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Sample records for customs rates upset

  1. Evaluating system for SRAM-based FPGA single event upset rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunlong; Bao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    This paper takes static random-access-memory (SRAM)-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) as the research object. Attention is focused on the configuration memory of this kind of FPGA, and the research has been devoted to the contents of the configuration memory and the configuration circuit to manage its contents. The single event upset (SEU) happening in the configuration memory doesn't lead to a functional failure necessarily. The dynamic SEU is SEU which happens in the configuration memory and causes necessarily function failure. This paper introduces a test method of dynamic SUE rate for the SRAM-based FPGA by designing a FPGA with self-test function.

  2. Single Event Upset Rate Estimates for a 16-K CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    4 . ~**..ft.. ft . - - - ft SI TABLES 9 I. SA32~40 Single Event Upset Test, 1140-MeV Krypton, 9/l8/8~4. . .. .. .. .. .. .16 II. CRUP Simulation...cosmic ray interaction analysis described in the remainder of this report were calculated using the CRUP computer code 3 modified for funneling. The... CRUP code requires, as inputs, the size of a depletion region specified as a retangular parallel piped with dimensions a 9 b S c, the effective funnel

  3. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  4. Self-reported stomach upset in travellers on cruise-based and land-based package holidays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Launders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. METHODS: A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. RESULTS: From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2% reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005. Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005. Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8% and Turkey (8.8%. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards that have reduced illness over recent years.

  5. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  6. Hybrid customer requirements rating method for customer-oriented product design using QFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Hua Li; Aijun Liu; Xiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is a wel-known customer-oriented product design methodology. Rating the final importance of customer requirements (CRs) is real y a very es-sential starting point in the implementation of QFD, since it largely affects the target setting value of design requirements. This pa-per aims to propose a novel method to deal with the relative importance ratings (RIRs) of CRs problem considering customers’ diversified requirements and unknown information on customers’ weights, which is an indispensable process for determining the final importance ratings of CRs. First, a new concept of customer’s assessment structure is proposed according to the basic idea of grey relational analysis (GRA), and then a constrained nonlinear optimization model is constructed to describe the assessment information aggregation factors of CRs considering customers’ personalized and diversified requirements. Furthermore, an im-mune particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is designed to solve the model, and the weight vector of customers is obtained. Final y, a car door design example is introduced to il ustrate the novel hybrid GRA-IPSO method’s potential application in deter-mining the RIRs of CRs.

  7. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  8. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  9. 47 CFR 76.1603 - Customer service-rate and service changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer service-rate and service changes. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1603 Customer service—rate and service changes. (a) A cable franchise authority may enforce the customer service standards set forth in...

  10. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152 AGENCY.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service... moe@wapa.gov , or Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western...

  11. Estimation of customer lifetime value of a health insurance with interest rates obeying uniform distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawan, A.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Henintyas, Permana, D.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays some firms, including insurer firms, think that customer-centric services are better than product-centric ones in terms of marketing. Insurance firms will try to attract as many new customer as possible while maintaining existing customer. This causes the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) becomes a very important thing. CLV are able to put customer into different segments and calculate the present value of a firm's relationship with its customer. Insurance customer will depend on the last service he or she can get. So if the service is bad now, then customer will not renew his contract though the service is very good at an erlier time. Because of this situation one suitable mathematical model for modeling customer's relationships and calculating their lifetime value is Markov Chain. In addition, the advantages of using Markov Chain Modeling is its high degree of flexibility. In 2000, Pfeifer and Carraway states that Markov Chain Modeling can be used for customer retention situation. In this situation, Markov Chain Modeling requires only two states, which are present customer and former ones. This paper calculates customer lifetime value in an insurance firm with two distinctive interest rates; the constant interest rate and uniform distribution of interest rates. The result shows that loyal customer and the customer who increase their contract value have the highest CLV.

  12. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151 AGENCY..., Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, 615 South... the Desert Southwest Customer Service Regional Office, 615 South 43rd Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona. FOR...

  13. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  14. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  15. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado... the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Desert Southwest Customer Service Region (DSWR... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O...

  16. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision. (a... reasonable control of the Industrial User. An Upset does not include noncompliance to the extent caused by.... An Industrial User who wishes to establish the affirmative defense of Upset shall demonstrate...

  17. Investigation on upsetting assisted by low-frequency vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of vibration load in metal forming processes has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the forming load. In this paper, upsetting processes assisted by low-frequency vibration at room temperature was investigated based on finite element simulations. The vibration load was applied by the reciprocating movement of the upsetting punch. The influence of vibration frequency and feeding rate were analysed. It was revealed that low-frequency vibration was effective to reduce the mean forming load and increase the friction between billets and tools.

  18. Keep Floating; Rising interest rates have upset many floating rate borrowers. But it doesn't make sense to switch to a fixed rate now as rates are expected to plunge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sushmita Choudhury

    2006-01-01

    .... If there is anybody smiling through all this it is the fixed rate borrowers. They don't have to worry about rising interest rates because everything in their loan is fixed-the interest rate, the EMI and the term...

  19. Extrusion Upsetting Multiple Processing in Sandglass Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of getting ultrafine grain size has been investigated, which is called "Extrusion Upsetting Multiple Processing in Sandglass Die" or "Sandglass Extrusion" (SE). Since the shape of tested billet can remain unchanged after SE, the billet can be extruded repeatedly in order to get large plastic strain. The ultrafine grain size can be obtained in the billet material due to the large plastic strain and the dynamic recrystallization during SE. The experiments on SE of Zn-5%Al alloy have been done. The SE technology, microstructures, microhardness and superplasticity of tested material after SE have been studied. The experimental results show that the equal-axial ultrafine microstructures can be introduced to the bulk test material during sandglass extrusion. The high strain rate superplasticity can be realized.

