Sachin Sudarshan Patil
Full Text Available The most commonly used methods for committing suicide in India are hanging, poisoning, burns, jumping from height, drowning, firearm injuries, stab injuries etc. Cut throat injuries using a sharp weapon is the least frequent suicidal method. Tentative cut marks are common in suicidal deaths. Committing suicide by cutting their throat without hesitation marks is a very rare occurrence. We present a case of 32 year old male, suffering from psychiatric illness brought dead to tertiary care hospital with suicidal cut throat injury and not associated with tentative cuts and tailing of wound.
Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Shetty, Anurag J; Shetty, Mahabalesh
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The incidence and pattern of suicide vary from country to country. Cultural, religious and social value plays a vital role. Hanging, poisoning, drowning are the common methods of committing suicide. Suicide by incising one's own throat without hesitation marks remains a rare, and only few cases have been reported in the forensic literature. We present here an unusual and rare case of self-inflicted cut throat injury of a 45-year old ex-military man without tentative cuts over the neck, which has resulted from a curved sharp weapon.
... injuries require a multidisciplinary approach and could be managed with better prognosis if the patients present early to the hospital and are given prompt attention. Poor socioeconomic status and poverty have been associated with a high incidence of cut throat injuries. Key words: Cut throat injuries, Suicide, Homicide, ...
Swain, Rajanikanta; Dhaka, Shivani; Sharma, Munish; Bakshi, Mantaran Singh; Murty, O P; Sikary, Asit Kumar
Accidental cut-throat injuries are extremely rare and usually involve a sharp-edged weapon. In this paper, two cases of a cut-throat wound to two auto-rickshaw drivers are presented where the broken windshield of the auto-rickshaws was responsible for the wounds. In both the cases, fatal incised wounds were present over the neck, cutting the soft tissue along with the major vessels. The death occurred due to exsanguination caused by neck-vessel injury in one case and trachea along with neck-vessel injury in the second case. Although the wounds on the neck initially suggested homicide, they were found to have occurred accidentally as a result of a road traffic accident involving a head-on collision of auto rickshaws. The injuries were inflicted by the shattered glass of the windshield.
Full Text Available Sports-related maxillofacial traumas, nasal fractures and auricular hematomas situations like have important role due to encounter frequency in ENT clinic's patient population. The aim of article is defining the incidence of sports-related injuries , mostly seen traumas according to the sport types, conditions that needs treatment , different treatment approaches and interventions that should be done for prevention of these injuries.
... Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers’ Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features ... suspects strep throat, then they order a throat culture. A throat culture involves sending a throat swab ...
Seo, J-H; Cho, C W; Hong, D M; Jeon, Y; Bahk, J-H
It is well known that thermal softening of polyvinyl chloride tracheal tubes reduces nasal damage during nasotracheal intubation. We hypothesized that thermal softening of double-lumen endobronchial tubes (DLTs) may be effective for reducing airway injury. This randomized double-blind study was performed to investigate whether thermal softening of DLTs decreased postoperative sore throat, hoarseness or vocal cord injuries. Patients (n=140) undergoing one lung anaesthesia were randomized into two groups (n=70 each) depending on whether the DLT was softened by warming or not before tracheal intubation. The DLTs were placed in warm saline [40(1)°C] in the thermal softening group or in room temperature saline in the control group for 10 min. The vocal cords were examined by using flexible laryngoscopy immediately after extubation. Sore throat and hoarseness were evaluated for three postoperative days. The primary outcomes were the incidence of sore throat, hoarseness, and vocal cord injuries. Sore throat and vocal cord injuries occurred less frequently in the thermal softening group than in the control group [14/70 vs 27/70, risk ratio (95% CI): 0.52 (0.30-0.90), P=0.025 for sore throat; 15/70 vs 27/70, risk ratio (95% CI): 0.56 (0.32-0.95), P=0.042 for vocal cord injuries]. However, the incidence of hoarseness was comparable between the two groups. Tracheal intubation with DLTs softened by warming decreased the postoperative incidence of sore throat and vocal cord injuries. Therefore, thermal softening of DLTs before intubation seems to be helpful in reducing airway injuries associated with DLT intubation. NCT 01626365. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
... hard candies or lozenges, try cold liquids and popsicles. Throat pain might also be soothed by throat ... water or use ice chips. Cold liquids or popsicles can numb the pain. Throat sprays and over- ...
... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...
Brown, R C; Fischer, T; Goldwich, A D; Keller, F; Young, R; Plener, P L
Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet. During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. Associations between characteristics of pictures and comments as well as weekly and daily trends of posting behavior were analyzed. Most commonly, pictures depicted wounds caused by cutting on arms or legs and were rated as mild or moderate injuries. Pictures with increasing wound grades and those depicting multiple methods of NSSI generated elevated amounts of comments. While most comments were neutral or empathic with some offering help, few comments were hostile. Pictures were mainly posted in the evening hours, with a small peak in the early morning. While there was a slight peak of pictures being posted on Sundays, postings were rather evenly spread across the week. Pictures of NSSI are frequently posted on Instagram. Social reinforcement might play a role in the posting of more severe NSSI pictures. Social media platforms need to take appropriate measures for preventing online social contagion.
Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...
... in some cases: Strep throat is caused by group A streptococcus. Less commonly, bacterial diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause sore throat. Most cases of pharyngitis occur ... illness often spreads among family members and close contacts.
Five cases of machete cut injuries to the maxillofacial region seen over a period of 8 months (January‑September, 2012), at the Maxillofacial Unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria, are presented. The severity of the injuries is evident from the extent of tissue disruption as shown in the pictures.
Oct 18, 2014 ... The injuries presented in our review resulted from battery and included soft tissue lacerations, transection of nerves and vessels, and in some cases .... human and animal bite, the degree of wound contamination in machete‑cut injuries is usually low. Therefore, definitive soft tissue reconstruction in these ...
Klassen, Lynell W.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Duryee, Michael J.; Schaffert, Courtney S.; DeVeney, Amy L.; Hunter, Carlos D.; Olinga, Peter; Tuma, Dean J.
Alcohol abuse results in liver injury, but investigations into the mechanism(s) for this injury have been hampered by the lack of appropriate in vitro culture models in which to conduct in depth and specific studies. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we have developed the use of precision-cut
The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...
... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Educators Search English Español Strep Throat KidsHealth / For Teens / Strep Throat What's in this article? What Is ...
Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Toki, Keiko; Takaki, Shunsuke; Goto, Takahisa
Penetrating injuries to the oral cavity involving a toothbrush are relatively common among children. Sometimes general anesthesia is recommended. Although the handle prevents adequate mask ventilation in the induction of anesthesia, it is unknown what is the best tool to cut it preventing complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal tool to cut off the toothbrush handle. Six anesthesiologists participated in this study. We attached a triaxial acceleration sensor to the tip of the toothbrush to virtually measure force toward the wound. Each participant cut off the handle of the toothbrush using 3 tools: Gluck rib shears (GRS: cutting horizonal); Sklar Coryllos rib shears (SCRS: cutting vertical); and an ultrasonic scalpel (USS). Acceleration and time required to cut the toothbrush were measured. Each anesthesiologist evaluated the usability of each tool on a 5-point scale. The USS showed the longest mean time (GRS, 1.78 ± 1.01 s; SCRS, 7.30 ± 4.58 s; USS, 28.13 ± 13.41 s), lowest 3-dimensional acceleration (GRS, 2.15 ± 0.69 G; SCRS, 2.13 ± 0.57 G; USS, 1.01 ± 1.07 G), and highest mean score for usability. The USS appeared preferable to rib shears for cutting off toothbrush handles, even though it takes longer.
Miguel, Elizabeth M; Chou, Tommy; Golik, Alejandra; Cornacchio, Danielle; Sanchez, Amanda L; DeSerisy, Mariah; Comer, Jonathan S
Social networking services (SNS) have rapidly become a central platform for adolescents' social interactions and media consumption patterns. The present study examined a representative sample of publicly accessible content related to deliberate self-injurious cutting across three SNS platforms: Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram. Data collection simulated searches for publicly available deliberate self-injury content on Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram. Over a six-month period at randomly generated time points, data were obtained by searching "#cutting" on each SNS platform and collecting the first 10 posts generated. Independent evaluators coded posts for presence of the following: (a) graphic content, (b) negative self-evaluations, (c) references to mental health terms, (d) discouragement of deliberate self-injury, and (e) recovery-oriented resources. Differences across platforms were examined. Data collection yielded a sample of 1,155 public posts (770 of which were related to mental health). Roughly 60% of sampled posts depicted graphic content, almost half included negative self-evaluations, only 9.5% discouraged self-injury, and Instagram posts displayed the greatest proportion of graphic content and negative self-evaluations, whereas Twitter exhibited the smallest proportion of each. Findings characterize the graphic nature of online SNS deliberate self-injury content and the relative absence of SNS-posted resources for populations seeking out deliberate self-injurious cutting content. Mental health professionals must recognize the rapidly changing landscape of adolescent media consumption, influences, and social interaction as they may pertain to self-harm patterns. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background : Late presentation of cut injury of tendo achilles is common in our country. Management of these cases poses a problem. Method : We present 16 patients of different age groups and both sexes with tear of tendo achilles treated by primary anastomosis of the tendon by muscle slide. Results : In all patients we had excellent to good results. Conclusion : This method gives excellent physio- anatomical correction of such defects.
Full Text Available We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating probe D-branes admit horizons and temperatures a la Unruh effect. We find that the induced metrics on slow rotating probe D1-branes in holographic string solutions including warped Calabi–Yau throats have distinct thermal horizons with characteristic Hawking temperatures even if there is no black hole in the bulk Calabi–Yau. Taking the UV/IR limits of the solution, we show that the world volume black hole nucleation depends on the deformation and the warping of the throat. We find that world volume horizons and temperatures of expected features form not in the regular confining IR region but in the singular nonconfining UV solution. In the conformal limit of the UV, we find horizons and temperatures similar to those on rotating probes in the AdS throat found in the literature. In this case, we also find that activating a background gauge field form the U(1 R-symmetry modifies the induced metric with its temperature describing two different classes of black hole solutions.
Garthe, C; Ouellette, L; Seamon, J P; Jones, J S
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Authors. We wish to retract the abstract "The Virtual Cutting Edge: Adolescent Self-injury and YouTube," published in the October 2015 issue of Annals. The abstract excessively borrowed from the text and methodology of a previous study published elsewhere. 1 All authors recognize the seriousness of this issue and apologize to the editors and readers of Annals. Jeffrey S. Jones, MD Chad Garthe, MD Lindsey Ouellette, MS Jason Seamon, DO Department of Emergency Medicine MSU College of Human Medicine Grand Rapids, MI 1. Lewis SP, Heath NL, St. Denis JM, et al. The scope of nonsuicidal self-injury on YouTube. Pediatrics. 2011;1127:e552-e557. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gripaios, Ben Matthew
We consider field-theoretic models of a warped extra dimension with multiple throats, in which fermions that are singlets of the Standard Model gauge group propagate in a separate throat from the Standard Model fields, which we call the sterile throat. The singlets mix with Standard Model fields via interactions localized on the UV brane that connects the two throats. This leads to three, light, mostly-active, Majorana neutrinos via a higher-dimensional see-saw mechanism, together with Kaluza-Klein towers of mostly-sterile neutrinos, whose scale is set by the warp factor in the sterile throat and can be very low if the throat is deep. We suggest that a model of this kind may explain all the neutrino data, reconciling the LSND result with astrophysical constraints.
Bencke, Jesper; Curtis, Derek; Krogshede, Christina
The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of the knee and hip joint during handball-specific side-cutting on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Understanding the sports-specific biomechanics may improve prevention measures and post-injury treatment.......The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of the knee and hip joint during handball-specific side-cutting on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Understanding the sports-specific biomechanics may improve prevention measures and post-injury treatment....
Guan, Na; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Blomsma, Sylvia
The exact mechanism of chilling injury (by a decrease of temperature to sub-physiological values), especially in the intact organ, is yet unknown. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, are an ideal in vitro model to study the mechanism of
Shendell, Derek G; Mizan, Samina S; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Kelly, Sarah W; Therkorn, Jennifer H; Campbell, Jennifer K; Miller, Ashley E
Investigations of young workers, including limited surveys in supervised school settings, suggested their elevated injury risk. This study identified factors contributing to cuts-lacerations among adolescents in New Jersey secondary school career, technical, and vocational education programs. Of 1,772 injuries reported between December 1, 1998, and September 1, 2010, 777 (44%) were cuts-lacerations; analyses focused on 224 reports (n = 182 post-exclusions) submitted after fall 2005 in three career groups-Food, Hospitality & Tourism (FH&T) (n = 71), Manufacturing & Construction (M&C) (n = 84), and Automotive & Transportation (A&T) (n = 27). Most students were "struck by" tools or hard surfaces (n = 93, 51%); 63 cuts were from knives in FH&T. In M&C, most cuts-lacerations were caused by hand-held tools (n = 18) and being "struck against/by" or "caught between hard surfaces" (n = 19). Males reported more cuts-lacerations (n = 145), most commonly among 11th graders (n = 54) and ages 16 to 17 years (n = 79). Fingers (n = 117) were most often injured, usually by cutting tools (n = 83). Training, supervision, and appropriate equipment, and further assessments of "struck by" and "pinch point" hazards, are needed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Xie, Di; Urabe, Yukio; Ochiai, Jyo; Kobayashi, Eri; Maeda, Noriaki
Many non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female basketball players occur during sidestep cutting. The objective of this study was to identify the phases of a sidestep cutting maneuver that place athletes at a greater risk for ACL injuries. Ten healthy female collegiate basketball athletes were asked to perform sidestep cutting movements; the knee flexion and valgus angles as well as the electromyographic activity of the vastus lateral, vastus medial, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus muscles of the non-dominant leg were analyzed during the maneuver. The mean knee valgus angle peak tended to be greater during the stop phase than during the side-movement phase. The quadriceps activation during the stop phase was significantly higher than that during the side-movement phase. Moreover, the ratio of hamstring to quadriceps muscle activation during the stop phase was significantly lower than that during the side-movement phase, as assessed by surface electromyography. Female basketball athletes have a higher risk for ACL injury during the stop phase than during the side-movement phase of the sidestep cutting maneuver. Level III. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The use of nasogastric tubes, throat pack, duration of intubation and status of the anaesthetists were also noted. The presence of sore throat and other throat complications were determined within 24 - 36 hours after surgery. Results: One hundred twenty six (63%) patients experienced throat complications. The incidence of ...
We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.
Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia A; Fahy, Gregory M; Groothuis, Geny M M; de Graaf, Inge A M
The exact mechanism of chilling injury (by a decrease of temperature to sub-physiological values), especially in the intact organ, is yet unknown. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, are an ideal in vitro model to study the mechanism of chilling injury in the intact organ. In the present study we were able to separate chilling injury from other damaging events such as cryoprotectant toxicity and ice-crystal injury and performed micro-array analysis of regulated genes. Pathway analysis revealed that different stress responses, lipid/fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism were affected by chilling. This indicates that the cell-membrane might be the primary site and sensor for chilling, which may initiate and amplify downstream intracellular signaling events. Most importantly, we were able to identify gene expression responses from stellate cells and Kupffer cells suggesting the involvement of all liver cell types in the injury. In conclusion, a broad spectrum of previously unknown gene expression changes induced by chilling was identified in the tissue. This is the first report of a systematic investigation on the mechanism of chilling injury in integrated tissue by micro-array analysis under conditions in which other sources of injury are minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.
Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195
Guan, Na; Blomsma, Sylvia; Fahy, Gregory M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; de Graaf, Inge
Chilling injury is one of the limiting steps for successful vitrification of cells, organs and tissue. Chilling injury is known to be caused by the decrease of temperature per se. Although some research has been done to study chilling injury in cryopreserved oocytes and sperm cells amongst others,
van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Hadi, Mackenzie; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Russel, Frans G. M.
Drug-induced liver injury is one of the leading causes of drug withdrawal from the market. In this study, we investigated the applicability of protein profiling of the incubation medium of human, mouse and rat precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed to liver injury-inducing drugs for biomarker
We construct a simple explicit local geometry providing a 'bifid throat' for 5-brane axion monodromy. A bifid throat is a throat that splits into two daughter throats in the IR, containing a homologous 2-cycle family reaching down into each daughter throat. Our example consists of a deformed Z 3 x Z 2 orbifold of the conifold, which provides us with an explicit holographic dual of the bifid throat including D3-branes and fractional 5-branes at the toric singularities of our setup. Having the holographic description in terms of the dual gauge theory allows us to address the effect of 5-brane-antibrane pair backreaction including the warping effects. This leads to the size of the backreaction being small and controllable after imposing proper normalization of the inflaton potential and hence the warping scales.
We critically re-examine the concept of a throat in a porous medium as a geometric quantity defined independently of an entry meniscus in a drainage process. To maintain the standard notion of a throat as a locally minimum-area cross section in the pore network, we demonstrate with examples that throats must intersect each other. Using flow simulation, we show that these intersecting throats correspond to capillary pressure controlled entry points during drainage. We have designed a throat-finding algorithm that explicitly locates intersecting throats, using a planar approximation for robustness and speed. The capability of the new algorithm was compared against an existing algorithm in the construction of pore-throat networks from X-ray computed tomography images of consolidated sandstones (7.5–22% porosity) and of an unconsolidated sand pack (32.5% porosity). We show that the probability of throat intersection increases significantly with porosity above 20%; in the sand pack, over 1/4 of all throats intersect with another.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutting and piercing injuries are among the leading causes of unintentional injury morbidity in developed countries. In New Zealand, cutting and piercing are second only to falls as the most frequent cause of unintentional home injuries resulting in admissions to hospital among people aged 20 to 64 years. Alcohol intake is known to be associated with many other types of injury. We used a case-crossover study to investigate the role of acute alcohol use (i.e., drinking during the previous 6 h in unintentional cutting or piercing injuries at home. Methods A population-based case-crossover study was conducted. We identified all people aged 20 to 64 years, resident in one of three regions of the country (Greater Auckland, Waikato and Otago, who were admitted to public hospital within 48 h of an unintentional non-occupational cutting or piercing injury sustained at home (theirs or another's from August 2008 to December 2009. The main exposure of interest was use of alcohol in the 6-hour period before the injury occurred and the corresponding time intervals 24 h before, and 1 week before, the injury. Other information was collected on known and potential confounders. Information was obtained during face-to-face interviews with cases, and through review of their medical charts. Results Of the 356 participants, 71% were male, and a third sustained injuries from contact with glass. After adjustment for other paired exposures, the odds ratio for injury after consuming 1 to 3 standard drinks of alcohol during the 6-hour period before the injury (compared to the day before, compared to none, was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 3.74, and for four or more drinks was 8.68 (95% confidence interval 3.11 to 24.3. Smokers had higher alcohol-related risks than non-smokers. Conclusions Alcohol consumption increases the odds of unintentional cutting or piercing injury occurring at home and this risk increases with higher levels of drinking.
... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...
CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.
Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all pshorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858
Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C
Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts.
Generic classes of string compactifications include ''brane throats'' emanating from the compact dimensions and separated by effective potential barriers raised by the background gravitational fields. The interaction of observers inside different throats occurs via tunneling and is consequently weak. This provides a new mechanism for generating small numbers in Nature. We apply it to the hierarchy problem, where supersymmetry breaking near the unification scale causes TeV sparticle masses inside the standard model throat. We also design naturally long-lived cold dark matter which decays within a Hubble time to the approximate conformal matter of a long throat. This may soften structure formation at galactic scales and raises the possibility that much of the dark matter of the universe is conformal matter. Finally, the tunneling rate shows that the coupling between throats, mediated by bulk modes, is stronger than a naive application of holography suggests.
Sigward, Susan M; Cesar, Guilherme M; Havens, Kathryn L
To compare frontal plane knee moments, and kinematics and kinetics associated with knee valgus moments between cutting to 45 and 110 degrees, and to determine the predictive value of kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) on knee valgus moments when cutting to these angles. Also, to determine whether sex differences exist in kinematics and kinetics when cutting to 45 and 110 degrees. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory setting. Forty-five (20 females) healthy young adult soccer athletes aged 16 to 23 years. Kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between randomly cued side-step cutting maneuvers to 45 and 110 degrees. Predictors of knee valgus moment were determined for each task. Kinematic variables: knee valgus angle, hip abduction, and internal rotation angles. Kinetic variables: vertical, posterior, and lateral GRFs, and knee valgus moment. Knee valgus moments were greater when cutting to 110 degrees compared with 45 degrees, and females exhibited greater moments than males. Vertical and lateral GRFs, hip internal rotation angle, and knee valgus angle explained 63% of the variance in knee valgus moment during cutting to 45 degrees. During cutting to 110 degrees, posterior GRF, hip internal rotation angle, and knee valgus angle explained 41% of the variance in knee valgus moment. Cutting tasks with larger redirection demands result in greater knee valgus moments. Similar factors, including shear GRFs, hip internal rotation, and knee valgus position contribute to knee valgus loading during cuts performed to smaller (45 degrees) and larger (110 degrees) angles. Reducing vertical and shear GRFs during cutting maneuvers may reduce knee valgus moments and thereby potentially reduce risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury.
Ruan, Mianfang; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Xie
Ruan, M, Zhang, Q, and Wu, X. Acute effects of static stretching of hamstring on performance and anterior cruciate ligament injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1241-1250, 2017-There is limited research investigating antagonist stretch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of static stretching of hamstrings (SSH) on performance and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk during stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks. Twelve female college athletes (age 20.8 ± 0.7 years; height 1.61 ± 0.05 m; mass 54.25 ± 4.22 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed stop-jump and 180° cutting tasks under 2 conditions: after warm-up with 4 × 30 seconds SSH or after warm-up without SSH. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data as well as electromyography of biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius medialis were collected during testing. Static stretching of hamstrings significantly enhanced jump height by 5.1% (p = 0.009) but did not change the takeoff speed of cutting. No significant changes in peak knee adduction moment or peak anterior tibia shear force were observed with SSH regardless of the task. The peak lateral tibia shear force during cutting was significantly (p = 0.036) reduced with SSH. The co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps during the preactivation (stop-jump: p = 0.04; cutting: p = 0.05) and downward phases (stop-jump: p = 0.04; cutting: p = 0.05) was significantly reduced after SSH regardless of the task. The results suggest that SSH enhanced the performance of stop-jump because of decreased co-contraction of hamstring and quadriceps but did not change the performance of cutting. In addition, SSH did not increase ACL injury risk during stop-jump and cutting tasks and even reduced medial-lateral knee loading during cutting.
Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.
Bruemmer, F.; Hebecker, A.; Trapletti, M.
We investigate, in the general framework of KKLT, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking by fields propagating in the strongly warped region of the compactification manifold ('throat fields'). Such fields can couple both to the supersymmetry breaking sector at the IR end of the throat and to the visible sector at the UV end. We model the supersymmetry breaking sector by a chiral superfield which develops an F term vacuum expectation value (also responsible for the uplift). It turns out that the mediation effect of vector multiplets propagating in the throat can compete with modulus-anomaly mediation. Moreover, such vector fields are naturally present as the gauge fields arising from isometries of the throat (most notably the SO(4) isometry of the Klebanov-Strassler solution). Their mediation effect is important in spite of their large 4d mass. The latter is due to the breaking of the throat isometry by the compact manifold at the UV end of the throat. The contribution from heavy chiral superfields is found to be subdominant
Pharyngitis is a sore throat caused by inflammation of the back of the throat. It is one of the most common reasons for visits to family physicians. Throat may be scratchy and swallowing can be painful. Usually, a sore throat is the sign of another illness, such as a cold or the flu. In this review article, epidemiology, national ...
Hadi, Mackenzie; Chen, Yixi; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Merema, Marjolijn T; Groothuis, Geny M M
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) has been the top reason for withdrawing drugs from the market or for black box warnings. IDILI may arise from the interaction of a drug's reactive metabolite with a mild inflammation that renders the liver more sensitive to injury resulting in increased toxicity (inflammatory stress hypothesis). Aiming to develop a robust ex vivo screening method to study inflammatory stress-related IDILI mechanisms and to find biomarkers that can detect or predict IDILI, mouse precision-cut liver slices (mPCLS) were coincubated for 24 h with IDILI-related drugs and lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide exacerbated ketoconazole (15 μM) and clozapine (45 μM) toxicity but not their non-IDILI-related comparators, voriconazole (1500 μM) and olanzapine (45 μM). However, the other IDILI-related drugs tested [diclofenac (200 μM), carbamazepine (400 μM), and troglitazone (30 μM)] did not cause synergistic toxicity with lipopolysaccharide after 24 h of incubation. Lipopolysaccharide further decreased the reduced glutathione levels caused by ketoconazole or clozapine in mPCLS after 24 h of incubation, which was not the case for the other drugs. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, and chemokine release into the mPCLS media, while the treatment with the drugs alone did not cause any substantial change. All seven drugs drastically reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production. Interestingly, only ketoconazole and clozapine increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release. Pilot experiments showed that diclofenac and troglitazone, but not carbamazepine, demonstrated synergistic toxicity with lipopolysaccharide after a longer incubation of 48 h in mPCLS. In conclusion, we have developed an ex vivo model to detect inflammatory stress-related liver toxicity and identified ketoconazole, clozapine
Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for
Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms from throat (sensation of globus; frequent throat clearing; irritated throat are common in patients referred to voice clinics and to ENT specialists. The relation to symptoms of voice discomfort is unclear and in some cases patients do not have voice problems at all. Instruments for patients' self-reporting of symptoms, and assessment of handicap, such as the Voice Handicap Index (VHI, are in common use in voice clinics. Symptoms from throat are however only marginally covered. Purpose: To develop and evaluate an instrument that could make the patients' estimation of symptoms from the throat possible. Further to facilitate the consideration of the relation between throat- and voice problems with the Throat subscale together with a Swedish translation of the Voice Handicap Index. Finally to try the VHI with the Throat subscale: the VHI-T, for test-retest reliability and validity. Methods A subscale with 10 throat related items was developed for appliance with the VHI. The VHI was translated to Swedish and retranslated to English. The questionnaire was tried in two phases on a total of 23+144 patients and 12+58 voice healthy controls. The reliability was calculated with Cronbach's alpha, ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The validity was estimated by independent T-test. Results The difference in VHI-T scores between the patients and the voice-healthy controls was significant (p = r = 0,90 and that for the Throat subscale separately a value of r = 0,87 which shows a high degree of reliability. Conclusions For the estimation of self-perceived throat and voice problems the scale on throat related problems together with the present Swedish translation of the Voice Handicap Index, (VHI the VHI-Throat, proves to be a valid and reliable instrument. The throat subscale seems to help revealing a category of symptoms that are common in our patients. These are symptoms that have not earlier been possible to cover with
Little, P; Williamson, I
This paper discusses primary care management of sore throat in the context of recent national 'consensus' guidelines from the Drugs and Therapeutics Bulletin. The guidelines advise taking a throat swab, using typical clinical features where swabs are not available, and suggest that antibiotics shorten the duration of symptoms and prevent complications. Systematic reviews and individual studies indicate that the evidence for prescribing antibiotics for most presentations of sore throat in general practice is marginal, and the benefits are probably outweighed by the likely costs of antibiotics. Using clinical scorecards or symptom clusters to identify individuals who would benefit from treatment is insensitive with low predictive value, although inexpensive. Using throat swabs as a gold standard for diagnosis is inappropriate since they are neither very specific nor sensitive, and will greatly increase costs of management. The relative lack of evidence for the efficacy of antibiotics and for the use of throat swabs from primary care research, and also an unbalanced perspective of dangers and complications related predominantly to a secondary care setting, underlines the problem of achieving valid consensus guidelines. Guidelines not firmly based on evidence appropriate to the intended setting are more likely to be received sceptically and hinder getting research into practice.
Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz
To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs
Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz
Objective To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Design Retrospective study. Methods Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar’s chi2 test with Yates’s correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as
Jul 6, 2011 ... and can bring out acute symptoms and give a lot of dis- comfort to the individual, a good example is strep ... symptoms such as severe pain in the throat and other uncomfortable physical symptoms such as ..... as mouth breathing, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. BACTERIAL PHARYNGITIS.
... bacteria (say: bak-TEER-ee-uh) c alled group A streptococcus (say: strep-tuh-KAH-kus). If a kid has strep throat, the doctor will give him or her medicine called an antibiotic ... the school year when big groups of kids are together. How Do People Get ...
Crandall, D.; Ahmadi, G.; Ferer, M.; Smith, D. H.
A new experimental, heterogeneous pore-throat model has been designed and fabricated using stereolithography (SL). In SL production, a laser cures a thin layer of photo-sensitive resin on the surface of a vat of liquid resin; a moveable platform then submerges the cured layer and a new layer is cured on top of the previous one, creating a physical model from a computer generated model. This layered fabrication of a computer generated model has enabled the production of an experimental porous medium with improved fluid resistance properties, as compared to previously studied, constant-height etched cells. A uniform distribution of throat widths was randomly placed throughout the pore-throat matrix and the throat height of each throat was assigned to increase the range of viscous and capillary resistances within the physical model. This variation in both throat height and width generated a porous medium with fairly low porosity (43%), permeability (~400 D), and wide range of geometric resistance properties. Experimental, two-phase immiscible drainage studies in the porous flowcell were performed. Analysis of the captured images was performed with open-source image processing software. These analysis techniques utilized the capability of both ImageJ and the Gnu Image Manipulation Program to be customized with ancillary codes. This enabled batch procedures to be created that converted the original grey-scale bitmaps to binary data sets, which were then analyzed with in-house codes. The fractal dimension, Df, (measured with box-counting) and percent saturation of these experiments were calculated and shown to compare favorably to fractal predictions and previous flowcell studies. Additionally, using the computer generated pore-throat geometry, a computational fluid dynamics model of two- phase flow through the porous medium was created. This model was created using FLUENT code and the Volume of Fluid method. The percent saturation of the less-viscous invading fluid
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...
Hadi, Mackenzie; Chen, Yixi; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Merema, M.T.
