nodules of the joints or soft tissues from traumatic inoculation. However, exhibiting a sporotrichoid-like pattern of these nodules is uncommon. Herein, we report a case of sporotrichoid-like distribution of cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus on significant immunosuppressive medications. Clinicians treating immunocompromised patients should be cognizant of their propensity to develop unusual infections and atypical presentations.

  6. Effectiveness Of Miraba an Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Measures On Reducing Runoff And Soil Loss In Arable Land Of Western Usambara Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msita, H. B.; Kimaro, D. N.; Mtakwa, P. W.; Msanya, B. M.; Dondyene, S.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is rampant mainly in mountainous areas of Tanzania leading to environmental hazards, low land productivity, low income and increased poverty. Despite the severity of the soil erosion problem, there is not much quantitative data on the erosion effects and effectiveness of indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The consequence is that indigenous knowledge in SWC planning is ignored. The on-farm field experiment was conducted for three years in Migambo village, Lushoto district in Tanzania, to determine the effectiveness of improved Miraba (IM) an indigenous soil erosion control measure on reducing runoff and soil loss. Management practices were tested viz: control that is without any soil conservation measure (C), Miraba alone (M), Miraba with farmyard manure and mulching (MFM) replicated three times in CRD setting. Maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used as test crops, due to their importance as food crops and the high erosion rates on fields with these crops. The crops were planted in rotation, maize and beans in short and long rains respectively. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MFM is the most effective measure in reducing soil and water losses followed by MF and M. The results further showed that these management practices can be implemented to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in the study area and areas with similar ecological setting. To facilitate adoption of these practices further research works is recommended for identifying economically feasible indigenous SWC measures under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

  7. A scenario for impacts of water availability loss due to climate change on riverine fish extinction rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedesco, P.A.; Oberdorff, T.; Cornu, J.-F.; Beauchard, O.; Brosse, S.; Dürr, H.H.; Grenouillet, G.; Leprieur, F.; Tisseuil, C.; Zaiss, R.; Hugueny, B.

    2013-01-01

    1. Current models estimating impact of habitat loss on biodiversity in the face of global climate change usually project only percentages of species committed to extinction' on an uncertain time-scale. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome using an empirically derived background

  8. A scenario for impacts of water availability loss due to climate change on riverine fish extinction rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedesco, P.A.; Oberdorff, T.; Cornu, J.-F.; Beauchard, O.; Brosse, S.; Dürr, H.H.; Grenouillet, G.; Leprieur, F.; Tisseuil, C.; Zaiss, R.; Hugueny, B.

    2013-01-01

    1. Current models estimating impact of habitat loss on biodiversity in the face of global climate change usually project only percentages of species committed to extinction' on an uncertain time-scale. Here, we show that this limitation can be overcome using an empirically derived background extinct

  9. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure + soil surfactant; T2: compost/animal or green manure + pigeon-pea hedges + soil surfactant; T3: compost/animal or green manure + mulch + pigeon-pea hedges) on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in eroded soil and runoff and on crop yields. Three treatments and one control (traditional practice) were tested in field plots at three sites with a local maize variety and two types of beans. Runoff and eroded soil were collected after each erosive rain, quantified, and analysed for NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations. In all treatments runoff had higher concentrations of NO3-N (2.20-4.83 mg L-1) than of PO4-P (0.02-0.07 mg L-1), and the eroded soil had higher content of PO4-P (5.27-18.8 mg g-1) than of NO3-N (1.30-8.51 mg g-1). The control had significantly higher losses of both NO3-N (5.4, 4.4 and 19 kg ha-1) and PO4-P (0.2, 0.1 and 0.4 kg ha-1) than the other treatments. T3 reduced soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100% while T1 and T2 reduced those losses from 43 to 88%. The losses of NO3-N and PO4-P were highly correlated with the amounts of runoff and eroded soil. Nutrient losses from the applied amendments were low (5.7% maximum), but the losses in the control could indicate long-term nutrient depletion in the soil (19 and 0.4 kg ha-1 of NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively). T1-T3 did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but T1 increased both crop yield and biomass. We conclude that T3 (combining crop-residue mulch with organic amendment and runoff hedges) is the best treatment for steep slope areas but, the pigeon-pea hedges need to be managed for higher maize yield. T1 (combining organic amendment with soil surfactant) could be a

  10. Choroidal Metastases From Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carmel L; Toy, Brian C; Kistler, Henry B; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    A 92-year-old man presented with months of progressive blurry vision, worsening acutely in his right eye. He denied pain, diplopia, or photopsias. His history was significant for multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, and malignant melanoma of his right shoulder treated with local excision. He had local recurrence with hepatic metastasis of the melanoma treated with radiation and chemotherapy. On examination, his visual acuity was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/60 in the left eye. Amsler grid testing demonstrated metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus exam of the right and left eyes revealed multiple, elevated, pigmented choroidal lesions, with associated subretinal fluid in the right macula. This appearance is consistent with hematogenous metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma to the choroid and associated serous fluid-causing metamorphopsia. The patient was enrolled in a clinical trial combining plasmid IL-12 with pembrolizumab (Keytruda; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ). He passed away 2 months after initial presentation to our clinic. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:497.].

  11. Vaccinations against cutaneous Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, K; Brosch, S; Von Stebut, E

    2008-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease with increasing incidence, even in Europe. Recently, it has attracted more attention due to reactivation in immunocompromised hosts, e.g. in the context of HIV. Therapeutic options range from topical treatment to systemic therapy for more complex cases. A vaccine does not exist at present. Despite of several attempts, vaccine generation has proven to be difficult even though protective immunity against this obligate intracellular protozoan parasite is dependent on the development of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells capable of releasing IFN?. IFN?, in turn, activates phagocytic host cells to generate oxidative radicals and to eliminate the parasite. This review will describe the basic immunology leading to the development of protective immunity in infected individuals. In addition, the authors will focus on highlighting the different approaches utilized for vaccine development and describe what a efficient vaccine may consist of. Combined intensive research in the fields of basic parasitology and immunology may allow for the generation of an efficacious vaccine against this important human pathogen in the near future.

  12. [Mechanisms of cutaneous drug reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, L

    2000-06-15

    Two main mechanisms, pharmacologic and immunoallergic, are responsible for cutaneous reactions to drugs. Pharmacologic mechanisms can be predictable (overdosage, cumulative or delayed toxicity, adverse effects) or unpredictable (idiosyncratic, intolerance, or anaphylactic reaction). Immunoallergic mechanisms can be mediated by IgE (some types of urticaria and anaphylactic shock), due to circulating immune complexes (leukocytoclastic vasculitis, serum sickness-type reactions) or mediated by lymphocytes (exanthema, Lyell's syndrome, fixed pigmented erythema, photosensitization). The diagnostic work-up varies according to the causative mechanism. When the reaction is predictable, the responsible drug can be identified according to the data in the present bibliography. When the reaction is immunologic, only the chronologic sequence of events can identify the responsible drug. The risk of recurrence with an identical or related molecule also varies according to the causative mechanism. For urticaria, diagnosis and the risk of recurrence differ according to whether the cause is allergic (mediated by IgE or urticarial vasculitis) or is pharmacologic (urticaria due to aspirin or to conversion enzyme inhibitors).