  20. Programs for the Construction and Analysis of Custom Questionnaires and Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.; Wattawa, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Programs are described for the construction and analysis of student evaluation questionnaires and rating scales that are custom-designed for individual course instructors. Minor modifications would permit the use of these programs for other kinds of questionnaires and rating scales as well as for achievement tests. (Author)

  1. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  2. System-level analysis of single event upset susceptibility in RRAM architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Yu, Shimeng

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the single event upset susceptibility of a resistive random access memory (RRAM) system with 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) and crossbar architectures to heavy ion strikes is investigated from the circuit-level to the system-level. From a circuit-level perspective, the 1T1R is only susceptible to single-bit-upset (SBU) due to the isolation of cells, while in the crossbar, multiple-bit-upsets may occur because ion-induced voltage spikes generated on drivers may propagate along rows or columns. Three factors are considered to evaluate system-level susceptibility: the upset rate, the sensitive area, and the vulnerable time window. Our analysis indicates that the crossbar architecture has a smaller maximum bit-error-rate per day as compared to the 1T1R architecture for a given sub-array size, I/O width and susceptible time window.

  3. Remote Sensing of Radiation Dose Rate by Customizing an Autonomous Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nakahara, M.; Morisato, K.; Takashina, T.; Kanematsu, H.

    2012-03-01

    Distribution of radiation dose was measured by customizing an autonomous cleaning robot "Roomba" and a scintillation counter. The robot was used as a vehicle carrying the scintillation survey meter, and was additionally equipped with an H8 micro computer to remote-control the vehicle and to send measured data. The data obtained were arranged with position data, and then the distribution map of the radiation dose rate was produced. Manual, programmed and autonomous driving tests were conducted, and all performances were verified. That is, for each operational mode, the measurements both with moving and with discrete moving were tried in and outside of a room. Consequently, it has been confirmed that remote sensing of radiation dose rate is possible by customizing a robot on market.

  4. Code Division Multiplexing Using AI Based Custom Constellation Scheme - Efficient Modulation for High Data rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SESHADRI SASTRY,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high bit rate in transmission over wireless channels frequency reuse is an encouraging concept . Rather than dividing allocated frequency spectrum into narrow band width channels , one for each user information is transmitted over a very wide frequency spectrum using the same carrier frequency within same frequency band . In this paper we propose code division multiplexing scheme in which Custom QAM modulator itself is used as code . The propose system is simulated and tested in Matlab 7.4.

  5. Rating Correlations Between Customs Codes and Export Control Lists: Assessing the Needs and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelus, Renaud; Heine, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Correlation tables are the linchpins between the customs codes used to classify commodities in international trade and the control lists used for strategic trade control (STC) purposes. While understanding the customs classification system can help the STC community better understand strategic trade flows, better identify which trade operations require permits, and more effectively detect illegal exports, the two systems are different in scope, philosophy, content, and objectives. Many indications point to the limitations of these correlation tables, and it is important to understand the nature of the limitations and the complex underlying reasons to conceive possible improvements. As part of its Strategic Trade and Supply Chain Analytics Initiative, Argonne National Laboratory supported a study of a subset of the European Union’s TARIC correlation table. The study included development of a methodology and an approach to rating the quality and relevance of individual correlations. The study was intended as a first step to engage the STC community in deflections and initiatives to improve the conception and use of correlations, and its conclusions illustrate the scope and complex nature of the challenges to overcome. This paper presents the two classification systems, analyzes the needs for correlation tables and the complex challenges associated with them, summarizes key findings, and proposes possible ways forward.

  6. Impact of NBTI Aging on the Single-Event Upset of SRAM Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Bagatin, M; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Bagatin, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on the single-event upset rate of SRAM cells through experiments and SPICE simulations. We performed critical charge simulations introducing different degradation patterns in the cells, in three technology nodes, from 180 to 90 nm. The simulations results were checked with alpha-particle and heavy-ion irradiations on a 130-nm technology. Both simulations and experimental results show that NBTI degradation does not significantly affect the single-event upset SRAM cell rate as long as the parametric drift induced by aging is within 10\\%.

  7. Customized spectral band analysis compared with conventional Fourier analysis of heart rate variability in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, N A M; Andriessen, P; Berendsen, R C M; Oei, S G; Wijn, P F F; Oetomo, S Bambang

    2004-12-01

    A customized filtering technique is introduced and compared with fast Fourier transformation (FFT) for analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in neonates from short-term recordings. FFT is classically the most commonly used spectral technique to investigate cardiovascular fluctuations. FFT requires stability of the physiological signal within a 300 s time window that is usually analyzed in adults. Preterm infants, however, show characteristics of rapidly fluctuating heart rate and blood pressure due to an immature autonomic regulation, resulting in non-stationarity of these signals. Therefore neonatal studies use (half-overlapping or moving) windows of 64 s length within a recording time of 2-5 min. The proposed filtering technique performs a filtering operation in the frequency range of interest before calculating the spectrum, which allows it to perform an analysis of shorter periods of only 42 s. The frequency bands of interest are 0.04-0.15 Hz (low frequency, LF) and 0.4-1.5 Hz (high frequency, HF). Although conventional FFT analysis as well as the proposed alternative technique result in errors in the estimation of LF power, due to spectral leakage from the very low frequencies, FFT analysis is more sensitive to this effect. The response times show comparable behavior for both the techniques. Applying both the methods to heart rate data obtained from a neonate before and after atropine administration (inducing a wide range of HRV), shows a very significant correlation between the two methods in estimating LF and HF power. We conclude that a customized filtering technique might be beneficial for analyzing HRV in neonates because it reduces the necessary time window for signal stability.