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) has been the top reason for withdrawing drugs from the market or for black box warnings. IDILI may arise from the interaction of a drug's reactive metabolite with a mild inflammation that renders the liver more sensitive to injury resulting in
Smale, Kenneth B; Potvin, Brigitte M; Shourijeh, Mohammad S; Benoit, Daniel L
The recent development of a soft tissue artifact (STA) suppression method allows us to re-evaluate the tibiofemoral kinematics currently linked to non-contact knee injuries. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate knee joint kinematics and kinetics in six degrees of freedom (DoF) during the loading phases of a jump lunge and side cut using this in silico method. Thirty-five healthy adults completed these movements and their surface marker trajectories were then scaled and processed with OpenSim's inverse kinematics (IK) and inverse dynamics tools. Knee flexion angle-dependent kinematic constraints defined based on previous bone pin (BP) marker trajectories were then applied to the OpenSim model during IK and these constrained results were then processed with the standard inverse dynamics tool. Significant differences for all hip, knee, and ankle DoF were observed after STA suppression for both the jump lunge and side cut. Using clinically relevant effect size estimates, we conclude that STA contamination had led to misclassifications in hip transverse plane angles, knee frontal and transverse plane angles, medial/lateral and distractive/compressive knee translations, and knee frontal plane moments between the NoBP and the BP IK solutions. Our results have substantial clinical implications since past research has used joint kinematics and kinetics contaminated by STA to identify risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio
Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.
Full Text Available Return to work (RTW for people with acquired brain injury (ABI represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS, which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM x 100. The cut-off value (criterion deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%. Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.
Thom, R. [Core Laboratories Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
Some of the diagnostic tools which are available to determine valuable reservoir rock information from drill cuttings were described. For example, valuable information can be obtained from drill cuttings and petrographic thin sections regarding mineralogy, facies, pore systems, reservoir quality and fluid sensitivity. This paper described the best ways to pick representative drill cuttings from vials. Colour and texture are among the most important determining factors. New guidelines from the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board have made it possible to obtain thin sections from drill cuttings from a competitor`s wells. Up to 12 chips from each vial can be removed for thin section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of drill chips is not recommended because it is usually not possible to obtain enough sample material. Another powerful tool to investigate and characterize pore systems is the Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure technique. This technique makes it possible to characterize the pore system and to determine pore throat size distribution, permeability/porosity, producible reserves, capillary pressure, effective versus non-effective porosity, irreducible water saturation, and height above free water. The most reliable and valuable information is obtained from sandstone and carbonate aggregate chips in which the pore system is preserved. It was also noted that core porosity can be empirically derived if a trend line is constructed using sections prepared from an equivalent cored zone. Permeability can be derived in much the same way. 9 figs.
Hadi, Mackenzie; Westra, Inge M.; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Dragovic, Sanja; Merema, M.T.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a major problem during drug development and has caused drug withdrawal and black-box warnings. Because of the low concordance of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in animals and humans, robust screening methods using human tissue are needed to predict
Hadi, Mackenzie; Westra, Inge; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Dragovic, Sanja; Merema, Maja; Groothuis, Genoveva
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a major problem during drug development and has caused drug withdrawal and black-box warnings. Due to the low concordance of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in animals and humans, robust screening methods using human tissue are needed to predict and to
Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.
Apr 23, 1983 ... group with sore throat was 23,0 years and that of the control group 22,2 years. The agreement between the clinical prediction and the labora- tory findings of the presence of streptococcus for the 62 patients with sore throat is depicted in Table I, which shows that the clinical predictions were correct in 26 ...
Objective: To evaluate the effect of intravenous diclofenac sodium on the occurrence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Methods: ... Conclusion: Intravenous diclofenac sodium does not reduce the occurrence or severity of postoperative sore throat. .... 8.4% sodium bicarbonate-also a colourless liquid- was added to ...
A 20-year-old man presented with a severely sore throat and myalgia, which were unresponsive to antibiotics. He was admitted to a regional hospital with an ongoing painful throat, generalised myalgia, fever and a transient, recurring, salmon-pink rash on his hands and trunk. He did not respond to ceftriaxone and had a ...
Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a major cause of mortality in man. Regular disease surveillance can be achieved through evaluation of throat carriage. Objectives: To evaluate GAS throat carriage amongst nursery and primary schools pupils in Benin City, Nigeria. Method: This cross sectional study was carried ...
Gau, M; Meier, P; Wiedemann, P
Protective clothing is prescribed concerning gloves, shoes, protective trousers and a helmet for protection of hearing and the face during brush-cutter work. Seven patients were observed in a time period from 1994 to 1998. Mostly a nylon head protection had been used. The side of the helmet has no protection shield. The 1- to 4-mm large foreign bodies passed the head protection shield from the side or by entering through the holes of the nylon mesh which may be not small enough to stop the foreign body. A pars plana vitrectomy with foreign body removal was performed after primary wound repair. An endophthalmitis was diagnosed in two patients after primary wound treatment. In these cases, a pars plana vitrectomy and antibiotic instillation was performed. In 5 patients visual acuity increased postoperatively. We measured a postoperative visual acuity from 1/50 to 1.6. The development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy with retinal detachment in 4 patients was the main complication observed after pars plana vitrectomy. A cosmetically satisfactory appearance of the injured eye was reached by pars plana vitrectomy in all patients. Anatomic and functional success was reached in most of the patients. For prophylaxis, a head-protection seems not safe enough. The additional usage of eye protection glasses may be imperative for the prevention of these eye injuries.
Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E
The medial collateral (MCL) and anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are, respectively, the primary and secondary ligamentous restraints against knee abduction, which is a component of the valgus collapse often associated with ACL rupture during athletic tasks. Despite this correlation in function, MCL ruptures occur concomitantly in only 20% to 40% of ACL injuries. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how athletic tasks load the knee joint in a manner that could lead to ACL failure without concomitant MCL failure. It was hypothesized that (1) the ACL would provide greater overall contribution to intact knee forces than the MCL during simulated motion tasks and (2) the ACL would show greater relative peak strain compared with the MCL during simulated motion tasks. Controlled laboratory study. A 6-degrees-of-freedom robotic manipulator articulated 18 cadaveric knees through simulations of kinematics recorded from in vivo drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks. Specimens were articulated in the intact-knee and isolated-ligament conditions. After simulation, each ACL and MCL was failed in uniaxial tension along its fiber orientations. During a drop vertical jump simulation, the ACL experienced greater peak strain than the MCL (6.1% vs 0.4%; P < .01). The isolated ACL expressed greater peak anterior force (4.8% vs 0.3% body weight; P < .01), medial force (1.6% vs 0.4% body weight; P < .01), flexion torque (8.4 vs 0.4 N·m; P < .01), abduction torque (2.6 vs 0.3 N·m; P < .01), and adduction torque (0.5 vs 0.0 N·m; P = .03) than the isolated MCL. During failure testing, ACL specimens preferentially loaded in the anteromedial bundle failed at 637 N, while MCL failure occurred at 776 N. During controlled physiologic athletic tasks, the ACL provides greater contributions to knee restraint than the MCL, which is generally unstrained and minimally loaded. Current findings support that multiplanar loading during athletic tasks preferentially loads the ACL
Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)
Recently we have shown that for 2 + 1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes a non-circular throat may lead to a physical wormhole in the sense that the energy conditions are satisfied. By the same token, herein we consider an angular dependent throat geometry embedded in a 2 + 1-dimensional flat spacetime in polar coordinates. It is shown that, remarkably, a generic, natural example of the throat geometry is provided by a hypocycloid. That is, two flat 2 + 1 dimensions are glued together along a hypocycloid. The energy required in each hypocycloid increases with the frequency of the roller circle inside the large one. (orig.)
Summers, David Archibold; Woelk, Klaus Hubert; Oglesby, Kenneth Doyle; Galecki, Grzegorz
An abrasive cutting or drilling system, apparatus and method, which includes an upstream supercritical fluid and/or liquid carrier fluid, abrasive particles, a nozzle and a gaseous or low-density supercritical fluid exhaust abrasive stream. The nozzle includes a throat section and, optionally, a converging inlet section, a divergent discharge section, and a feed section.
Orlovska, Sonja; Vestergaard, Claus Hostrup; Bech, Bodil Hammer
IMPORTANCE Streptococcal infection has been linked with the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders, a concept termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). However, previous studies of this association have......). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This large-scale study investigating key aspects of the PANDAS hypothesis found that individuals with a streptococcal throat infection had elevated risks of mental disorders, particularly OCD and tic disorders. However, nonstreptococcal throat infection was also associated...
Silverstein, Eva M
A generic F-theory compactification containing many D3 branes develops multiple brane throats. The interaction of observers residing inside different throats involves tunneling suppression and, as a result, is very weak. This suggests a new mechanism for generating small numbers in Nature. One application is to the hierarchy problem: large supersymmetry breaking near the unification scale inside a shallow throat causes TeV-scale SUSY-breaking inside the standard-model throat. Another application, inspired by nuclear-decay, is in designing naturally long-lived particles: a cold dark matter particle residing near the standard model brane decays to an approximate CFT-state of a longer throat within a Hubble time. This suggests that most of the mass of the universe today could consist of CFT-matter and may soften structure formation at sub-galactic scales. The tunneling calculation demonstrates that the coupling between two throats is dominated by higher dimensional modes and consequently is much larger than a naive application of holography might suggest.
Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de
Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.
A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.
Bronnikov, K. A.; Korolyov, P. A.
We construct explicit examples of globally regular static, spherically symmetric solutions of general relativity with a phantom scalar field as the source of gravity, describing traversable wormholes with flat asymptotic regions on both sides of the throat as well as regular black holes, in particular, those called black universes. To explain why such phantom fields are not observed under usual conditions, we invoke the concept of "invisible ghosts," which means that the phantom field decays quickly enough at infinity and is there too weak to be observed. This approach leads to wormhole models in which the spherical radius is almost constant in some range of the radial coordinate near the throat, forming a "long throat". We discuss the peculiar features and difficulties of the stability problem for such configurations. It is shown that the limiting case of a "maximally long throat" has the form of an unstable model with the Nariai metric. This allows us to conjecture that a long throat does not stabilize wormholes with a scalar source.
Ayyappan, G.; Tiwari, S. B.; Praveen, RS; Mohankumar, L.; Jathaveda, M.; Ganesh, P.
Injector element testing is an important step in the development and qualification of the cryogenic rocket engines. For the purpose of characterising the injectors, sub scale chambers are used. In order to assess the performance of the injectors, different configurations of the injectors are tested using a combustion chamber and a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pressure distribution along the wall of the chamber and throat insert is obtained from the CFD analysis and temperature distribution is obtained from thermal analysis. Thermo-structural analysis is carried out for the sub-scale model of throat inert using temperature dependent material properties. For the experiments a sub-scale model of the thrust chamber is realised. Injector element tests are carried out for the studies. The objective of the present study is to investigate the behaviour of different throat inserts, mainly graphite, 2-D Carbon-Carbon(2D C-C), 4-D Carbon-Carbon (4D C-C) and Silica Phenolic (SP), under pressure and thermal load for repeated operation of the engine. Analytical results are compared with the test results. The paper gives the results of theoretical studies and experiments conducted with all the four type of throat material. It is concluded that 2D C-C is superior in terms of throat erosion being the least under specified combustion environment.
Chialva, D.; Dev, P.S.B.; Mazumdar, A.
We discuss the possibility of having multiple Kaluza-Klein dark matter candidates which arise naturally in generic type-IIB string theory compactification scenarios. These dark matter candidates reside in various throats of the Calabi-Yau manifold. In principle, they can come with a varied range......, we find that the mass scales allowed for the Kaluza-Klein dark matter particles in various throats can vary between 0.1 eV and 10 TeV, depending upon the throat geometry. Thus, there could be simultaneously more than one kind of cold (and possibly warm and hot) dark matter components residing...... in the Universe. This multiple dark matter scenario could weaken the bound on a conventional supersymmetric dark matter candidate and could also account for extra relativistic degrees of freedom in our Universe....
N Bhaskar Prabhu
Full Text Available A total of 109 cases of pyoderma were studied bacteriologicaliy by culture. Folliculitis cox~stituted the largest clinical group followed by impetigo and eczematoid dermatitis. Coagulase positive staphylococci were found to be the predominant aetiological agents in pure form and also in association with other infecting agents. Coagulase negative staphylococci constituted the next common organism, followed by beta-haemolytic streptococci. Nasal and throat swabs from all the cases were subjected to bacteriologic study and the association of nasal and throat staphylococci with pyoderma lesions was studied. Majority (56.66% of staph-aureus strains were non typable; 56.66% of typable strains belonged to phage type III, 26.67% to phage type II and 16.67% to phage type I. The throat staphylococcal phage types were found to be associated more with pyoderma than nasal phage types.
Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard
around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic......For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...
Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis in Tanzania. NE Baker, EM Baker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...
Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...
Vital for water management are structures that can measure the flow in a wide variety of channels. Chapter 1 introduces the long-throated flume and the broad-crested weir; it explains why this family of structures can meet the boundary conditions and hydraulic demands of most measuring
Most of the patients with aural Fbs (56.0%) were asymptomatic at presentation. Others had otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, etc., [Table 3]. The features for nose and throat Fbs are highlighted in Table 3. In 63.1% of cases, parents observed the presence of a foreign body in children, and in 36.9% was self-reported by the patients.
This article attempts two tasks. First, to clarify how the claim that colleges and universities may "shove religion down students' throats" has a historical background. Second, to indicate how pedagogical strategies--like service learning, discussions, paper revisions, and "Just in Time Teaching" exercises--can be used in ways…
This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males ...
Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...
... otological conditions in 209 (50.1%), rhinological conditions in 118 (28.3%) and then pharyngolaryngological conditions in 90 (21.6%). Some of the common conditions include presbyacusis (16.7%), cerumen obturans (15.3%), allergic rhinitis (14.9%), pharyngolaryngitis (9.8%), rhinosinusitis (8.2%), foreign body in throat ...
Sore throat is a common presentation in paediatric emergency and sick bays in schools. It is associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection, and recurrent episodes of infection may result in recurrent tonsillitis which may be complicated by sleep disorders, rheumatic heart disease and acute glomerulonephritis.
Scopus 33: 84–85, January 2014. Received 22 August 2013. White-throated Swallow Hirundo ... Paul Oliver and John Whittle for submitting records to the Atlas database. N.E. and E.M. Baker. P.O. Box 1605, Iringa, Tanzania; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Scopus 33: 85, January 2014. Received 21 December 2011.
Caravelli, Ashley; Bhatnagar, Rupal; Ashaye, Adelola
The patient complained of worsening vaginal pain and increased vaginal discharge, but reported resolution of her back and chest pain. She also said that a week earlier, she'd had a fever that reached 104° F and a sore throat. She denied urinary frequency/urgency, sexual activity, or sexual abuse.
Objective: To assess associations between nose-throat (NT) diseases and passive smoking prevalence among school children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a randomized multistage sample of 381 school children (50.9% males, aged 9.8 ± 3.5 years) from Kinshasa town. Parents and children were ...
Scholtes, B.; Schröder-Bäck, P.; MacKay, M.; Vincenten, J.; Brand, H.
Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus
Full Text Available Aim: Risk factors for child injury are multi-faceted. Social, environmental and economic factors place responsibility for prevention upon many stakeholders across traditional sectors such as health, justice, environment and education. Multi-sectoral collaboration for injury prevention is thus essential. In addition, co-benefits due to injury prevention initiatives exist. However, multi-sectoral collaboration is often difficult to establish and maintain. We present an applied approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level to use to explore and address the multi-sectoral nature of child injury. Methods: We combined elements of the Haddon Matrix and the Lens and Telescope model, to develop a new approach for practitioners and policy makers at the local level. Results: The approach offers the opportunity for diverse sectors at the local level to work together to identify their role in child injury prevention. Based on ecological injury prevention and life-course epidemiology it encourages multi-disciplinary team building from the outset. The process has three phases: first, visualising the multi-sectoral responsibilities for child injury prevention in the local area; second, demonstrating the need for multi-sectoral collaboration and helping plan prevention activities together; and third, visualising potential co-benefits to other sectors and age groups that may arise from child injury prevention initiatives. Conclusion: The approach and process encourages inter-sectoral collaboration for child injury prevention at the local level. It is a useful addition for child injury prevention at the local level, however testing the practicality of the approach in a real-world setting, and refinement of the process would improve it further.
Batty, Antonia; Wren, M W D; Gal, Michaela
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a well established cause of Lemierre's disease (LD); a syndrome characterised by severe sore throat, septicaemia, multiple abscesses and jugular vein thrombosis. There is no published data concerning the role of F. necrophorum in recurrent sore throats. As the result of an index case of persistent sore throat attributable to this organism being diagnosed in our laboratory, a subsequent case controlled study (not yet published) isolated F. necrophorum from 21% (P=0.0001) of cases of persistent, recurrent and chronic sore throats. The object of this study was to compare isolates of F. necrophorum from cases of systemic disease with isolates from cases of persistent sore throat syndrome (PSTS) to ascertain whether strains of similar type were responsible for both throat and systemic disease or whether different strains were involved in these presentations. Throat swabs were cultured on GN anaerobe medium (Oxoid) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. Seventeen PSTS isolates were identified phenotypically. These were compared to 17 strains isolated from blood cultures which were referred to the Anaerobe Reference Unit, (ARU) cardiff, using enterogenic repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The control strains Fusobacterium necrophorum ssp. necrophorum (JCM 3718(T)) and Fusobacterium necrophorum ssp. funduliforme (JCM 3724(T)) from the Japanese Collection of Microrganisms (JCM) were tested in parallel with the clinical isolates. At least 12 separate types were identified. Four of 17 PSTS isolates and seven of 17 blood culture isolates grouped together with the F. necrophorum ssp. funduliforme control strain. There were also similarities between other proposed strains and clinical types but no comparison with the F. necrophorum ssp. necrophorum control. These results show that clinical disease caused by F. necrophorum has a wider spectrum than first anticipated. Similar strains are able to cause either
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...
Conclusion: This study showed that otitis media, obstructive adenoid, foreign bodies in the ear and throat infections were the common ear, nose, throat disorders seen in patients aged ≤15years whereas, hearing loss, rhinosinusitis and tumors were the common disorders of ear, nose and throat seen in patients aged 16 ...
Pradipta Kumar Parida
Full Text Available While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure.
SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an
Full Text Available How does Caroline Bergvall's plurilingual poetic practice reimagine language embodiment? What are the implications for cultural identity and linguistic belonging? For the gendered and sexualised body? 'Fighting off one language with another,' Bergvall displaces standard English and crosses national borders. Her work explores how this crossing, this fighting and resistance, is physically articulated. Though accessible to a monolingual English reader, the texts collected in Meddle English incorporate elements of French and Norwegian, and seek to distort and undermine standard English. The Deleuze-Guattarian concepts of minorization and deterritorialization are explored and adapted to a feminist understanding of poetic practice. 'Cat in the Throat' is a literal translation of the French expression un chat dans la gorge - the equivalent in English being 'a frog in the throat.' In French chatte (female cat is equivalent to the colloquial English 'pussy.' The cat (in the throat is symbolic of Bergvall's cultural and sexual resistance to standard English. Her language incorporates these stuttering moments of untranslatablity, and is characterised by ellipsis, plurilingual puns, misspellings and linguistic contamination. This article will explore the ways in which these characteristics are used to assert a queer experience of language embodiment.
Hadi, Mackenzie; Chen, Y.; Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Merema, Maja; Groothuis, Genoveva
Idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) can be defined as adverse drug reactions that occur in a small minority of the patients taking clinically-relevant doses and do not involve the known pharmacological effects of the drug. IDR related to hepatotoxicity or idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury
Kabra, S K; Alok, Atul; Kapil, A; Aggarwal, G; Kabra, M; Lodha, R; Pandey, R M; Sridevi, K; Mathews, J
To compare cultures throat swab after physiotherapy with results of sputum culture in identification of lower airway pathogens in children with cystic fibrosis. 387 samples of sputum cough swabs, throat swab and throat swab after physiotherapy were collected from 48 patients of cystic fibrosis and cultured for aerobic bacteria. The results of cultures of cough swabs, throat swab and throat swab after physiotherapy were compared with results of sputum culture. There was good concordance between culture results of sputum and other methods. Over all concordance was 70%, 81% and 92% with cough swab, throat swab and throat swab after physiotherapy. Sensitivity for isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by throat swab, cough swab and throat swab after physiotherapy was 40%, 42% and 82% respectively. Specificity for isolation of Pseudomonas by throat swab, cough swab and throat swab after physiotherapy was 99%, 100% and 99% respectively. Sensitivity for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus by throat swab, cough swab and throat swab after physiotherapy was 57%, 50% and 100% respectively. Specificity for isolation of Staphylococcus by throat swab, cough swab and throat swab after physiotherapy was 99% for all these methods. It is concluded that throat swab after physiotherapy in a child with CF can be used reliably for identification of lower airway pathogens.
tayebeh Rezaie nasab
Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.
Moss, David A; Crawford, Paul
Sore throat is a common cause of pain in outpatient encounters. Battlefield auricular acupuncture (the placing of needles in specific points in the ear) is a modality used to treat acute pain associated with a variety of ailments. The aim of our study was to determine whether auricular acupuncture reduces pain, medication usage, and missed work hours when added to standard therapy in adult patients with acute sore throat. We conducted an unblinded, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial among adult, nonpregnant patients presenting to an Air Force family medicine clinic with pain from acute sore throat. A total of 54 patients were followed for 48 hours after treatment. Patients receiving auricular acupuncture reported lower pain scores than those who did not at 15 minutes (6.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.4-6.6] vs 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.5]; P vs 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.4]; P = .0005), and 24 hours (4.1 [95% CI, 3.3-4.9] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 1.0-2.8]; P = .0006). They also reported taking fewer cumulative doses of pain medication at 6 hours (1.07 [95% CI, 0.69-1.45] vs 0.39 [95% CI, 0.2-0.58]; P = .003), 24 hours (2.63 [95% CI, 1.95-3.31] vs 1.37 [95% CI, 0.92-1.82]; P = .004), and 48 hours (4.07 [95% CI, 2.9-5.24] vs 2.19 [95% CI, 1.44-2.94]; P = .009). There was no difference in time missed from work between the auricular acupuncture and standard therapy groups. Compared with usual treatment, battlefield auricular acupuncture was associated with reduced sore throat pain for 24 hours and decreased use of pain medication for up to 48 hours. There was no apparent effect on hours missed from work. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Waheed Atilade Adegbiji
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective community-based study of ear, nose, and throat diseases. The study was carried out over a period of 3 months (January to March 2017. Verbal consent was obtained from the village head and participants. A total of 738 individuals were enrolled into the study. Interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to obtain bio data and otorhinolaryngological history from all participants, followed by examination and investigation. Data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 738 consented participants had various forms of ear, nose, and throat disorders. They constituted 435 (58.9% males and 303 (41.1% females, with a male: female ratio of 1:1. Majority of enrollee were dependent age groups. These age groups were 27.4% (1–10, 25.5% (11–20, and 14.1% (51–60. The occupational status revealed that 28.9% were employed; 9.3% were retired; 45.5% were children/students/apprenticeship; and 16.3% were artisans, homemakers, and farmers. Nasal diseases (34.4% were the most common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders while ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases were responsible for 43.4%, 14.6%, and 7.6%, respectively. The common diseases were wax impaction (11.7%, sinusitis (14.4%, and allergic rhinitis (22.6%. Less prevalent otorhinolaryngological, head and neck diseases were vertigo/balance disorder (0.9%, cervical spondylosis (1.6%, and pharyngitis/tonsillitis (2.0%. Common procedures performed included impacted earwax removal (22.8%, aural toilet/dressing (14.4%, pure tone audiometry (32.5%, tympanometry (18.4%, endoscopy (9.8%, and antral irrigation (5.7%. Referred cases of 7.2% were recorded. The barriers experienced by these villagers in seeking otorhinolaryngological
... a sign that your child has thoughts of suicide. If you are concerned your child is cutting, learn the warning signs, methods of ... your child’s risk of cutting. While thoughts of suicide aren’t common with cutting, your child could accidentally cut deep enough or cut an ...
Jones, Daniel R.
Second-throat diffusers serve to isolate rocket engines from the effects of ambient back pressure during testing without using active control systems. Among the most critical design parameters is the relative area of the diffuser throat to that of the nozzle throat. A smaller second throat is generally desirable because it decreases the stagnation-to-ambient pressure ratio the diffuser requires for nominal operation. There is a limit, however. Below a certain size, the second throat can cause pressure buildup within the diffuser and prevent it from reaching the start condition that protects the nozzle from side-load damage. This paper presents a method for improved estimation of the minimum second throat area which enables diffuser start. The new 3-zone model uses traditional quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow theory to approximate the structure of two distinct diffuser flow fields observed in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and combines them to provide a less-conservative estimate of the second throat size limit. It is unique among second throat sizing methods in that it accounts for all major conical nozzle and second throat diffuser design parameters within its limits of application. The performance of the 3-zone method is compared to the historical normal shock and force balance methods, and verified against a large number of CFD simulations at specific heat ratios of 1.4 and 1.25. Validation is left as future work, and the model is currently intended to function only as a first-order design tool.
Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)
From the physics standpoint the exotic matter problem is a major difficulty in thin shell wormholes (TSWs) with spherical/cylindrical throat topologies.We aim to circumvent this handicap by considering angle dependent throats in 3 + 1 dimensions. By considering the throat of the TSW to be deformed spherical, i.e., a function of θ and φ, we present general conditions which are to be satisfied by the shape of the throat in order to have the wormhole supported by matter with positive density in the static reference frame. We provide particular solutions/examples to the constraint conditions. (orig.)
Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S
When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.
Alias, Anuar; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin
Previous studies on dynamic wormholes were focused on the dynamics of the wormhole itself, be it either rotating or evolutionary in character and also in various frameworks from classical to braneworld cosmological models. In this work, we modeled a dynamic factor that represents the spatial dynamics in terms of spacetime expansion and contraction surrounding the wormhole itself. Using an RS2-based braneworld cosmological model, we modified the spacetime metric of Wong and subsequently employed the method of Bronnikov, where it is observed that a traversable wormhole is easier to exist in an expanding brane universe, however it is difficult to exist in a contracting brane universe due to stress-energy tensors requirement. This model of spatial dynamic factor affecting the wormhole throat can also be applied on the cyclic or the bounce universe model.
Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten
This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...
Sahidullah, Md; Gonzalez Hautamäki, Rosa; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann
Accuracy of automatic speaker recognition (ASV) systems degrades severely in the presence of background noise. In this paper, we study the use of additional side information provided by a body-conducted sensor, throat microphone. Throat microphone signal is much less affected by background noise...... in comparison to acoustic microphone signal. This makes throat microphones potentially useful for feature extraction or speech activity detection. This paper, firstly, proposes a new prototype system for simultaneous data-acquisition of acoustic and throat microphone signals. Secondly, we study the use...... of this additional information for both speech activity detection, feature extraction and fusion of the acoustic and throat microphone signals. We collect a pilot database consisting of 38 subjects including both clean and noisy sessions. We carry out speaker verification experiments using Gaussian mixture model...
Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Moretti, Valentina; Ruberto, Marco; Monzani, Daniele; Chiarini, Luigi; Presutti, Livio
Munchausen's syndrome (MS) is a form of severe, chronic, factitious disorder with physical symptoms. Some essential features define MS, such as recurrent, feigned, or simulated illness; peregrination (traveling or wandering); pseudologia fantastica; and drug abuse. Munchausen's syndrome by proxy (MSBP) classically involves a parent or other caregiver who inflicts injury or induces illness in a child. The aim of the present study was to summarize and study the main ear, nose, and throat (ENT) manifestations of MS and MSBP. A systematic literature review carried out in a tertiary university referral center. An appropriate string was run on PubMed to retrieve articles dealing with ENT manifestations of MS and MSBP. A double cross-check was performed on citations and full-text articles found using selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 24 articles were finally included in the study, describing 30 cases of MS or MSBP involving the ENT region; 15/30 (50%) cases involved the face, most often presenting as facial pain or facial swelling; and 7/30 (23.3%) cases presented with symptoms involving the ear. Six cases out of 30 (20%) were MSBP. MS and MSBP may present with symptoms involving the head and neck area, particularly the face and external ear canal. The ENT specialist should suspect MS in patients with strange and long-lasting symptoms, so as to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatments that waste time and money in the healthcare sector. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Olsen, Flemming Ove
-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single......The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre...
Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov
of single mode fiber laser power. Burr free cuts in 1 mm steel and aluminum and in 1 and 2 mm AISI 304 stainless steel is demonstrated over a wide range of cutting rates. The industrial realization of this approach is foreseen to be performed by either beam patterning by diffractive optical elements......The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...
Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs) were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement). Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement). Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection. PMID:20670439
Bakare, Tony Mo; Schattner, Peter
To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, AustraliaParticipants: Patients attending with sore throat. Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs) were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat.2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity.There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement). Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement). As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection.
Bakare Tony MO
Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to Main outcome measures: 1. Ability of a new scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement. Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement. Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection.
Full Text Available Postoperative sore throat (POST is a common complication of anaesthesia with endotracheal tube that affects patient satisfaction after surgery. Therefore, this complication remains to be resolved in patients undergoing endotra-cheal intubation. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in prevent-ing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into: Group C, water 30 ml; Group K, ketamine 50 mg in water 29 ml. Patients were asked to gargle this mixture for 40 seconds, 5 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 4, 8 and 24 hours after operation on a four-point scale (0-3. In the Control group POST occurred more frequently, when compared with patients belonging to Ketamine group, at 4, 8, and 24 hours and significantly more patients suffered severe POST in Control group at 8 and 24 hours compared with Ketamine group (P< 0.05. We demonstrated that gargling with ketamine significantly attenuated POST, with no drug-related side effects were observed.
Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC
We construct a large class of non-supersymmetric AdS-like throat geometries in string theory by taking non-supersymmetric orbifolds of supersymmetric backgrounds. The scale of SUSY breaking is the AdS radius, and the dual field theory has explicitly broken supersymmetry. The large hierarchy of energy scales in these geometries is stable. We establish this by showing that the dual gauge theories do not have any relevant operators which are singlets under the global symmetries. When the geometries are embedded in a compact internal space, a large enough discrete subgroup of the global symmetries can still survive to prevent any singlet relevant operators from arising. We illustrate this by embedding one case in a non-supersymmetric orbifold of a Calabi-Yau manifold. These examples can serve as a starting point for obtaining Randall-Sundrum models in string theory, and more generally for constructing composite Higgs or technicolor-like models where strongly coupled dynamics leads to the breaking of electro-weak symmetry. Towards the end of the paper, we briefly discuss how bulk gauge fields can be incorporated by introducing D7-branes in the bulk, and also show how the strongly coupled dynamics can lead to an emergent weakly coupled gauge theory in the IR with matter fields including scalars.