  13. Two cases of cutaneous cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiujiao, Xia; Ai'e, Xu

    2005-07-01

    We report two cases of cutaneous cryptococcosis in male patients without underlying disease. Case 1 had a granulomatous mass on his right neck, gradually enlarging for 3 months. After the mass was debrided surgically in a hospital, the incision wound gradually developed into a severe ulceration. Mycological examination revealed Cryptococcus neoformans infection. It was significant that histopathology of both pre-surgery granuloma and post-surgery ulceration revealed thick-walled spores with thick capsule. Chest X-ray revealed a shadow in the left lower lung. After treatment with amphotec for 21 days, the lesion healed. Case 2 had an approximately 2 x 2 cm solitary dull nodule on his right thigh, which had been present for 8 months. Mycological examination confirmed that the lesion was caused by C. neoformans. The patient's ratio of peripheral blood CD4(+) cell was slightly reduced. After 14 days of treatment with oral fluconazole, followed by oral itraconazole for 2 months, mycological and clinical cure were achieved. The two isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C and C. neoformans var. grubii serotype A.

  14. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods.

  15. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  16. Reducing nitrogen leaching losses from paddy field under water-saving irrigation by water table control%控制地下水位减少节水灌溉稻田氮素淋失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和玉璞; 张展羽; 徐俊增; 杨士红; 洪大林

    2014-01-01

    Effects of controlled drainage (CD) on nitrogen leaching losses from paddy field under controlled irrigation (CI) were investigated. Water table control levels were managing with the use of a lysimeter equipped with an automatic water table control system. Three drainage treatments were implemented, namely, controlled water table 1, controlled water table 2, and controlled water table 3. For controlled water table 1, the water table control levels were adjusted daily based on the actual water table depths that were measured by using a water table observation well. Water table control levels in controlled water table 2 were controlled based on the rice root zone depths in different stages according to the water table management that was tested in the humid regions of Eastern Canada and Midwestern United States. For controlled water table 3, the water table control levels in different stages were selected based on previous studies in paddy field of Southeast China. The water table control levels in the later tillering stage and milk stage were also adjusted depending on the characteristics of rice growth and cultivation needs. Experiments were conducted in nine drainage type lysimeters with a mobile shelter and gallery. Each lysimeter had an area of 2.5 m × 2 m and a depth of 1.3 m. Influence of rainfall was avoided using the mobile shelter to strictly regulate the soil moisture in CI. Each lysimeter was individually irrigated and drained using a pipe installed with a water meter and a tube (40 mm in inner diameter) installed at 1.2 m below the soil surface, respectively. Subsurface drainage was conducted based on the water table control levels by using an automatic water table control system, which was installed on each drain tube in the gallery. Subsurface drainage water were collected twice at 2d intervals after each fertilizer application followed by 4d intervals. A 7d sampling interval was used during the rest time. NH4+–N and NO3−–N concentrations in the

  17. 农村小水电水能降损研究综述%A Review of Water Energy Loss Reduction in the Rural Small-hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡新; 陈姣姣

    2016-01-01

    Rural small-hydropower is a kind of clean and renewable energy .To develop rural small-hydropower has benefits economi-cally and ecologically .Our country has abundant small hydropower resources to develop .Small hydropower station construction has a long history ,but currently there are many problems in rural small-hydropower ,such as serious corrosion of metal structures and equipment ,head loss of pressure piping is too large ,leakage of water diversion system is too large ,etc .Research on rural small-hy-dropower loss reduction is imminent .In this paper ,on the basis of an overview of the structure of small hydropower in rural areas , it sums up research methods for the loss reduction ,and summarizes the research progress in reducing loss of small rural hydropower from head loss and water loss .it provide a basis for rural small-hydropower reducing losses in our future research .%农村小水电作为可再生的清洁能源 ,大力发展农村小水电兼具经济效益和生态效益.我国可开发小水电资源丰富 ,小水电建设历史悠久 ,但是当前我国的农村小水电存在着诸多问题 ,如金属结构设备锈蚀严重、压力管道水头损失过大、引水系统的渗漏损失过大等 ,农村小水电降损研究迫在眉睫.在概述农村小水电结构形式的基础上 ,总结了降损的研究方法 ,并从水头损失和水量损失两个方面综述了农村小水电降损研究进展 ,为今后农村小水电降损研究提供了依据.

  18. Stream-gage locations where streamflow gains/losses were quantified along the Central Valley surface-water network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the name and location for the diversions from the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central...

  19. Effects of Terracing and Agroforestry on Soil and Water Loss in Hilly Areas of the Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H. ZHANG; Z.A. SU; G.C. LIU

    2008-01-01

    Soil erosion in hilly areas of the Sichuan Basin is a serious concern over sustainable crop production and sound ecosystem. A 3-year experiment was conducted using the method of runoff plots to examine the effects of terracing and agroforestry in farmland systems on soil and water conservation of slope fields m the hilly areas in Jianyang County, Sichuan Province, Southwestern China. A power function (Y = aXb) can statistically describe the relationship between water runoff (Y) and rainfall (X). The regression equation for the treatment of sloping terraces with crops (Plot 2) is remarkably different from that for the treatment of sloping terraces with grasses and trees (Plot 1) and the conventional up- and down-slope crop system (Plot 3) regarding equation coefficients, while regression equations are similar between Plot 1 and Plot 3. Water runoff amount and runoff coefficient of slope fields increased by 21.5~41.0 % and 27.5 ~ 69.7 % respectively, compared to those of sloping terraces, suggesting that terracing notably reduced the water runoff in the field. In the case of sloping terraces, lower amount of water runoff was observed on sloping terraces with crops than on sloping terraces with grasses and trees. Sediment yields on the slope fields in the normal year of rainfall distribution were notably higher (34.41 ~ 331.67 % and 37.06 ~ 403.44 % for Plot 1 and Plot 2, respectively) than those on sloping terraces, implying that terracing also plays a significant role in the reduction in soil erosion. It is suggested that terracing with crops is significantly effective for soil and water conservation in cultivated farmland,while the conventional practice of up-and down-slope cultivation creates high rates of water runoff and soil sediment transport.Terracing with grasses and fruit trees shows a less reduction in water runoff than terracing with crops,which was observed in the 3-year experiments.

  20. The efficacy of oral isotretinoin versus cyproterone compound in female patients with acne and the triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gita Faghihi; Kioumars Jamshidi; Nabet Tajmirriahi; Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini; Mohamadali Nilforoshzadeh; Mohamadreza Radan; Sayed Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Background: SAHA (Seborrhea, Acne, Hirsutism and Androgenetic Alopecia) syndrome is a dermatologic disorder, with variant response to treatment. Triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism included nodulocystic or severe acne, female pattern hair loss and hirsutism. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of isotretinoin and cyproterone compound in the treatment of nodulocystic acne, in patients with SAHA syndrome or triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism. Materials and Method...

  1. Investigation of some locally water-soluble natural polymers as circulation loss control agents during oil fields drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Alsabagh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating or controlling lost circulation during drilling process is costly and time-consuming. Polymers play an important role in mud loss control for their viscosity due to their high molecular weight. In this paper, three natural cellulosic polymers (carboxymethyl cellulose, guar gum and potato starch were investigated as lost circulation control material by measuring different filtration parameters such as; spurt loss, fluid loss and permeability plugging tester value according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. From the obtained data, it was found that the 0.1% from the carboxymethyl cellulose exhibited the best results in the filtration parameters among 0.3% guar gum and 0.6% potato starch. At the same time the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC enhanced the rheological properties of the drilling mud better than the two other used natural polymers in the term of gel strength, thixotropy, plastic and apparent viscosity. These results were discussed in the light of the adsorption and micellar formation.