  8. Are US utility standby rates inhibiting diffusion of customer-owned generating systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Texas AandM University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2007-03-15

    New, small-scale electric generation technologies permit utility customers to generate some of their own electric power and to utilize waste heat for space heating and other applications at the building site. This combined heat and power (CHP) characteristic can provide significant energy-cost savings. However, most current US utility regulations leave CHP standby rate specification largely to utility discretion resulting in claims by CHP advocates that excessive standby rates are significantly reducing CHP-related savings and inhibiting CHP diffusion. The impacts of standby rates on the adoption of CHP are difficult to determine; however, because of the characteristically slow nature of new technology diffusion. This study develops an agent-based microsimulation model of CHP technology choice using cellular automata to represent new technology information dispersion and knowledge acquisition. Applying the model as an n-factorial experiment quantifies the impacts of standby rates on CHP technologies under alternative diffusion paths. Analysis of a sample utility indicates that, regardless of the likely diffusion process, reducing standby rates to reflect the cost of serving a large number of small, spatially clustered CHP systems significantly increases the adoption of these technologies. (author)

  9. Single Event Upsets in SRAM FPGA based readout electronics for the Time Projection Chamber in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Røed, K; Helstrup, H; Natås, T

    2009-01-01

    Single Event Upsets in SRAM FPGA based readout electronics for the Time Projection Chamber in the ALICE experiment irradiation test results have been used to predict the single event upset rate expected during operation in the ALICE experiment. Due to the number of FPGAs utilized in the TPC front-end electronics, single event upsets can be a reliability concern. In order to reduce the probability of system malfunction, a reconfiguration solution was developed that enables the possibility to clear single event upsets in the configuration memory of the FPGA. Irradiation test results show that combined with additional system level mitigation techniques, this reconfiguration solution can be used to finally reduce the functional failure rate of the FPGA. Because irradiation testing can be time consuming, costly and sometimes even technically difficult, a software based fault injection solution has been implemented without any modification to the existing hardware setup. It provides an alternative and possibly syst...

  10. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  11. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  12. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  13. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  14. Influence of Friction Condition on Cold Upsetting of Tube Flange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    FEM is used to analyze the influence of interface friction on the material flow and the cause of forming defect in the cold upsetting of tube flange. Based on the FEM simulation results, the relationships between flange width and the extreme friction factors are established. The concept of forming limit diagram for cold upsetting of tube flange is presented.

  15. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  16. Emergency department patient satisfaction: customer service training improves patient satisfaction and ratings of physician and nurse skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, T A; Cates, R J; Mastorovich, M J; Royalty, D L

    1998-01-01

    Customer service initiatives in healthcare have become a popular way of attempting to improve patient satisfaction. This study investigates the effect of clinically focused customer service training on patient satisfaction in the setting of a 62,000-visit emergency department and level I trauma center. Analysis of patient complaints, patient compliments, and a statistically verified patient-satisfaction survey indicate that (1) all 14 key quality characteristics identified in the survey increased dramatically in the study period; (2) patient complaints decreased by over 70 percent from 2.6 per 1,000 emergency department (ED) visits to 0.6 per 1,000 ED visits following customer service training; and (3) patient compliments increased more than 100 percent from 1.1 per 1,000 ED visits to 2.3 per 1,000 ED visits. The most dramatic improvement in the patient satisfaction survey came in ratings of skill of the emergency physician, likelihood of returning, skill of the emergency department nurse, and overall satisfaction. These results show that clinically focused customer service training improves patient satisfaction and ratings of physician and nurse skill. They also suggest that such training may offer a substantial competitive market advantage, as well as improve the patients' perception of quality and outcome.

  17. Predicting Customer Churn and Retention Rates in Nigeria’s Mobile Telecommunication Industry Using Markov Chain Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebiyi Sulaimon Olanrewaju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The telecommunication industry is one of the service industries that is most affected by the problem of subscribers’ churn. Although several techniques have been used to predict customer churn in developed countries, many of those studies used secondary data which are not readily available in Nigeria for researchers. This study investigates how Markov chains help in modelling and predicting the customer churn and retention rate in the Nigerian mobile telecommunication industry. The data generated through the survey were input in the Windows-based Quantitative System for Business (WinQSB for analysis. The results reveal that in the study area MTN has the highest retention rate (86.11%, followed by GLO (70.51%, Airtel (67%, and Etisalat (67.5%. This result has implications for telecom firms’ strategies for competitive advantage in particular and survival in general.

  18. The impact of rate design and net metering on the bill savings from distributed PV for residential customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim R., E-mail: ndarghouth@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate. - Highlights: > We examine the value of bill savings under net metering to PV owners in California. > Bill savings per kWh of PV generation varies by a factor of four with net metering. The variation is attributable to rate design, the unique inclining block structure. > The median value of bill savings is reduced by 40-67% with MPR feed-in tariff. > The median value of bill savings is reduced by 6-12% with hourly netting.

  19. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, G.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  20. An Analysis Credit Rating Factors of Steel Distributors from Customer Perspective in Iran\\\\\\'s Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Moshabbaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study with aim of investigation and identification of most important determinant criteria in significant distributors selecting by retailer customers did in Iran steel market and Arvin steel distributor selected as case of study. This research is of survey type and for data collect, a questionnaire was developed from various sources in the literature, used. Sample of 107 customers of Arvin steel distributor in Tehran city was selected. Also, Structure Equation Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and two software package "SPSS and LISREL" are used for analyzing the data. in total, nine variable "managerial capability", "marketing capability", "relationship intensity", "logistics capability", "financial capability", "physical facilities", "market cover", "product line" and "reputation" of distributor identified as main determinant factors in distributor selecting. Study findings show that the effect of "managerial capability", "marketing capability", "Relationship intensity", "Logistics capability", "financial capability", "Physical facilities", "Market cover" and "reputation" on distributor choice were statistically significant.