Addey, Dilys; Shephard, Adrian
Acute sore throat is commonly associated with viral infections. Consumers typically rely on over-the-counter treatments and other remedies to treat symptoms; however, limited information is available regarding consumer perceptions of sore throat or treatment needs. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions of throat discomfort and how these influence attitudes and consumer behaviour with regard to treatment. Online consumer surveys were completed by participants invited by email between 2003 and 2004 in four markets: the UK, France, Poland, and Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of 24 questions that covered key issues surrounding throat discomfort including incidence in the past 12 months, causes, severity, effects on functionality and quality of life, actions taken to relieve throat discomfort, the efficacy of these approaches and the reasons behind using specific products. In total, 6465 men and women aged ≥18 years were surveyed, identifying 3514 participants who had suffered throat discomfort/irritation in the past 12 months (response rate of 54%). These participants completed the full survey. The breakdown of throat discomfort sufferers was: UK, 912; France, 899; Poland, 871; Malaysia, 832. A high proportion of respondents experienced one or more instances of throat discomfort in the previous 12 months, with an overall incidence of 54%. Infections including the common cold/influenza and other bacteria/viruses were commonly perceived causes of throat discomfort (72% and 46%, respectively). Physical and environmental factors were also perceived to be causative, including airborne pollution (28%), smoking (23%), and air conditioning (31%). Symptoms perceived to be caused by an infection were associated with a higher degree of suffering (mean degree of suffering for bacteria/virus and common cold/influenza; 3.4 and 3.0, respectively). Medicinal products were used for all perceived causes, but more commonly for sore throats thought to be caused by
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute sore throat is commonly associated with viral infections. Consumers typically rely on over-the-counter treatments and other remedies to treat symptoms; however, limited information is available regarding consumer perceptions of sore throat or treatment needs. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions of throat discomfort and how these influence attitudes and consumer behaviour with regard to treatment. Methods Online consumer surveys were completed by participants invited by email between 2003 and 2004 in four markets: the UK, France, Poland, and Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of 24 questions that covered key issues surrounding throat discomfort including incidence in the past 12 months, causes, severity, effects on functionality and quality of life, actions taken to relieve throat discomfort, the efficacy of these approaches and the reasons behind using specific products. Results In total, 6465 men and women aged ≥18 years were surveyed, identifying 3514 participants who had suffered throat discomfort/irritation in the past 12 months (response rate of 54%. These participants completed the full survey. The breakdown of throat discomfort sufferers was: UK, 912; France, 899; Poland, 871; Malaysia, 832. A high proportion of respondents experienced one or more instances of throat discomfort in the previous 12 months, with an overall incidence of 54%. Infections including the common cold/influenza and other bacteria/viruses were commonly perceived causes of throat discomfort (72% and 46%, respectively. Physical and environmental factors were also perceived to be causative, including airborne pollution (28%, smoking (23%, and air conditioning (31%. Symptoms perceived to be caused by an infection were associated with a higher degree of suffering (mean degree of suffering for bacteria/virus and common cold/influenza; 3.4 and 3.0, respectively. Medicinal products were used for all perceived causes, but more
Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.
This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de
Tao, Lu-Qi; Tian, He; Liu, Ying; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Yan, Jun-Chao; Deng, Ning-Qin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling
Traditional sound sources and sound detectors are usually independent and discrete in the human hearing range. To minimize the device size and integrate it with wearable electronics, there is an urgent requirement of realizing the functional integration of generating and detecting sound in a single device. Here we show an intelligent laser-induced graphene artificial throat, which can not only generate sound but also detect sound in a single device. More importantly, the intelligent artificial throat will significantly assist for the disabled, because the simple throat vibrations such as hum, cough and scream with different intensity or frequency from a mute person can be detected and converted into controllable sounds. Furthermore, the laser-induced graphene artificial throat has the advantage of one-step fabrication, high efficiency, excellent flexibility and low cost, and it will open practical applications in voice control, wearable electronics and many other areas.
Yong, Lengxob; Guo, Ruqing; Wright, Daniel S.; Mears, Samantha A.; Pierotti, Michele; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.
Background: In two stream-resident populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), females often exhibit male-typical red throat coloration. These fish inhabit the Little Campbell River (British Columbia) and Matadero Creek (California). An anadromous population that lacks such
Tao, Lu-Qi; Tian, He; Liu, Ying; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, Xiang-Guang; Yan, Jun-Chao; Deng, Ning-Qin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling
Traditional sound sources and sound detectors are usually independent and discrete in the human hearing range. To minimize the device size and integrate it with wearable electronics, there is an urgent requirement of realizing the functional integration of generating and detecting sound in a single device. Here we show an intelligent laser-induced graphene artificial throat, which can not only generate sound but also detect sound in a single device. More importantly, the intelligent artificial throat will significantly assist for the disabled, because the simple throat vibrations such as hum, cough and scream with different intensity or frequency from a mute person can be detected and converted into controllable sounds. Furthermore, the laser-induced graphene artificial throat has the advantage of one-step fabrication, high efficiency, excellent flexibility and low cost, and it will open practical applications in voice control, wearable electronics and many other areas.
Music is pervasive across human cultures and throughout times. Particularly, music serves great importance at social functions. Like many cultures’ use of music, throat singing or khöömei, the most distinguished aspect of Tuva’s music, contributes significantly to social communication, emotional expression, social bonding and religious rituals. Acknowledgment and consideration of current social cognitive findings of music may thus provide a better insight into the nature of throat singing. To...
Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN
An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.
Xiang, Junhui; Yin, Daiyin
In this paper, a method for determining the lower limit of flowing pore throat radius of the extra low permeability reservoir in the periphery of Changyuan Oil Fields is given. The capillary pressure curve is divided into linear type and concave type. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T2 spectrum is divided into 3 types: the left peak is greater than the right peak, the left peak is equal to the right one, and the left peak is smaller than the right one. The method for determining the lower limit of flowing pore throat radius is, first, converting the nuclear magnetic resonance T2 spectrum to the capillary pressure curve calculated, then fitting the capillary pressure curves measured by the constant speed mercury injection experiment and the capillary pressure curve calculated. After finding the relevant parameters, converting the horizontal axis of the NMR T2 spectra from relaxation time to pore throat radius, and the pore throat radius corresponding to the T2 cutoff value is the lower limit of the flowing pore throat radius. The lower limit of the flowing pore throat radius of the extra low permeability Fuyang Oil Reservoir in the periphery of Changyuan Oil Fields is about 0.68μm
In a solar vapor ejector refrigeration system, the solar heat supply may vary because of variations in solar irradiation intensity, making it difficult to maintain a steady generator temperature. To improve ejector performance, this study proposes a variable throat ejector (VTEJ) and analyzes its performance using CFD simulations. The following conclusions can be drawn. An ejector with a greater throat area and larger solar collector allows a wider operating range of generator temperatures, but may be overdesigned and expensive. Conversely, decreasing the throat area limits the operating range of generator temperatures. Thus the ejector with a fixed throat area may be unsuitable to use solar energy as a heat source. For a VTEJ, this study derives a curve-fitting relationship between the optimum throat area ratio and the operating temperatures. Using this relationship to adjust the throat area ratio, the ejector can consistently achieve optimal and stable performances under a varying solar heat supply. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.
Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana
Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (Ppain (n=128), after an average 4 days (Prelief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01785862. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald
In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.
The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)
Hoare, Karen J; Ward, Erin; Arroll, Bruce
AIM To examine national and international guidelines on sore throat management and subsequently, to explore the phenomenon of international medical graduates working in general and rural practice in New Zealand. METHOD Two separate systematic reviews were conducted that resulted in a contingent methodology. Contingent methodologies involve syntheses of data that are derived sequentially. The initial review for this study examined international sore throat guidelines and their key points. The results of this initial review resulted in the theory that international medical graduates may be unaware of the New Zealand specific sore throat guidelines and the problem of acute rheumatic fever in this country. The subsequent review examined the phenomenon of international medical graduates working in general or rural practice in New Zealand. Data sources were Medline, Google Scholar, Trip Database, and NHS Evidence, Embase and Scopus. Electronic databases were searched for relevant data published January 2000-December 2013. Additional hand searches found key references from articles and websites. RESULTS International guidelines for the management of sore throats differ from New Zealand guidelines. Of resource rich countries, New Zealand has the second highest number of international medical graduates: they may not use New Zealand specific sore throat guidelines. DISCUSSION Acute rheumatic fever is virtually eradicated in most resource rich countries. Rheumatic fever rates of among indigenous Māori and Pacifika people in New Zealand have failed to reduce over the last three decades. Knowledge and actions of international medical graduates in relation to sore throat management needs investigating. KEYWORDS Sore throats; acute rheumatic fever; clinical guidelines; international medical graduates; mixed methods review.
from falls, cuts, burns, road crashes, assaults (physical, including sexual), blunt injury, poisoning, drowning and near-drowning, gunshots, human or animal bites and nonspecific causes.3. Each patient was assessed and data on age, sex, social class, cause of injury, site of injury, symptoms and signs, radiological and other ...
Taylor, Lewis A., III
An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…
Álvaro José Villafañe-Trujillo
Full Text Available The importance of identifying individuals of a population has been extensively documented in several species of carnivores, including some species of mustelids. This information is used in many kinds of ecological studies including density estimation, behavioral ecology and analyses of animal movement patterns. The objective of the present study was to determine if individual variation in the throat patches of Tayra (Eira barbara permits individual identification. We examined 275 specimens from museum collections to determine the morphological variation of the throat patch in Eira barbara specimens collected throughout its distribution. We found differences in the shape and size of the throat patches significant enough to allow discrimination of individuals that display a throat patch (88.0% of 252 complete specimens. The proposed identification criterion was applied to photographic records obtained from a wild population using camera traps in the Peruvian Amazon. From nineteen images (54.0% of all images in which the throat patch was visible, nine different individuals were identified and two of these were recaptured on multiple occasions.
H. L. Yang
Full Text Available Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray or group D (treated with distilled water spray. Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p<0.001 and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p<0.001. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.
Williams, J G; Patel, Y
The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.
Suh, Hyoung Suk; Kang, Dong Hun; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup
The random shapes of pore throats in geomaterials hinder accurate estimation of capillary pressure, and conventional pore network models that simply use the Young-Laplace equation assuming circular pore throats overestimate the capillary pressure. As a solution to this problem that does not complicate the pore network model or slow its implementation, we propose a new morphological analysis method to correlate the capillary pressure at an irregular pore channel with its cross-sectional geometry using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and Mayer and Stowe-Princen theory. Geometry-based shape factors for pore throats are shown here to correlate strongly with the capillary pressure obtained by LB simulation. Water retention curves obtained by incorporating the morphological calibration into conventional pore network simulation and their correlative scheme agree well with experimental data. The suggested method is relevant to pore-scale processes such as geological CO2 sequestration, methane bubbling from wetlands, and enhanced carbon recovery.
Full Text Available Speech recorded from a throat microphone is robust to the surrounding noise, but sounds unnatural unlike the speech recorded from a close-speaking microphone. This paper addresses the issue of improving the perceptual quality of the throat microphone speech by mapping the speech spectra from the throat microphone to the close-speaking microphone. A neural network model is used to capture the speaker-dependent functional relationship between the feature vectors (cepstral coefficients of the two speech signals. A method is proposed to ensure the stability of the all-pole synthesis filter. Objective evaluations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed mapping scheme. The advantage of this method is that the model gives a smooth estimate of the spectra of the close-speaking microphone speech. No distortions are perceived in the reconstructed speech. This mapping technique is also used for bandwidth extension of telephone speech.
To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)
Schreurs, Mervin J.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Introduction: Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. Material and methods: 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°,
Perrin, J.; Tanis, G.
The aim of this study is to develop a new method for cutting metal components of nuclear power plants, which produces virtually no secondary waste. In this method, a controlled intergranular fissure is produced in a heated area of the component by the addition of a molten material which gives rise to the formation of brittle compounds. With the presence of molten metal, the material or alloys in which we have tension stresses can have a brittle intergranular failure. Generally the failure occurs in a defined temperature range. The tension stresses are created by the thermal gradient induced during the local heating. At the same time, the molten metal is added. Our work has been developed in two directions: Study on the maximum thickness (presently it is potentially possible to cut thick sheets up to 100 mm); dismantling of nuclear parts as tubes, cans, hot cell walls (we are on the beginning of the development in this field of work). (author)
Ortiz, John P
A hospital that is seeking ways to cut costs without compromising care should resist the temptation to lay off staff and instead make it a priority to improve efficiencies. This approach requires a formal program to identify and analyze all of the hospital's processes. The focus of the analysis should be to determine which activities are being performed efficiently, which are being performed inefficiently, and which are unnecessary. This effort will achieve the greatest success if it is customer-centric.
Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.
Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)
Olsen, Flemming Ove
In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....
M. I. Petrovskaya
Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.
T. A. Grechukha
Full Text Available Sore throat is a frequent complaint of children. Another aspect considered in this article is the issue of untimely and groundless prescription of antibacterial therapy to children, as it may result both in allergic reactions and toxic effect on the body in whole. Children of all age groups are rather sensitive to pain. In case of an acute complaint, there must be an effective drug, which may safely be used in children. The article examines various pharmaceutical forms of drugs for sore throat treatment and appraises their advantages, disadvantages and usability in children over 5 years of age in detail.
Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal
The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...
Kelly, Gerard W
Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.
Dougherty, Thomas J
A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou
This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.
Conclusion: Throat wash, after removal of throat pack in nasal surgery, ensures clearer airway and decreases the risk of adverse respiratory events in immediate post-extubation period. The adverse sequel due to un-recognised debris in the upper airway is minimised resulting in smooth recovery and rapid discharge from the post-anaesthesia care unit.
long periods at a time (4%), training specifically for cricket (4%) and participating in various other sports (3%). ... and nature of injury patterns of South African international cricket players. Methods. A questionnaire was .... as upper-throat respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal infection and infection, from S1 (16%) to S2 ...
Nikoghosyan-Bossen, Gohar; Hauberg, Agnes; Homøe, Preben
The analysis of malpractice complaints can provide valuable information on patient safety. This study offers a detailed examination of the backgrounds concerning reasons and outcomes of ear, nose and throat (ENT) malpractice complaints handled by the National Board of Patients' Complaints (NBPC...
de Lange, J.; Ybema, A; Baas, E. M.
Lemierre's syndrome, a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, is a rare disorder, usually caused by the microorganism Fusobacterium necrophorum. Throat ache and swelling of the neck are often the first symptoms. Without adequate treatment, Lemierre's syndrome may result in thrombosis of the
Nikoghosyan-Bossen, Gohar; Hauberg, Agnes; Homøe, Preben
The analysis of malpractice complaints can provide valuable information on patient safety. This study offers a detailed examination of the backgrounds concerning reasons and outcomes of ear, nose and throat (ENT) malpractice complaints handled by the National Board of Patients' Complaints (NBPC),...
Nikoghosyan-Bossen, Gohar; Hauberg, Agnes; Homøe, Preben
Danish ear, nose and throat (ENT) physicians have little knowledge of the type of decisions made at the Danish National Board of Patients' Complaints (NBPC). The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiology of ENT malpractice complaints by showing their distribution and volume i...
Full Text Available Long core flow experiment was conducted to study problems like excessive injection pressure and effective lag of oil wells during the polymer flooding in Honggang reservoir in Jilin oilfield. According to the changes in viscosity and hydrodynamic dimensions before and after polymer solution was injected into porous media, the compatibility of polymer hydrodynamic dimension and the pore throat size was studied in this experiment. On the basis of the median of radius R of pore throats in rocks with different permeability, dynamic light scattering method (DLS was adopted to measure the hydrodynamic size Rh of polymer solution with different molecular weights. The results state that three kinds of 1500 mg/L concentration polymer solution with 2000 × 104, 1500 × 104, and 1000 × 104 molecular weight matched well with the pore throat in rocks with permeability of 300 mD, 180 mD, and 75 mD in sequence. In this case, the ratios of core pore throat radius median to the size of polymer molecular clew R/Rh are 6.16, 5.74, and 6.04. For Honggang oil reservoir in Jilin, when that ratio ranges from 5.5 to 6.0, the compatibility of polymer and the pore structure will be relatively better.
Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi
Among the various types of laryngeal paraesthesia suffered by chronic cough patients, we often encounter 'a sensation of irritation in the throat (SIT)'. Our study indicated that capsaicin cough threshold was significantly (P sensation. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.
Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs provide a practical, low-cost, flexible means of measuring open-channel flows in new and existing irrigation systems, with distinct advantages over other flume and weir devices. A primary advantage is the fact that these structures can be custom-designed ...
Nikoghosyan-Bossen, Gohar; Hauberg, Agnes; Homøe, Preben
Danish ear, nose and throat (ENT) physicians have little knowledge of the type of decisions made at the Danish National Board of Patients' Complaints (NBPC). The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiology of ENT malpractice complaints by showing their distribution and volume...
Objective: To study the pattern and indications for ophthalmic referral of patients with otorhinolaryngology problems. Method: A retrospective study of patients who were admitted into the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) ward of the University College Hospital, Ibadan and had ophthalmic referral between. July 2000 and June ...
Jones, Daniel R.; Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.
Second-throat diffusers serve to isolate rocket engines from the effects of ambient back pressure. As one of the nation's largest rocket testing facilities, the performance and design limitations of diffusers are of great interest to NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper describes a series of tests conducted on four diffuser configurations to better understand the effects of inlet geometry and throat area on starting behavior and boundary layer separation. The diffusers were tested for a duration of five seconds with a 1455-pound thrust, LO2/GH2 thruster to ensure they each reached aerodynamic steady state. The effects of a water spray ring at the diffuser exits and a water-cooled deflector plate were also evaluated. Static pressure and temperature measurements were taken at multiple axial locations along the diffusers, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were used as a tool to aid in the interpretation of data. The hot combustion products were confirmed to enable the diffuser start condition with tighter second throats than predicted by historical cold-flow data or the theoretical normal shock method. Both aerodynamic performance and heat transfer were found to increase with smaller diffuser throats. Spray ring and deflector cooling water had negligible impacts on diffuser boundary layer separation. CFD was found to accurately capture diffuser shock structures and full-flowing diffuser wall pressures, and the qualitative behavior of heat transfer. However, the ability to predict boundary layer separated flows was not consistent.
Background: Ear, nose and throat foreign bodies (FBs) are common occurrences particularly among children. This study reviewed the ... cations. Parental education on close monitoring of their children to avoid such incidences and the need to immediately seek ... suppurative otitis media and hearing loss6. FB impac-.
Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden
The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.
Olsen, Flemming Ove
Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....
Watson, Gillian; O'Hara, James; Carding, Paul; Lecouturier, Jan; Stocken, Deborah; Fouweather, Tony; Wilson, Janet
Persistent throat symptoms and Extra Oesophageal Reflux (EOR) are among the commonest reasons for attendance at a secondary care throat or voice clinic. There is a growing trend to treat throat symptom patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to suppress stomach acid, but most controlled studies fail to demonstrate a significant benefit of PPI over placebo. In addition, patient views on PPI use vary widely. A UK multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial for adults with persistent throat symptoms to compare the effectiveness of treatment with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole versus placebo. The trial includes a six-month internal pilot, during which three sites will recruit 30 participants in total, to assess the practicality of the trial and assess the study procedures and willingness of the patient population to participate. If the pilot is successful, three additional sites will be opened to recruitment, and a further 302 participants recruited across the six main trial sites. Further trial sites may be opened, as necessary. The main trial will continue for a further 18 months. Participants will be followed up for 12 months from randomisation, throughout which both primary and secondary outcome data will be collected. The primary outcome is change in Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) score, the 'area standard' for this type of assessment, after 16 weeks (four months) of treatment. Secondary outcomes are RSI changes at 12 months after randomisation, Quality of Life assessment at four and 12 months, laryngeal mucosal changes, assessments of compliance and side effects, and patient-reported satisfaction. TOPPITS is designed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of treatment with a proton pump inhibitor versus placebo in patients with persistent throat symptoms. This will provide valuable information to clinicians and GPs regarding the treatment and management of care for these patients, on changes in symptoms, and in Quality of Life, over time. ISRCTN
Hedin, Katarina; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Gröndal, Hedvig; Brorsson, Annika; Thulesius, Hans; André, Malin
To explore how a group of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with a sore throat in relation to current guidelines as expressed in interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse semi-structured interviews. Swedish primary care. A strategic sample of 25 GPs. Perceived management of sore throat patients. It was found that nine of the interviewed GPs were adherent to current guidelines for sore throat and 16 were non-adherent. The two groups differed in terms of guideline knowledge, which was shared within the team for adherent GPs while idiosyncratic knowledge dominated for the non-adherent GPs. Adherent GPs had no or low concerns for bacterial infections and differential diagnosis whilst non-adherent GPs believed that in patients with a sore throat any bacterial infection should be identified and treated with antibiotics. Patient history and examination was mainly targeted by adherent GPs whilst for non-adherent GPs it was often redundant. Non-adherent GPs reported problems getting patients to abstain from antibiotics, whilst no such problems were reported in adherent GPs. This interview study of sore throat management in a strategically sampled group of Swedish GPs showed that while two-thirds were non-adherent and had a liberal attitude to antibiotics one-third were guideline adherent with a restricted view on antibiotics. Non-adherent GPs revealed significant knowledge gaps. Adherent GPs had discussed guidelines within the primary care team while non-adherent GPs had not. Guideline implementation thus seemed to be promoted by knowledge shared in team discussions.
McCloskey, Sarah E.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Thomas F.
Identifying post-breeding migration and wintering distributions of migratory birds is important for understanding factors that may drive population dynamics. Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) are widely distributed across Alaska and currently have varying population trends, including some populations with recent periods of decline. To investigate population differentiation and the location of migration pathways and wintering areas, which may inform population trend patterns, we used satellite transmitters (n = 32) to describe migration patterns of four geographically separate breeding populations of Red-throated Loons in Alaska. On average (± SD) Red-throated Loons underwent long (6,288 ± 1,825 km) fall and spring migrations predominantly along coastlines. The most northern population (Arctic Coastal Plain) migrated westward to East Asia and traveled approximately 2,000 km farther to wintering sites than the three more southerly populations (Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Copper River Delta) which migrated south along the Pacific coast of North America. These migration paths are consistent with the hypothesis that Red-throated Loons from the Arctic Coastal Plain are exposed to contaminants in East Asia. The three more southerly breeding populations demonstrated a chain migration pattern in which the more northerly breeding populations generally wintered in more northerly latitudes. Collectively, the migration paths observed in this study demonstrate that some geographically distinct breeding populations overlap in wintering distribution while others use highly different wintering areas. Red-throated Loon population trends in Alaska may therefore be driven by a wide range of effects throughout the annual cycle.
Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.
This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting
De Chiffre, Leonardo
This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...
The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.
Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru
The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a
Dabkana, T M; Bunu, B; Na'aya, H U; Tela, U M; Adamu, A S
When there is an insurgency, the use of force in the form of weaponry, is employed. This may lead to the total breakdown of law and order, resulting in destruction of life and property. Health workers may be killed or captured, and, health facilities destroyed or stretched beyond their functional capacity. This is a report of experience with injuries seen in a tertiary hospital in north eastern Nigeria, under an insurgency situation. After obtaining clearance from the medical Ethics Committee of UMTH, we reviewed the case files of all patients treated for injuries sustained as a result of the Boko Haram insurgency from January 2009 to December 2013. Those brought in dead, were not included in the study. We reviewed the case files, theatre notes, admission and discharge registers of 1339 cases. 1223 (91.3%) of the victims were males, while 116 (8.7%) were females. Gunshot wounds accounted for 1229 (91.8%) of the injuries, bomb blast 90 (6.7%), others 15 (1.1%) knife (Cut throat) 4 (0.3%) and road traffic accident 1 (0.01%). Casualties were made up of civilians 1144 (85.4%), the joint task force (a force made up of the Military, Police, Customs and Immigration, against the insurgents) 117 (8.7%), and insurgents 22 (1.6%). The ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 80 years, peaking at the 21-40 age brackets (796 or 59.4%). The extremities were most affected, 734 (54.8%), followed by the torso 423 (31.6%), multiple injuries 93 (6.9%) and head and neck 89 (6.6%). 1226 (91.6%) of the victims survived while 113 (8.4%) died from their injuries. This followed massive blood loss from injuries to the torso 69 (61.1%) multiple injuries 15 (13.3) and extremities 6 (5.3%). Others causes were fatal injuries to the head and neck 22 (19.5%) and 90% burns following bomb blast 1 (0.9%). Injuries resulting from insurgency will continue to be a problem in many developing countries because their health facilities in terms of personnel and materials are ill prepared for such a situation .
Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.
This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…
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Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David
We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...
Delaney, Kevin J; Higley, Leon G
One type of specialised herbivory receiving little study even though its importance has frequently been mentioned is vein cutting. We examined how injury to a leaf's midrib vein impairs gas exchange, whether impairment occurs downstream or upstream from injury, duration of impairment, compared the severity of midrib injury with non-midrib defoliation, and modelled how these two leaf injuries affect whole-leaf photosynthesis. Leaf gas exchange response to midrib injury was measured in five Asclepiadaceae (milkweed), one Apocynaceae (dogbane), one Polygonaceae and one Fabaceae species, which have been observed or reported to have midrib vein cutting injury in their habitats. Midrib vein injury impaired several leaf gas exchange parameters, but only downstream (distal) from the injury location. The degree of gas exchange impairment from midrib injury was usually more severe than from manually imposed and actual insect defoliation (non-midrib), where partial recovery occurred after 28 d in one milkweed species. Non-midrib tissue defoliation reduced whole-leaf photosynthetic activity mostly by removing photosynthetically active tissue, while midrib injury was most severe as the injury location came closer to the petiole. Midrib vein cutting has been suggested to have evolved as a countermeasure to deactivate induced leaf latex or cardenolide defences of milkweeds and dogbanes, yet vein cutting effects on leaf physiology seem more severe than the non-midrib defoliation the defences evolved to deter.
Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali
Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.
Kholy, A E; Facklam, R; Sabri, G; Rotta, J
The use of a microtechnique (modified nitrous acid extraction) to test samples from 150 school children and from patients with acute follicular tonsillitis has indicated that group A streptococci in the throat can be identified from tonsillar scrapings in 30 min. The results are comparable to the grouping results obtained by standard throat culture techniques and the Lancefield procedure for grouping. No cross-reaction with other bacteria or cellular material occurs. Study has also shown that the nitrous acid extraction yields three- to fourfold more polysaccharides than the Lancefield hot-HCl of Fuller formamide techniques. The use of the microtechnique leads to another 20-fold concentration of the antigen. Immune salting-out effect could be obtained with 1.00 M sodium acetate. Such molarity is too low to cause nonspecific slating out. It leads to a strong ampliciation of the precipitin reaction.
Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani
The seemingly regular and continuous motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media at the macroscopic scale is propelled by numerous (largely invisible) pore-scale abrupt interfacial jumps and pressure bursts. Fluid fronts in porous media are characterized by sharp phase discontinuities and by rapid pore-scale dynamics that underlie their motion; both attributes challenge standard continuum theories of these flow processes. Moreover, details of pore-scale dynamics affect front morphology and subsequent phase entrapment behind a front and thereby shape key macroscopic transport properties of the unsaturated zone. The study presents a pore-throat network model that focuses on quantifying interfacial dynamics and interactions along fluid displacement fronts. The porous medium is represented by a lattice of connected pore throats capable of detaining menisci and giving rise to fluid-fluid interfacial jumps (the study focuses on flow rate controlled drainage). For each meniscus along the displacement front we formulate a local inertial, capillary, viscous, and hydrostatic force balance that is then solved simultaneously for the entire front. The model enables systematic evaluation of the role of inertia and boundary conditions. Results show that while displacement patterns are affected by inertial forces mainly by invasion of throats with higher capillary resistance, phase entrapment (residual saturation) is largely unaffected by inertia, limiting inertial effects on hydrological properties behind a front. Interfacial jump velocities are often an order of magnitude larger than mean front velocity, are strongly dependent on geometrical throat dimensions, and become less predictable (more scattered) when inertia is considered. Model simulations of the distributions of capillary pressure fluctuations and waiting times between invasion events follow an exponential distribution and are in good agreement with experimental results. The modeling approach provides insights
Zinzow-Kramer, Wendy M.; Horton, Brent M.; McKee, Clifton D.; Michaud, Justin M.; Tharp, Gregory K.; Thomas, James W.; Tuttle, Elaina M.; Yi, Soojin; Maney, Donna L.
The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression, and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2m), are therefore of potential interest toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To...
Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.
A large part of the Tore Supra programme is devoted to plasma edge studies. Two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pumps limiters and the ergodic divertor. The goal of the present paper is to investigate the effect of the pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency. We present also the possibilities of the ergodic divertor device to facilitate plasma pumping and power exhaust
Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A
Prevalence of the symptom of food 'sticking' during swallowing has been reported to range from 5 to 50%, depending on the assessment setting. However, limited objective evidence has emerged to clarify factors that contribute to this symptom. Three hundred and fifteen patient records from an outpatient dysphagia clinic were reviewed to identify patients with symptoms of 'food sticking in the throat.' Corresponding videofluoroscopic swallowing studies for patients with this complaint were reviewed for the following variables: accuracy of symptom localization, identification and characteristics (anatomic, physiologic) of an explanatory cause for the symptom, and the specific swallowed material that identified the explanatory cause. One hundred and forty one patients (45%) were identified with a complaint of food 'sticking' in their throat during swallowing. Prevalence of explanatory findings on fluoroscopy was 76% (107/141). Eighty five percent (91/107) of explanatory causes were physiologic in nature, while 15% (16/107) were anatomic. The majority of explanatory causes were identified in the esophagus (71%). Symptom localization was more accurate when the explanatory cause was anatomic versus physiologic (75 vs. 18%). A non-masticated marshmallow presented with the highest diagnostic yield in identification of explanatory causes (71%). Patients complaining of 'food sticking in the throat' are likely to present with esophageal irregularities. Thus, imaging studies of swallowing function should include the esophagus. A range of materials, including a non-masticated marshmallow, is helpful in determining the location and characteristics of swallowing deficits contributing to this symptom.
Lakhe, Gajal; Sharma, Surendra Mohan
The use of nitrous oxide and carboperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy lead to increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure. It may impair tracheal mucosal perfusion with subsequent tracheal damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cuff pressure and incidence of post-operative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this prospective observational study, 128 patients aged 18-65 years of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled and allocated alternately into two groups, Study Group (Maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane 1-2%, oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture; 40/60), Control Group (Maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane 1-2%, oxygen/air mixture; 40/60) were analysed and comapared. Each group contained 64 patients. Aneroid manometer was used to monitor cuff pressure. Volume of air used to inflate the cuff, baseline cuff pressure, comparison of intraoperative cuff pressure and incidence of post-operative sore throat were measured. The study results demonstrated higher cuff pressure in study group at all times after the creation of carboperitoneum (p=0.00) with increased incidence of sore throat(p=0.004). Increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure was noted with the use of nitrous oxide in laparoscopic cholecystectomy with subsequent post-operative airway complication. Monitoring of cuff pressure is simple, noninvasive and efficient way of achieving therapeutic cuff pressure of 20-30 cm of H2O and thus recommends its use.