  2. Skin appendageal immune reactivity in a case of cutaneous lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discoid lupus erythematosus is a cutaneous disease with a worldwide distribution, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Case Report: A 41 year old male was evaluated for hair loss, in patches on the scalp. We studied selected adaptor proteins expressed in T, natural killer, neutrophil and mast cells; these proteins are important mediators for antigen receptor signaling in situ. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin examination, as well as for direct immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed. Results: Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated classic features of lupus with focal dermal scarring; epidermal atrophy was noted, with lymphohistiocytic infiltrates around the skin appendages. Direct immunofluoresence revealed classic, lupus band positive staining along the dermal/epidermal junction. In addition, immune reactants were identified in neurovascular areas, and around pilosebaceous units. Immunohistochemistry staining showed positive staining for the T-cell antigen receptor zeta chain, the linker for activation of T cells, myeloperoxidase, cyclo-oxygenase 2, melanoma-associated antigen 1, B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 associated X protein, and BCL-2 markers. The positive staining was observed within the dermal inflammatory infiltrate, around pilosebaceous units, upper dermal blood vessels, and focally within eccrine sweat glands. Conclusions: The pathobiology of cutaneous lupus involves not only the epidermis, but also dermal pilosebaceous units, eccrine sweat glands and blood vessels. Further studies are recommended, especially in the light of presented data regarding T cell activation and proapototic molecules.

  3. Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Water Loss in a Chronosequence of Three Douglas-Fir Stands in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of nitrogen (N fertilization on forest carbon (C sequestration and water loss, we used an artificial neural network model to estimate C fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET in response to N fertilization during four post-fertilization years in a Pacific Northwest chronosequence of three Douglas-fir stands aged 61, 22 and 10 years old in 2010 (DF49, HDF88 and HDF00, respectively. Results showed that N fertilization increased gross primary productivity (GPP for all three sites in all four years with the largest absolute increase at HDF00 followed by HDF88. Ecosystem respiration increased in all four years at HDF00, but decreased over the last three years at HDF88 and over all four years at DF49. As a result, fertilization increased the net ecosystem productivity of all three stands with the largest increase at HDF88, followed by DF49. Fertilization had no discernible effect on ET in any of the stands. Consequently, fertilization increased water use efficiency (WUE in all four post-fertilization years at all three sites and also increased light use efficiency (LUE of all the stands, especially HDF00. Our results suggest that the effects of fertilization on forest C sequestration and water loss may be associated with stand age and fertilization; the two younger stands appeared to be more efficient than the older stand with respect to GPP, WUE and LUE.

  4. Cutaneous Manifestations of Familial Transthyretin Amyloid Polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoue, Julien; Wei, Nancy; Gorevic, Peter; Phelps, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare inherited autosomal dominant form of systemic amyloidosis, which classically presents with severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Cutaneous involvement does not become clinically apparent until late stage symptomatic disease and is rarely reported in modern literature. Here, the authors review the clinical and histologic cutaneous findings of FAP previously described in the literature and report on 3 patients with unique genetic mutations (Thr60Ala and Gly6Ser; Trp41Leu; Glu89Gln) for which cutaneous involvement has not previously been described. Histologically, our patients showed variable amyloid deposition in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, papillary dermis, and dermal blood vessel walls. A review of the literature suggests cutaneous transthyretin deposition is an underrecognized feature of FAP that occurs early on in disease, even before neural involvement and related symptoms as seen in one of our patients. As such, a cutaneous punch biopsy can serve as quick, easy, and relatively noninvasive diagnostic tool in suspected cases.

  5. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBecerra-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid and secondary (phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary

  6. Agricultural land use and N losses to water: the case study of a fluvial park in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morari, F; Lugato, E; Borin, M

    2003-01-01

    An integrated water resource management programme has been under way since 1999 to reduce agricultural water pollution in the River Mincio fluvial park. The experimental part of the programme consisted of: a) a monitoring phase to evaluate the impact of conventional and environmentally sound techniques (Best Management Practices, BMPs) on water quality; this was done on four representative landscape units, where twelve fields were instrumented to monitor the soil, surface and subsurface water quality; b) a modelling phase to extend the results obtained at field scale to the whole territory of the Mincio watershed. For this purpose a GIS developed in the Arc/Info environment was integrated into the CropSyst model. The model had previously been calibrated to test its ability to describe the complexity of the agricultural systems. The first results showed a variable efficiency of the BMPs depending on the interaction between management and pedo-climatic conditions. In general though, the BMPs had positive effects in improving the surface and subsurface water quality. The CropSyst model was able to describe the agricultural systems monitored and its linking with the GIS represented a valuable tool for identifying the vulnerable areas within the watershed.

  7. Stable isotope fingerprint of open-water evaporation losses and effective drainage area fluctuations in a subarctic shield watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. J.; Reid, R.

    2010-02-01

    SummaryStable isotopes of water, oxygen-18 and deuterium, were measured at biweekly to monthly intervals during the open-water season in a small, headwater lake (Pocket Lake, 4.8 ha) near Yellowknife Northwest Territories, and concurrently in a nearby string-of-lakes watershed (Baker Creek, 137 km 2) situated in the subarctic Precambrian Shield region. As measured in water samples collected over a 12 year period (1997-2008), the levels of evaporative isotopic enrichment in both lake and watershed outflow were differentially offset, and seasonal variations were found in both to be driven by variations in open-water evaporation. Systematic differences measured in the magnitude of the offset between the lake and watershed outflow are interpreted as being caused by changes in the effective drainage area contributing to runoff. Based on the observed and extremely consistent relationship between isotopic compositions of lake water and watershed outflow ( r2 = 0.849, p isotopic signals transferred downstream in a typical shield drainage system within the Mackenzie Basin.

  8. Water loss from Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of ultracool dwarfs: Implications for the planets of TRAPPIST-1

    CERN Document Server

    Bolmont, Emeline; Owen, James E; Ribas, Ignasi; Raymond, Sean N; Leconte, Jérémy; Gillon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ultracool dwarfs (UCD) encompass the population of extremely low mass stars (later than M6-type) and brown dwarfs. Because UCDs cool monotonically, their habitable zone (HZ) sweeps inward in time. Assuming they possess water, planets found in the HZ of UCDs have experienced a runaway greenhouse phase too hot for liquid water prior to entering the HZ. It has been proposed that such planets are desiccated by this hot early phase and enter the HZ as dry, inhospitable worlds. Here we model the water loss during this pre-HZ hot phase taking into account recent upper limits on the XUV emission of UCDs and using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We address the whole range of UCDs but also focus on the planets b, c and d recently found around the $0.08~M_\\odot$ dwarf TRAPPIST-1. Despite assumptions maximizing the FUV-photolysis of water and the XUV-driven escape of hydrogen, we find that planets can retain significant amounts of water in the HZ of UCDs, with a sweet spot in the $0.04$-$0.06~M_\\odot$ range. With ...