  1. What Are We Waiting For Customer Wait Time, Fill Rate, And Marine Corps Equipment Operational Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    their Performance Based Logistics ( PBL ) Support Guidebook, but adds a time element by defining the term as “the volume of requisitions satisfied within...41(1), 19–23. Defense Contract Management Agency. (2002). Performance based logistics ( PBL ) support guidebook. Retrieved from: https://acc.dau.mil...adl/en-US/54825/file/ 18745/ PBL -GUIDE.doc Department of Defense. (2000). Customer wait time and time definite delivery (DODI 4140.61). Washington, DC

  2. An Experiment to Evaluate Transfer of Low-Cost Simulator-Based Upset-Recovery Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    group plot alttude losses n nose-low upsets but not n nose-hgh upsets. Maneuver- ng durng hgh energy nose-low upsets occurs near the mddle...accustomed to. As an example, effic ent rollng n nose-hgh upsets requres a plot to use large aleron and rudder nputs at maxmum thrust whle ma

  3. Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is the development of an on-board envelope estimation, protection and upset recovery tool to address loss of control incidents in...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Upsetting a Cubic Sintered Iron Powder Compact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei XIA; Puqing CHEN; Zhaoyao ZHOU; Weibin ZHAO; Yuanyuan LI

    2003-01-01

    This paper establishes a mechanical model for sintered powder metal material and simulates the material behavior.Powder metal specimens were compacted, sintered and upset. Relative density and contour of the specimen were measured. The force displacement

  5. MODELING COMMERCIAL PROCESSES AND CUSTOMER BEHAVIORS TO ESTIMATE THE DIFFUSION RATE OF NEW PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alain BLOCH; Daniel KROB; Ada Suk-Fung NG

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a generic mathematical model for depicting the diffusion of an innovative product on a given market. Our approach relies on a probabilistic modeling of each customer behavior with respect to the commercial process which is used to promote such a product. We introduce in particular the concept of coherent market that corresponds to a market which can be analyzed in a uniform way within our model. This last notion allows us to recover the classical empirical results that were discovered and widely studied by E.M. Rogers and his school. We explain finally how to use our approach as a support for analytic predictive marketing.

  6. New mechanism for upset of electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Molina, Luis Leroy; Salazar, Robert Austin; Patterson, Paull Edward; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2004-03-01

    For many decades, engineers and scientists have studied the effects of high power microwaves (HPM) on electronics. These studies usually focus on means of delivering energy to upset electronic equipment and ways to protect equipment from HPM. The motivation for these studies is to develop the knowledge necessary either to cause disruption or to protect electronics from disruption. Since electronic circuits must absorb sufficient energy to fail and the source used to deliver this energy is far away from the electronic circuit, the source must emit a large quantity of energy. In free space, for example, as the distance between the source and the target increases, the source energy must increase by the square of distance. The HPM community has dedicated substantial resources to the development of higher energy sources as a result. Recently, members of the HPM community suggested a new disruption mechanism that could potentially cause system disruptions at much lower energy levels. The new mechanism, based on nonlinear dynamics, requires an expanded theory of circuit operation. This report summarizes an investigation of electronic circuit nonlinear behavior as it applies to inductor-resistor-diode circuits (known as the Linsay circuit) and phased-locked-loops. With the improvement in computing power and the need to model circuit behavior with greater precision, the nonlinear effects of circuit has become very important. In addition, every integrated circuit has as part of its design a protective circuit. These protective circuits use some variation of semiconductor junctions that can interact with parasitic components, present in every real system. Hence, the protective circuit can behave as a Linsay circuit. Although the nonlinear behavior is understandable, it is difficult to model accurately. Many researchers have used classical diode models successfully to show nonlinear effects within predicted regions of operation. However, these models do not accurately predict

  7. The single event upset environment for avionics at high latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L. (Defence Research Agency, Farnborough (United Kingdom). Space and Communications Dept.); Johansson, K.; Pettersson, H. (SAAB Military Aircraft, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Farren, J. (AEA Technology, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Harwell Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    Modern avionic systems for civil and military applications are becoming increasingly reliant upon embedded microprocessors and associated memory devices. The phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) is well known in space systems and designers have generally been careful to use SEU tolerant devices or to implement error detection and correction (EDAC) techniques where appropriate. In the past, avionics designers have had no reason to consider SEU effects but is clear that the more prevalent use of memory devices combined with increasing levels of IC integration will make SEU mitigation an important design consideration for future avionic systems. To this end, it is necessary to work towards producing models of the avionics SEU environment which will permit system designers to choose components and EDAC techniques which are based on predictions of SEU rates correct to much better than an order of magnitude. Measurements of the high latitude SEU environment at avionics altitude have been made on board a commercial airliner. Results are compared with models of primary and secondary cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrons. Ground based SEU tests of static RAMs are used to predict rates in flight.

  8. Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin; Fremaux, Charles M.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, research has been in progress to develop aerodynamic modeling methods for simulations that accurately predict the flight dynamics characteristics of large transport airplanes in upset conditions. The motivation for this research stems from the recognition that simulation is a vital tool for addressing loss-of-control accidents, including applications to pilot training, accident reconstruction, and advanced control system analysis. The ultimate goal of this effort is to contribute to the reduction of the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control. Research activities have involved accident analyses, wind tunnel testing, and piloted simulation. Results have shown that significant improvements in simulation fidelity for upset conditions, compared to current training simulations, can be achieved using state-of-the-art wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic modeling methods. This paper provides a summary of research completed to date and includes discussion on key technical results, lessons learned, and future research needs.