Full Text Available Music is pervasive across human cultures and throughout times. Particularly, music serves great importance at social functions. Like many cultures’ use of music, throat singing or khöömei, the most distinguished aspect of Tuva’s music, contributes significantly to social communication, emotional expression, social bonding and religious rituals. Acknowledgment and consideration of current social cognitive findings of music may thus provide a better insight into the nature of throat singing. To date, evidence has indicated that similar to language, music is a fundamental channel of communication, and these two constructs may have common origins in a single communicative system. Moreover, music may modulate neural activity in the brain structures associated with emotions and alter our autonomic responses. In addition to information sharing, music thus has the capacity to convey emotions. This ability may further render music a powerful mechanism to facilitate social bonding and ritual practice, as individuals’ internal states during these social events become synchronized through musical engagement. In conclusion, I suggest that those social cognitive perspectives may point toward new directions for a continuing discourse on our understanding of throat singing.
Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y
The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.
This article reports on the development of the cost effective abrasive cutting Sabre system which came as a result of UWG's work on the decommissioning of the Phillips' Maureen wells and adds to UWG's 'total severance solution' tools. The advantages of the system are highlighted and include the ability to operate from a platform or diving support vessel, to cut internal cases, and to eliminate the use of environmentally damaging explosives and the need to operate from a rig. The new Mark II version of the Sabre designed to work at greater depths of water, the range of the severance tools, UWG's well abandonment hole assembly system, and its aim to enter the Gulf of Mexico market are discussed. Details are given of the decommissioning of the Schwedeneck-See platforms in Kiel Bay off Germany and the Phillips' UK decommissioning plans for the Maureen platform
Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu
ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.
James, C. Roger; Sizer, Phillip S.; Starch, David W.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Slauterbeck, James
Women are more prone to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during cutting sports than men. The purpose of this study was to examine knee kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) differences between genders during cutting. Male and female athletes performed cutting trials while force platform and video data were recorded (180 Hz).…
Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington
This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.
Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.
Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.
Xu, R.; Prodanovic, M.
Due to the low porosity and permeability of tight porous media, hydrocarbon productivity strongly depends on the pore structure. Effective characterization of pore/throat sizes and reconstruction of their connectivity in tight porous media remains challenging. Having a representative pore throat network, however, is valuable for calculation of other petrophysical properties such as permeability, which is time-consuming and costly to obtain by experimental measurements. Due to a wide range of length scales encountered, a combination of experimental methods is usually required to obtain a comprehensive picture of the pore-body and pore-throat size distributions. In this work, we combine mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements by percolation theory to derive pore-body size distribution, following the work by Daigle et al. (2015). However, in their work, the actual pore-throat sizes and the distribution of coordination numbers are not well-defined. To compensate for that, we build a 3D unstructured two-scale pore throat network model initialized by the measured porosity and the calculated pore-body size distributions, with a tunable pore-throat size and coordination number distribution, which we further determine by matching the capillary pressure vs. saturation curve from MICP measurement, based on the fact that the mercury intrusion process is controlled by both the pore/throat size distributions and the connectivity of the pore system. We validate our model by characterizing several core samples from tight Middle East carbonate, and use the network model to predict the apparent permeability of the samples under single phase fluid flow condition. Results show that the permeability we get is in reasonable agreement with the Coreval experimental measurements. The pore throat network we get can be used to further calculate relative permeability curves and simulate multiphase flow behavior, which will provide valuable
The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...
Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus
In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.
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... to the correct person. Usually, a written or electronic requisition form listing the health practitioner's name and address (in addition to the patient's information) is sent with the sample so the ...
Piltch, Martin S.
Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.
Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi
We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test
This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.
This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.
Kjær, Tina; Lillelund, Christoffer Bredo; Moth-Poulsen, Mie
The advent of affordable virtual reality (VR) displays and 360◦ video cameras has sparked an interest in bringing cinematic experiences from the screen and into VR. However, it remains uncertain whether traditional approaches to filmmaking can be directly applied to cinematic VR. Historically......’ sense of disorientation and their ability to follow the story, during exposure to fictional 360◦ films experienced using a head-mounted display. The results revealed no effects of increased cut frequency which leads us to conclude that editing need not pose a problem in relation to cinematic VR, as long...
Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pknee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pKnee flexion moment decreased for both sexes when cutting towards sharper angles (pknee valgus moments than females. For both sexes, knee valgus moment increased towards the sharper cutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pknee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non technical language many o...
For standard leptogenesis from the decay of singlet right-handed neutrinos, we derive source terms for the lepton asymmetry that are present in a finite density background but absent in the vacuum. These arise from cuts through the vertex correction to the decay asymmetry, where in the loop either the Higgs boson and the right-handed neutrino or the left-handed lepton and the right-handed neutrino are simultaneously on-shell. We evaluate the source terms numerically and use them to calculate the lepton asymmetry for illustrative points in parameter space, where we consider only two right-handed neutrinos for simplicity. Compared to calculations where only the standard cut through the propagators of left-handed lepton and Higgs boson is included, sizable corrections arise when the masses of the right-handed neutrinos are of the same order, but the new sources are found to be most relevant when the decaying right-handed neutrino is heavier than the one in the loop. In that situation, they can yield the dominant contribution to the lepton asymmetry.
... care include strep throat, bladder infection, or a dog bite. You will save both time and money ... health services. www.healthcare.gov/coverage/preventive-care-benefits . Accessed October 18, 2016. U.S. Preventive Services Taskforce ...
Smarius, B J A; Guillaume, C H A L; Jonker, G; van der Molen, A B Mink; Breugem, C C
Throat packs are commonly used to prevent ingestion or aspiration of blood and other debris during cleft lip/palate surgery. However, dislodgement or (partial) retainment after extubation could have serious consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of omitting pharyngeal packing during cleft lip/palate surgery on the incidence of early postoperative complications in children. A retrospective study was performed on all children who underwent cleft lip/palate surgery at the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital. This study compared the period January 2010 through December 2012 when pharyngeal packing was applied according to local protocol (group A) with the period January 2013 till December 2015 when pharyngeal packing was no longer applied after removal from the protocol (group B). Data were collected for sex, age at operation, cleft lip/palate type, type of repair, lateral incisions, length of hospital stay, and complications in the first 6 weeks after surgery. Early complications included wound dehiscence, postoperative bleeding, infection, fever, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). This study included 489 cleft lip/palate operations (group A n = 246, group B n = 243). A total of 39 (15.9%) early complications were recorded in group A and a total of 40 (16.5%) in group B. There were no significant differences (P = 0.902) in complications between the two groups; however, there was a significant difference (P cleft lip/palate surgery was not associated with an increased early postoperative complication rate. Therefore, the traditional, routine placement of a throat pack during cleft lip/palate surgery can be questioned. The traditional, routine placement of a throat pack during cleft lip/palate surgery can be questioned.
Full Text Available Yolk coelomitis as a result of pre-ovulatory follicular stasis is a common disorder in captive reptiles, especially in captive lizards of various genera. The clinical signs are generally fairly non-specific and diagnosis is based on clinical signs together with most of the common diagnostic modalities. The condition is most likely a husbandry and environment-related reproductive disorder. It has not been reported in wild free-living specimens. This report describes the clinical presentation and post mortem lesions in a white-throated monitor lizard that died during treatment for non-specific clinical signs related to a severe yolk coelomitis.
Necrosis cutánea severa por picadura de raya en el miembro inferior: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Stingray injury causing severe cutaneous necrosis: case report and literature review
M.A. Hoyos Franco
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es presentar nuestra experiencia con un caso de picadura por raya en el área maleolar interna del pie derecho de un hombre de 25 años, que sufrió mientras pescaba. Inicialmente presentó dolor urente, seguido de edema severo, con necrosis de la piel suprayacente. Ingresa a nuestra institución 24 horas después y con edema, eritema y secreción purulenta en el sitio afectado. Se inicia tratamiento con antibióticos sistémicos y se realizan tres lavados y desbridamientos en días subsecuentes. Evolucionó con solución de continuidad y exposición ósea sobre el maléolo interno en un área de 7 x 5 cms que se cubrió con un colgajo safeno interno de flujo reverso que evolucionó satisfactoriamente. Las lesiones ocasionadas por la picadura de raya (Myliobatidae son escasamente referidas en Cirugía Plástica, pues la lesión tisular severa de las extremidades es poco frecuente. Revisamos la fisiopatología, los tipos de lesiones que se producen y los principios de tratamiento.The purpose of this paper is to present our experience with one case of stingray injury, in a 25 years old man, while he was fishing, compromising his right feet at the internal malleolus. At the beginning he had severe pain, and during the first hours after the accident progressive edema was evident. He arrived to our hospital 24 hours later, when purulent discharge and eritem was obvious. Intravenous antibiotics were initiated and three surgical debridements where performed during the following week. After the process was complete, a soft tissue defect was created on the internal malleolus (7 x 5 cm. Reconstruction was achieved using a reverse internal saphenous flap that evolved satisfactorily. Severe skin injuries caused by stingrays (Myliobatidae have been reported shortly in plastic surgery literature, because these lesions usually heal without surgical procedures. We review skin injury physiopathology, showing the different kind of
Hodge, Graeme A.; Boulot, Emille; Duffield, Colin
- to long-term governance arrangements. It finds that although industry interviewees agreed PPP governance had improved significantly, they had differing views on how capable Australian states were in governing PPP and how well this task was being undertaken. They were also split on the adequacy......Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising...... in the medium to long term of PPP concession contracts and explores these governance challenges through interviews with high-level PPP industry insiders. The paper presents new findings on the importance of good public administration for successful PPP operation, and on the interesting evolution of medium...
After having recalled the interest of cut-off practices when consumption is higher than production (a cut-off operator turns out some sources of consumption), this publication more particularly addresses the practice of cut-off in the residential sector, also called diffused cut-off. This practice is based on a temporary reduction of electricity consumption in a great number of small sites (for example, a brief interruption of the electricity supply of radiators, hot water tanks, air conditioning devices in dwellings to reduce the total demand of an area). The three main modalities of valorisation of this cut-off power by the operator are presented. Advantages and drawbacks are discussed, and more particularly the impact of cut-off on thermal comfort
Schmutz, Joel A., E-mail: email@example.com [U.S. Geological Survey, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Trust, Kimberly A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, AK 99503 (United States); Matz, Angela C., E-mail: email@example.com [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 101 12th Avenue, Room 110, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States)
Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds. - Winter exposure to PCBs in Asia results in high TEQs in eggs of loons breeding in northern Alaska, USA.
Schmutz, J.A.; Trust, K.A.; Matz, A.C.
Red-throated loons (Gavia stellata) breeding in Alaska declined 53% during 1977-1993. We compare concentrations of environmental contaminants in red-throated loons among four nesting areas in Alaska and discuss potential ramifications of exposure on reproductive success and population trends. Eggs from the four areas had similar total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations, but eggs from the Arctic coastal plain had different congener profiles and greater toxic equivalents (TEQs) than eggs from elsewhere. Satellite telemetry data indicate that red-throated loons from the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska winter in southeast Asia, while those breeding elsewhere in Alaska winter in North America. Different wintering areas may lead to differential PCB accumulation among red-throated loon populations. For eggs from the Arctic coastal plain, TEQs were great enough to postulate PCB-associated reproductive effects in piscivores. The correlation between migration patterns and PCB profiles suggests that red-throated loons breeding in northern Alaska are exposed to PCBs while on their Asian wintering grounds.
Dudkin, A.Yu.; Matveev, I.V.; Cheremisin, S.M.
Electrolyte with high electric current localization, containing 1-3 % KOH and 2-10 % NH 3 , is suggested to use for electrochemical cutting of tungsten. A cutting device is described which includes a cathode feed mechanism based on electric heating and a circuit of automatic control of an interelectrode gap. Laue patterns obtained from a cut surface are practically the same as ones from the initial monocrystal
Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting
Ruggera, R.A.; Martin, T.E.
We provide details on the breeding biology of the Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) from 126 nests found during seven breeding seasons, 2002-2008, at Yacamb?? National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest and incubated the eggs. Males rarely visited the nest during these stages. Mean clutch size (2.1 ?? 0.04 eggs, n = 93) was the smallest recorded for the Slate-throated Whitestart. Incubation and nestling period lengths were 15.3 ?? 0.31 (n = 21) and 10.8 ?? 0.24 (n = 7) days, respectively. Attentiveness (% of time on the nest) during incubation (59 ?? 1.6%, n = 52) was similar to other tropical warblers and much lower than northern relatives. This caused a relatively low egg temperature (34.40 ?? 0.33u C, n = ?? nests, 20 days) compared with north temperate birds. Both parents fed nestlings and increased their provisioning rates with nestling age. Growth rate based on nestling mass (k = 0.521 ?? 0.015) was faster than for other tropical passerines but slower than northern relatives. Predation was the main cause of nesting failure and rate of predation increased with age of the nest. An estimated 15% of nests were successful based on an overall Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.053 ?? 0.007. This study confirms a strong latitudinal variation in life history traits of warblers. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.
Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B
In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Cascales, J.F.G.; Garcia del Moral, M.P.; Quevedo, F.; Uranga, A.
We describe the construction of string theory models with semirealistic spectrum in a sector of (anti) D3-branes located at an orbifold singularity at the bottom of a highly warped throat geometry, which is a generalisation of the Klebanov-Strassler deformed conifold. These models realise the Randall-Sundrum proposal to naturally generate the Planck/electroweak hierarchy in a concrete string theory embedding, and yielding interesting chiral open string spectra. We describe examples with Standard Model gauge group (or left-right symmetric extensions) and three families of SM fermions, with correct quantum numbers including hypercharge. The dilaton and complex structure moduli of the geometry are stabilised by the 3-form fluxes required to build the throat. We describe diverse issues concerning the stabilisation of geometric Kahler moduli, like blow-up modes of the orbifold singularities, via D term potentials and gauge theory non-perturbative effects, like gaugino condensation. This local geometry, once embedded in a full compactification, could give rise to models with all moduli stabilised, and with the potential to lead to de Sitter vacua. Issues of gauge unification, proton stability, supersymmetry breaking and Yukawa couplings are also discussed. (author)
Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T
Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yizhou Zhong; Yun Pan; Ling Zhang; Kwang-Ting Cheng
This paper presents a wearable signal acquisition system, which can measure physiological signs, i.e., electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The system is comprised of two parts: (1) an ECG sensor implemented in the master board which will be mounted on the chest and, (2) a combined PPG and motion sensor implemented in the slave board which will be worn around the neck area. The single-lead ECG, the single-channel PPG, and the 3-channel accelerometer signals are all sampled at 200Hz, and transmitted to an Android app through Bluetooth® low energy (BLE) in real time. The system is powered by a 3.7V lithium polymer battery, with an average current consumption of 10mA. In addition to giving an overview of the system design and implementation decisions, we summarize the finding of a PPG test region study based on our system, which indicates that the highest PPG stability is in the mid-throat region over the thyroid gland, and the PPG in the lower throat region is an excellent choice for respiration rate extraction with an average error less than 5%. With the assistance of the motion sensor, an obvious swallow motion can also be easily identified.
Hardtke, A.; Finken, K.H.; Reiter, D.; Dippel, K.H.; Goebel, D.M.; McGrath, R.T.; Sagara, A.
On the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I conductance measurements for the backstreaming of gas from the pump limiter vessel through the pump limiter entrance have been performed. In these experiments neutral gas has been injected into the pump limiter plenum during a short pulse. The influence of the instreaming plasma results in a reduction of the conductance of the outstreaming gas. For helium the conductance is reduced to about 40% of the molecular conductance when a plasma flux of 0.8 A/cm 2 (T e =T i =11 eV) is streaming into the pump limiter throat. The reduction of the conductance for backstreaming hydrogen and deuterium under the same plasma conditions is smaller; about 70% of the molecular conductance is obtained. This reduction can be explained by an increased recycling of ions which have been produced in the throat back to the neutralizer plate. The experimental results can be reproduced by Monte Carlo neutral transport code calculations if the recycling coefficient is about 0.85 for hydrogen and deuterium and about 0.95 for helium ions. Processes causing these high recycling coefficients are discussed and their influence is estimated. (orig.)
Nayek, Kuntal, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Roy, Shibaji, E-mail: email@example.com
Recently it has been shown by us that, like BPS Dp branes, bulk gravity gets decoupled from the brane even for the non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories indicating a possible extension of AdS/CFT correspondence for the non-supersymmetric case. In that work, the decoupling of gravity on the non-susy Dp branes has been shown numerically for the general case as well as analytically for some special case. Here we discuss the decoupling limit and the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane when the charge associated with the brane is very large. We show that in the decoupling limit the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane, under appropriate coordinate change, reduces to the Constable–Myers solution and thus confirming that this solution is indeed the holographic dual of a (non-gravitational) gauge theory discussed there. We also show that when one of the parameters of the solution takes a specific value, it reduces, under another coordinate change, to the five-dimensional solution obtained by Csaki and Reece, again confirming its gauge theory interpretation.
Comparative analysis of the quality of life of patients with discoid lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus with skin injuries Análise comparativa da qualidade de vida de pacientes portadores de lúpus eritematoso discóide e lúpus eritematoso sistêmico com lesões cutâneas
Priscila Reis Martins
Full Text Available Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with cutaneous and vascular lesions. Both discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE and systemic lupus (SLE affect the skin. Visible skin lesions in young women can cause loss of self esteem. In the present study we aimed to evaluate and compare the quality of life in SLE and LED through an observational study of 64 patients. These patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: SLE (n = 38; group 2: DLE (n = 26 and then completed the quality of life questionnaire - Dermatology Life Quality Index or DLQI. It was found that patients with DLE have a worse quality of life than patients with SLE. It is believed that this fact is generated by the difference in the spectrum of injuries.Lúpus eritematoso é uma doença auto-imune de etiologia desconhecida, com lesões cutâneovasculares. Tanto o Lúpus Eritematoso Discóide (LED como o Sistêmico (LES acometem a pele. Lesões cutâneas visíveis em mulheres jovens podem causar perda de auto estima. No presente estudo procurou-se avaliar e comparar a qualidade de vida em 64 pacientes com LED e LES através de um estudo observacional. Esses pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo 1: LES (n=38; grupo 2: LED (n=26. A seguir aplicou-se o questionário de qualidade de vida - Dermatology Life Quality Índex ou DLQI. Verificou-se que pacientes com LED têm pior qualidade de vida que pacientes com LES Acredita-se que este fato seja gerado pela diferença no espectro de suas lesões.
Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx manifested with pain or discomfort in the throat, is a frequent pathology in children. Traditionally, patients with acute and exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis are prescribed gargarism. In recent years, the use of sea water-based throat sprays have been allowed for irrigation therapy. Their use as part of the complex treatment of inflammatory oropharynx diseases statistically reliably decreases the intensity of pain reaction on the 10th–24th day of treatment compared to conventional gargarism and is comparable with conventional therapy when assessing other clinical symptoms. It is therefore possible to recommend using sea water-based substance as a initial means of irrigation therapy in the complex treatment of inflammatory oropharynx diseases in children.Key words: pharyngitis, tonsillitis, throat pain, irrigation therapy, children.
Full Text Available Post-operative sore throat is one of the most common complications and complaints of patients after general anesthesia especially in operations that need endotracheal intubations. Its causes are: size of endotracheal tube and type of its cuff, inadequate airway humidification, trauma during intubation and suctioning, high flow of inspiratory gases, surgical manipulation of airway and adjacent organs, ect. Use of instruments with less invasion to upper respiratory tract, for example, face mask and airway, LMA or CPT are methods, used for decreasing the rate of post-operative sore throat. This study was performed to compare the rate of sore throat after general anesthesia between Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA and Cuffed Pharyngeal Tube (CPT. From the patients, 120 ASA: PS-I cases, were selected, who were candidates for elective surgery of Orthopedics, Urology, General surgery and Gynecology in Hazrat Rasool-Akram Hospital Complex in the year 2000. Their operation were performed in supine position and did not need muscle relaxation and the patients had spontaneous breathing. Duration of surgery was less than 2 hours. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: LMA was used for one group and CPT for others. Immediately after operation, in the recovery room and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after removing the tube, the patients were asked about sore throat and the results were recorded in the related sheets. The results was 31.7 percent of patients in group LMA and 0 percent of patients in group CPT, had sore throat. There were significant difference between groups (LMA and CPT in presentation of sore throat (P<0.001.
Yoshida, Naruto; Kunugi, Shun; Mashimo, Sonoko; Okuma, Yoshihiro; Masunari, Akihiko; Miyazaki, Shogo; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Miyakawa, Shumpei
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different strike forms, during cutting, on knee joint angle and lower limb muscle activity. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity in individuals performing cutting manoeuvres involving either rearfoot strikes (RFS) or forefoot strikes (FFS). Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate changes in knee angles, during cutting, and to determine the relationship between muscle activity and knee joint angle. Force plates were synchronized with electromyography measurements to compare muscle activity immediately before and after foot strike. The valgus angle tends to be smaller during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Just prior to ground contact, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was greater during RFS cutting. Immediately after ground contact, biceps femoris and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle activities were significantly greater during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting; tibialis anterior muscle activity was significantly lower during FFS cutting. The results of the present study suggest that the hamstrings demonstrate greater activity, immediately after foot strike, during FFS cutting than during RFS cutting. Thus, FFS cutting may involve a lower risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than does RFS cutting.
Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references
Kristianslund, Eirik; Faul, Oliver; Bahr, Roald; Myklebust, Grethe; Krosshaug, Tron
Sidestep cutting technique is essential in programmes to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A better understanding of how technique affects potentially harmful joint loading may improve prevention programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sidestep cutting technique on maximum knee abduction moments. Cross-sectional study. Whole-body kinematics and knee joint kinetics were calculated in 123 female handball players (mean±SD, 22.5±7.0 years, 171±7 cm, 67±7 kg) performing sidestep cutting. Three cuts from each side were analysed. Linear regression was applied between selected technique factors and maximum knee abduction moment during the first 100 ms of the contact phase. Furthermore, we investigated to what degree the abduction moment originated from the magnitude of the ground reaction force (GRF) or the knee abduction moment arm of the GRF. Technique factors explained 62% of the variance in knee abduction moments. Cut width, knee valgus, toe landing, approach speed and cutting angle were the most significant predictors. An increase in one of these factors of 1 SD increased the knee abduction moment from 12% to 19%. The effect of the moment arm of the GRF was more important than the force magnitude for maximum knee abduction moments. Lower knee abduction loads during sidestep cutting may be achieved if cuts are performed as narrow cuts with low knee valgus and toe landings. These factors may be targeted in ACL injury prevention programmes.
Full Text Available The author, a practicing physician, was diagnosed with throat cancer and lost his vocal cords. He endured the side effects of radiation, repeated surgeries, and the effects of prolonged hospitalizations; confronted medical mistakes and discrimination after losing his vocal cords; and struggled to regain his speech and find new meaning and purpose for his life. Facing the hardship and trials of becoming a laryngectomee illustrated to him how dependent and helpless a patient can become. Being unable to speak, eat, and breathe normally, while dealing with a potentially terminal illness, makes the patient very vulnerable, both physically and emotionally. A skillful, competent, error-free, empathetic, and caring approach that recognizes what the patient is experiencing can expedite recovery and well-being and help the patient return to a productive and meaningful life.
Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese
This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...
Boiko, N V; Panchenko, S N
The objective of the present work was to carry out the virological and histological studies of various neoplastic and hyperplastic processes in the nose, ears, and throat with a view to identifying the presence of human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus. The brush biopsies and remote neoplasms obtained from 18 patients (including 2 children and 16 adults) presenting with various ENT diseases and tumours were available for the virological investigation with the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a system MY09-MY11 degenerate primers . The histological study of biopsies and remote neoplasms was carried out by means of conventional light microscopy. The virological and histological studies conducted in parallel confirmed the diagnostic significance of morphological changes at the tissue and cellular levels caused by the human papilloma virus.
Kunstatter, Gabor; Maeda, Hideki
Adopting the throat quantization pioneered by Louko and Mäkelä, we derive the mass and area spectra for the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black hole and its anti-de Sitter (AdS) generalization in arbitrary dimensions. We find that the system can be quantized exactly in three special cases: the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, toroidal black holes in any dimension, and five-dimensional Schwarzshild–Tangherlini(-AdS) black holes. For the remaining cases the spectra are obtained for large mass using the WKB approximation. For asymptotically flat black holes, the area/entropy has an equally spaced spectrum, as expected from previous work. In the asymptotically AdS case on the other hand, it is the mass spectrum that is equally spaced. Our exact results for the BTZ black hole mass with Dirichlet boundary conditions are consistent with the spectra of the corresponding operators in the dual CFT. (paper)
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Post-operative sore throat (POST occurs in 21-65% of patients. Ketamine used earlier as gargle for reducing POST has limitations. The aim of this study was to see if nebulised ketamine reduces POST. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomised, placebo-control, and double-blind controlled trial. After written informed consent, 100 patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II in the age group 20-60 years, of either sex undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia (GA were enrolled. Patients were randomised into two groups; group saline (S received saline nebulisation 5.0 ml and group ketamine (K received ketamine 50 mg (1.0 ml with 4.0 ml of saline nebulisation for 15 min. GA was induced 10 min after completion of nebulisation in the patients. The POST and haemodynamic monitoring were done pre-nebulization, pre-induction, on reaching post-anaesthesia care unit, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h post-operatively. POST was graded on a four-point scale (0-3. Results: The overall incidence of POST was 33%; 23 patients (46% in saline and 10 patients (20% in ketamine group experienced POST (Fisher′s exact P = 0.01. The use of ketamine nebulization attenuated POST at 2 h and 4 h post-operatively (P < 0.05. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 h; 13 patients in group S versus 4 patients in group K (P = 0.03 experienced POST at 4 h. The moderate sore throat occurred in 6 patients in group S and none in group K at 2 h, post-operatively (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Ketamine nebulization significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of POST, especially in the early post-operative period, with no adverse effects.
Ahuja, Vanita; Mitra, Sukanya; Sarna, Rashi
Post-operative sore throat (POST) occurs in 21-65% of patients. Ketamine used earlier as gargle for reducing POST has limitations. The aim of this study was to see if nebulised ketamine reduces POST. We conducted a prospective, randomised, placebo-control, and double-blind controlled trial. After written informed consent, 100 patients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II in the age group 20-60 years, of either sex undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia (GA) were enrolled. Patients were randomised into two groups; group saline (S) received saline nebulisation 5.0 ml and group ketamine (K) received ketamine 50 mg (1.0 ml) with 4.0 ml of saline nebulisation for 15 min. GA was induced 10 min after completion of nebulisation in the patients. The POST and haemodynamic monitoring were done pre-nebulization, pre-induction, on reaching post-anaesthesia care unit, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h post-operatively. POST was graded on a four-point scale (0-3). The overall incidence of POST was 33%; 23 patients (46%) in saline and 10 patients (20%) in ketamine group experienced POST (Fisher's exact P = 0.01). The use of ketamine nebulization attenuated POST at 2 h and 4 h post-operatively (P < 0.05). The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 h; 13 patients in group S versus 4 patients in group K (P = 0.03) experienced POST at 4 h. The moderate sore throat occurred in 6 patients in group S and none in group K at 2 h, post-operatively (P = 0.02). Ketamine nebulization significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of POST, especially in the early post-operative period, with no adverse effects.
Delpech, Gastón; Sparo, Mónica; Baldaccini, Beatriz; Pourcel, Gisela; Lissarrague, Sabina; García Allende, Leonardo
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status. Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed for penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and clindamycin (disk diffusion). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for penicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The carriage of β-hemolytic streptococci was detected in 18.1% of participants, with Streptococcus pyogenes in 18 participants followed by S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis in 5. The highest proportion of GAS was found in 8 to 10-year-old children. No significant association between the number of episodes of acute pharyngitis suffered in the last year and the carrier state was detected ( p >0.05). Tetracycline resistance (55.5%) and macrolide-resistant phenotypes (11.1%) were observed. Resistance to penicillin, cefotaxime, or chloramphenicol was not expressed in any streptococcal isolate. The present study demonstrated significant throat carriage of GAS and the presence of group C streptococci ( S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis ) in an Argentinian rural population. These results point out the need for continuous surveillance of GAS and non-GAS carriage as well as of antimicrobial resistance in highly susceptible populations, such as school-aged rural children. An extended surveillance program including school-aged children from different cities should be considered to estimate the prevalence of GAS carriage in Argentina.
Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Horton, B M; McKee, C D; Michaud, J M; Tharp, G K; Thomas, J W; Tuttle, E M; Yi, S; Maney, D L
The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2(m) ), may therefore advance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To identify genes that are differentially expressed between the two morphs and correlated with behavior, we quantified gene expression and terrirorial aggression, including song, in a population of free-living white-throated sparrows. We analyzed gene expression in two brain regions, the medial amygdala (MeA) and hypothalamus. Both regions are part of a 'social behavior network', which is rich in steroid hormone receptors and previously linked with territorial behavior. Using weighted gene co-expression network analyses, we identified modules of genes that were correlated with both morph and singing behavior. The majority of these genes were located within the inversion, showing the profound effect of the inversion on the expression of genes captured by the rearrangement. These modules were enriched with genes related to retinoic acid signaling and basic cellular functioning. In the MeA, the most prominent pathways were those related to steroid hormone receptor activity. Within these pathways, the only gene encoding such a receptor was ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), a gene previously shown to predict song rate in this species. The set of candidate genes we identified may mediate the effects of a chromosomal inversion on territorial behavior. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat
Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395
Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.
An investigation has been conducted of the use of laser energy for cutting contours, diameters, and holes in flat and shaped Kevlar 49 fiber-reinforced epoxy laminates as an alternate to conventional machining. The investigation has shown that flat laminates 6.35 mm thick may be cut without backup by using a high-powered (1000-watt) continuous wave CO/sub 2/ laser at high feedrates (33.87 mm per second). The cut produced was free of the burrs and delaminations resulting from conventional machining methods without intimate contact backup. In addition, the process cycle time was greatly reduced.
Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.