  9. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking cutaneous lymphoma in a hyperthyroid cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Elisabeth; Kerr, Moira; Macdonald, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented for chronic, localized, swelling and crusting of the left upper lip, weight loss, sporadic vomiting, and focal alopecia between the scapulae was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and regional eosinophilic lymphadenitis. Treatment with methimazole exacerbated an underlying hypersensitivity disorder leading to marked generalized lymphadenopathy that histologically mimicked lymphoma.

  10. Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholdt, L H; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.......Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized....

  11. Naevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis : Report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of naevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS are reported. One of them was a case of multiple form of NLCS while other was having cutaneous lesions resembling solitary form of NLCS.

  12. Cutaneous transport of Ca2+ in the frog Rana pipiens: significance and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, D F; Eskandari, S; Dejbakhsh, S

    1997-04-01

    Rana pipiens were divided into four groups: controls; hypocalcemic frogs, depleted of salts by acclimation to deionized water; hypercalcemic frogs, calcium-loaded by the introduction of 40 mumol calcium gluconate; and frogs exposed to the potential competing ions Mg2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+. All groups displayed calcium influx that was proportional to external [Ca2+]; however, the group acclimated to deionized water also displayed hypocalcemia (P 0.3 mM) external [Ca2+]. Ca2+ efflux was depressed in hypocalcemic frogs, and thus net Ca2+ flux shifted from net loss in control frogs to net uptake in hypocalcemic frogs. Hypocalcemia also resulted in increased skin Ca2+ deposits which may be related to a decreased Ca2+ (and other ions) permeability as a consequence of the acclimation to deionized water. Another group of frogs was Ca(2+)-loaded by injecting calcium gluconate: Sodium gluconate controls did not significantly alter Ca2+ fluxes. The frogs that received calcium gluconate treatments became hypercalcemic (P < 0.01) and did not display significant changes in calcium fluxes, nor did they show significant changes in skin calcium deposits. We conclude that hypocalcemia leads to regulatory responses that stimulate active Ca2+ transport in Rana pipiens skin and possibly inhibits cutaneous and renal efflux. We also conclude that hypercalcemia does not alter calcium fluxes across skin. The ions from Group IIA of the Periodic Table of Elements had little effect on Ca2+ fluxes at concentrations ranging from 0.5-4.0 mM; neither Sr2+ or Ba2+ affected Ca2+ influx. The only divalent ion tested that influenced Ca2+ was Mg2+, which significantly inhibited Ca2+ influx but only at 4.0 mM or eight times the external [Ca2+]. We conclude, therefore, that the Ca2+ transport mechanism is fairly specific for Ca2+ within Group IIA.

  13. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  14. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts.

  15. Stage efficiency in the analysis of thermochemical water decomposition processes. [Procedure using the figure of merit is expanded to include individual stage efficiencies and loss coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, W.L.; Funk, J.E.; Carty, R.H.; Soliman, M.A.; Cox, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure for analyzing thermochemical water-splitting processes using the figure of merit is expanded to include individual stage efficiencies, and loss coefficients. The use of these quantities to establish the thermodynamic inefficiencies of each stage is shown. A number of processes are used to illustrate these concepts and procedures and to demonstrate the facility with which process steps contributing most to the cycle efficiency are found. The procedure allows attention to be directed to those steps of the process where the greatest increase in total cycle efficiency can be obtained.

  16. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  17. Novel Cutaneous Manifestations of Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Christopher M; Morrison, Annie O; Candelario, Nicole M; Khalafbeigi, Sheva; Cockerell, Clay J

    2016-10-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare progressive disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lobe and pleura. Approximately 100 cases have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations of PPFE have not previously been described. Diagnosis is dependent on histologic identification of fibrosis with atypical elastic fibers, necessitating an invasive peripheral lung wedge biopsy.A 68-year-old male with a history of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis presented with an asymptomatic, telangiectatic erythematous eruption on bilateral lower extremities. Biopsies demonstrated a subtle perivascular infiltrate with marked increase in atypical elastic fibers, similar to the elastosis in the patient's lungs.This is the first documented case of cutaneous manifestations in PPFE. Clinicians need to be aware that cutaneous eruptions clinically simulating telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans but lacking a mast cell infiltrate histologically, may have increased abnormal elastic fibers. Thus, early recognition of these lesions in patients with an undefined restrictive lung disorder, may facilitate the diagnosis of PPFE in some patients.

  18. Creation of a virtual cutaneous tissue bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFramboise, William A.; Shah, Sujal; Hoy, R. W.; Letbetter, D.; Petrosko, P.; Vennare, R.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2000-04-01

    Cellular and non-cellular constituents of skin contain fundamental morphometric features and structural patterns that correlate with tissue function. High resolution digital image acquisitions performed using an automated system and proprietary software to assemble adjacent images and create a contiguous, lossless, digital representation of individual microscope slide specimens. Serial extraction, evaluation and statistical analysis of cutaneous feature is performed utilizing an automated analysis system, to derive normal cutaneous parameters comprising essential structural skin components. Automated digital cutaneous analysis allows for fast extraction of microanatomic dat with accuracy approximating manual measurement. The process provides rapid assessment of feature both within individual specimens and across sample populations. The images, component data, and statistical analysis comprise a bioinformatics database to serve as an architectural blueprint for skin tissue engineering and as a diagnostic standard of comparison for pathologic specimens.

  19. Current approach to cutaneous mastocytosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Özçeker, Deniz

    2016-09-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by clonal proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in one of more organs which may lead to different clinical pictures. Pathological increase and activation of mast cells in various tissues can cause different clinical pictures. Cutaneous mastocytosis limited to the skin is the most typical clinical picture observed in children and systemic mastocytosis is very rare in the pediatric age group. The diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis is based on clinical findings, but is often delayed due to lack of clinical awareness of the disease and lack of its consideration in the differential diagnosis. This article focuses on the current diagnosis, management and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis in children in order to increase awareness about this issue.

  20. Perforin expression in feline epitheliotropic cutaneous lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Michal; Naigamwalla, Dinaz; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2008-11-01

    Cutaneous lymphomas are uncommon in people and companion animals. The tumors can be broadly categorized into epitheliotropic and nonepitheliotropic forms, which appear to have different biological behaviors. The present case describes a feline cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma. Masses in a 9-year-old cat were first identified on the tail. The cat was treated with chemotherapy, but additional skin masses developed on the flank, face, and ears. Local radiation induced transient tumor regression, but eventual dissemination prompted euthanasia 13 months after initial tumor appearance. Granular lymphocytes were consistently detected on blood smears, and histologically, the tumor involved the skin and superficial subcutis. Tumor lymphocytes expressed cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and perforin molecules, suggestive of a cytotoxic phenotype. Location, histopathological features, and perforin expression were similar to a distinct entity in human medicine designated primary cutaneous, CD8-positive, epidermotropic, cytotoxic, T-cell lymphoma.