  9. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  10. Overall Well-Being and Supervisor Ratings of Employee Performance, Accountability, Customer Service, Innovation, Prosocial Behavior, and Self-Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of overall well-being and well-being change on six supervisor-rated indicators of employee performance valued by organizations: overall performance, accountability, customer service, innovation, prosocial behavior, and self-development. The current study used two waves of well-being survey data collected over 2 years and supervisor performance ratings for 5691 employees. Ordinary least squares regression was conducted. Both well-being at baseline and two-year change in well-being were related to all six supervisor-rated performance dimensions, controlling for other employee characteristics. Overall well-being likely functioned as a resource enabling people to successfully perform across the specific areas highly valued by their company. Given this connection, well-being interventions could be used as a means to accomplish improved performance in dimensions that contribute to organizational performance.

  11. Customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  12. A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.

    2008-01-01

    Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously…

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  14. Microdosimetry code simulation of charge-deposition spectra, single-event upsets and multiple-bit upsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C.S.; Comber, C.; Truscott, P.R.; Sanderson, C.; Underwood, C.; Oldfield, M.; Campbell, A.; Buchner, S.; Meehan, T.

    1999-12-01

    An ion microdosimetry extension to the Monte Carlo High Energy Transport Code (HETC) has been developed to allow tracking of all the reaction products and has been applied to model charge-deposition spectra in pin diodes caused by atmospheric neutron spectra, as well as upsets in DRAMs from ground and space irradiation by protons. These cases cover sensitive zone sizes ranging from hundreds of microns to sub-micron. Angular distributions of both incident particles and reaction products are found to be important, particularly for the prediction of multiple-bit upsets in devices of small feature size.

  15. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  16. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  17. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one ...... customer class will get the best service. That theoretical result is validated through a series of numerical experiments which also reveal that it is quite robust.......We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  18. Research of upsetting ratio in forming processes on a three – slides forging press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S. Weroński

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the presented in this work research was determining the limiting conditions of upsetting in three-slide forging press (TSFP. The free upsetting process and upsetting process in cylindrical impression were analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: The assumed purpose was confirmed in experimental research. For the case of upsetting in cylindrical impression, the research of limiting upsetting coefficients were made for different diameters and impression lengths. Findings: The obtained results showed large variety of limiting upsetting ratio depending on the analyzed impression geometrical parameters. It was stated, that there are 3 phenomena limiting the upsetting process in the die. The main phenomenon is the bar upsetting outside the impression. The upsetting processes in the impression are limited also by bar buckling outside the impression and overlapping inside the impressionResearch limitations/implications: The results of research allowed for stating that, besides the process geometrical parameters, friction conditions and type of the formed material influenced the limiting upsetting coefficients in the cylindrical impression. It is purposeful to make the further research determining quantitative and qualitative dependencies between these factors. Practical implications: The obtained results are the basis for designing of forming processes in TSFP in which the upsetting dominates. Especially it considers the elongated forgings and elongated preforms with thickeningsOriginality/value: The influence of the impression geometrical parameters on the limiting upsetting coefficients for the case of upsetting in cylindrical impression in TSFP has been analyzed in details. The dependencies, which should be used during designing of upsetting processes in TSFP were determined.

  19. Neutron And Proton Single Event Upsets At Reduced Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, M W

    2000-01-01

    In the terrestrial radiation environment, neutrons generated by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere and the ambient space radiation environment are the dominant species of strongly interacting particles encountered. The interaction of the terrestrial neutron radiation flux and the silicon nuclei of static random access memories (SRAMS) can result in the loss of information in the memory devices. Such soft errors are known as Single Event Upsets or SEUs. One of the key parameters is the amount of charge that must be collected by the drains for the cell to upset. This value is known as the critical charge. A novel approach to determine the critical charge is explored in regards to neutron and proton induced upsets. This approach is described in detail, allowing determination of the critical charge from a radioactive source rather than high-energy protons from an accelerator facility. In the course of these studies, one device is found that has an unexpected response to neutrons. This device is tested and ...

  20. Dynamic electricity rates from the customers' view. Acceptance study on the basis of a conjoint analysis; Dynamische Stromtarife aus Kundensicht. Akzeptanzstudie auf Basis einer Conjointanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterlaender, Michael

    2010-11-15

    German law requires the offer of load-dependent and/or time-variable electricity rates from late 2010. Flexible rate models are new both for the utilities and their customers. This study attempts to identify consumer preferences on the basis of a conjoint analysis. This method uses the assessment of general product concepts to identify the values of individual characteristics. The results are then incorporated in the model design process. The data were acquired in an online study. It was found that customers prefer static rates, and that the value for the customers decreases with increasing dynamics. Further, rate fluctuations should be as low as possible. For electricity managment, consumers prefer programmable devices that react automatically to price signals. In general, it can be stated that changes in the degree of dynamics will have the biggest effect on the use of a rate model and changes in the price span the least. The following recommendations for action are derived: Utilities should stress the advantages of dynamic rate models and show private users how to make use of varying electricity rates. Risks should be described, and hints should be given on how to reduce them. The acceptance of flexible rates may possibly be improved by offering intelligent end use appliances and user-friendly software for electric power management.

  1. Digital system upset. The effects of simulated lightning-induced transients on a general-purpose microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Flight critical computer based control systems designed for advanced aircraft must exhibit ultrareliable performance in lightning charged environments. Digital system upset can occur as a result of lightning induced electrical transients, and a methodology was developed to test specific digital systems for upset susceptibility. Initial upset data indicates that there are several distinct upset modes and that the occurrence of upset is related to the relative synchronization of the transient input with the processing sate of the digital system. A large upset test data base will aid in the formulation and verification of analytical upset reliability modeling techniques which are being developed.