The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration
Zwart, S; Sachs, APE; Ruijs, GJHM; Gubbels, JW; Hoes, AW; de Melker, RA
Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 43
Full Text Available Introduction: Post-operative sore throat and cough are common complications of endotracheal intubation. These conditions may be very distressing for the patient and may lead to unpleasant memories. This study was performed in order to determine whether beclomethasone and lidocaine spray could reduce the frequency of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness after tracheal extubation. Materials and Methods: Ninety women (18–60 years of age with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I or II and undergoing elective mastoidectomy were randomized into three groups of 30 patients. The endotracheal tubes in each group were sprayed with 50% beclomethasone, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride, or normal saline (control group before endotracheal intubation. Patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe, cough, and hoarseness at 1 and 24 h after extubation. Results: There was a significantly lower incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat in the beclomethasone group than the lidocaine and control groups (P
Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Verschueren, M.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.
This paper describes a novel device to simulate in vivo aroma release from liquids. This artificial throat simulates the act of swallowing followed by exhalation and shows aroma release curves that are similar in shape to in vivo release profiles. Liquids are poured down a tube, and a thin liquid
Berkunsky, Igor; Daniele, Gonzalo; Kacoliris, Federico P.; Díaz-Luque, José A.; Silva Frias, Carmen P.; Aramburu, Rosana M.; Gilardi, James D.
Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007–2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw. PMID:24941317
Liu, Bin; Jiang, Yin-Hua; Xiao, Jian; Li, Xiao-Kun
To observe the effect of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) atomization inhalation on postoperative sore throat following oral and maxillofacial operation under general anethesia. Forty patients in whom oral and maxillofacial operation trachea was removed under general anesthesia were randomly divided into treatment and control groups; the treatment group received bFGF 35000IU + normal saline 20 mL, compression inhalation, day 1, every 20min, continued for 3 d; the control group was given normal saline 5 mL + dexamethasone 5 mg + gentamicin 80000 U + chymotrypsin 4000 U, compression inhalation, twice a day, every 20 min, continued for 3 d. Occurrence of postoperative sore throat 12 h after operation was recorded and visual analog scale (VAS) of sore throat (swallowing) 12,24,48,72 h after operation was measured. SPSS l4.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The incidence of sore throat in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (Poral and maxillofacial surgery after endotracheal intubation.
Salvatierra da Silva, Daniela; Jacobson, Susan K.; Monroe, Martha C.; Israel, Glenn D.
An evaluability assessment of a program to save a critically endangered bird helped prepare the Blue-throated Macaw Environmental Education Project for evaluation and program improvement. The evaluability assessment facilitated agreement among key stakeholders on evaluation criteria and intended uses of evaluation information in order to maximize…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices... Federal Register about last minute modifications that impact a previously announced advisory committee... for the Nucleus Hybrid TM L24 Implant System sponsored by Cochlear Americas. The proposed Indications...
Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Zellmer, Nicholas T; Deméré, Thomas A; Kienle, Sarah S; Smallcomb, Meghan
Information is scarce on gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) anatomy and that of mysticetes in general. Dissection of the head of a neonatal gray whale revealed novel anatomical details of the eye, blowhole, incisive papilla with associated nasopalatine ducts, sensory hairs, and throat grooves. Compared to a similar sized right whale calf, the gray whale eyeball is nearly twice as long. The nasal cartilages of the gray whale, located between the blowholes, differ from the bowhead in having accessory cartilages. A small, fleshy incisive papilla bordered by two blind nasopalatine pits near the palate's rostral tip, previously undescribed in gray whales, may be associated with the vomeronasal organ, although histological evidence is needed for definitive identification. Less well known among mysticetes are the numerous elongated, stiff sensory hairs (vibrissae) observed on the gray whale rostrum from the ventral tip to the blowhole and on the mandible. These hairs are concentrated on the chin, and those on the lower jaw are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. We confirm the presence of two primary, anteriorly converging throat grooves, confined to the throat region similar to those of ziphiid and physeteroid odontocetes. A third, shorter groove occurs lateral to the left primary groove. The throat grooves in the gray whale have been implicated in gular expansion during suction feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Margaritis, Eleftherios; Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George
The study attempts to develop an outpatient service quality scale by investigating the key dimensions which assess parental satisfaction and provides a recommendation on an improved health service delivery system. The survey was conducted in an Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of a Greek public pediatric hospital. A total of 127 parents in…
Raza, N.; Usman, M.; Hameed, A.
To determine the throat carriage rate of Streptococcus pyogenes in patients having chronic plaque psoriasis and the effect of antibiotics as compared with that of oral methotrexate. Forty patients and 40 age and gender-matched controls were selected. Throat swab for culture of Streptococcus pyogenes was taken from each patient and control. All patients were treated with oral Penicillin V 250 mg, 6 hourly, and oral Rifampicin, 600 mg daily, for 10 days. Pre- and post therapy 'Psoriasis Area and Severity Index' (PASI) were compared. Thirty of these 40 patients were later given oral methotrexate, 5-10 mg weekly, for 04 weeks and pre- and post-therapy PASI were compared. Chi-square and paired-samples t-test were used for data analysis. Throat swab cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes in 05 (12.5%) patients and none (0%) of the controls (p=0.02). Mean pre- and postantibiotic therapy PASI were 15.92 + 05.94 and 15.19 + 06.17 respectively (p=0.078). Mean pre- and postmethotrexate PASI were 15.81+ 5.55 and 8.79 + 4.19 respectively (p <0.01). Throat carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes is common in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Short-term antibiotic treatment has no role in routine treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. However, it would be worthwhile to consider the effects of long term antibiotics on chronic plaque psoriasis. (author)
Full Text Available Rediscovered in the wild twenty years ago, the breeding biology of wild Blue-throated Macaws remains largely unexplored, yet is essential to its effective conservation and recovery. Here, we analyse reproductive parameters in an intensively managed wild population of Blue-throated Macaws, providing the first data on the breeding biology of this critically endangered species. During the six-year study period, 2007-2012, the number of active breeding pairs either remained constant or decreased, depending on the site, and no new breeding pairs were discovered despite extensive searching. We documented nesting attempts in natural cavities in dead palms or live hardwoods, and artificial nest boxes. Egg-laying was concentrated during the end of dry season and the beginning of the wet season, August through December. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg losses. Half of the breeding attempts of Blue-throated Macaws produced at least one fledging, on average two, after a 85 days nestling period. An average of 4.3 nestlings per year fledged from all known wild nests combined. Each pair lost roughly 65% of its initial reproductive investment at each nesting attempt. In most successful nesting attempts of individualized pairs, a new nesting attempt was not detected the following year. All monitored breeding pairs showed high nest site fidelity, reusing hardwood-tree cavities and nest boxes. Our findings will aid conservation efforts by refining current actions and prompting new approaches towards the conservation and recovery of the Blue-throated Macaw.
mirror/reflected light I Use/action of medications and cautery agents Use of silver nitrate cautery sticks and anterior nasal packingi Suctioning...Conditions) Using cup/glass of solution, e.g., saltwater, mouthwash (Consequence) Aid in treatment of throat infections (Next Action) Determine need for
Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M
Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.
The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in...
Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.
The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.
Fedin, Alexander V.; Shilov, Igor V.; Vassiliev, Vladimir V.; Malov, Dmitri V.; Peskov, Vladimir N.
The laser cutting of color metals and alloys by a thickness more than 2 mm has significant difficulties due to high reflective ability and large thermal conduction. We made it possible to raise energy efficiency and quality of laser cutting by using a laser processing system (LPS) consisting both of the YAG:Nd laser with passive Q-switching on base of LiF:F2- crystals and the CO2 laser. A distinctive feature of the LPS is that the radiation of different lasers incorporated in a coaxial beam has simultaneously high level of peak power (more than 400 kW in a TEM00 mode) and significant level of average power (up to 800 W in a TEM01 mode of the CO2 laser). The application of combined radiation for cutting of an aluminum alloy of D16 type made it possible to decrease the cutting energy threshold in 1.7 times, to increase depth of treatment from 2 up to 4 mm, and velocity from 0.015 up to 0.7 m/min, and also to eliminate application of absorptive coatings. At cutting of steels the velocity of treatment was doubled, and also an oxygen flow was eliminated from the technological process and replaced by the air. The obtained raise of energy efficiency and quality of cutting is explained by an essential size reducing of a formed penetration channel and by the shifting of a thermal cutting mode from melting to evaporation. The evaluation of interaction efficiency of a combined radiation was produced on the basis of non-stationary thermal-hydrodynamic model of a heating source moving as in the cutting direction, and also into the depth of material.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010. Conclusion: Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.
Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae
Bone cutting error can be one of the causes of malalignment in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The amount of cutting error in total knee arthroplasty has been reported. However, none have investigated cutting error in UKA. The purpose of this study was to reveal the amount of cutting error in UKA when open cutting guide was used and clarify whether cutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced the cutting errors in UKA. We measured the alignment of the tibial cutting guides, the first-cut cutting surfaces and the second cut cutting surfaces using the navigation system in 50 UKAs. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between the cutting guide and cutting surface. The mean absolute first-cut cutting error was 1.9° (1.1° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.6° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane, whereas the mean absolute second-cut cutting error was 1.1° (0.6° varus) in the coronal plane and 1.1° (0.4° anterior slope) in the sagittal plane. Cutting the tibia horizontally twice reduced the cutting errors in the coronal plane significantly (Pcutting the tibia horizontally twice using the same cutting guide reduced cutting error in the coronal plane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Kite flying is a popular sport among children. Most of the injuries sustained during kite flying are due to falls, cuts, head injuries, or fractures. Injury with innocent-looking kite string in the maxillofacial region is rare. A 4½-year-old male patient with a clean cut, deep incised wound exposing the fat and muscle was treated with primary closure. Kite flying is associated with injuries ranging from simple cuts to grave lacerations or head trauma. The severity of lacerations depends on the abrasive material that is often placed on the string of the kite to increase its ability to cut. Injuries related to kite flying are preventable. Preventive measures include choosing a safe location and the need for increasing awareness about the possible effects of such a sport.
Lawson, Lucinda P; Bates, John M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P
Peripatric speciation and peripheral isolation have uncertain importance in species accumulation, and are largely overshadowed by assumed dominance of allopatric modes of speciation. Understanding the role of different speciation mechanisms within biodiversity hotspots is central to understanding the generation of biological diversity. Here, we use a phylogeographic analysis of the spiny-throated reed frogs and examine sister pairings with unbalanced current distributional ranges for characteristics of peripatric speciation. We further investigate whether forest/grassland mosaic adapted species are more likely created through peripatric speciation due to instability of this habitat type. We reconstructed a multi-locus molecular phylogeny of spiny-throated reed frogs which we then combined with comparative morphologic data to delimit species and analyze historical demographic change; identifying three new species. Three potential peripatric speciation events were identified along with one case of allopatric speciation. Peripatric speciation is supported through uneven potential and realized distributions and uneven population size estimates based on field collections. An associated climate shift was observed in most potentially peripatric splits. Morphological variation was highest in sexually dimorphic traits such as body size and gular shape, but this variation was not limited to peripatric species pairs as hypothesized. The potentially allopatric species pair showed no niche shifts and equivalent effective population sizes, ruling out peripatry in that speciation event. Two major ecological niche shifts were recovered within this radiation, possibly as adaptations to occupy areas of grassland that became more prevalent in the last 5 million years. Restricted and fluctuating grassland mosaics within forests might promote peripatric speciation in the Eastern Arc Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH). In our case study, peripatric speciation appears to be an important driver
Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.
Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew
To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.
Jonathan N Pauli
Full Text Available Promiscuous mating strategies are much more common than previously appreciated. So much so, that several authors have proposed that promiscuity is the "rule" rather than the exception in vertebrate mating systems. Decreasing species mobility and increasing habitat fragmentation have both been suggested to reduce the "polygyny potential" of the environment and promote other mating strategies like promiscuity in females. We explored the social and genetic mating system for one of the most sedentary extant mammals, the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus, within a highly fragmented Neotropical habitat. Surprisingly, we found that three-toed sloths were strongly polygynous, with males excluding male competitors from their core ranges, and exhibiting strong reproductive skew. Indeed, only 25% of all resident adult males sired offspring and one individual sired half of all sampled juveniles. Paradoxically, a sedentary life-history strategy seems to facilitate polygyny in fragmented landscapes because multiple females can persist within small patches of habitat, and be monopolized by a single male. Our work demonstrates that strong polygyny can arise in systems in which the polygyny potential should be extremely low, and other strategies, including promiscuity, would be favoured. Mating systems can be influenced by a multitude of factor and are dynamic, varying among taxa, over time, and across habitats; consequently, mating systems remain difficult to predict based on general ecological principles.
D. F. Perrella
Full Text Available Abstract The Thamnophilidae are one of the most speciose Neotropical bird families, yet aspects of their natural history remain poorly documented. Here we provide information on breeding phenology, the length of incubation and nestling periods, parental care, and nesting success of the Star-throated Antwren, Rhopias gularis, an Atlantic Forest endemic. The data are discussed in light of life history theories. We found 27 active nests during two breeding seasons (2013/2014 and 2014/2015 at Carlos Botelho State Park in southeastern Brazil. Nesting activities were observed from September to January. Incubation and nestling periods lasted 16.8 ± 0.6 and 11.0 ± 0.86 days, respectively, as with most other antbirds. Males and females shared equally in incubation and nestling provisioning. The small clutch size of two eggs is that most commonly found in tropical birds and is hypothesized to have evolved due to increased nest predation rates. However, our data was not consistent with this hypothesis as the nest survival probability was high (57%. This is one of only a handful of studies that provide comprehensive information on the breeding biology of a Thamnophilid species in undisturbed habitat.
Erica F Stuber
Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.
Miller, Alden H.
A statistical survey was made of all the cases of poliomyelitis occurring in all of Los Angeles County during the three years of 1949, 1950 and 1951 in an attempt to determine the effect of operations on the nose and throat on the incidence of poliomyelitis. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were the only operations noted with any degree of frequency. Yet, in the total of 3,601 cases of poliomyelitis that occurred in this three-year period there were only 20 (0.55 per cent) in which the patient had had recent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. The incidence of this disease in patients who had had tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy was compared with the “expected” incidence as determined from the incidence in other patients, in the same age group. There was no significant difference between actual and expected incidence even during the summer months when most cases of poliomyelitis occurred. The same was true with regard to recently tonsillectomized patients in the epidemic months of July through October. In a separate survey of 675 patients with poliomyelitis, it was noted that only 30 per cent ever had had tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy. Inasmuch as it is estimated that one of every three persons in the general young population nowadays has had tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, this figure is no more or less than could be expected. PMID:12978882
Villar, Hugo E; Jugo, Mónica B; Santana, Gabriela; Baserni, Marisa; Reil, Juan Manuel
Beta hemolytic streptococci, particulary group A, are the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of pharyngoamigdalitis. Other beta hemolytic streptococci also produce this pathology. An increase of positive cultures for group A streptococci was detected during 2004 in relation to previous years. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rates of beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, C and G during a period of 5 years. Pharyngeal exudates were obtained from children (aged 6 months to 18 years) and adults. Swabs were cultured on Columbia agar plates containing 5% sheep blood. Lancefield grouping was performed using a latex immunoagglutination test. Group A beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently from pediatric population than from adults. Groups A, C and G beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently during 2004 than in previous years. Group G beta hemolytic was more prevalent in adult population than in patients less than 18 years of age. Among the isolated beta hemolytic streptococci, in adults and children, 18.9% and 5.8% were non-group A streptococci, respectively. Therefore special attention should be paid not only to group A beta hemolytic streptococci but also to other groups. Throat culture is the most reliable method for detecting the presence of the beta hemolytic streptococci and should also be indicated in adult patients.
Mekhemar, Nashwa Abdallah; El-Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Radi, Wafaa Kamel; El-Hady, Sherif Mohammed
Postoperative sore throat is a common complication after endotracheal intubation. After tracheal intubation, the incidence of sore throat varies from 14.4% to 50%. The aim of the study was to compare between benzydamine hydrochloride gel, lidocaine 5% gel and lidocaine 10% spray on the endotracheal tube cuff as regards postoperative sore throat. The present study was carried out on 124 patients admitted to Alexandria university hospitals for lumbar fixation surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups. Benzydamine hydrochloride gel, 5% lidocaine hydrochloride gel, 10% lidocaine hydrochloride spray, or normal saline were applied on endotracheal tube cuffs before endotracheal intubation. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, or severe) at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24h after extubation. The results were collected, analyzed and presented in table and figure. The highest incidence of postoperative sore throat occurred at 6h after extubation in all groups. There was a significantly lower incidence of postoperative sore throat in the benzydamine group than 5% lidocaine gel, 10% lidocaine spray, and normal saline groups. The benzydamine group had significantly decreased severity of postoperative sore throat compared with the 10% lidocaine, 5% lidocaine, and normal saline groups at observation time point. Compared with the 5% lidocaine the 10% lidocaine group had significantly increased incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat after extubation. Compared with normal saline the 10% lidocaine group had increased incidence of postoperative sore throat. There were no significant differences among groups in local or systemic side effects. So in conclusion, benzydamine hydrochloride gel on the endotracheal tube cuff is a simple and effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. Application of 10% lidocaine spray should be avoided because of worsening of postoperative sore
Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.
The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...
Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro
Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...
The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Nedić Bogdan P.
Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.
Full Text Available The throat is an ecological assemblage involved human cells and microbiota, and the colonizing bacteria are important factors in balancing this environment. However, this bacterial community profile has thus been poorly investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial biology of the larynx and to analyze the throat biodiversity in laryngeal carcinoma patients compared to a control population in a case-control study. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used. We collected tissue samples from 29 patients with laryngeal carcinoma and 31 control patients with vocal cord polyps. The findings of high-quality sequence datasets revealed 218 genera from 13 phyla in the laryngeal mucosa. The predominant communities of phyla in the larynx were Firmicutes (54%, Fusobacteria (17%, Bacteroidetes (15%, Proteobacteria (11%, and Actinobacteria (3%. The leading genera were Streptococcus (36%, Fusobacterium (15%, Prevotella (12%, Neisseria (6%, and Gemella (4%. The throat bacterial compositions were highly different between laryngeal carcinoma subjects and control population (p = 0.006. The abundance of the 26 genera was significantly different between the laryngeal cancer and control groups by metastats analysis (p<0.05. Fifteen genera may be associated with laryngeal carcinoma by partial least squares discriminant analysis (p<0.001. In summary, this study revealed the microbiota profiles in laryngeal mucosa from tissue specimens. The compositions of bacteria community in throat were different between laryngeal cancer patients and controls, and probably were related with this carcinoma. The disruption of this bio-ecological niche might be a risk factor for laryngeal carcinoma.
MONTUORI, LINA; Vargas Salgado, Carlos Afranio; Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel
The aim of this research is to contribute into the diffusion of biomass power systems by analyzing and testing the throat sizing influence on the operation of a gasification plant coupled with an internal combustion engine. In order to do this, the assessment of the proper operation range for some of the driving process parameters has been carried out. The analysis has been focused on such parameters as pressure drop of the fixed bed reactor, the inlet air flow, the syngas production, electri...
This article concentrates on the characteristics of shamanic practice in Tuva, a republic within the Russian Federation. While delineating the unique features of shamanic craft, such as a lack of trance, the analysis concentrates on the significance of sound and music as indispensable elements of the shamanic repertoire. In short, the article argues that the organizational structure of the sound unit in Tuva employed in throat singing and based on the overtone-rich timbre system constitutes a...
Hayden, G F; Turner, J C; Kiselica, D; Dunn, M; Hendley, J O
A latex agglutination method for the rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C in throat swabs from 403 university students with symptomatic pharyngitis was evaluated. Compared with culture, the rapid test was poorly sensitive (34.4%) but very specific (98.4%) in detecting group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. The sensitivity of the rapid test improved with an increasing quantity of growth on culture. PMID:1551989
Hofmeyr, David P
Minimum normalised graph cuts are highly effective ways of partitioning unlabeled data, having been made popular by the success of spectral clustering. This work presents a novel method for learning hyperplane separators which minimise this graph cut objective, when data are embedded in Euclidean space. The optimisation problem associated with the proposed method can be formulated as a sequence of univariate subproblems, in which the optimal hyperplane orthogonal to a given vector is determined. These subproblems can be solved in log-linear time, by exploiting the trivial factorisation of the exponential function. Experimentation suggests that the empirical runtime of the overall algorithm is also log-linear in the number of data. Asymptotic properties of the minimum cut hyperplane, both for a finite sample, and for an increasing sample assumed to arise from an underlying probability distribution are discussed. In the finite sample case the minimum cut hyperplane converges to the maximum margin hyperplane as the scaling parameter is reduced to zero. Applying the proposed methodology, both for fixed scaling, and the large margin asymptotes, is shown to produce high quality clustering models in comparison with state-of-the-art clustering algorithms in experiments using a large collection of benchmark datasets.
... some relaxing yoga exercises Things to Help You Express the Pain and Deep Emotion Some people cut because the emotions that they ... may be hard for them to recognize these emotions for what they are — like anger, ... songs or poetry to express what you're feeling listen to music that ...
A number of “big-science” projects in Brazil could be hit if the government pushes through a 44% cut to the R5bn (£1.28bn) budget of the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTIC).
In a time of educational budget cuts, the arts seem to take the major brunt of the financial ax. Fine arts programs are often pitted against one another for survival. The music industry and supporting corporations, such as American Express, campaign to have instruments donated or purchased to keep educational programs alive. The visual arts do not…
Computer Security Team
Accidental power cuts - a permanent nuisance when running accelerators or computing services, since it takes a lot of time to recover from them. While I feel very sorry for those who are under pressure to get their service running again and deeply regret the loss of down-time and availability, I must admit that I like power cuts: power cuts make computers reboot! And rebooting computers at CERN means all the pending software patches are automatically applied. But don’t think I am egotistic enough to endorse power cuts. Not necessarily! I am already happy if you regularly patch your computer(s) yourself, where regularly means at least once a month: · If you run a centrally or locally managed Windows computer, give that small orange blinking “CMF” icon in the taskbar a chance in the evening to apply all the pending patches. Also, let it initiate a reboot at the end! · If you have a personal computer with your own Windows operating system, ...
M. Deza; M. Laurent (Monique)
htmlabstractCuts and metrics are well-known objects that arise - independently, but with many deep and fascinating connections - in diverse fields: in graph theory, combinatorial optimization, geometry of numbers, combinatorial matrix theory, statistical physics, VLSI design etc. This book offers a
Brennand, Charlotte P.
There are more uses for a turkey than roasting it whole for holiday occasions. The least expensive way to have turkey pieces, especially if the turkey is purchased on sale, is to cut it up yourself. The following is to serve as a butchering and processing guide.
Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Feng, Da
Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) has been widely concerned since it was proposed, and its unique characteristics such as friction reversal and intermittent cutting can effectively extend the tool life, improve the machined surface roughness and so on. The objective of this paper was to predict the behavior of cutting force. A method of predicting the behavior of cutting force based on the chip thickness under various cutting conditions is proposed. Based on the established tool motion model, the chip model was founded. By numerical simulation, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting force under various cutting conditions were studied. The results show that the chip thickness can be used to predict the behavior of cutting force.
Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.
In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.
Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij
Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.
Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL, Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL, Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL, Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL, Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL, and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds.
Kenneth C Welch
Full Text Available Glucose transporter (GLUT proteins play a key role in the transport of monosaccharides across cellular membranes, and thus, blood sugar regulation and tissue metabolism. Patterns of GLUT expression, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4, have been well characterized in mammals. However, relatively little is known about patterns of GLUT expression in birds with existing data limited to the granivorous or herbivorous chicken, duck and sparrow. The smallest avian taxa, hummingbirds, exhibit some of the highest fasted and fed blood glucose levels and display an unusual ability to switch rapidly and completely between endogenous fat and exogenous sugar to fuel energetically expensive hovering flight. Despite this, nothing is known about the GLUT transporters that enable observed rapid rates of carbohydrate flux. We examined GLUT (GLUT1, 2, 3, & 4 expression in pectoralis, leg muscle, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and brain from both zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris. mRNA expression of all four transporters was probed using reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR. In addition, GLUT1 and 4 protein expression were assayed by western blot and immunostaining. Patterns of RNA and protein expression of GLUT1-3 in both species agree closely with published reports from other birds and mammals. As in other birds, and unlike in mammals, we did not detect GLUT4. A lack of GLUT4 correlates with hyperglycemia and an uncoupling of exercise intensity and relative oxidation of carbohydrates in hummingbirds. The function of GLUTs present in hummingbird muscle tissue (e.g. GLUT1 and 3 remain undescribed. Thus, further work is necessary to determine if high capillary density, and thus surface area across which cellular-mediated transport of sugars into active tissues (e.g. muscle occurs, rather than taxon-specific differences in GLUT density or kinetics, can account for observed rapid rates of sugar flux into these
Rousseu, François; Charette, Yanick; Bélisle, Marc
Resource defense behavior is often explained by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. However, factors such as competition, habitat complexity, and individual space use may also affect the capacity of individuals to defend and monopolize resources. Yet, studies frequently focus on one or two factors, overlooking the complexity found in natural settings. Here, we addressed defense and monopolization of nectar feeders in a population of free-ranging ruby-throated hummingbirds marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags). Our study system consisted of a 44 ha systematic grid of 45 feeders equipped with PIT tag detectors recording every visit made at feeders. We modeled the number of visits by competitors (NVC) at feeders in response to space use by a focal individual potentially defending a feeder, number of competitors, nectar sucrose concentration, and habitat visibility. Individuals who were more concentrated at certain feeders on a given day and who were more stable in their use of the grid throughout the season gained higher exclusivity in the use of those feeders on that day, especially for males competing against males. The level of spatial concentration at feeders and its negative effect on NVC was, however, highly variable among individuals, suggesting a continuum in resource defense strategies. Although the apparent capacity to defend feeders was not affected by competition or nectar sucrose concentration, the level of monopolization decreased with increasing number of competitors and higher nectar quality. Defense was enhanced by visibility near feeders, but only in forested habitats. The reverse effect of visibility in open habitats was more difficult to interpret as it was probably confounded by perch availability, from which a bird can defend its feeder. Our study is among the first to quantify the joint use of food resource by overlapping individuals unconstrained in their use of space. Our results show the importance of
Gupta, Arun; Gaikwad, Vaijayanti; Kumar, Satyendra; Srivastava, Ruchi; Sastry, Jln
Acute cough represents the most common illness evaluated in the outpatient settings. Available remedies for its management are generally allopathic combinations of antihistamines and decongestants that achieve antitussive activity, but often with unpleasant side effects prompting the need to explore safer and effective options. Honitus is an Ayurvedic proprietary herbal cough syrup with benefits of honey, intended to provide relief in acute nonproductive cough and throat irritation without causing drowsiness. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of Honitus in reducing acute nonproductive cough and throat irritation in comparison to a standard marketed allopathic cough syrup intended for use in similar conditions. This was a randomized double-blind study conducted in 105 individuals who received orally 2 tsp (10 ml) of either Honitus or marketed cough syrup (MCS) four times a day for 3 days. Response to treatment was evaluated from baseline to the end of treatment period on the basis of changes in day and night frequencies of cough, throat irritation and development of adverse events (AEs). Honitus was found safe and effective in reducing symptoms of acute nonproductive cough, throat irritation, and comparable to MCS in reducing day and night frequencies of cough, the time to relief from cough and throat irritation and the Physician's Global Assessment of cough. Honitus showed comparably better results than MCS on throat irritation, the duration of relief from cough and throat irritation without causing drowsiness. No AEs related to study or study products were reported. Honitus Syrup is safe and effective in reducing the symptoms of acute nonproductive cough and throat irritation without causing drowsiness.
... depression, bipolar disorder , eating disorders, obsessive thinking, or compulsive behaviors. It can also be a sign of mental ... can be habit forming. It can become a compulsive behavior — meaning that the more a person does it, ...
Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...
Full Text Available The characteristics of porosity and permeability in tight clastic rock reservoir have significant difference from those in conventional reservoir. The increased exploitation of tight gas and oil requests further understanding of fluid performance in the nanoscale pore-throat network of the tight reservoir. Typical tight sandstone and siltstone samples from Ordos Basin were investigated, and rate-controlled mercury injection capillary pressure (RMICP and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were employed in this paper, combined with helium porosity and air permeability data, to analyze the impact of pore-throat structure on the storage and seepage capacity of these tight oil reservoirs, revealing the control factors of economic petroleum production. The researches indicate that, in the tight clastic rock reservoir, largest throat is the key control on the permeability and potentially dominates the movable water saturation in the reservoir. The storage capacity of the reservoir consists of effective throat and pore space. Although it has a relatively steady and significant proportion that resulted from the throats, its variation is still dominated by the effective pores. A combination parameter (ε that was established to be as an integrated characteristic of pore-throat structure shows effectively prediction of physical capability for hydrocarbon resource of the tight clastic rock reservoir.
Nath, Nayani Kishore
The throat back up liners is used to protect the nozzle structural members from the severe thermal environment in solid rocket nozzles. The throat back up liners is made with E-glass phenolic prepregs by tape winding process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the optimization of process parameters of tape winding process to achieve better insulative resistance using Taguchi's robust design methodology. In this method four control factors machine speed, roller pressure, tape tension, tape temperature that were investigated for the tape winding process. The presented work was to study the cogency and acceptability of Taguchi's methodology in manufacturing of throat back up liners. The quality characteristic identified was Back wall temperature. Experiments carried out using L 9 ' (34) orthogonal array with three levels of four different control factors. The test results were analyzed using smaller the better criteria for Signal to Noise ratio in order to optimize the process. The experimental results were analyzed conformed and successfully used to achieve the minimum back wall temperature of the throat back up liners. The enhancement in performance of the throat back up liners was observed by carrying out the oxy-acetylene tests. The influence of back wall temperature on the performance of throat back up liners was verified by ground firing test.