  1. [Current diagnosis of cutaneous lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haust, M; Bonsmann, G; Kuhn, A

    2006-07-14

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is a disease with different subtypes and the new classification system includes acute CLE (ACLE), subacute CLE (SCLE), chronic CLE (CCLE), and intermittent CLE (ICLE). The broad spectrum of skin involvement and the possibility of systemic organ manifestations at the beginning and during the course of CLE require specific diagnostic procedures. Clinical assessment of the cutaneous manifestations is necessary along with a detailed patient's history. The diagnosis of CLE is confirmed by histopathology and immunofluorescence microscopy. Selective laboratory screening and additional diagnostic procedures depending on clinical symptoms are recommended. Photoprovocation tests can be performed to assess photosensitivity in patients with CLE and to support the diagnosis. Recently, a scoring system for the activity of the cutaneous manifestations in CLE has been developed and is now evaluated in several clinical studies. In this review, the classification and the characteristic clinical criteria of the different CLE subtypes as well as the current diagnostic possibilities are emphasized.

  2. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Suparna M, Joshi Shivani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a Greek word (Sarco means flesh and Eido means type or like. Cutaneous sarcoidosis occurs in up to one third of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. This disease is characterised by the presence of non – caseating epitheloid cell granulomas in the skin. Cutaneous sarcoidosis presents as a diagnostic challenge to the dermatopathologists due to its varied presentations and almost identical histologic pictures. Hence, exclusion of infectious causes and compatibility with clinical and radiologic picture serve as significant criteria to come up to a diagnosis. Sometimes; skin lesions are the first manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. This is not a contagious or allergic disease. There is a risk of development of systemic manifestations at a later date; for which a close follow up is a must. We are presenting a case of cutaneous sarcoidosis, which later on progress to sarcoidosis with systemic manifestations.

  3. Assessment of cutaneous drug delivery using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade microdialysis has been successfully applied to assess cutaneous drug delivery of numerous substances, indicating the large potential for bioequivalence/bioavailability evaluation of topical formulations. The technique has been shown to be minimally invasive and supply...... pharmacokinetic information directly in the target organ for cutaneous drug delivery with high temporal resolution without further intervention with the tissue after implantation. However, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed before microdialysis can be regarded as a generally applicable routine...... technique for cutaneous drug delivery assessments. Firstly, the technique is currently not suitable for sampling of highly lipophilic compounds and, secondly, more studies are desirable for elucidation of the variables associated with the technique to increase reproducibility. The present literature...

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: diagnostic pitfall. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmae EL Hatimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection encountered in our daily dermatologic practice. Case report: We present a case of 57 year-old man of Moroccan origin, with erythematous squamous and indurated plaque on the abdomen, treated as sarcoidosis with corticosteroids with no improvement. Discussion: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries. Aside from its classical presentation it can manifest in multiple different ways. In our case, the diagnostic of Erysipeloide Leishmaniasis was corrected on the basis of the skin smear and the histopathological examination. Our observation is particular in its clinical presentation and location. To our knowledge it is the first Moroccan case. Conclusion: Even in endemic countries it is worth reporting unusual forms and locations of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and management.

  5. Ovarian carcinoma presenting as cutaneous nasal metastasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, Ana Marta; Alves, João Vitor; Goulão, João; Bártolo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic ovarian cancer uncommonly presents with skin metastasis. When present, skin metastases of ovarian cancer are usually localized in the vicinity of the primary tumor. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman with a rapid growing erythematous, well-defined nodule localized on the left nasal ala. A skin biopsy was performed and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were compatible with a cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinoma. A systematic investigation revealed a bilateral ovarian cystadenocarcinoma associated with visceral dissemination, likely associated with nose cutaneous metastasis. We report a very uncommon case because of the presentation of ovarian carcinoma as cutaneous metastasis. To our knowledge, this atypical localization on the nose has not been described yet in the literature.

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum with Cutaneous Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohad Hanbala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastases of rectal carcinoma is a rare event. It occurs in fewer than 4% of all patients with rectal cancer. When present, it typically signifies a disseminated disease with a poor prognosis. Early detection and proper diagnosis of metastatic rectal cancer can significantly alter treatment and prognosis. We report a 70-year-oldmale who underwent rectal resection with permanent colostomy for rectal adenocarcinoma since seven years. The patient recently developed multiple skin nodules, mainly in his face, scalp, and upper trunk, associated with itching. Fine needle aspiration cytology from a face nodule was done which revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma associated with severe inflammation. Cutaneous metastasis of rectaladenocarcinoma is an unusual event that presents mainly in the form of skin nodules and could be the first sign of metastasis. Early diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis in these patients is important because it can alter treatment and prognosis.

  7. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting as poikiloderma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a recognised variant of lupus erythematosus (LE), which accounts for 10-15% of all cases of cutaneous LE, occurring most commonly in young to middle-aged white women. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-Ro\\/SS-A antibodies in the skin and serum, characteristic clinical and histological cutaneous involvement, and relatively mild systemic involvement. Several unusual variants of SCLE have been reported including erythrodermic SCLE, SCLE with vitiligo-like lesions, acral SCLE and bullous SCLE. Poikoilodermatous SCLE is a recognised but rare variant of SCLE. There are currently only two case reports, comprising five individual cases, in the literature. We present a case of SCLE in which the main clinical findings were an extensive photodistributed poikilodermatous rash and alopecia.

  8. Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient. PMID:22888407

  9. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, eit...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era......., either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...

  10. Pregnancy-Associated "Cutaneous Type" Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The development of pemphigus, including pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus, during pregnancy is rare. PV manifests with mucosal and/or cutaneous erosions with flaccid bullae that are histologically characterized by suprabasilar acantholysis. In contrast, pemphigus foliaceus manifests with cutaneous-only involvement and superficial epidermal acantholysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 aids in the diagnosis and differentiation between pemphigus subtypes. High-dose systemic corticosteroids are first-line agents in management of PV, yet their potential long-term use raises complex management issues associated with pregnancy and fetal risk. Here we report a rare case of cutaneous-limited PV in association with pregnancy.

  11. Cutaneous mucormycosis in advanced HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José; Ridolfi, Felipe; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Varon, Andrea; Lamas, Cristiane C

    Angionvasive mucormycosis is an emerging fungal disease known to affect mainly diabetics or subjects with profound neutropenia. Infection usually occurs through the inhalation route, but cutaneous inoculation may occur after trauma or burns. However, mucormycosis remains unusual in HIV infection. We report a fatal case of cutaneous mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus involving the scalp following herpes zoster infection. The patient was a 42-year-old man with advanced AIDS failing on salvage antiretroviral therapy. The fungus was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and culture. Our case emphasizes the need to consider mucormycosis in the differential diagnosis of necrotic cutaneous lesions in patients with late-stage HIV disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Cutaneous mucormycosis in advanced HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Angionvasive mucormycosis is an emerging fungal disease known to affect mainly diabetics or subjects with profound neutropenia. Infection usually occurs through the inhalation route, but cutaneous inoculation may occur after trauma or burns. However, mucormycosis remains unusual in HIV infection. We report a fatal case of cutaneous mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus involving the scalp following herpes zoster infection. The patient was a 42-year-old man with advanced AIDS failing on salvage antiretroviral therapy. The fungus was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and culture. Our case emphasizes the need to consider mucormycosis in the differential diagnosis of necrotic cutaneous lesions in patients with late-stage HIV disease.