  2. The emancipated energy customer - new possibilities for communication and in designing energy rate systems; Der muendige Energiekunde - neue Moeglichkeiten der Kommunikation und Tarifmodellgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiemann, R.; Passenberg, I.; Suer, S. [IBM Global Business Services, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Whoever wants to attract new and bind existing customers must be familiar with their life habits, behaviours and needs. This rule applies for energy providers just much as it does for other types of enterprise. A study by the business consultancy IBM Global Business Services has illuminated consumers' everyday use of and perspectives on energy. It transpires that customer behaviour is characterised by contradictions. Whereas on one side price and environmental issues play a significant role, on the other so does their personal comfort. The results of the study show that these conflicting priorities open up new possibilities for energy providers to communicate with their customers and design their energy rate systems.

  3. Appropriateness of a load-management agreement as the rate format for customer thermal storage: why a closeout sale on off-peak electricity should be adopted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    This report demonstrates why a load-management agreement is the best rate format for customer thermal energy storage (TES) from electricity. The first section presents the basic operating and cost characteristics of TES systems as well as potential problems that affect rate setting. Then, the criteria for choosing a rate structure are put forth, and the various rate formats available are analyzed considering the above information. Finally, the means of achieving the maximum social benefits using a load-management agreement are explored.

  4. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  5. 19 CFR 24.16 - Overtime services; overtime compensation and premium pay for Customs Officers; rate of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... maximum, in effect for the year involved, in overtime and premium pay a Customs Officer shall receive in... no overtime earning limitation based on this annuity integrity provision would apply. Waivers... duty starting at 8 p.m. on the Thursday holiday and ending at 4 a.m. on Friday—the management...

  6. 77 FR 6949 - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Rates for Non-U.S. Government Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... customers via commercial fiber optic cables and/or commercial communications satellites. In the event one of... general by application of principles of priority to user service requirements. Services shall be provided... service actually occurred. (2) The time scheduled by the user project shall include the slew time, set...

  7. How big is big? How often is often? Characterizing Texas petroleum refining upset air emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Britney J.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Gerard, David

    2010-11-01

    This work examines the magnitude and frequency of Texas petroleum refineries upset air emissions over a 44-month period. Upset emissions occur during plant start-ups, shut-downs, maintenance, malfunctions and flaring incidents, and these emissions are typically exempt from regulation. These emissions contain a variety of chemicals, including benzene, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and butadiene. Unlike other states, Texas has detailed reporting requirements, regulations in place, and an extensive upset emissions database. A key scientific and public policy question is whether upset emissions have significant impacts on local air quality and public health. However, it is not possible to address this question without first understanding the magnitude and properties of upsets. We merge related databases to examine over 3,900 upset emission events and find that upset emissions are significant in both size and occurrence when compared to routine operation emissions. It is determined that these events are not random, being more likely to occur during the summer, in the morning, and early in the workweek. A regional analysis of Port Arthur suggests that upset emissions from co-located refineries are equivalent to having an additional refinery within the region. Because of uncertainties within the reporting process and an obvious underestimation by some refineries, there is a need for better tracking of upset emissions.

  8. Steel balls forming by cross rolling with upsetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pater

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a process of forming four balls with a diameter of 22 mm by means of cross rolling with upsetting. The paper also presents the tool used to form semi-finished balls. Owing to the application of the finite element method (FEM, the course of the rolling process as well as temperature and strain distributions in the obtained balls could be presented. The rolling tests conducted in laboratory conditions at the Lublin University of Technology have proved that the balls produced with the developed rolling method meet the demands for grinding media used in ball mills.

  9. Testing For EM Upsets In Aircraft Control Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of transient electrical signals evaluated in laboratory tests. Method of evaluating nominally fault-tolerant, aircraft-type digital-computer-based control system devised. Provides for evaluation of susceptibility of system to upset and evaluation of integrity of control when system subjected to transient electrical signals like those induced by electromagnetic (EM) source, in this case lightning. Beyond aerospace applications, fault-tolerant control systems becoming more wide-spread in industry; such as in automobiles. Method supports practical, systematic tests for evaluation of designs of fault-tolerant control systems.

  10. Single event upset in static random access memories in atmospheric neutron environments

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Y; Ogawa, I; Kishimoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) in a 0.4 mu m 4Mbit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) were investigated in various atmospheric neutron environments at sea level, at an altitude of 2612 m mountain, at an altitude of commercial airplane, and at an underground depth of 476m. Neutron-induced SEUs increase with the increase in altitude. For a device with a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) film, SEU rates induced by thermal neutrons increase with the decrease in the cell charge of a memory cell. A thermal neutron-induced SEU is significant in SRAMs with a small cell charge. With the conditions of small cell charge, thermal neutron-induced SEUs account for 60% or more of the total neutron-induced SEUs. The SEU rate induced by atmospheric thermal neutrons can be estimated by an acceleration test using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. (author)

  11. Single-event upset studies of a high-speed digital optical data link

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieux, M L; Dinkespiler, B; Evans, G; Gallin-Martel, L; Pearce, M; Rethore, F; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J

    2001-01-01

    The results from a series of neutron and photon irradiation tests of a high-speed digital optical data link based on a commercial serialiser and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser are described, the link was developed as a candidate for the front-end readout of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The components at the emitting end of the link were unaffected by neutron and photon irradiation levels exceeding those expected during 10 years of LHC running. However, the link suffered from Single-Event upsets (SEUs) when irradiated with energetic neutrons. A very general method based on the burst generation rate (BGR) model has been developed and is used to extrapolate the error rate observed during tests to that expected at the LHC. A model-independent extrapolation was used to check the BGR approach and the results were consistent once systematic errors were taken into account. (21 refs).