Infecções cutâneas e acidentes por animais traumatizantes e venenosos ocorridos em aquários comerciais e domésticos no Brasil: descrição de 18 casos e revisão do tema Cutaneous infections and injuries caused by traumatic and venomous animals which occurred in domestic and commercial aquariums in Brazil: a study of 18 cases and an overview of the theme
Vidal Haddad Junior
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O aquarismo a cada dia ganha novos adeptos no Brasil. Impulsionado por belos peixes e objetos de decoração, o hábito pode trazer problemas como infecções e envenenamentos por diversos animais. OBJETIVOS: Demonstração dos animais causadores e dos quadros clínicos envolvidos com estes acidentes, das infecções cutâneas encontradas após traumas e das medidas terapêuticas e preventivas para controle do problema, pouco conhecido pela população em geral. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um estudo prospectivo para a detecção de acidentes por animais e infecções ocorridas após traumas em aquários. Estes dados serviram de base para um estudo epidemiológico, clínico e terapêutico sobre o problema. RESULTADOS: Em cerca de 300 acidentes por animais aquáticos, 12 ou 4% do total foram causados por animais venenosos em aquários. Cinco infecções bacterianas e uma fúngica foram identificadas após traumas em aquários. CONCLUSÕES: Os acidentes em aquários domésticos e comerciais são relativamente comuns e podem acarretar infecções cutâneas e ferimentos por animais venenosos ou traumatizantes. Os proprietários de aquários na maioria das vezes não têm informações sobre estes acidentes. Os autores fornecem as espécies de microorganismos e animais mais freqüentemente envolvidas com ferimentos e as medidas terapêuticas e preventivas adequadas ao manejo do problema.BACKGROUND: Among the recreation activities that more they grew in the last years, the aquarism wins every day new followers in Brazil. Impelled by beautiful fish, plants and decoration objects, the habit involves problems, as infections and poisonings that happen after scratches, wounds and other traumas in animals or objects of the aquariums. OBJECTIVES: This article points the animals and the clinical aspects frequently involved with these injuries, the skin infections found after traumas in aquariums and the therapeutic and preventive measures for control of
Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming
Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karimi, Muhammad Akram
Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground conductor, and a separator at an exterior of a cylindrical pipe. The helical T-resonator including a feed line, and a helical open shunt stub conductively coupled to the feed line. The helical ground conductor including a helical ground plane opposite the helical open shunt stub and a ground ring conductively coupled to the helical ground plane. The feed line overlapping at least a portion of the ground ring, and the separator disposed between the feed line and the portion of the ground ring overlapped by the feed line to electrically isolate the helical T-resonator from the helical ground conductor.
Skin cuts and lacerations are frequent injuries. A perfect result of the treatment is going without saying for the patient and its relatives. But there are some aspects to note for an adequate wound management. The main aims of wound management are clear: assist in hemostasis, to avoid infection and pain, and to ensure an esthetically pleasing scar. For these we have to treat not only the wound. Taking care for the hole patient and treating the sore pain and preventing painfull manipulations is the goal for the patients satisfaction. The basic aspects of wound healing and wound management will be described. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be also more cost-effective. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair. Please do not forget in every case to ask for the tetanus immunization and to think about an antibiotic therapy in case of human or animal bites and for wounds in risk areas and with contamination.
Commonest FB was ornamental bead 51 (28.17%) found both in the ear and the nose. Fish bone constituted the highest FB in the laryngotracheobronchial (LTB) tree and the oesophagus. Twenty-three cases (12.7%) had emergency tracheostomy done. Conclusion: Foreign body injuries constitute a significant portion of ...
Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210
Takimoto, Yoshinori; Sakota, Kotaro; Hamamoto, Noboru; Harada, Keizo.
Purpose: To improve the cutting performance to a level as comparable with that in air, as well as prevent the scattering of the radioactive materials upon cutting to the level as that in water cutting. Method: After igniting a gas cutting torch automatically, water spray by the local water sprayer is started by the actuation of a submerged pump, while a gas cutting manipulator is operated to cut the nuclear reactor pressure vessel. In this way, cutting exhaust gases resulted from the gas cutting torch are water-washed by the spray from the local water sprayer and falls within the nuclear rector pressure vessel in the form of water streams or droplets along the inner wall surface of the pressure vessel. Further, water is fed again to the local water sprayer by the submerged pump. (Kawakami, Y.)
Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.
PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: identifying clinical variables associated with Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococci and Lancefield non-Group A streptococcal throat infections from two cohorts of patients presenting with an acute sore throat
Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Hobbs, F D R; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna; Williamson, Ian; Cheng, Edith; Stuart, Beth; Kelly, Joanne; Barnett, Jane; Mullee, Mark
Objective To assess the association between features of acute sore throat and the growth of streptococci from culturing a throat swab. Design Diagnostic cohort. Setting UK general practices. Participants Patients aged 5 or over presenting with an acute sore throat. Patients were recruited for a second cohort (cohort 2, n=517) consecutively after the first (cohort 1, n=606) from similar practices. Main outcome Predictors of the presence of Lancefield A/C/G streptococci. Results The clinical score developed from cohort 1 had poor discrimination in cohort 2 (bootstrapped estimate of area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.65), due to the poor validity of the individual items in the second data set. Variables significant in multivariate analysis in both cohorts were rapid attendance (prior duration 3 days or less; multivariate adjusted OR 1.92 cohort, 1.67 cohort 2); fever in the last 24 h (1.69, 2.40); and doctor assessment of severity (severely inflamed pharynx/tonsils (2.28, 2.29)). The absence of coryza or cough and purulent tonsils were significant in univariate analysis in both cohorts and in multivariate analysis in one cohort. A five-item score based on Fever, Purulence, Attend rapidly (3 days or less), severely Inflamed tonsils and No cough or coryza (FeverPAIN) had moderate predictive value (bootstrapped area under the ROC curve 0.73 cohort 1, 0.71 cohort 2) and identified a substantial number of participants at low risk of streptococcal infection (38% in cohort 1, 36% in cohort 2 scored ≤1, associated with a streptococcal percentage of 13% and 18%, respectively). A Centor score of ≤1 identified 23% and 26% of participants with streptococcal percentages of 10% and 28%, respectively. Conclusions Items widely used to help identify streptococcal sore throat may not be the most consistent. A modified clinical scoring system (FeverPAIN) which requires further validation may be clinically helpful in identifying individuals who are
Waltenberger, L.; Schutkowski, Holger
Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct in...
Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope
Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…
and when the size of the material removed decreases, the probability of encountering a stress-reducing defect decreases. Since the shear stress and strain in metal cutting is unusually high, discontinuous microcracks usually form on the metal-cutting shear plane. If the material being cut is very brittle, or the compressive ...
Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
The size effect in metal cutting. 877. Figure 3. Variation of shear stress on shear plane when cutting. SAE 1112 steel (after Backer et al. 1952). Horizontal and vertical forces were measured for a number of depths of cut(t)when machining the same-sized surface as in grinding. The shear stress on the shear plane (τ) was ...
Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han
In stationary sheet metal cutting processes, like guillotining and slitting, the sheet is cut progressively from one end to the other. This in contrary with transient processes (blanking) where the sheet is cut at once. Where transient shearing processes can be modelled in 2-D (plain strain or
Nijsse, J.; Meeteren, van U.; Keijzer, C.J.
Until now all studies on the role of air emboli in the water uptake of cut flowers describe indirect methods to demonstrate the presencFe of air in the plant tissues. Using cut chrysanthemum flowers, this report is the first one that directly visualises both air and water in xylem ducts of cut
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
stress and strain in metal cutting is unusually high, discontinuous microcracks usually form on the metal-cutting shear plane. If the material being cut is very brittle, or the compressive stress on the shear plane is relatively low, microcracks grow into gross cracks giving rise to discontinuous chip formation. When discontinuous.
Full Text Available Estimates of abundance or density are essential for wildlife management and conservation. There are few effective density estimates for the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, a rare and elusive high-mountain Galliform species endemic to western China. In this study, we used the temporary emigration N-mixture model to estimate density of this species, with data acquired from playback point count surveys around a sacred area based on indigenous Tibetan culture of protection of wildlife, in Yajiang County, Sichuan, China, during April-June 2009. Within 84 125-m radius points, we recorded 53 partridge groups during three repeats. The best model indicated that detection probability was described by covariates of vegetation cover type, week of visit, time of day, and weather with weak effects, and a partridge group was present during a sampling period with a constant probability. The abundance component was accounted for by vegetation association. Abundance was substantially higher in rhododendron shrubs, fir-larch forests, mixed spruce-larch-birch forests, and especially oak thickets than in pine forests. The model predicted a density of 5.14 groups/km², which is similar to an estimate of 4.7 - 5.3 groups/km² quantified via an intensive spot-mapping effort. The post-hoc estimate of individual density was 14.44 individuals/km², based on the estimated mean group size of 2.81. We suggest that the method we employed is applicable to estimate densities of Buff-throated Partridges in large areas. Given importance of a mosaic habitat for this species, local logging should be regulated. Despite no effect of the conservation area (sacred on the abundance of Buff-throated Partridges, we suggest regulations linking the sacred mountain conservation area with the official conservation system because of strong local participation facilitated by sacred mountains in land conservation.
Beckingham, L. E.; Bensinger, J.; Steinwinder, J.
Porosity and permeability in porous media can be altered by mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions, such as those following CO2 injection in saline aquifers. While the extent of reaction controls changes in porosity, the spatial location of geochemical reactions in individual pores and throats and in the greater pore network controls the evolution of permeability. Geochemical reactions have been observed to occur uniformly on all grain surfaces and non-uniformly, controlled by pore size, PeDa, or mineral distribution, for example. These discrete reaction patterns result in variations in pore scale porosity and corresponding differences in permeability. Macroscopic porosity-permeability relationships are often used to predict the evolution of permeability. These relationships, however, are unable to reflect non-uniform structure modifications. Using pore network modeling simulations, the permeability evolution for a range of uniform and non-uniform mineral reaction scenarios and the applicability of common macroscopic porosity—permeability relationships is investigated. The impact of variations in pore and pore-throat size distributions is evaluated using distributions for real sandstone samples complemented with synthetic distributions. Simulated permeability varies greatly for different reaction patterns. For an Alberta basin sandstone sample, macroscopic relationships are only able to reflect permeability alteration given a uniform reaction scenario where the extent of reaction is related to pore and pore-throat size. For this same sample, simulated permeability for uniform reactions with a fixed reaction thickness and all non-uniform reaction scenarios are unable to be captured using common porosity-permeability relationships. Size-dependent reaction scenarios, where reactions initiate in small or large pores, have the largest disagreement with the porosity-permeability relationships. In these scenarios, porosity-permeability resembles a step function
Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R
Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.
Beahrs, Robert Oliver
Guttural singing practices in the Sayan-Altai region of south-central Siberia have been historically framed as possessing "nomadic" qualities linked with pastoral population groups indigenous to the region. As these singing practices were incorporated into a genre of national folk music for Tannu Tuva (1921-1944) and the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1961-1991)--and then later reformulated as the centerpiece of an exotic genre of world music--xöömei throat-singing was shaped by ...
Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D
To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly
Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.
A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.
Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.
Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.
... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate the efect of cutting materials and geometry of cutting tips on cutting forces in turning as well as the quality and precision of machined surface. The experiment focuses on measuring cutting forces when turning a sample of steel 11 523 at a constant feed rate and cut depth and at varying speeds of a spindle. Measurements were made using exchangeable cutting tips of diferent types. The results will be evaluated in terms of the impact of diferent characteristics of cutting tips and variable spindle speeds.
Aline De Souza Silva
Full Text Available The ixora is ornamental plant widely used in landscaping. In order to maximize the propagation of cuts, we evaluated the concentrations of auxin (indolbutiric acid and the presence of leaves on the rooting in cuts of Ixora coccinea L. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, in factorial design 3x4, with three types of cuts (without leaf, with two or four leaves, four concentrations of indolbutiric acid (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1, with four replications and 10 cuts in each experimental unit. After 53 days of implantation the experiment, evaluated the survival(%, rooting(%, sprouting(%, formation of callus(%, number, length and biomass of roots formed. The interaction of the type of cuts with concentrations of auxin was not significant for any of the variables analyzed. The survival of cuttings was not influenced by the treatments. Cuts with two or four leaves presented rooting and length of roots above the cuttings without leaves. The application of auxin does not substitute the presence of leaf in cuts of ixora in vegetative propagation. The vegetative propagation by cut of ixora can be made without application of auxin, and the leaves must be maintained in the cuttings.
Stanojević Damjan M.
Full Text Available In this paper elaborates the process of measuring cutting power which occurred during cutting six types of particle board. Chipboards with different physical and mechanical properties were cut in order to find some correlation with the cutting power ie to be able to determine the effect of moisture, density and bending strength of the plate to the cutting power. Measuring power cut was made in the workshop of the Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, measuring the moisture and density in the laboratory for testing particle board, and the bending strength was performed in the laboratory for testing the properties of wood. During the cutting speed are changed auxiliary movements to determine the influence of the machining parameters on cutting power. Overall, it was concluded that with increasing moisture content of the work-piece cutting power decreases with increasing velocity displacement, density and bending strength of the board, required cutting power increases.
Komatsu, Masahiko; Ose, Toshihiko.
A control rod transferred under water in a vertically suspended state is postured horizontally at such a water depth that radiations can be shielded, and then it is cut to a dropping speed limiting portion and a cross-like main body. The separated cross-like main body portion is further cut in the longitudinal direction and separated into a pair of cut pieces each having an L-shaped cross section. A disk like metal saw is used as a cutting tool. Alternatively, a plasma jet cutter or a melting-type water jet cutter is used as a cutting tool. Then, since the spent control rod to be cut is postured horizontally under water, the water depth for the cutting position can be reduced. As a result, the cutting state using the cutting tool can be observed by naked eyes from the position above the water surface thereby enabling to perform the cutting operation reliably. (N.H.)
Firnstahl, T W
Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves.
Oh, Kyung Eun; Song, Ae Ran; Sok, Sohyune R
This study compared and examined the effects of aroma gargling, cold water gargling, and wet gauze application on thirst, halitosis, and sore throat in patients after spine surgery. A quasiexperimental pretest/posttest control group design was employed. Samples were total 70 patients (aroma gargling: 24 samples, cold gargling: 24 samples, and wet gauze: 22 samples) after spine surgery in K Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The aroma gargle solution as an experimental intervention was prepared by blending peppermint, tea tree, and lemon oils at a ratio of 1:2:2. A 60 cc of aroma gargle solution was used 3 times for 15 to 20 seconds. The visual analog scale was used to measure the degrees of thirst and sore throat, and a portable device was used to examine the degree of halitosis. There were significant differences in the degrees of thirst, halitosis, and sore throat according to interaction between group and duration. In the comparison among 3 groups, aroma gargling provided better oral health by decreasing thirst, halitosis, and sore throat for patients with spine surgery. Aroma gargling can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for decreasing thirst, halitosis, and sore throat for patients with spine surgery in clinical practice. Results suggest, therefore, that health professionals should consider an array of methods including aroma gargling for patients after spine surgery.
Schwandt, Leonora Q; Van Weissenbruch, Ranny; Stokroos, Ietse; Van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Albers, Frans W J
To evaluate the preventive effect of buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine on biofilm formation on voice prostheses in vitro. Groningen button and Provox 2 voice prostheses were inoculated with a mixture of bacteria and yeasts isolated from previously explanted Groningen button voice prostheses. After 5 h, separate throats were flushed with buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink, N-acetylcysteine or phosphate-buffered saline, which served as a control. After 7 days, the microflora on each voice prosthesis was determined. On Groningen button voice prostheses, buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine all reduced the amount of both bacteria and yeasts. On Provox 2 voice prostheses, buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine reduced the amount of bacteria but, conversely, increased the amount of yeasts. These in vitro experiments demonstrate that biofilm formation on voice prostheses is reduced in an artificial throat by the use of buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine. However, the structural differences between the type of voice prostheses may influence the ultimate effects.
Jones, Paul A; Herrington, Lee; Graham-Smith, Philip
Most biomechanical studies into changing direction focus on final contact (FC), whilst limited research has examined penultimate contact (PEN). The aim of this study was to explore the kinematic and kinetic differences between PEN and FC of cutting and pivoting in 22 female soccer players (mean±SD; age: 21±3.1years, height: 1.68±0.07m, mass: 58.9±7.3kg). Furthermore, the study investigated whether horizontal force-time characteristics during PEN were related to peak knee abduction moments during FC. Three dimensional motion analyses of cutting and pivoting on the right leg were performed using Qualysis 'Proreflex' infrared cameras (240Hz). Ground reaction forces (GRF) were collected from two AMTI force platforms (1200Hz) to examine PEN and FC. Both manoeuvres involved significantly (P<0.05) greater knee joint flexion angles, peak horizontal GRF, but lower average horizontal GRF during PEN compared to FC. Average horizontal GRF during PEN (R=-0.569, R(2)=32%, P=0.006) and average horizontal GRF ratio (R=0.466, R(2)=22%, P=0.029) were significantly related to peak knee abduction moments during the FC of cutting and pivoting, respectively. The results indicate PEN during pre-planned changing direction helps reduce loading on the turning leg where there is greater risk of injuries to knee ligaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Møhl, Bo; Rubæk, Lotte
Self-inflicted pain by cutting, hitting or burning oneself has become a common way to regulate emotions and to serve as coping strategy. 21.5-32% of adolescents in non-clinical populations have a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Non-suicidal self-injury has a momentarily relieving effect...
The role of broth enrichment in Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and transmission from the throat to newborn infants: results from the Swedish hygiene intervention and transmission of S. aureus study.
Mernelius, S; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Matussek, A
Staphylococcus aureus is detected by direct plating, whereas incubation in enrichment broth prior to plating to increase the proportion of positive samples has not been fully evaluated. S. aureus throat colonization has been suggested to be more common than colonization of the anterior nares, but no data are available on the transmission of S. aureus from the throat. Swab samples were collected from the anterior nares and umbilicus from newborn infants (n = 168), anterior nares, throat, skin lesions, and vagina from parents (n = 332), and anterior nares, throat, and skin lesions from healthcare workers (n = 231) at three maternity wards. spa typing was used to elucidate the transmission routes of S. aureus. The use of enrichment broth prior to plating increased the proportion of positive samples by 46%. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization in adults was 58%. Throat colonization (47%) was significantly more common than colonization in any of the other screened sites (p aureus transmissions to newborn infants were detected. Although we detected an increased risk of transmission from the nares as compared to the throat, with an odds ratio of 4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-12.7], we detected a transmission rate of 7 % from the throat. We show that S. aureus throat colonization is more common than colonization in any of the other sites among the parents and staff. We also show evidence of transmission from the throat.
Waltenberger, Lukas; Schutkowski, Holger
Cut marks on bones provide crucial information about tools used and their mode of application, both in archaeological and forensic contexts. Despite a substantial amount of research on cut mark analysis and the influence of fire on bones (shrinkage, fracture pattern, recrystallisation), there is still a lack of knowledge in cut mark analysis on burnt remains. This study provides information about heat alteration of cut marks and whether consistent features can be observed that allow direct interpretation of the implemented tools used. In a controlled experiment, cut marks (n=25) were inflicted on pig ribs (n=7) with a kitchen knife and examined using micro-CT and digital microscopy. The methods were compared in terms of their efficacy in recording cut marks on native and heat-treated bones. Statistical analysis demonstrates that floor angles and the maximum slope height of cuts undergo significant alteration, whereas width, depth, floor radius, slope, and opening angle remain stable. Micro-CT and digital microscopy are both suitable methods for cut mark analysis. However, significant differences in measurements were detected between both methods, as micro-CT is less accurate due to the lower resolution. Moreover, stabbing led to micro-fissures surrounding the cuts, which might also influence the alteration of cut marks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...
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Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.
This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure
Whitney, E Dow
Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.
by software Minitab (multiple linear regression and response surface methodology) in order to express the influence degree of the main cutting variables such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on cutting force components. These models would be helpful in selecting cutting variables for optimization of hard cutting ...
Spagnoli, Laura; Amadasi, Alberto; Frustaci, Michela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Porta, Davide; Cattaneo, Cristina
The distinction between cut marks and blunt force injuries on costal cartilages is a crucial issue in the forensic field. Moreover, a correct distinction may further be complicated by decomposition, so the need arises to investigate the distinctive features of lesions on cartilage and their changes over time. This study aimed to assess the stereomicroscopic features of cut marks (performed with six different knives) and blunt fractures (performed with a hammer and by means of manual bending) on 48 fragments of human costal cartilages. Moreover, in order to simulate decomposition, the cut and fractured surfaces were checked with stereomicroscopy and through casts after 1 and 2 days, 1 week, and 1, 2 and 4 months of drying in ambient air. In fresh samples, for single and unique cuts, striations were observed in between 44 and 88% of cases when non-serrated blades were used, and between 77 and 88% for serrated blades; in the case of "repeated" (back and forth movement) cuts, striations were detected in between 56 and 89% of cases for non-serrated blades, and between 66 and 100% for serrated blades. After only 1 week of decomposition the detection rates fell to percentages of between 28 and 39% for serrated blades and between 17 and 33% for non-serrated blades. Blunt force injuries showed non-specific characteristics, which, if properly assessed, may lead to a reliable distinction between different cut marks in fresh samples. The most evident alterations of the structure of the cartilage occurred in the first week of decomposition in ambient air. After one week of drying, the characteristics of cut marks were almost undetectable, thereby making it extremely challenging to distinguish between cut marks, blunt force fractures and taphonomic effects. The study represents a contribution to the correct assessment and distinction of cut marks and blunt force injuries on cartilages, providing a glimpse on the modifications such lesions may undergo with decomposition.
Full Text Available The paper evaluates the growth of Silver fir plantations on clear-cut areas in the regime of different sheltering and mixing with the European larch. The experiment was carried out on a permanent research plot where Silver fir was planted on an unsheltered open space, on an open space sheltered by the gradually overgrowing European larch, alternating in rows and mixed within the row with the gradually overgrowing European larch. It was also planted in a SW corner of the clear-cut area sheltered on two sides by a mature spruce stand. Results of measurements demonstrated that the conditions of the unsheltered clear-cut area or only partly sheltered clear-cut area have no principal adverse influence on the growth of Silver fir. However, a considerably higher mortality, more severe frost injury and impaired vitality of plants were observed. The most suitable option for the regeneration of Silver fir on a clear-cut area, i.e. the option in which Silver fir individuals would exhibit good growth, low mortality, low frost injury and high vitality (needle length and colour appeared to be the plantation of Silver fir in mixed rows with the European larch (N-S direction of rows, where the larch starts to overgrow the fir very rapidly, thus providing the necessary shelter. Pure fir groups are then recommended to be planted in marginal stand parts that are sheltered for a greater part of the day by the surrounding stand.
Alfille, J.P.; Schildknecht, J.; Ramaswami, V.S.
In the frame of an european contract, the feasibility of the underwater cutting with a CO 2 laser power is studied. The aim of this work is the dismantling metallic structures of reactors pools. The paper analyzes the general concept of the experimental device, the underwater cutting head, the experimenting vessel, examples of cuttings in dismantling situation with a 500 W CO 2 laser, and examples of cuttings with a 5 kW CO 2 laser. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs
Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo
In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius.......In micro milling the maximum uncut chip thickness is often smaller than the cutting edge radius. This paper introduces a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge radius....
Shunmugam, M. S.
Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.
Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona
understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....
... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...
Watanabe, Masaaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Miyao, Hidehiko; Ooki, Arahiko; Ninomiya, Toshiaki; Koiwai, Masami
On decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the thermal cutting technique such as an oxygen-acetylene gas cutting and a plasma arc cutting are generally used for cutting massive and thick steel structures in consideration with cutting speed and control performance. These techniques generate dust, smoke, aerosol and a large quantity of secondary waste. Mechanical cutting technique has an advantage of small amount of secondary waste, and the metal chips from the kerf recovered easily compared with these thermal cutting technique. The remote mechanical cutting system for highly activated RPV has been developed with the manner which achieves the safety and cost effectiveness. The development has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)
Ebben, William P; Fauth, McKenzie L; Petushek, Erich J; Garceau, Luke R; Hsu, Brittni E; Lutsch, Brittney N; Feldmann, Christina R
This study evaluated gender differences in the magnitude and timing of hamstring and quadriceps activation during activities that are believed to cause anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Twelve men (age = 21.0 +/- 1.2 years; body mass = 81.61 +/- 13.3 kg; and jump height = 57.61 +/- 10.15 cm) and 12 women (age = 19.91 +/- 0.9 years; body mass = 64.36 +/- 6.14 kg; and jump height = 43.28 +/- 7.5) performed 3 repetitions each of the drop jump (jump) normalized to the subject's vertical jump height, and a sprint and cut at a 45-degree angle (cut). Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), lateral hamstring (LH), and medial hamstrings (MH) activation, timing, activation ratios, and timing ratios before and after foot contact for the jump and cut and normalized to each subject's hamstring and quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance with results demonstrating that during the postcontact phase of the cut, men demonstrated greater LH and MH activation than women. In the precontact phase of the jump, men showed earlier activation of the VL and VM, than women. Women produced longer RF and VM muscle bursts during the postcontact phase of the cut. Additionally, men showed a trend toward higher hamstring to quadriceps activation ratio than women for the postcontact phase of the cut. This study provides evidence that men are LH dominant during the postcontact phase of the cut compared with women, whereas women sustain RF activation longer than men during this phase. Men activate quadriceps muscles earlier than women in the precontact phase of the jump. Training interventions may offer the potential for increasing the rate and magnitude of hamstring muscle activation. These outcomes should be evaluated using EMG during movements that are similar to those that cause ACL injuries to determine if gender differences in muscle activation can be
Silva, B G; Piratelli, A J
In this study we tested for density-dependent relationships between visitation rates of the Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome) and the plant density and flower number of the bromeliad Vriesea incurvata, by comparing plots with varying densities of this bromeliad. Eight 100 m2 plots were established at least 200 m from each other; four plots contained 10-15 individuals of V. incurvata each, whereas the other four contained 4-5 individuals each. The visitors, number of visits, behaviour (nectar thief or potential pollinator) and the height of foraging were recorded during focal observations on the plants. The number of visits of P. eurynome varied according to the local density of V. incurvata, showing that the heterogeneous distribution of this bromeliad species may promote adjustments in the pollinator populations, through resource variation at a local scale.
Full Text Available In this study we tested for density-dependent relationships between visitation rates of the Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome and the plant density and flower number of the bromeliad Vriesea incurvata, by comparing plots with varying densities of this bromeliad. Eight 100 m2 plots were established at least 200 m from each other; four plots contained 10-15 individuals of V. incurvata each, whereas the other four contained 4-5 individuals each. The visitors, number of visits, behaviour (nectar thief or potential pollinator and the height of foraging were recorded during focal observations on the plants. The number of visits of P. eurynome varied according to the local density of V. incurvata, showing that the heterogeneous distribution of this bromeliad species may promote adjustments in the pollinator populations, through resource variation at a local scale.
Danno, Karine; Cognet-Dementhon, Brigitte; Thevenard, Geneviève; Duru, Gérard; Allaert, François-André; Bordet, Marie-France
Pharmacists play a key role in primary healthcare, but the characteristics of patients who consult a pharmacist directly rather than going to their general practitioner (GP) are unknown. Our aim was to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who seek direct therapeutic advice from a pharmacist for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ear, nose and throat (ENT) disorders, the types of medicines dispensed and patient satisfaction with the advice received. This prospective, observational study was carried out on a random sample of French pharmacies between November 2010 and March 2011. Patients (≥12-years) with early symptoms of ILI or ENT disorders (management of ILI and ENT disorders has several public health benefits. The clinical improvement and high patient satisfaction observed validate the role of the pharmacist as a health professional of first resort. Copyright © 2014 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dorsch, J.; Katsube, T.J.; Sanford, W.E.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Dugan, B.E.; Tourkow, L.M.
Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method
Full Text Available This article concentrates on the characteristics of shamanic practice in Tuva, a republic within the Russian Federation. While delineating the unique features of shamanic craft, such as a lack of trance, the analysis concentrates on the significance of sound and music as indispensable elements of the shamanic repertoire. In short, the article argues that the organizational structure of the sound unit in Tuva employed in throat singing and based on the overtone-rich timbre system constitutes a wider framework of patterns of thought and behavior which underlies the organizational structure of shamanic rituals. In this way, the article shows how sounds are not only the integral feature of the shamans' communications and negotiations with spirits, but also an analytical lens for the broader understandings of shamanic practice and sociocosmic interactions in Tuva in general.
Hayward, Gail Nicola; Hay, Alastair D; Moore, Michael V; Jawad, Sena; Williams, Nicola; Voysey, Merryn; Cook, Johanna; Allen, Julie; Thompson, Matthew; Little, Paul; Perera, Rafael; Wolstenholme, Jane; Harman, Kim; Heneghan, Carl
Acute sore throat poses a significant burden on primary care and is a source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Corticosteroids could be an alternative symptomatic treatment. To assess the clinical effectiveness of oral corticosteroids for acute sore throat in the absence of antibiotics. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (April 2013-February 2015; 28-day follow-up completed April 2015) conducted in 42 family practices in South and West England, enrolled 576 adults recruited on the day of presentation to primary care with acute sore throat not requiring immediate antibiotic therapy. Single oral dose of 10 mg of dexamethasone (n = 293) or identical placebo (n = 283). Primary: proportion of participants experiencing complete resolution of symptoms at 24 hours. Secondary: complete resolution at 48 hours, duration of moderately bad symptoms (based on a Likert scale, 0, normal; 6, as bad as it could be), visual analog symptom scales (0-100 mm; 0, no symptom to 100, worst imaginable), health care attendance, days missed from work or education, consumption of delayed antibiotics or other medications, adverse events. Among 565 eligible participants who were randomized (median age, 34 years [interquartile range, 26.0-45.5 year]; 75.2% women; 100% completed the intervention), 288 received dexamethasone; 277, placebo. At 24 hours, 65 participants (22.6%) in the dexamethasone group and 49 (17.7%) in the placebo group achieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 4.7% (95% CI, -1.8% to 11.2%) and a relative risk of 1.28 (95% CI; 0.92 to 1.78; P = .14). At 24 hours, participants receiving dexamethasone were not more likely than those receiving placebo to have complete symptom resolution. At 48 hours, 102 participants (35.4%) in the dexamethasone group vs 75 (27.1%) in the placebo group achieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 8.7% (95% CI, 1.2% to 16.2%) and a relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1
Jakobsson, H.; Jernberg, C.; Andersson, A.F.; Sjolund-Karlsson, M.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.
Antibiotic administration is the standard treatment for the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, the long-term consequences of this treatment on the human indigenous microbiota are relatively unexplored. Here we studied short- and long-term effects of clarithromycin and metronidazole treatment, a commonly used therapy regimen against H. pylori, on the indigenous microbiota in the throat and in the lower intestine. The bacterial compositions in samples collected over a four year period were monitored by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene using 454-based pyrosequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). While the microbial communities of untreated control subjects were relatively stable over time, dramatic shifts were observed one week after antibiotic treatment with reduced bacterial diversity in all treated subjects in both locations. While the microbiota of the different subjects responded uniquely to the antibiotic treatment some general trends could be observed; such as a dramatic decline in Actinobacteria in both throat and feces immediately after treatment. Although the diversity of the microbiota subsequently recovered to resemble the pre treatment states, the microbiota remained perturbed in some cases for up to four years post treatment. In addition, four years after treatment high levels of the macrolide resistance gene erm(B) were found, indicating that antibiotic resistance, once selected for, can persist for longer periods of time than previously recognized. This highlights the importance of a restrictive antibiotic usage in order to prevent subsequent treatment failure and potential spread of antibiotic resistance.