  13. Effectiveness of soil and water conservation structures in reducing runoff and soil loss for different land use and slope gradients: Case study from northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanwesemael, Bas; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Teka, Daniel; Deckers, Jozef; Goosse, Tom; Maetens, Willem; Nyssen, Jan; Hallet, Vincent; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and recurrent drought are the major threats to rain-fed agriculture in the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands. To mitigate drought and to ensure food security in the Tigray region, water harvesting using reservoirs for irrigation development has become a priority since 1990. However, the success of water harvesting in reservoirs is limited due to the reduced inflow. As a result, less area is irrigated than originally planned. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of soil and water conservation (SWC) structures in reducing runoff and soil loss under different land use types and slope gradients. Six runoff measuring sites, corresponding to three slope gradients (5%, 12% and 16%) were established for cropland and rangeland in the Mayleba catchment (Tigray). In total, 21 large runoff plots (with lengths of 60 to 100 m and widths of 10 m) were monitored daily for runoff production and soil loss during the main rainy season (July-September) in 2010. For each site in cropland, three plots were installed and treated with stone bunds and stone bunds with trenches in addition to a control plot. At each site in rangeland four runoff plots were installed: a plot treated with stone bunds, a plot treated with trenches, a plot treated with stone bunds and trenches as well as a control plot. Overall uncertainties on the runoff and soil loss measurements were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results show that the seasonal runoff coefficient (RCs) was much higher for rangeland (0.38 < RCs < 0.50) compared to RCs-values for cropland (0.11 < RCS < 0.15). Seasonal soil loss (SLs) values were five to six times larger on rangeland (28.6 < SLs < 50.0 ton ha-1) compared to that for cropland (4.6 < SLs < 11.4 ton ha-1). All tested SWC structures are effective in reducing runoff and soil loss compared to control plots. However, reduction in RCs were relatively much smaller than reductions in SLs. Trenches and stone bunds with

  14. Creep and water loss characteristics in hardening bodies of water-rich filling materials%富水充填材料蠕变及其硬化体内水分损失特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟红; 周茜; 赵向辉

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of deformation and water loss of hardened paste of water-rich filling material under aging effect, the creep property of water-rich filling materials with a certain mass ratio of water to solid was studied in different stress conditions. The deformation characteristics, water loss and its relationship with external load on the filling body in the process of creep were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis- thermal gravimetry ( DTA- TG ) . It is found that the instability and failure critical stress of water-rich filling materials with a 2. 0 water-to-solid mass ratio is 1. 96 MPa, which is 90% of their compressive strength. Creep cannot affect the content of combined water in water-rich filling materials. But un-bound water in water-rich filling materials can run off when instability and failure happen. The relative loss value of unbound water content is of linear positive correlation with the external load level. The loss of unbound water can induce more interspaces in water-rich filling materials. These cracks are quickly pressed and the hardening body produces large deformation under the external load, which leads to the local instability of the filling body and thus affects the overall stability of the goaf.%为探讨富水充填材料在时效作用下的变形及其硬化体内水分损失特征,本文研究一定水固质量比的富水充填材料在不同应力水平下的蠕变性能,并通过扫描电镜观察、差热-热重分析等实验探讨充填体在蠕变过程前后的形变特征、水分损失及其与外界荷载的关系.结果表明:水固质量比为2.0的富水充填材料失稳破坏的临界应力为1.96 MPa,为其单轴抗压强度的90%;蠕变不会对富水充填材料中结合水含量造成影响;富水充填材料失稳破坏时内部结构发生非结合水的流失,非结合水含量损失相对值与所受荷载水

  15. Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heiat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, more than 14 million people are reported to be infected with Leishmaniasis all over the world. In Iran, this disease is seen in the form of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, of which the cutaneous form is more wide spread. In recent years, cutaneous leishmaniaisis is diagnosed by PCR utilizing specific primers in order to amplify different parasite genes including ribosomal RNA genes, kinetoplast DNA or tandem repeating sequences. The aim of this research was to detect early stage cutaneous leishmaniasis using Multiplex-PCR technique. Methods: In this study, 67 samples were prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted with phenolchloroform. Each specimen was analyzed using two different pairs of PCR primers. The sensitivity of each PCR was optimized on pure Leishmania DNA prior to use for diagnosis. Two standard parasites L. major and L. tropica were used as positive control. Results: DNA amplification fragments were two 115 bp and 683 bp for AB and UL primers, respectively. The sensitivity of two primers was not equal for detection of L. major and L. tropica. The sensivity of PCR with AB primer was 35 cells, while that for UL primer was 40 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PCR is a sensitive diagnostic assay for cutaneous leishmaniasis and could be employed as the new standard for routine diagnosis when species identification is not required. However, the ability to identify species is especially important in prognosis of the disease and in deciding appropriate therapy, especially in regions where more than one type of species and disease are seen by clinicians.

  16. Cutaneous vasculitides: Clinico-pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Suruchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous vasculitis presents as a mosaic of clinical and histological findings. Its pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations are varied. Aims: To study the epidemiological spectrum of cutaneous vasculitides as seen in a dermatologic clinic and to determine the clinico-pathological correlation. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as cutaneous vasculitis in the dermatology outdoor; irrespective of age, sex and duration of the disease. Based on the clinical presentation, vasculitis was classified according to modified Gilliam′s classification. All patients were subjected to a baseline workup consisting of complete hemogram, serum-creatinine levels, serum-urea, liver function tests, chest X-ray, urine (routine and microscopic examination besides antistreptolysin O titer, Mantoux test, cryoglobulin levels, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and hepatitis B and C. Histopathological examination was done in all patients while immunofluorescence was done in 23 patients. Results: Out of a total of 50 patients diagnosed clinically as cutaneous vasculitis, 41 were classified as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, 2 as Heinoch−Schonlein purpura, 2 as urticarial vasculitis and one each as nodular vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa and pityriasis lichenoid et varioliforme acuta. Approximately 50% of the patients had a significant drug history, 10% were attributed to infection and 10% had positive collagen workup without any overt manifestations, while 2% each had Wegener granulomatosis and cryoglobulinemia. No cause was found in 26% cases. Histopathology showed features of vasculitis in 42 patients. Only 23 patients could undergo direct immunofluorescence (DIF, out of which 17 (73.9% were positive for vasculitis. Conclusions: Leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the commonest type of vaculitis presenting to the dermatology outpatient department. The workup of patients with cutaneous vasculitis

  17. Using tracers to evaluate streamflow gain-loss characteristics of Terror Creek, in the vicinity of a mine-permit area, Delta County, Colorado, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    parametric paired t-test indicates that there is a 2.36-percent probability of observing a sample mean difference of 0.34 cubic foot per second if the population mean is zero. The p-value of 0.125 for the nonparametric exact Wilcoxon signed rank test indicates that there is a 12.5-percent probability of observing a sample mean difference this large if the population mean is zero. The similarity in streamflow gain-loss between measurement sets indicates that the process controlling streamflow may be the same between the two hydrologic conditions evaluated. Gains between measurement locations 4 and 5 may be related to hyporheic flow from tributaries that were dry during the study. No other obvious sources of surface water were identified during the investigation. The cause for the observed streamflow loss between measurement locations 5 and 6 is unknown but may be related to mapped local faulting, 100 years of coal mining in the area, and aquifer recharge.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic analysis under partial loss of flow accident hypothesis of a plate-type fuel surrounded by two water channels using RELAP5 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Iliuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis of plate-type fuel has great importance to the establishment of safety criteria, also to the licensing of the future nuclear reactor with the objective of propelling the Brazilian nuclear submarine. In this work, an analysis of a single plate-type fuel surrounding by two water channels was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. To realize the simulations, a plate-type fuel with the meat of uranium dioxide sandwiched between two Zircaloy-4 plates was proposed. A partial loss of flow accident was simulated to show the behavior of the model under this type of accident. The results show that the critical heat flux was detected in the central region along the axial direction of the plate when the right water channel was blocked.