  12. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A., E-mail: aasmol@spels.ru; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  13. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  14. Customization Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Taps, Stig B.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of mass customization and product configuration in companies requires fundamental considerations about how products can fulfil the demand from customers. In order to support such decision-making, a multi-level model for customization is developed. This model identifies four different...... levels of customization, ranging from the structure level at the bottom, through the performance level and the experience level, to the learning level at the top. The model also has a dual view with customers/demand at one side and product/supplier at the other side. It is a rather general model, which...... can be applied to many types of products, and typically, product designers must decide how far up in levels the customization should aim. In this paper, the four-level customization model is applied to wheel chairs....

  15. Impact of WTO Accession and the Customs Union on the Bound and Applied Tariff Rates of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

    2012-01-01

    After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...

  16. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way....... The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes......, a reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained...

  17. Upset Prediction in Friction Welding Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the upset prediction problem of friction welded joints. Based on finite element simulations of inertia friction welding (IFW, a radial basis function (RBF neural network was developed initially to predict the final upset for a number of welding parameters. The predicted joint upset by the RBF neural network was compared to validated finite element simulations, producing an error of less than 8.16% which is reasonable. Furthermore, the effects of initial rotational speed and axial pressure on the upset were investigated in relation to energy conversion with the RBF neural network. The developed RBF neural network was also applied to linear friction welding (LFW and continuous drive friction welding (CDFW. The correlation coefficients of RBF prediction for LFW and CDFW were 0.963 and 0.998, respectively, which further suggest that an RBF neural network is an effective method for upset prediction of friction welded joints.

  18. Development of self-adjusting hydraulic machine for combination forming of upsetting and extruding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the paper a self-adjusting hydraulic machine for combination forming of upsetting and extruding is systematacially presented in terms of mechanical principle, design principle, machine construction, design of the key components and working routine. The machine is designed with the following features: The lower movable beam is adjusted by the ejecting cylinder, the upper upsetting beam is reset by the backstroke slide rods, and the upsetting cylinders communicate with the gas-liquid accumulators. These features make the machine conformation compact, save both the backstroke cylinder of the upper upsetting beam and the upsetting cylinder of the lower movable beam, and simplify the hydraulic system. Furthermore, the machine can resolve such problems as incomplete filling at the addendum position, microcracks at the dedendum position, greater force and lower die life during precision forging of spur gears.

  19. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 孙辉; 马振洋

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design.

  20. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  1. SU-E-T-232: Custom High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Surface Mold Applicators: The Importance Source to Skin Distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S; Demanes, J; Kamrava, M [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Surface mold applicators can be customized to fit irregular skin surfaces that are difficult to treat with other radiation therapy techniques. Optimal design of customized HDR skin brachytherapy is not well-established. We evaluated the impact of applicator thickness (source to skin distance) on target dosimetry. Methods: 27 patients had 34 treated sites: scalp 4, face 13, extremity 13, and torso 4. Custom applicators were constructed from 5–15 mm thick thermoplastic bolus molded over the skin lesion. A planar array of plastic brachytherapy catheters spaced 5–10 mm apart was affixed to the bolus. CT simulation was used to contour the target volume and to determine the prescription depth. Inverse planning simulated annealing followed by graphical optimization was used to plan and deliver 40–56 Gy in 8–16 fractions. Target coverage parameters (D90, Dmean, and V100) and dose uniformity (V110–200, D0.1cc, D1cc, and D2cc) were studied according to target depth (<5mm vs. ≥5mm) and applicator thickness (5–10mm vs. ≥10mm). Results: The average prescription depth was 4.2±1.5mm. The average bolus thickness was 9.2±2.4mm. The median CTV volume was 10.0 cc (0.2–212.4 cc). Similar target coverage was achieved with prescription depths of <5mm and ≥5mm (Dmean = 113.8% vs. 112.4% and D90 = 100.2% vs. 98.3%). The <5mm prescription depth plans were more uniform (D0.1cc = 131.8% vs. 151.8%). Bolus thickness <10mm vs. ≥10mm plans also had similar target coverage (Dmean = 118.2% vs. 110.7% and D90 = 100.1% vs. 99.0%). Applicators ≥10mm thick, however, provide more uniform target dosimetry (D0.1cc = 146.9% vs. 139.5%). Conclusion: Prescription depth is based upon the thickness of the lesion and upon the clinical needs of the patient. Applicators ≥10mm thick provide more dose uniformity than 5–10mm thick applicators. Applicator thickness is an important variable that should be considered during treatment planning to achieve optimal dose uniformity.

  2. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  3. Customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmir, Rade B

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to present an analysis of the literature examining objective information concerning the subject of customer service, as it applies to the current medical practice. Hopefully, this information will be synthesized to generate a cogent approach to correlate customer service with quality. Articles were obtained by an English language search of MEDLINE from January 1976 to July 2005. This computerized search was supplemented with literature from the author's personal collection of peer-reviewed articles on customer service in a medical setting. This information was presented in a qualitative fashion. There is a significant lack of objective data correlating customer service objectives, patient satisfaction and quality of care. Patients present predominantly for the convenience of emergency department care. Specifics of satisfaction are directed to the timing, and amount of "caring". Demographic correlates including symptom presentation, practice style, location and physician issues directly impact on satisfaction. It is most helpful to develop a productive plan for the "difficult patient", emphasizing communication and empathy. Profiling of the customer satisfaction experience is best accomplished by examining the specifics of satisfaction, nature of the ED patient, demographic profile, symptom presentation and physician interventions emphasizing communication--especially with the difficult patient. The current emergency medicine customer service dilemmas are a complex interaction of both patient and physician factors specifically targeting both efficiency and patient satisfaction. Awareness of these issues particular to the emergency patient can help to maximize efficiency, minimize subsequent medicolegal risk and improve patient care if a tailored management plan is formulated.