Gonser Rusty A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.
Andrea K Townsend
Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.
Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.92 Newspaper cuts. Newspaper cuts, mats, or engraved blocks for use in retailers' advertisements may be given or sold by an industry member to a retailer selling the industry member's products. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26, 1995] ...
Rosier, J.C.; Snel, R.; Goedvolk, E.J.
The harvesting of flowers and cuttings can be considered as a skilled task. It takes weeks of training for the pickers to harvest quality cutting at the required production rate of one per second. The skill of the pickers is the ability to execute a number of functions within a short time. The
Dec 9, 2016 ... The data of EEG from 60-second blocks prior to neck cut to 90-second blocks post neck cut were taken for statistical analysis based on the time to .... reported an initial increase in total EEG power in lambs of different ages undergoing rubber-ring castration. In these cases, the increase in total EEG power ...
In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...
H. Clay Smith; Paul M. Smithson
To reduce damage to hardwood stems by grapevines, it is recommended that grapevines be cut near ground level several years before the harvest cutting. Cost of completing this practice on 117 acres supporting 22 vines per acre was found to be about $3.50 per acre.
This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. Combined ...
Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…
Olsen, Flemming Ove
Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...
Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona
A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.
It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed
Abstract. This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of. X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies.
Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) Machining is a recent non-traditional machining process. This technology is widely used in industry for cutting difficult-to-machine-materials, milling slots, polishing hard materials etc. AWJ machining has many advantages, e.g. it can cut net-shape parts, no heat is
Reglero, V.; Velasco, T.; Rodrigo, J.; Gasent, L.J.; Alamo, J.; Chato, R.; Ruiz Urien, I.; Santos, I.; Zarauz, J.; Clemente, G.; Sanz-Tudanca, C.; Lopez, J.L.
The results obtained during the INTEGRAL masks development program an implementing the HURA and MURA codes on tungsten plates of different thickness are presented. Hard scientific requirements on pixels size and location tolerances (tenths of microns over large areas -1 m 2 - and thickness from 0.5 mm to 60 mm) required the set up of a dedicated program for testing cutting technologies: laser, photochemical milling, spark machining and electro discharge wire cutting. After a very intensive test campaign the wire cutting process was selected as the optimum technology for code manufacturing . Accuracies achieved an the code cutting fulfill scientific requirements. In fact, they are 5 times better than required. Pixel size and centroids location accuracies of 0.01 mm over a 1 m 2 area have been obtained for the 10,000 pixels on IBIS, 100 pixels on SPI and 24000 pixels on JEM-X masks. Comparative results among different cutting technologies are also discussed. (author)
Full Text Available A review of state-of-the-art methods for cutting stock problem optimisation shows that the current methods lead to near-optimum results for the instantaneous optimisation of trim loss. Further optimisation of this activity would not bring a considerable improvement. Therefore, the paper treats cutting stock as a continuous business process and not as an isolated activity. An exact method for a general one-dimensional cutting stock problem is presented and tested. The method is mainly suitable for smaller orders. It is then applied to continuous cutting and used to develop a method for assessing cutting costs in consecutive time periods. The modified method finds a good solution over the whole time-span, rather than just local optima.
For thermal dismantling and cutting of metallic components, as electric arc, water jet cutting method was developed that can be used for underwater cutting work up to a depth of 20 m. Short-circuiting of a continuously fed electrode wire in contact with the metal generates an electric arc which induces partial melting of the metal, and the water jet surrounding the wire rinses away the molten material, thus making a continuous kerf in the material. The method was also tested and modified to allow larger area, surface cutting and removal of metallic surface coatings. This is achieved by melting parts of the surface with the electric arc and subsequent rinsing by the water jet. The cutting and melting depth for surface removal can be accurately controlled by the operating parameters chosen. (orig./DG) [de
Ince Mehmet Alper
Full Text Available This paper presents of the influence on vibration of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius. The influences of cutting parameters have been presented in graphical form for understanding. To achieve the minimum vibration, the optimum values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.25 mm/rev, 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm. Maximum vibration has been revealed the values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 636 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0,5 mm and 0.8 mm.
The present data justify the need to further develop e-cigarettes so that an optimal OTH is identified quickly. Further research is needed to confirm the above results in other populations and to assess the specific influence of flavour on throat hit.
Importance of diagnostic laboratory methods of beta hemolytic streptococcus group A in comparison with clinical findings in the diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat and unnecessary antibacterial therapy
Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus Pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is the most important cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions in all ages but it is most common in children. Over diagnosis of acute pharyngitis represents one of the major causes of antibiotic abuse. The goal of this study is to make an estimate of the frequency of group A streptococcus in sore throat patients in Farshchian hospital emergency department and clinic in Hamadan. Methods: For estimation of the clinical features role in diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat, we took samples of 100 patients with average age of 32.96±29.86 years with sore throat. We took samples from pharynx and used standard methods of bacteriology in order to detect streptococcus. Results: Group A Streptococcus (GAS accounts for 3 percent of all cases of pharyngitis. Clinically, all of the patients had sore throat. The percent breakdowns are as follows: 30% had exudate, 78% had fever, 8% had lymphadenopathy and 7.7 percent of exudative pharyngitis was streptococcal. The cost for unnecessary antibiotic therapy for every single patient who had negative pharynx culture was approximately 32160 Rails. Conclusion: The low frequency of streptococcus pharyngitis in treated patients reveal that diagnosis based on clinical features is not reliable. We recommend use of other diagnostic methods such as Rapid Antigen Detection Tests (RATs. Only reliable and scientific protocols for antibiotic to therapy.
... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...
Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles
As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.
Rescate de colgajo muscular de trapecio con isla cutánea en paciente lesionado medular que precisa rehabilitación inmediata Rescue of a pedicled trapezious muscle flap with skin paddle in a patient with spinal cord injury who needded inmediate rehabilitation
J.M. Arévalo Velasco
Full Text Available La terapia por presión negativa (subatmosférica es una modalidad no invasiva de tratamiento que hoy en día está incluida en el arsenal terapéutico de cualquier Servicio no sólo de Cirugía Plástica, sino también de Cirugía General, Cirugía Vascular y Traumatología. Se puede aplicar en el tratamiento de heridas tanto crónicas como agudas más o menos complejas, con el fin de evitar aumentar el tiempo y el número de curas necesarias y además el realizar cirugías que conlleven una elevada morbilidad para el paciente. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con cuadro depresivo secundario a la mala evolución clínica sufrida tras el desarrollo de una lesión medular transversa D4 ASIA C (incompleta de causa iatrogénica postquirúrgica (vertebroplastia-fusión vertebral por aplastamiento vertebral D3-D4, en el que tras más de 6 meses de evolución tórpida de una úlcera dorsal alta, se realizó un colgajo de músculo trapecio pediculado con paleta cutánea para cobertura del defecto, en cuyo postoperatorio inmediato sufrió, de nuevo iatrogénicamente, una pérdida parcial de dicha paleta y un seroma importante en la zona dadora. Consideramos de interés este caso porque la aplicación de terapia de presión negativa empleando el sistema VAC® nos permitió: 1 Minimizar la pérdida de tejido del colgajo. 2 Disminuir el número de curas semanales hasta 1 ó 2. 3 Disminuir también el tiempo empleado en cada cura. 4 Que el paciente pudiera desplazarse en su silla de ruedas con dos sistemas VAC® portátiles hasta el gimnasio para no abandonar su programa de rehabilitación. 5 Que ante una evolución rápida e inesperada, el paciente experimentara una notable mejoría clínica de su estado depresivo-ansioso y 6 La colocación final de un sistema VAC-VIA® de última generación sobre los autoinjertos, para que el paciente pudiera continuar su tratamiento de terapia ocupacional y fisioterápico de extremidades superiores. Consideramos las
"Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project" is an international cross-disciplinary initiative that uses Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) as a hook to excite K-12 students (and adults) about science learning. In 2002, Operation RubyThroat affiliated with The GLOBE Program as the first GLOBE protocol that involves animal behavior. Through Operation RubyThroat, students make observations about hummingbird phenology, behavior, and ecology and correlate their data against traditional GLOBE observations of atmosphere, climate, land cover, soils, hydrology, and phenology. Although Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (RTHUs) breed throughout the eastern half of the United States and southern Canada and may be the most common and most widely distributed of all 338 hummingbird species, little is known about how abiotic environmental factors affect their migration, nesting activities, and everyday behavior. Operation RubyThroat participants in the U.S. and Canada log early arrival dates of RTHUs during spring migration, note their presence throughout the breeding season, and report the last date RTHUs are seen in autumn. Conversely, participants in Mexico and all seven Central American countries (the region in which RTHUs spend their non-breeding months) watch for early arrivals in fall and late departures in spring. Participants also attempt to estimate numbers of RTHUs in local populations by counting the number of visits hummingbirds make to feeders and/or flowers in a 45-minute time block. Optional activities include observations of RTHU nesting behaviors and determining RTHU preferences for various species of native and exotic nectar sources. Participating schools are encouraged to establish Schoolyard Hummingbird Habitats in which to make their observations, but data may be collected in backyards or at local parks, nature centers, botanical gardens, and other sites where RTHUs occur. Adults not affiliated with K-12 schools are invited to become certified in
Church, Deirdre L; Lloyd, Tracie; Larios, Oscar; Gregson, Daniel B
Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture, but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e., same day versus 48 to 72 h for culture). Our laboratory uses the Hologic GAS Direct (GASD) assay for screening more than 125,000 throat samples per year. Simplexa GAS Direct is a new real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that does not require initial DNA extraction. Performance of Simplexa qPCR was compared to GASD. A total of 289 throat swabs were collected from patients attending ambulatory clinics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A total of 60 (20.8%) of the samples were initially GAS positive by either method: 54 by both methods, 4 by Simplex qPCR alone, and 2 by GASD alone. An in-house PCR using a unique GAS primer set was used to resolve the 6 discrepant results. Overall, GASD compared to Simplexa qPCR had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 93.1% versus 100%, 100% versus 100%, 100% versus 100%, and 98.31% versus 100%, respectively. Implementation of Simplexa qPCR in our laboratory setting would cost more but allow the high sample volume to be reported in half the time and save 0.62 medical laboratory technician (MLT) full-time equivalent (FTE). In comparison to culture, the implementation of Simplexa qPCR would save 2.79 medical laboratory assistant (MLA) FTE plus 0.94 MLT FTE. Simplexa qPCR has improved performance and diagnostic efficiency in a high-volume laboratory compared to GASD for GAS detection in throat swabs. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.
A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.
Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Kan, Yudi
In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It's difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.
Full Text Available In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It’s difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.
Lambooij, E; van der Werf, J T N; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A
Brain and heart activities were measured in 31 veal calves during restraining and rotating followed by neck cutting with or without stunning to evaluate welfare. After neck cutting correlation dimension analyses and %power of EEG beta wave fraction decreased gradually to lower values resulting in an induction of unconsciousness lasting on average 80s. Corneal reflex response ceased 135±57s after neck cutting. The CD scores and the %power of beta waves fell immediately after post-cut captive bolt and pre-cut electrical stunning to levels indicating unconsciousness. Heart rate in lairage increased upon entrance to the restrainer and again after rotation, heart rate variability decreased. Rotating the restrainer 90°, 120° or 180° compromised veal calf welfare and should be avoided. It is recommended to use post-cut captive bolt stunning or pre-cut electrical stunning inducing immediate unconsciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lebude, Anthony V; Goldfarb, Barry; Blazich, Frank A; Wise, Farrell C; Frampton, John
We investigated the influence of cutting water potential (Psicut) on rooting of juvenile hardwood (dormant) and softwood (succulent) stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) propagated under varying substrate water potentials (Psisub) and volumes of mist application. Mist treatment and Psisub contributed to the Psicut of unrooted stem cuttings. When Psisub was held constant across mist treatments, mist treatment contributed strongly to Psicut. Substrate water potential affected rooting percentage when mist treatment was sub-optimal or excessive, otherwise mist treatment had a stronger effect than Psisub on rooting percentage. Cuttings rooted best when subjected to moderate cutting water potentials (-0.5 to -1.2 MPa) during the initial 4 or 5 weeks of the rooting period. Cuttings experiencing either severe water deficit or no water deficit rooted poorly. We conclude that the rooting environment should impose a moderate water stress on loblolly pine stem cuttings to achieve optimum rooting. Copyright 2004 Heron Publishing
Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...
Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove
Over the past few years there has been an enormous increase in the use of tailored blanks, especially in the automotive industry. Often the sheets for tailored blanks are shear cut, but results have been reported that the allowable sheet gap distance should not exceed 0.1 mm in order to obtain...... sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...
Brock, Elizabeth; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare; Liu, Xuan; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C
Multiple playing surfaces and footwear used in American football warrant a better understanding of relationship between different combinations of turf and footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of shoe and stud types on ground reaction force (GRF) and ankle and knee kinematics of a 180° cut and a single-leg 90° land-cut on synthetic turf. Fourteen recreational football players performed five trials of the 180° cut and 90° land-cut in three shoe conditions: non-studded running shoe, and football shoe with natural and synthetic turf studs. Variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Peak vertical GRF (p < 0.001) and loading rate (p < 0.001) were greater during 90° land-cut than 180° cut. For 180° cut, natural turf studs produced smaller peak medial GRFs compared to synthetic turf studs and non-studded shoe (p = 0.012). For land-cut, peak eversion velocity was reduced in running shoes compared to natural (p = 0.016) and synthetic (p = 0.002) turf studs. The 90° land-cut movement resulted in greater peak vertical GRF and loading rate compared to the 180° cut. Overall, increased GRFs in the 90° land-cut movement may increase the chance of injury.
H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller
Deferment cutting is a regeneration practice that resembles a seed-tree or shelterwood cutting. The difference is that residual trees are not cut when the reproduction becomes established. Instead, residual trees are left until new reproduction matures to sawtimber size, and another regeneration cut is the silvicultural objective. Hence, with deferment cutting specific...
This paper introduces a class of cuts, called reachability cuts, for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Reachability cuts are closely related to cuts derived from precedence constraints in the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows and to k-path cuts...
Breu, Silvia; Zimmermann, Thomas; Lindig, Christian
Software may contain functionality that does not align with its architecture. Such cross-cutting concerns do not exist from the beginning but emerge over time. By analysing where developers add code to a program, our history-based mining identifies cross-cutting concerns in a two-step process. First, we mine CVS archives for sets of methods where a call to a specific single method was added. In a second step, simple cross-cutting concerns are combined to complex cross-...
Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.
This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.
Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus
We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....
Gettemy, Donald J.
A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.
Gerda Strutzenberger; Hue-Man Cao; Janina Koussev; Wolfgang Potthast; Gareth Irwin
Purpose: The globalisation of artificial turf and the increase in player participation has driven the need to examine injury risk in the sport of football. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface–player interaction in female football players between natural and artificial turf. Methods: Eight university level female football players performed an unanticipated cutting manoeuvre at an angle of 30° and 60°, on a regulation natural grass pitch (NT) and a 3G artificial turf pit...
Production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS by Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from the tongue and throat of children with and without sore throat Produção de substâncias inibidoras semelhantes à bacteriocina por cepas de Streptococcus salivarius, isoladas da língua e garganta de crianças com e sem dor de garganta
Full Text Available Streptococcus salivarius strains, isolated from children with and without sore throat, were tested for bacteriocin production against Streptococcus pyogenes. S. salivarius strains producing bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS against S. pyogenes were more frequently found in children without sore throat. These results suggest that these children may be protected against sore throat by the presence of BLIS-positive S. salivarius strains.Cepas de Streptococcus salivarius, isoladas de crianças com e sem dor de garganta, foram testadas quanto à produção de bacteriocina contra Streptococcus pyogenes. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças que não tinham dor de garganta possuiam, na boca, cepas de bactérias produtoras de substâncias inibidoras semelhantes à bacteriocina contra S. pyogenes.
You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom
This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…
... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...
... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...
... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...
... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...
... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...
... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...
... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
Ehlbeck, U.; Corin, C.O.
By the use of solid matter as additives in cutting tooths it is now also possible to cut metals (steel, high-alloy steel, titanium, aluminium, lead). The same standard high-pressure elements for the generation of a water jet are used to cut metals, glass, and ceramics. But within the tool the water jet first of all enters a mixer chamber where it takes in a predosed abrasive by the action of an injector. At the exit end of the mixer chamber, the jet is concentrated again. New applications of this 'Paser' system (particle-stream-erosion cutting process, a registered trade mark), which is also called abrasive jet process, are in aviation and space travel, nuclear technology and so forth. (orig./HP) [de
Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Pedersen, Lene Holm
This article investigates politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending. The research questions are where do politicians prefer to cut, where do they prefer to spend and how is this influenced by political ideology? These questions are investigated in a large-scale survey experiment fielded...... to Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...... are assigned the least cuts when the grant is reduced, are rarely the ones which are assigned extra money when the grant is increased. Areas with well-organised interests and a target group which is perceived as deserving are granted more money, whereas policy areas where the target group is perceived as less...
38, Part 3, June 2013, pp. 429–445. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 with CBN tool. H AOUICI1,2,∗. , M A YALLESE2, A BELBAH2, M F AMEUR1 and M ELBAH2. 1ENST-ex CT siège DG. SNVI ...
Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Hilger, A.
We have developed the first tuneable channel cut crystal for ultra small angle neutron scattering and neutron optical experiments. The Darwin range of a perfect crystal can be reduced down to a fraction of its natural width. This “Darwin reduction” was realised without any change of the beam geometry which yields an intensity gain relative to conventional asymmetric Bragg diffraction. With such tuneable channel cut crystal peaks nearly δ-peaks can experimentally be realised.
Kruse, R J
There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.
Nomura, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Schnase, Alexander; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Anami, Shozo; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Ohmori, Chihiro; Takagi, Akira; Yoshii, Masahito
A new type of rf cavity using a high permeability magnetic alloy (MA) will be used for the J-PARC high intense proton synchrotrons. The cut core configuration has been adopted to get the optimum Q-value of MA core. We observed the cut surface of MA cores obtained by water jet and grind stone cut. The results show that the roughness of the cut surfaces by grind stone cut is much smaller than by water jet cut so that the cut core by grind stone cut has a possibility to reduce the temperature rise around the cut surface. We developed a grind stone cutting machine for large core and cut large cores by using this machine. High power test of those cores have been performed and we did not observe the temperature rise around the cut surface. (author)
Whyte, E F; Richter, C; O'Connor, S; Moran, K A
Deficits in trunk control predict ACL injuries which frequently occur during high-risk activities such as cutting. However, no existing trunk control/core stability program has been found to positively affect trunk kinematics during cutting activities. This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-week dynamic core stability program (DCS) on the biomechanics of anticipated and unanticipated side and crossover cutting maneuvers. Thirty-one male, varsity footballers participated in this randomized controlled trial. Three-dimensional trunk and lower limb biomechanics were captured in a motion analysis laboratory during the weight acceptance phase of anticipated and unanticipated side and crossover cutting maneuvers at baseline and 6-week follow-up. The DCS group performed a DCS program three times weekly for 6 weeks in a university rehabilitation room. Both the DCS and control groups concurrently completed their regular practice and match play. Statistical parametric mapping and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to determine any group (DCS vs control) by time (pre vs post) interactions. The DCS resulted in greater internal hip extensor (P=.017, η 2 =0.079), smaller internal knee valgus (P=.026, η 2 =0.076), and smaller internal knee external rotator moments (P=.041, η 2 =0.066) during anticipated side cutting compared with the control group. It also led to reduced posterior ground reaction forces for all cutting activities (P=.015-.030, η 2 =0.074-0.105). A 6-week DCS program did not affect trunk kinematics, but it did reduce a small number of biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, predominantly during anticipated side cutting. A DCS program could play a role in multimodal ACL injury prevention programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jha, S.K.; Ghosal, Swati; Goswami, G.L.
A laser cutting assembly has been made which allows laser beam to be focused on a job submerged under water, even though the laser head remains outside water. Under water cutting will be very useful for cutting of radioactive materials inside pool or storage bay. This can also be used for reactive materials like uranium etc which otherwise are difficult to cut in open atmosphere as they catch fire. The effect of cutting parameters on the cut quality and also comparison between under-water cutting and open air-cutting is discussed. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab
Wang, J; Shanmugam, D K
An experimental study of abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting of beef, pork and lamb meat with and without bone is presented. Salt particles were used as the abrasives. It has been found that an AWJ could significantly increase the depth of cut with much improved cut quality in cutting pure meat as compared to plain (or pure) waterjet cutting, while a plain waterjet was incapable of cutting bone satisfactorily. The study shows that AWJ cutting produced a very narrow kerf of less than 1mm and hence resulted in mush less meat loss than the traditional cutting processes, and meat can be cut at room temperature to eliminate the freezing or chilling costs. It is shown that a traverses speed of 20mm/s can be used to cut through 44mm thick beef rib bones with good cut quality. When slicing pure meat of 150mm thickness, the traverse speed of 66.67mm/s can yield very good cut quality. It is suggested that AWJ cutting is a viable technology for meat cutting. Plausible trends for the depth of cut, cutting rate and cut quality with respect to the process variables are discussed. Recommendations are finally made for the selection of the most appropriate process parameters for cutting meat of a given thickness.
Rebecca N. Cliffe
Full Text Available Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2. Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.
Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth
Purpose The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of enhanced condensational growth (ECG), as a novel inhalation drug delivery method, on nano-aerosol deposition in a mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) model using in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Methods Separate streams of nebulized nano-aerosols and saturated humidified air (39°C—ECG; 25°C—control) were combined as they were introduced into a realistic MT-TB geometry. Aerosol deposition was determined in the MT, generations G0–G2 (trachea—lobar bronchi) and G3–G5 and compared to CFD simulations. Results Using ECG conditions, deposition of 560 and 900 nm aerosols was low in the MT region of the MT-TB model. Aerosol drug deposition in the G0–G2 and G3–G5 regions increased due to enhanced condensational growth compared to control. CFD-predicted depositions were generally in good agreement with the experimental values. Conclusions The ECG platform appears to offer an effective method of delivering nano-aerosols through the extrathoracic region, with minimal deposition, to the tracheobronchial airways and beyond. Aerosol deposition is then facilitated as enhanced condensational growth increases particle size. Future studies will investigate the effects of physio-chemical drug properties and realistic inhalation profiles on ECG growth characteristics. PMID:20454837
Cui, Xinguang; Gutheil, Eva
An excellent understanding of the airflow properties is critical to improve the drug delivery efficiency via the extrathoracic airway. The present numerical study focuses on the investigation the characteristics of important airflow structures such as the secondary vortices, the impinging jet and the recirculation zone under unsteady inspiration flow conditions in a circular idealized mouth-throat model using large eddy simulation (LES). Five inhalation cycles are simulated, the last one of which is analyzed in detail at five different times. Two times are chosen during the accelerating branch, one at the peak and two within the decelerating inhalation wave. The flow exhibits an extinct process of the flow transiting from laminar to turbulent during the accelerating phase and transiting back from turbulent to laminar in the decelerating phase. It is found that the flow is much more turbulent during the decelerating phase compared to the accelerating phase of the inspiration wave, which is associated with more smaller secondary vortices, a shorter and more unsteady laryngeal jet, a smaller and more unsteady recirculation zone, as well as an enlarged mixing zone. These differences during the unsteady inspiration require more attention in particular if particle transport and deposition in the upper airway are to be investigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Samji, Hussein A; Jackler, Robert K
Early in the last century, when questions about the health effects of smoking became a topic of widespread discussion, tobacco companies undertook a multi-faceted campaign to allay the public's fears. As terms like "smoker's cough" and "coffin nails" (referring to cigarettes) began to appear in the popular vernacular, tobacco marketers recognized the need to counter this threat to their livelihood. One strategy was to use endorsements by healthy and vigorous-appearing singers, radio stars, and actors. Another was to raise fears over weight gain: "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet." Among the more reprehensible tactics was the utilization of the image of the noble and caring physician to sell cigarettes: doctors were depicted both as satisfied and enthusiastic partakers of the smoking habit (e.g., "More doctors smoke Camels"). Images of medical men (and a few token women) appeared under warm reassurances of the safety of smoking. Frequently, images appeared of a head-mirrored "throat doctor," smiling benignly, while indicating that the company's product would do no harm. Indeed, many cigarette ads, especially for menthol brands, suggested a therapeutic soothing benefit from smoking. Liberal use was also made of pseudo-scientific medical reports and surveys. Our intention is to tell, principally through advertising images-the story of how, between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products.
Yoshida, Kenji; Miyabe, Masaya; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu
Experimental studies on turbulence structure and liquid film behavior in annular two-phase flow were carried out concerned with the steam injector systems for a next-generation nuclear reactor. In the steam injector, steam/water annular two-phase flow is formed at the mixing nozzle. To make an appropriate design for high-performance steam injector system, it is very important to accumulate the fundamental data of thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of annular flow in the steam injector. Especially, the turbulence modification in multi-phase flow due to the phase interaction is one of the most important phenomena and has attracted research attention. In this study, the liquid film behavior and the resultant turbulence modification due to the phase interaction were investigated. The behavior of the interfacial waves on liquid film flow such as the ripple or disturbance waves were observed to make clear the interfacial velocity and the special structure of the interfacial waves by using the high-speed video camera and the digital camera. The measurements for gas-phase velocity profiles and turbulent intensity in annular flow passing through the throat section were precisely performed to investigate quantitatively the turbulent modification in annular flow by using the constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. The measurements for liquid film thickness by the electrode needle method were also carried out. (author)
Full Text Available Aim: This study was to investigate the laboratory and clinical features of patients in whom Streptococcus spp. were isolated from cultures other than throat cultures. Methods: A total of 161 Streptococcus strains isolated from clinical specimens from 101 (64% hospitalized patients and 65 (36% outpatients and clinical and laboratory features of patients were investigated retrospectively. Isolated Streptococcus strains were further identified for type and antibiotic susceptibility according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Streptococcus strains types were determined as follows; group A (9-5.6%, group B (64-39.7%, group C (2-1.2%, group D (2-1.2%, group G (2-1.2%, viridans (57-32.2%, and Streptococcus pneumonia (24-14,9%. Most frequently observed infections were urinary system infections (52-32.2%, skin and soft tissue infections (48-29.8% and pulmonary infections (25-15.5%. In 87 (54% of patients, there was more than one comorbid condition. While all group A Streptococcus pyogenes strains were susceptible to penicillin, 13% of Streptococcus pneumonia were resistant to penicillin and 36.3% were resistant to macrolides. Mortality was observed in eight patients. Conclusion: Invasive streptococcal infections may cause serious mortality and morbidity especially in patients with comorbid conditions. Early detection and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are most important parameters for the management of streptococcal infections.
Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P
Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.
Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan
Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.
Gupta, S D; Lee, B T; Camakaris, J; Wu, H C
It has been suggested previously that copper transport in Escherichia coli is mediated by the products of at least six genes, cutA, cutB, cutC, cutD, cutE, and cutF. A mutation in one or more of these genes results in an increased copper sensitivity (D. Rouch, J. Camakaris, and B. T. O. Lee, p. 469-477, in D. H. Hamer and D. R. Winge, ed., Metal Ion Homeostasis: Molecular Biology and Chemistry, 1989). Copper-sensitive cutC and cutF mutants were transformed with a genomic library of E. coli, a...
Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S
Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Martin, H.L.; Nutt, A.W.; Myers, B.L.; Hightower, J.O.
An employee exhibited signs of illness after apparently inhaling fumes generated from a pipe that had been cut with a cutting torch. Identification and quantification of the hazardous air emission for reduction of risk via the Department of Energy Class B Investigation are described in this case study. The old hydrogen sulfide gas flare pipe in the heavy water plant of the Savannah River Site has been abandoned with one end open to atmosphere for almost twenty years. The pipe was being removed and cut into sections for disposal during an asbestos abatement project. It contained ash like corrosion deposits that smolder after torch cutting. Investigation revealed that burning of carbon and sulfur in the oxygen deficient atmosphere in the ash generated carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) gas, which vented when the pipe was moved by the injured construction rigger. This is believed to be the first well documented exposure and response of a human to high concentration COS gas. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas is also generated during the cutting. SO 2 is almost impossible to inhale and has apparently prevented a similar injury during the cutting. SO 2 is almost impossible to inhale and has apparently prevented a similar injury during the many years of US and Canadian heavy water plant de-construction experience. Immediate water quench of the smoldering ash after each cut has eliminated the hazard of residual COS and CS 2 gas. This previously unrecognized industrial hazard may be encountered by other chemical and petroleum industries during torch cutting of pipes that contain similar deposits of iron oxide, iron sulfate, sulfur and carbon
Vogt, Sonja; Efferson, Charles; Fehr, Ernst
Worldwide, an estimated 200 million girls and women have been subjected to female genital cutting. Female genital cutting is defined as an intentional injury to the female genitalia without medical justification. The practice occurs in at least 29 countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In addition, globalization and migration have brought immigrants from countries where cutting is commonly practiced to countries where cutting is not traditionally practiced and may even be illegal. In countries receiving immigrants, governments and development agencies would like to know if girls with parents who immigrated from practicing countries are at risk of being cut. Risk assessments, for example, could help governments identify the need for programs promoting the abandonment of cutting among immigrants. Extrapolating from the prevalence and incidence rates in practicing countries, however, is generally not sufficient to guarantee a valid estimate of risk in immigrant populations. In particular, immigrants might differ from their counterparts in the country of origin in terms of attitudes toward female genital cutting. Attitudes can differ because migrants represent a special sample of people from the country of origin or because immigrants acculturate after arriving in a new country. To examine these possibilities, we used a fully anonymous, computerized task to elicit implicit attitudes toward female genital cutting among Sudanese immigrants living in Switzerland and Sudanese people in Sudan. Results show that Sudanese immigrants in Switzerland were significantly more positive about uncut girls than Sudanese in Sudan, and that selective migration out of Sudan likely contributed substantially to this difference. We conclude by suggesting how our method could potentially be coupled with recent efforts to refine extrapolation methods for estimating cutting risk among immigrant populations. More broadly, our results highlight the need to better understand how
Full Text Available Abstract About fifty larvae of Cephenemyia ulrichii Brauer (Diptera: Oestridae, some of them nearly full-grown third instars, were found in the throat of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in June 2007 near Helsinki in Finland. The parasite is considered to be host specific, occurring only in the moose (Alces alces, and this paper is apparently the first report of a successful infestation in an aberrant host.
Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M; Gaal, J S; Cameron, W; McDougall, V
Administrative data sources were used to describe the work-related injuries of drywall carpenters, to calculate rates of occurrence, and to explore high risk sub-groups. Health insurance eligibility files were used to identify a cohort of active union carpenters affiliated with a union local whose predominant work involved drywall installation in the state of Washington. These files contained the hours worked by each individual for each month between January 1989 and December 1995, providing person-hours at risk as a union carpenter. The Washington Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) provided records of workers' compensation claims filed by these individuals. Over seven years 1773 drywall carpenters filed 2567 workers' compensation claims representing an overall rate of 53.3 per 200,000 hours worked. These claims were filed by 1046 different individuals, or 59.0 percent of the cohort. Claims resulting in paid lost time from work were filed at a rate of 12.5 per 200,000 hours worked (n = 609) by 445 (25.1%) different individuals. The most common mechanisms of injury involved being struck (38.3%), overexertion (28.1%), and falls (13.2%). Struck by injuries most commonly involved cuts to the upper extremity. Overexertion injuries were most commonly described as sprains or strains involving the back. Sheetrock was associated with over 40 percent of these injuries. Falls most commonly involved injuries to the knee followed by the back and multiple injuries. Struck by injuries decreased steadily with increasing age and increasing time in the union. There was a steady increase in the rate of falls with increasing age. Overexertion injuries were responsible for the greatest proportion of costs for medical care, permanent impairment, and paid lost days. The high rates of overexertion injuries among these workers is consistent with known ergonomic stresses on drywall jobs. However, these workers are also at high risk of acute traumatic injuries.
Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G.; Dinechin, G. de; Gosse, X.; Arnaud, P.
Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A study funded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m 3 connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)
Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor
During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.
The influence of modern studded and bladed soccer boots and sidestep cutting on noncontact knee loading during match play conditions is not fully understood. Modern soccer boot type and sidestep cutting compared with straight-ahead running do not significantly influence knee internal tibia axial and valgus moments, anterior joint forces, and flexion angles. Controlled laboratory study. Fifteen professional male outfield soccer players undertook trials of straight-ahead running and sidestep cutting at 30 degrees and 60 degrees with a controlled approach velocity on a Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) approved soccer surface. Two bladed and 2 studded soccer boots from 2 manufacturers were investigated. Three-dimensional inverse dynamics analysis determined externally applied internal/external tibia axial and valgus/varus moments, anterior forces, and flexion angles throughout stance. The soccer boot type imparted no significant difference on knee loading for each maneuver. Internal tibia and valgus moments were significantly greater for sidestep cutting at 30 degrees and 60 degrees compared with straight-ahead running. Sidestep cutting at 60 degrees compared with straight-ahead running significantly increased anterior joint forces. Varying soccer boot type had no effect on knee loading for each maneuver, but sidestep cutting significantly increased internal tibia and valgus moments and anterior joint forces. Sidestep cutting, irrespective of the modern soccer boot type worn, may be implicated in the high incidence of noncontact soccer anterior cruciate ligament injuries by significantly altering knee loading.
Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. Most often injuries of brachial plexus and its branches disable the injured from using their arms and/or hands. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and mechanisms of median and ulnar forearm nerves injuries. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 99 patients surgically treated in the Clinic of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2010. All data are obtained from the patients' histories. Results. The majority of the injured patients were male, 81 (81.8%, while only 18 (18.2% were females, both mainly with nerve injuries of the distal forearm - 75 (75.6%. Two injury mechanisms were present, transection in 85 patients and traction and contusion in 14 of the patients. The most frequent etiological factor of nerve injuries was cutting, in 61 of the patients. Nerve injuries are often associated with other injuries. In the studied patients there were 22 vascular injuries, 33 muscle and tendon injuries and 20 bone fractures. Conclusion. The majority of those patients with peripheral nerve injuries are represented in the working age population, which is a major socioeconomic problem. In our study 66 out of 99 patients were between 17 and 40 years old, in the most productive age. The fact that the majority of patients had nerve injuries of the distal forearm and that they are operated within the first 6 months after injury, promises them good functional prognosis.
Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H
The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010
The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…
Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.
To investigate the changes in total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits harvested at three different stages of maturity were cut into 7-mm thick slices and stored at 5 °C. Intact fruits were stored in the same conditions as a control. The antioxidant activity was
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Cowley, Hanni R; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Kernozek, Thomas W; Hewett, Timothy E
High school female athletes are most likely to sustain a serious knee injury during soccer or basketball, 2 sports that often involve a rapid deceleration before a change of direction or while landing from a jump. To determine if female high school basketball and soccer players show neuromuscular differences during landing and cutting tasks and to examine neuromuscular differences between tasks and between dominant and nondominant sides. A 3-way mixed factorial design investigating the effects of sport (basketball, soccer), task (jumping, cutting), and side (dominant, nondominant). Laboratory. Thirty high school female athletes who listed either basketball or soccer as their only sport of participation (basketball: n = 15, age = 15.1 +/- 1.7 years, experience = 6.9 +/- 2.2 years, height = 165.3 +/- 7.9 cm, mass = 61.8 +/- 9.3 kg; soccer: n = 15, age = 14.8 +/- 0.8 years, experience = 8.8 +/- 2.5 years, height = 161.8 +/- 4.1 cm, mass = 54.6 +/- 7.6 kg). Ground reaction forces, stance time, valgus angles, and valgus moments were assessed during (1) a drop vertical jump with an immediate maximal vertical jump and (2) an immediate side-step cut at a 45 degrees angle. Basketball athletes had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump, whereas soccer players had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump. Greater valgus moments (P = .006) were noted on the dominant side during cutting. Our subjects demonstrated differences in ground reaction forces and stance times during 2 movements associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Knee valgus moment and angle were significantly influenced by the type of movement performed. Sport-specific neuromuscular training may be warranted, with basketball players focusing on jumping and landing and soccer players focusing on unanticipated cutting maneuvers.
Full Text Available Correct and stable machining process requires an appropriate cutting tool. In most cases the tool can be selected by using special tool catalogs often available in online version. But in some cases there is a need to design unusual tools, for special treatment, which are not available in tool manufacturers’ catalogs. Proper tool design requires strength and geometric calculations. Moreover, in many cases specific technical documentation is required. By using Computer Aided Design of cutting tools this task can be carried out quickly and with high accuracy. Cutting tool visualization in CAD programs gives a clear overview of the design process. Besides, these programs provide the ability to simulate real machining process. Nowadays, 3D modeling in CAD programs is a fundamental tool for engineers. Therefore, it is important to use them in the education process.
Tench, R.J.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.; Balhorn, R.L.; Allen, M.J.
Instrumentation and techniques are described to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution. This instrument and method are also used to cut-off identified parts of objects, to move around and manipulate the cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM. The plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring the hardness of materials. 10 figs.
Toenshoff, Hans Kurt
Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.
Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels
Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....
Hart, Beverly G
Self-mutilation or cutting is not uncommon and may be detected in the workplace. It stems from an underlying psychological illness, specifically borderline personality disorder (BPD). Individuals diagnosed with BPD are usually attempting to handle negative childhood experiences and feelings of abandonment. They often overreact to social stress and engage in cutting to alleviate uncomfortable feelings. A small percentage go on to attempt suicide. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is the preferred treatment modality for individuals with BPD. Occupational health nurses are in a pivotal position to identify workers who cut and to refer them to appropriate treatment options. In addition, occupational health nurses can learn to reinforce the social skills learned in DBT.
Hulick, Robert M.
Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO 2 is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO 2 and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO 2 cooling has
Black, J. T.
A model for the plastic deformation that occurs in metal cutting, based on dislocation mechanics, is presented. The model explains the fundamental deformation structure that develops during machining and is based on the well known Cottrell-Stokes Law, wherein the flow stress is partitioned into two parts; an athermal part which occurs in the shear fronts (or shear bands); and a thermal part which occurs in the lamella regions. The deformation envokes the presence of a cellular dislocation distribution which always exists in the material ahead of the shear process. This 'alien' dislocation distribution either exists in the metal prior to cutting or is produced by the compressive stress field which operates in front of the shear process. The magnitude of the flow stress and direction of the shear are shown to be correlated to the stacking fault energy of the metal being cut. The model is tested with respect to energy consumption rates and found to be consistent with observed values.
Hamasaki, Masanobu; Katsumura, Munehide; Utsumi, Hiroaki
The biological shield concrete and the radiation shield concrete which construct a part of the atomic reactor must be demolished with the decommissioning of the atomic reactor plants. In a case, the demolition using a laser is expected as one of excellent method for the decommissioning of these radioactive concretes. The fundamental cuttings of a mortar, the concretes with andesite, lime stone and gray wacke as ballast and a concrete reinforced with mild steel rods were therefore carried out using a 5 kW output CO 2 laser. As the results of experiment, it was cleared that cutting results varied with ballasts, 100 mm thick reinforced concrete could be cut, safety was high because few dross and few fume were produced. (author)
Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.
Full Text Available The most important input quantities of waterjet cutting are the jet pressure, feed speed, stand-off distance, abrasive graining, mass flow, etc. Other quantities contributing to machining efficiency are the type of utilized abrasive or the tilt of the jet. Each of these quantities can be assigned different set points. The roughness of the machined surfaces and the thickness of the cut part are output quantities of the system, their values depending on the input parameters and the influence of various disturbing factors (noises. The paper discusses surface roughness obtained consequently to abrasive jet cutting. Optimisation of the machining system was achieved by intervening on five selected input quantities (factors, with two set points considered for each. Upon applying Taguchi methods, eventually the combination of factor set points was determined that ensures robust behaviour of the system.
Höfer, Sonja; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Uecker, Reinhard; Kwasniewski, Albert; Popp, Jürgen; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G
We developed a measurement and evaluation scheme to perform dispersion analysis on arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals based on the schemes developed for triclinic and uniaxial crystals. As byproduct of dispersion analysis the orientations of the crystal axes are found. In contrast to the spectra of arbitrarily cut uniaxial crystals, where the fit routine has to separate two independent principal spectra, the spectra of arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals are a combination of three independent spectra and the evaluation scheme gets more complex. Dispersion analysis is exemplary performed on two different crystals, which show different spectral features and different levels of difficulties to evaluate. Neodymium gallate (NdGaO 3 ) has broad overlapping reflections bands while topaz (Al 2 SiO 4 [F, OH] 2 ) has a quite high total number of infrared active bands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.
Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Le Barbier, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Määttä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)
Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a governance structure for IT-related projects in order to assure a safeguarded and timely transition to a productive environment. This transitioning, which rarely exceeds a weekend, is colloquially called ‘cut-over’, ‘rollout’ or ‘deployment’. The governance structure is defined in accordance with a set of project-specific deliverables for a cascade-type procedural project-management model, which is integrated within an Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL-orientated service organization. This integration is illustrated by the use of a semi-agile release model. Due to the release model selected, which is particularly characterized by its bundling of projects for a release-specific rollout (as it is referred to in the project documentation, a new definition and interpretation of deployment from a generic ITIL perspective is required. The facilitated release model requires a distinction between a project-specific cut-over and a release-specific rollout. This separation gives rise to two types of go-live scenarios: one for each participating project and one for each release. Additionally, an interplay between cut-over planning for a project and rollout planning for a release becomes apparent. Projects should already incorporate cut-over related deliverables in the initial planning phase. Even though consulting methodologies such as ASAP (Accelerated SAP, recommend scattered, project-specific deliverables useful for cut-over planning, this publication offers an integrated approach on how to prepare systematically for a project-specific cut-over with all required deliverables. The framework provided maps out ITIL’s release and deployment process by means of IT projects; furthermore it allows IT projects to interface easily with the ITIL change-management process.
Maksarov, V. V.; Khalimonenko, A. D.; Matrenichev, K. G.
The article highlights the issues of determining the stability of the cutting process by a multipoint cutting tool equipped with cutting ceramics. There were some recommendations offered on the choice of parameters of replaceable cutting ceramic plates for milling based of the conducted researches. Ceramic plates for milling are proposed to be selected on the basis of value of their electrical volume resistivity.
In this study, the effect of in vitro cutting methods and medium composition on efficient shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum Hsinying Rubyweb was investigated. Among three different in vitro stem cutting methods used, vertical cutting was able to produce more new shoots than horizontal and cross cutting when cultured on ...
Segalina, F.; De Chiffre, Leonardo
was developed and implemented on a CNC lathe. An investigation was carried out extrusion-cutting copper discs using high-speed-steel cutting tools at 100 m/min cutting speed. Flow stress values for copper under machining-relevant conditions were obtained from measurement of the extrusion-cutting force...
The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...
De Chiffre, Leonardo
The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool...
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.352 Section 213.352... Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used. When a rail end with a torch cut is used in emergency situations, train speed over that...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section 58.413....413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages of cheese are cut and wrapped, separate rooms... outward to minimize the entrance of unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The waste...
Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads
In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dowel cutting instrument. 882.4275 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4275 Dowel cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A dowel cutting instrument is a device used to cut dowels of bone for bone grafting. (b...
metal vapour from the cut kerf is spread in air. In cutting of irradiated material, debris and metal vapour creates airborne activity, which may be harmful for people working nearby, whereas, underwater cutting is advantageous in terms of a narrow. HAZ adjacent to the laser cut surface providing better samples for the analysis.
Hamas, R S; Williams, C W
Liposuction is often used for the treatment of gynecomastia. Blunt liposuction cannulas can remove the fat but are not very effective in fibrous breast tissue, which requires open excision. Ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty has been advocated for gynecomastia because it effectively removes the fat from fibrous areas. An alternative treatment is a sharp cutting liposuction cannula that easily penetrates and removes the fibrous breast tissue along with the fatty component. The early experience of 22 surgeons who used this cannula in 88 cases of gynecomastia is reported. For 19 of the 22 surgeons, liposuction with sharp cutting cannulas alone gave a satisfactory result in 81% of their patients.
Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François
In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding...... the lines of self-intersections of the front in the parametric space. This becomes possible by using the deformable simplicial complexes (DSC, ) method for deformable interface tracking. DSC provide a simple collision detection mechanism, allows for interface topology control, and does not require...
Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn
by authors of the paper, which facilitates high-speed production of doubly-curved foam moulds. Complementary to design rationalisation, in which arbitrary surfaces are translated to hot-blade-cuttable geometries, the presented method enables architects and designers to design directly with the non......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...
Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael
We discuss symplectic cutting for Hamiltonian actions of non-Abelian compact groups. By using a degeneration based on the Vinberg monoid we give, in good cases, a global quotient description of a surgery construction introduced by Woodward and Meinrenken, and show it can be interpreted in algebro......-geometric terms. A key ingredient is the `universal cut' of the cotangent bundle of the group itself, which is identified with a moduli space of framed bundles on chains of projective lines recently introduced by the authors....
Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael; Das Choudhuri, Suparna
For most newly developed spray aerosol inhalers, the generation time is a potentially important variable that can be fully controlled. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spray aerosol generation time on transport and deposition in a standard induction port (IP) and more realistic mouth-throat (MT) geometry. Capillary aerosol generation (CAG) was selected as a representative system in which spray momentum was expected to significantly impact deposition. Sectional and total depositions in the IP and MT geometries were assessed at a constant CAG flow rate of 25 mg/sec for aerosol generation times of 1, 2, and 4 sec using both in vitro experiments and a previously developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Both the in vitro and numerical results indicated that extending the generation time of the spray aerosol, delivered at a constant mass flow rate, significantly reduced deposition in the IP and more realistic MT geometry. Specifically, increasing the generation time of the CAG system from 1 to 4 sec reduced the deposition fraction in the IP and MT geometries by approximately 60 and 33%, respectively. Furthermore, the CFD predictions of deposition fraction were found to be in good agreement with the in vitro results for all times considered in both the IP and MT geometries. The numerical results indicated that the reduction in deposition fraction over time was associated with temporal dissipation of what was termed the spray aerosol "burst effect." Based on these results, increasing the spray aerosol generation time, at a constant mass flow rate, may be an effective strategy for reducing deposition in the standard IP and in more realistic MT geometries.
Farhang, Borzoo; Grondin, Lydia
Postoperative sore throat (POST) is commonly seen after endotracheal intubation, and oral zinc prevents oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy. This study is designed to evaluate the effects of administration of zinc lozenges on POST. Seventy-nine patients undergoing low- or moderate-risk surgery with endotracheal intubation were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Control group received placebo and zinc group received 40-mg zinc lozenges 30 minutes preoperatively. Patients were assessed for incidence and severity (4-point scale, 0-3) of POST at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of POST at 0, 2, and 24 hours and the severity of POST. At 4 hours, there was a significantly lower incidence of POST in the zinc group, 7%, than the control group, 29% (P = .046). The incidence of POST at 0 hour was 0% in zinc group and 24% in control group (P = .004). The highest incidence of POST occurred at the second hour after surgery, with the rate of 10% in the zinc group and 34% in the control group (P = .0495). The incidence of POST at 24 hours was 13% in zinc group and 24% in control group (not significant). The severity of POST was significantly lower in the zinc group for mild (P = .003) and moderate (P = .004) POST. The administration of a single dose of 40-mg zinc lozenge 30 minutes preoperatively is effective to reduce both incidence of POST in the first 4 hours and severity of mild and moderate POST in the immediate postoperative period.
G. T. Marklund
Full Text Available Results concerning the electrodynamics of the nightside auroral bulge are presented based on simultaneous satellite and ground-based observations. The satellite data include Astrid-2 measurements of electric fields, currents and particles from a midnight auroral oval crossing and Polar UVI images of the large-scale auroral distribution. The ground-based observations include STARE and SuperDARN electric fields and magnetic records from the Greenland and MIRACLE magnetometer network, the latter including stations from northern Scandinavia north to Svalbard. At the time of the Astrid-2 crossing the ground-based data reveal intense electrojet activity, both to the east and west of the Astrid-2 trajectory, related to the Polar observations of the auroral bulge but not necessarily to a typical substorm. The energetic electron fluxes measured by Astrid-2 across the auroral oval were generally weak being consistent with a gap observed in the auroral luminosity distribution. The electric field across the oval was directed westward, intensifying close to the poleward boundary followed by a decrease in the polar cap. The combined observations suggests that Astrid-2 was moving close to the separatrix between the dusk and dawn convection cells in a region of low conductivity. The constant westward direction of the electric field across the oval indicates that current continuity was maintained, not by polarisation electric fields (as in a Cowling channel, but solely by localized up- and downward field-aligned currents in good agreement with the Astrid-2 magnetometer data. The absence of a polarisation electric field and thus of an intense westward closure current between the dawn and dusk convection cells is consistent with the relatively weak precipitation and low conductivity in the convection throat. Thus, the Cowling current model is not adequate for describing the electrodynamics of the nightside auroral bulge treated here.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral
Misirlioglu, G; Sen, O
Endotracheal intubation procedure employed during general anaesthesia is the most effective way for keeping the airways and respiration under control and has low risk of complications. We have aimed in this study to compare the first-attempt success and duration of the endotracheal intubation process and its effects on haemodynamics using the Macintosh laryngoscope and the GlideScope video laryngoscope. In this prospective randomized single-centre study, 100 patients of 18-65 years of age, and classified within the American Society of Anaesthesiologists' (ASA) I-II risk groups before elective ear-nose and throat surgery were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, designated as Group M, to be intubated using the Macintosh laryngoscope, and as Group G, to be intubated using the GlideScope video laryngoscope. The Mallampati scores, Cormack-Lehane classifications, intubation duration, number of attempts at intubation, the haemodynamic response and the complications were recorded. There were not intergroup differences with respect to the number of intubation attempts, the Mallampati and Cormack-Lehane classifications. Duration of intubation was found to be longer in group G. The haemodynamic response values of group M were higher than those of group G. Although there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the number of intubation attempts, two of the patients in group M were intubated in the second attempt. In our study, despite the longer intubation times in group G, the haemodynamic response was significantly lower in this group. It is believed that especially in cases with vital requirement of haemodynamic stability, the GlideScope video laryngoscope would be safer to employ.
This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.
Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...
Piromchai, Patorn; Avery, Alex; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen
Virtual reality simulation uses computer-generated imagery to present a simulated training environment for learners. This review seeks to examine whether there is evidence to support the introduction of virtual reality surgical simulation into ear, nose and throat surgical training programmes. 1. To assess whether surgeons undertaking virtual reality simulation-based training achieve surgical ('patient') outcomes that are at least as good as, or better than, those achieved through conventional training methods.2. To assess whether there is evidence from either the operating theatre, or from controlled (simulation centre-based) environments, that virtual reality-based surgical training leads to surgical skills that are comparable to, or better than, those achieved through conventional training. The Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group (CENTDG) Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the CENTDG Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; ERIC; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 27 July 2015. We included all randomised controlled trials and controlled trials comparing virtual reality training and any other method of training in ear, nose or throat surgery. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We evaluated both technical and non-technical aspects of skill competency. We included nine studies involving 210 participants. Out of these, four studies (involving 61 residents) assessed technical skills in the operating theatre (primary outcomes). Five studies (comprising 149 residents and medical students) assessed technical skills in controlled environments (secondary outcomes). The majority of the trials were at high risk of bias. We assessed the GRADE quality of evidence for most outcomes across studies as 'low'. Operating theatre environment (primary outcomes) In
Samaan, Michael A; Ringleb, Stacie I; Bawab, Sebastian Y; Greska, Eric K; Weinhandl, Joshua T
Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries usually undergo ACL-reconstruction (ACLR) in order to restore joint stability, so that dynamic maneuvers such as the sidestep cut can be performed. Despite restoration of joint stability after ACLR, many athletes do not return to pre-injury levels and may be at a high risk of a second ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not ACL loading, would increase after ACLR. One female Division I collegiate athlete performed bilateral unanticipated sidestep cuts both before ACL injury and 27months after ACLR. Musculoskeletal simulations were used to calculate ACL loading during the deceleration phase of the sidestep cuts. Twenty-seven months after ACLR, the athlete demonstrated higher total ACL loading in the ipsilateral limb as well as altered joint kinematics, moments, and quadriceps muscle force production. In the contralateral limb, there were no increases in total ACL loading or muscle force production yet altered lower extremity joint kinematics and moments were present after ACLR. Higher total ACL loading in the ipsilateral limb of this athlete may suggest an increased risk of second ACL injury. The results of this study provide an initial step in understanding the effects of ACLR on the risk of second ACL injury in an elite athlete and suggest that it is important to develop a better understanding of this surgical intervention on knee joint loading, in order to reduce the risk of second ACL injury while performing dynamic maneuvers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Langeard, Antoine; Pothier, Kristell; Morello, Remy; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Lescure, Pascale; Bocca, Marie-Laure; Marcelli, Christian; Descatoire, Pablo; Chavoix, Chantal
Polypharmacy is a well-established risk factor for falls, and these are one of the major health problems that affect the quality of life as people age. However, the risk of mobility and cognitive impairments consecutive to polypharmacy has been little addressed, despite the association between these adverse outcomes and falls. Moreover, the rare polypharmacy cut-offs were all but one arbitrarily determined. Studying relationships between polypharmacy and both mobility and cognitive impairments, and statistically determining a cut-off point in the number of medicinal molecule beyond which polypharmacy has deleterious consequences with respect to mobility and cognitive impairment. We enrolled 113 community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older with a fall history, with or without injury, in the previous year. We carefully collected information about daily medicinal molecules taken. We assessed basic mobility and global cognition with the Time-Up-and-Go and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, respectively (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02292316). Timed-Up and Go test and MoCA scores were both significantly correlated with the number of molecule, used. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves indicate, with high prediction (p risk for both impaired mobility and global cognition. These relationships were independent of the number of comorbidities and of the pharmacological class. Community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older who take five or more daily medicinal molecules are at high risk for both mobility and cognitive impairments. Physicians and patients should be aware of these new findings, especially when there are multiple prescribers involved in the care of the patient.
Lemmink Koen APM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of all athletic knee injuries an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture results in the longest time loss from sport. Regardless of the therapy chosen, conservative or reconstructive, athletes are often forced to reduce their level of physical activity and their involvement in sport. Moreover, a recent review reported prevalences of osteoarthritis ranging from 0% to 13% for patients with isolated ACL-deficient (ACL-D knees and respectively 21% to 48% in patients with combined injuries. The need for ACL injury prevention is clear. The identification of risk factors and the development of prevention strategies may therefore have widespread health and economic implications. The focus of this investigation is to assess the role of implicit and explicit motor learning in optimising the performance of a side-step-cutting task. Methods/design A randomized controlled laboratory study will be conducted. Healthy basketball players, females and males, 18 years and older, with no previous lower extremity injuries, playing at the highest recreational level will be included. Subjects will receive a dynamic feedback intervention. Kinematic and kinetic data of the hip, knee and ankle and EMG activity of the quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius will be recorded. Discussion Female athletes have a significantly higher risk of sustaining an ACL injury than male athletes. Poor biomechanical and neuromuscular control of the lower limb is suggested to be a primary risk factor of an ACL injury mechanism in females. This randomized controlled trial has been designed to investigate whether individual feedback on task performance appears to be an effective intervention method. Results and principles found in this study will be applied to future ACL injury prevention programs, which should maybe more focus on individual injury predisposition. Trial registration Trial registration number NTR2250.
Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Diercks, Ron L; Otten, Bert
Of all athletic knee injuries an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture results in the longest time loss from sport. Regardless of the therapy chosen, conservative or reconstructive, athletes are often forced to reduce their level of physical activity and their involvement in sport. Moreover, a recent review reported prevalences of osteoarthritis ranging from 0% to 13% for patients with isolated ACL-deficient (ACL-D) knees and respectively 21% to 48% in patients with combined injuries. The need for ACL injury prevention is clear. The identification of risk factors and the development of prevention strategies may therefore have widespread health and economic implications. The focus of this investigation is to assess the role of implicit and explicit motor learning in optimising the performance of a side-step-cutting task. A randomized controlled laboratory study will be conducted. Healthy basketball players, females and males, 18 years and older, with no previous lower extremity injuries, playing at the highest recreational level will be included. Subjects will receive a dynamic feedback intervention. Kinematic and kinetic data of the hip, knee and ankle and EMG activity of the quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius will be recorded. Female athletes have a significantly higher risk of sustaining an ACL injury than male athletes. Poor biomechanical and neuromuscular control of the lower limb is suggested to be a primary risk factor of an ACL injury mechanism in females. This randomized controlled trial has been designed to investigate whether individual feedback on task performance appears to be an effective intervention method. Results and principles found in this study will be applied to future ACL injury prevention programs, which should maybe more focus on individual injury predisposition. Trial registration number NTR2250.
Sánchez Egea, A J; Martynenko, V; Martínez Krahmer, D; López de Lacalle, L N; Benítez, A; Genovese, G
The objective of the present study is to analyze and compare the cutting performance of segmented diamond blades when dry-cutting concrete. A cutting criteria is proposed to characterize the wear of the blades by measuring the variation of the external diameter and the weight loss of the blade. The results exhibit the cutting blade SB-A, which has twice the density of diamonds and large contact area, exhibits less wear even though the material removal rate is higher compared with the other two cutting blades. Additionally, the surface topography of the different blades is evaluated to examine the impact of wear depending on the surface profile and the distribution of the diamonds in the blade's matrix. Large number of diamonds pull-out are found in blades type SB-C, which additionally shows the worst wear resistant capability. As a conclusion, the cutting efficiency of the blade is found to be related to the density of embedded diamonds and the type of the surface profile of the cutting blade after reaching the stop criteria.
Abe, Tadashi; Aota, Toshiichi; Nishizaki, Tadashi; Nakayama, Shigeru; Yamashita, Seiji
In Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., the development of a remote dismantling system by underwater plasma arc cutting process has been advanced, expecting its application to the dismantling and removal of nuclear reactor facilities. In the previous two reports, the fundamental experimental results such as the comparison of the cutting capability in air and in water were shown, but this time, the remote automatic cutting of wedge-shaped specimens was carried out, using a newly installed manipulator for underwater works, therefore its outline is reported. Also the cutting experiment by overhead position and vertical position was performed by using the same equipment, and comparison was made with the cutting capability by downhand and horizontal positions. It is important to grasp the cutting characteristics in the case of upward advancing and downward advancing cuttings by overhead and vertical positions when the cutting of pressure vessels and horizontal pipes into rings is supposed. The experimental apparatus, the cutting conditions, the testing method and the test results of the cutting capability test, the test of changing direction during cutting, and the remote cutting of pipes into rings are described. The underwater plasma arc cutting can cut all metals, the cutting speed is relatively high, and the apparatus is simple and compact. (Kako, I.)
Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Evgrafov, Anton
. The project aims to reduce the amount of manual labour as well as production time by applying robots to cut expanded polystyrene (EPS) moulds for the concrete to form doubly curved surfaces. The scheme is based upon the so-called Hot Wire or Hot Blade technology where the surfaces are essentially swept out...
Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri
. The shuttle layout problem is frequently solved in two phases: first, a floorplan of the shuttle is generated. Then, a cutting plan is found which minimizes the overall number of wafers needed to satisfy the demand of each die type. Since some die types require special production technologies, only compatible...
When discontinuous microcracks form on the shear plane they weld and reform as strain proceeds, thus joining the transport of dislocations in accounting for the total slip of the shear plane. In the presence of a contaminant, such as CCl4 vapour at a low cutting speed, the rewelding of microcracks decreases, resulting in ...
Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro
We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates the e...
Abstract. The observation that about 90% of Eritrean women were circumcised in 2002 increased interest to understand the trends, determinants, and consequences of female genital cutting (FGC). The study used data from the 2002 EDHS and the 2003 Female Genital Mutilation Survey to consider factors that influence the ...
It is shown that the Pomeron-Pomeron cut in γγ scattering has natural C parity and conspires, in contrast to the Pomeron pole which is evasive, and has natural parity and C parity. The constraints this places upon the invariant amplitudes are analyzed
"The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)
Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro
We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...
Udupa, Anirudh; Viswanathan, Koushik; Ho, Yeung; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan
The cutting of metals has long been described as occurring by laminar plastic flow. Here we show that for metals with large strain-hardening capacity, laminar flow mode is unstable and cutting instead occurs by plastic buckling of a thin surface layer. High speed in situ imaging confirms that the buckling results in a small bump on the surface which then evolves into a fold of large amplitude by rotation and stretching. The repeated occurrence of buckling and folding manifests itself at the mesoscopic scale as a new flow mode with significant vortex-like components-sinuous flow. The buckling model is validated by phenomenological observations of flow at the continuum level and microstructural characteristics of grain deformation and measurements of the folding. In addition to predicting the conditions for surface buckling, the model suggests various geometric flow control strategies that can be effectively implemented to promote laminar flow, and suppress sinuous flow in cutting, with implications for industrial manufacturing processes. The observations impinge on the foundations of metal cutting by pointing to the key role of stability of laminar flow in determining the mechanism of material removal, and the need to re-examine long-held notions of large strain deformation at surfaces.