  19. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutaneous metastasis from gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Lucia Ariano; Corbett, Ana Maria França; Oliveira Filho, Jayme de; Nasser, Kassila da Rosa; Haddad, Natalie Nejem; Tebet, Ana Carolina Franco

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis is a rare manifestation of visceral malignancies that indicates primarily advanced disease. Due to its low incidence and similarity to other cutaneous lesions, it is not uncommon to have a delayed diagnosis and a shortened prognosis. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a cutaneous nodule in the sternal region as a first sign of malignancy.

  1. Problems in Cutaneous Communication from Psychophysics to Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, B. VonHaller; Clark, Leslie L., Ed.

    After reviewing the history of communication through the skin, this paper considers recent research into the problem of cutaneous stimulation induced both mechanically and electrically. The general demands of a cutaneous communication system are discussed, and four primary dimensions of cutaneous stimulation are summarized (locus, intensity,…

  2. Cutaneous metastasis from gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Lucia Ariano; Corbett, Ana Maria França; de Oliveira Filho, Jayme; Nasser, Kassila da Rosa; Haddad, Natalie Nejem; Tebet, Ana Carolina Franco

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis is a rare manifestation of visceral malignancies that indicates primarily advanced disease. Due to its low incidence and similarity to other cutaneous lesions, it is not uncommon to have a delayed diagnosis and a shortened prognosis. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a cutaneous nodule in the sternal region as a first sign of malignancy. PMID:26375228

  3. Cutaneous endometriosis--Surgical presentations of a gynaecological condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, David T; Teh, Wan T

    2006-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition; cutaneous endometriosis is a subtype of endometriosis. Although cutaneous endometriosis involving the abdominal wall is not common, preoperative diagnosis of cutaneous endometriosis can be easily mistaken for a suture granuloma, lipoma, abscess, cyst or hernia. We report two common surgical presentations of this gynaecological condition.

  4. Cutaneous malignancies in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Ivette M Sosa; Zubair, Adeel; Brewer, Jerry D

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, organ transplantation has delivered the miracle of life to more than 500,000 patients in need. Secondary malignancies have developed as an unforeseen consequence of intense immunosuppressive regimens. Cutaneous malignancies have been recognized as the most frequent cancer that arises post-transplantation. Among organ transplant recipients (OTRs), skin cancer is a substantial cause of morbidity and potential mortality. The authors discuss epidemiology and clinical presentation of cutaneous malignancies; associated risk factors; recommendation for the care of immunosuppressed OTRs, and emerging therapies on the horizon.

  5. Three eyelid localized cutaneous anthrax cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmer, Oktay; Karadag, Remzi; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Gultepe, Bilge; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2014-12-01

    Anthrax is primarily seen in the developing countries, but it can be a worldwide medical concern due to bioterrorism threats. Palpebral anthrax is a rare form of cutaneous anthrax. Untreated cutaneous anthrax can be lethal. Patients with palpebral anthrax can develop complications including cicatrisation and ectropion. Thus, anthrax should be considered in differential diagnosis for patients presenting with preseptal cellulitis in high-risk regions. Herein, we report three anthrax cases (with different age) involving eyelids that were cured without any complications due to early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Cutaneous metastases presenting as genital ulcer disease

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    S Vasuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from an internal organ malignancy is rare and as, the presenting sign of malignancy is an uncommon phenomenon. Their presence, signals a poor prognosis. We report a case of 50-year-old female who was referred to sexually transmitted diseases - out patient department, with complaints of multiple genital ulcers to rule out sexually transmitted infections. After thorough evaluation, she was found to be a case of carcinoma cervix with metastatic squamous cell carcinomatous deposits on external genitalia. This case was unique because of relatively asymptomatic nature of internal malignancy and atypical presentation of carcinoma cervix as cutaneous metastasis.

  7. Dermatoscopy in diagnosing maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis

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    Popadić Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis is based on the clinical finding of the pigmented macules or papules, positive Darier's sign and a dermal infiltrate composed of mast cells that can be better visualized by the use of special stains (Giemsa or Toluidine blue. Clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological presentations of new appearing pigmented lesions in a female patient were presented. Dermatoscopic findings of pigment network-like structure combined with parallel pigmented lines and central reddish background in a adult patient with new appearing pigmented lesions should led us to searching for cutaneous mastocytosis.

  8. Lichenoid type cutaneous hyperpigmentation induced by nebivolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Güney, Murat Can; Akçay, Murat; Keleş, Telat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is a common and well-defined side effect of many drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, beta-blockers, and tetracyclines, but to the best of our knowledge there is no case of skin discoloration related to nebivolol in the literature. Presently described is lichenoid type cutaneous hyperpigmentation in a 46-year-old female patient. Hyperpigmentation emerged 3 months after initiating use of nebivolol and resolved after cessation of drug use. It was concluded that effect emerged as result of therapeutic doses of nebivolol.

  9. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  10. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog

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    T.S. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old female spayed Schnauzer was presented with cutaneous ulcerated nodular lesions shortly after the beginning of an immunosuppressive treatment for immune-mediated hemolytic disease. Cytology was performed and a great number of neutrophils and banana-shaped organisms were observed. Biopsy showed a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis and panniculitis with myriads of intralesional bradyzoites cysts and tachyzoites. PCR analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and negative for Neospora caninum. Immunohistochemistry confirmed intralesional T. gondii antigens. This study reports a rare case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog.

  11. Cutaneous chancroid in a visitor from Vanuatu.

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    McBride, William J H; Hannah, Rory C S; Le Cornec, Genevera M; Bletchly, Cheryl

    2008-05-01

    A 23-year-old woman from Vanuatu presented to an Australian hospital with a 3-week history of a non-healing ulcer on the lower leg. A swab was submitted for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction designed to investigate genital ulcerative conditions. Haemophilus ducreyi was detected and the gene product was subsequently sequenced, confirming the diagnosis of cutaneous chancroid. The lesion responded to intramuscular benzathine penicillin. This report adds further evidence that cutaneous chancroid should be considered in the evaluation of skin ulcers in the south Pacific.

  12. Cutaneous leismaniasis with unusual appearance: Case report

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    Havva Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, is a disease that is transmitted by infected sand flies when they suck the blood of mammals. It is estimated that more than 1.5 million new cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases occur throughout the world every year and the disease is endemic in southern and southeastern Turkey. Cutaneous leishmaniasis presents a spectrum of manifestations both clinically and histologically. As is in our case, histopathology can be more important than clinical examination.The diagnosis is made by clinical examination and histopathology as well as demonstrating the parasites in the smears obtained from the lesion .In this article, we aimed to present of CL cases with atipic appearance.

  13. Diabetes melutus associated with pentamidine isethionate in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a male patient from Bacabal, MA with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL, for at least nine years, with 168 lesions on his body. These were tumour-like nodules with some ulceratmi. He usedpentavalent antimonial (glucantime® and an association of gamma interferon plus glucantime with improvement of the lesions but relapsed later. Recently, pentamidine isethionate (pentacarinat® was given a dosage of 4mg/kg/weight/day on alternate days for 20 applications. After 3 months a similar course of 10 application was given 2 times. Later he developed diabetic signs with weight loss of 10kg, polydypsia, polyuria and xerostomia. The lower limbs lesions showed signs of activity. Blood glucose levels normalised and remain like this at moment. Attention is drawn to the fact that pentamidine isethionate should be used as a therapy option with care, obeyng rigorous laboratory controls including a glucose tolerance test.

  14. Acute dairy milk ingestion does not improve nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in the cutaneous microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Billie K; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-07-01

    In epidemiological studies, chronic dairy milk consumption is associated with improved vascular health and reduced age-related increases in blood pressure. Although milk protein supplementation augments conduit artery flow-mediated dilation, whether or not acute dairy milk intake may improve microvascular function remains unclear. We hypothesised that dairy milk would increase direct measurement of endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local skin heating. Eleven men and women (61 (sem 2) years) ingested two or four servings (473 and 946 ml) of 1 % dairy milk or a rice beverage on each of 4 separate study days. In a subset of five subjects, an additional protocol was completed after 473 ml of water ingestion. Once a stable blood flow occurred, 15 mm-N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was perfused (intradermal microdialysis) to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Red-blood-cell flux (RBF) was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC=RBF/mean arterial pressure) was calculated and normalised to maximum (%CVCmax; 28 mm-sodium nitroprusside). Full expression of cutaneous vasodilation was not different among dairy milk, rice beverage and water, and there was no effect of serving size on the total vasodilatory response. Contrary to our hypothesis, NO-dependent vasodilation was lower for dairy milk than rice beverage (D: 49 (sem 5), R: 55 (sem 5) %CVCmax; Pdairy milk ingestion does not augment NO-dependent vasodilation in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with a rice beverage control.

  15. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

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    Alenyorege E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have diverse domestic commercial and industrial uses. The oil production is important not only among small-to-medium scale industrialists but also to rural populace as it employs a substantial workforce and serves as a source of income to many communities engaged in the exercise. The method employed is the oldest cheapest and most practiced in the study location. The extraction process basically comprises of five fundamental steps thermal conditioning of the seeds milling extraction by boiling oil recovery and drying. The method yielded 21.1 kg of oil a residual cake of 26.2 Kg and a process loss of 2.7 Kg at a moisture content of 13.1 representing 42.2 Extraction yield 58.6 Extraction efficiency and 5.4 Extraction loss. The yield exceeded the minimum oil yield for commercial domestic and industrial consideration.

  16. Controls on the entrainment of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha into large water diversions and estimates of population-level loss.

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    Steven C Zeug

    Full Text Available Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations.

  17. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

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    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress.

  18. Cutaneous manifestations of endocrine disorders: a guide for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Serge A

    2003-01-01

    Dermatologists may commonly see skin lesions that reflect an underlying endocrine disorder. Identifying the endocrinopathy is very important, so that patients can receive corrective rather than symptomatic treatment. Skin diseases with underlying endocrine pathology include: thyrotoxicosis; hypothyroidism; Cushing syndrome; Addison disease; acromegaly; hyperandrogenism; hypopituitarism; primary hyperparathyroidism; hypoparathyroidism; pseudohypoparathyroidism and manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Thyrotoxicosis may lead to multiple cutaneous manifestations, including hair loss, pretibial myxedema, onycholysis and acropachy. In patients with hypothyroidism, there is hair loss, the skin is cold and pale, with myxedematous changes, mainly in the hands and in the periorbital region. The striking features of Cushing syndrome are centripetal obesity, moon facies, buffalo hump, supraclavicular fat pads, and abdominal striae. In Addison disease, the skin is hyperpigmented, mostly on the face, neck and back of the hands. Virtually all patients with acromegaly have acral and soft tissue overgrowth, with characteristic findings, like macrognathia and enlarged hands and feet. The skin is thickened, and facial features are coarser. Conditions leading to hyperandrogenism in females present as acne, hirsutism and signs of virilization (temporal balding, clitoromegaly).A prominent feature of hypopituitarism is a pallor of the skin with a yellowish tinge. The skin is also thinner, resulting in fine wrinkling around the eyes and mouth, making the patient look older. Primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely associated with pruritus and chronic urticaria. In hypoparathyroidism, the skin is dry, scaly and puffy. Nails become brittle and hair is coarse and sparse. Pseudohypoparathyroidism may have a special somatic phenotype known as Albright osteodystrophy. This consists of short stature, short neck, brachydactyly and subcutaneous calcifications. Some of the cutaneous manifestations of

  19. Energy-saving by teh reduction of the pressure loss in tge water supplying system of boilers. Boiler kyusui keito no atsuryoku sonshitsu keigen ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-02-04

    In the water supplying system of boilers for the power generators scale deposits are mainly composed by Fe {sub 3} O {sub 4}. With removing this scale by the chemical cleaning the recovery of the heat transfer efficiency and the reduction of the pressure loss were expected. Generally scale in the narrow tubes is removed with the jet cleaning which uses high pressure water, but in this method scale is not removed completely. To raise the pH of the supplying water is also tried, but it is not sufficient to solve the problem. Therefore, the chemical cleaning using the citric acid and the hydroxy acid was done. In this case, a part of scale which can not be solved in the cleaning water might be left in the pipe as sludge. So the best conditions of the solvent flow for the removal of this sludge were investigated in the experiments and those conditions were applied. Further, the sludge catchers were used. As a result of those cleaning, the gains obtained in 2 years were 199 million yen in No.5 generator, 519 million yen in No.6 generator in Chita thermal power plant, and 187 million yen in Chita second thermal power plant. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Objective assessment of topical anti-inflammatory drug activity on experimentally induced nickel contact dermatitis: comparison between visual scoring, colorimetry, laser Doppler velocimetry and transepidermal water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queille-Roussel, C; Duteil, L; Padilla, J M; Poncet, M; Czernielewski, J

    1990-01-01

    Four topical anti-inflammatory drugs were investigated for their effect on allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel dermatitis was chosen for its high incidence in European healthy volunteers. Experimental lesions were treated twice daily with two steroids, two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a blank base for 4.5 days without occlusion. The influence of treatments was assessed by daily visual grading and one site was left untreated for comparison over the same period. To quantify drug activities objectively, skin colour (colorimetry), skin blood flow (laser Doppler velocimetry) and transepidermal water loss (evaporimetry) were measured before drugs were first applied, then 6 hr after the last application. As expected, only Dermoval cream significantly improved the spontaneous clinical evolution in comparison with the other creams (Hydrocortisone Aster à 1%. Parfenac, indomethacin 2.5% and Skinbase) and the untreated site. Colorimetric parameter a* (redness) and L* (luminance) showed more differences between treatments than the other criteria and a close relationship was obtained between these two parameters and skin blood flow, all three being highly correlated to visual grading. Transepidermal water loss appeared less related to clinical improvement but this parameter could prove helpful for detecting compounds which could be irritant to diseased skin.