  4. Hedging customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ravi; Glazer, Rashi

    2003-05-01

    You are a marketing director with $5 million to invest in customer acquisition and retention. Which customers do you acquire, and which do you retain? Up to a point, the choice is obvious: Keep the consistent big spenders and lose the erratic small ones. But what about the erratic big spenders and the consistent small ones? It's often unclear whether you should acquire or retain them and at what cost. Businesses have begun dealing with unpredictable customer behavior by following the practices of sophisticated investors who own portfolios comprising dozens of stocks with different, indeed divergent, histories and prospects. Each portfolio is diversified so as to produce the investor's desired returns at the particular level of uncertainty he or she can tolerate. Customers, too, are assets--risky assets. As with stocks, the cost of acquiring them is supposed to reflect the cash-flow values they are likely to generate. The authors explain how to construct a portfolio based on the notion that a customer's risk-adjusted lifetime value depends on its anticipated effect on the riskiness of the group it is joining. They also show how this approach was used to identify the best prospects for Myron Corporation, a global leader in the personalized business-gift industry. The concept of risk-adjusted lifetime value has a transforming power: For companies that rely on it, product managers will be replaced by customer managers, and the current method of accounting for profit and loss--which is by product--will be replaced by one that determines each customer's P&L. Once adjusted for risk, those P&Ls will become the firm's key performance and operational metric.

  5. Low energy proton induced single event upset in 65 nm DDR and QDR commercial SRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, T. Q.; Maaz, K.; Luo, J.; Wang, B.; Yin, Y. N.; Ji, Q. G.; Sun, Y. M.; Hou, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The single event upset (SEU) response of 65 nm commercial double data rate static random access memory (SRAM) and quad data rate SRAM was investigated by using proton beams with energies in the range of 0.15 MeV to 8.0 MeV. Experimental results show that a significant number of SEU occurrences can be triggered when the energy of incident proton is below 1 MeV. For the low energy protons, the SEU cross section measured in these SRAMs was found to increase with increasing proton energy, attaining a peak value, and then decreases as the proton energy was further increased. While in case of quad data rate SRAMs, it seems that they are more sensitive to SEU occurrences as compared with double data rate SRAMs. The bias voltage and data pattern dependence on SEU cross section induced by the low energy protons were also investigated in this work. In addition, the over-layer thickness of the SRAMs and the impact of degrader use in proton induced SEU test were also analyzed in detail. Monte Carlo simulations results indicate that the use of degrader in case of low energy proton induced SEU test results in a significant reduction of the SEU cross section.

  6. Observation of single-ion multiple-bit upsets in memories in space; Observation en vol, d'upsets multiples mono-ioniques, sur des memoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, S.; Campbell, A.B.; Meehan, T.; McMorrow, D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Buchner, S. [SFA, Inc Largo, MD (United States); Dyer, C.; Sanderson, C.; Comber, C. [EDS Defense Limited, Hants (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Single-ion multiple-bit upsets (SIMBU) have been observed in 2 different types of memories aboard a spacecraft. There are 3 recognized mechanisms responsible for SIMBUs: 1) charge diffusing away from an ion track and collected by adjacent SEU-sensitive nodes (single event upset), 2) charge collected from an ion track passing through the circuit just below the surface and intersecting a number of memory cells in a straight line, and 3) ion strikes to control circuitry. All the SIMBUs from MPTB (microelectronics and photonics test-bed) have been attributed to one of the 3 mechanisms described above. Bit-maps of the memories are essential for determining the physical locations of the upsets. For this study the bit-maps have been obtained with pulsed lasers. (A.C.)

  7. Shielding effect of a customized intraoral mold including lead material in high-dose-rate 192-Ir brachytherapy for oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Takaharu; Ikushima, Hitoshi; Honda, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A high-dose-rate (HDR) 192-Ir brachytherapy using a customized intraoral mold is effective for superficial oral cavity cancer, and the surrounding normal tissue is kept away from the radioactive source with gauze pads and/or mouth piece for reducing the dose on the normal tissues. In the Tokushima university hospital, the mold has a lead shield which utilizes the space prepared with sufficient border-molding by a specific dental technique using modeling compound. In HDR 192-Ir brachytherapy using a lead shielded customized intraoral mold, there are no reports measuring the absorbed dose. The purpose of the present study is to measure the absorbed dose and discuss the optimum thickness of lead in HDR 192-Ir brachytherapy using a customized intraoral mold with lead shield using a 1 cm thickness mimic mold. The thickness of lead in the mold could be changed by varying the arrangement of 0.1 cm thickness sheet of the acrylic resin plate and lead. The measured doses at the lateral surface of the mold with thermo-luminescence dosimeter were reduced to 1.12, 0.79, 0.57, 0.41, 0.31, 0.24 and 0.19 Gy and the ratios to the prescription dose were reduced to 56, 40, 29, 21, 16, 12 and 10 percent as lead thickness increased from 0 to 0.6 cm in 0.1 cm increments, respectively. A 0.3 cm thickness lead was considered to be required for a 1 cm thickness mold, and it was necessary to thicken the lead as much as possible with the constraint of limited space in the oral cavity, especially at the fornix vestibule.

  8. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM Based FPGAs from the Xilinix Virtex 2 Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gary M.; Yui, Candice C.; Carmichael, Carl; Koga, Rocky; George, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the single event upset static testing of the Virtex II field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) that were tested in protons and heavy-ions. The test designs and static and dynamic test results are reviewed.

  9. An Approach for the Assessment of System Upset Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes an approach for the assessment of upset resilience that is applicable to systems in general, including safety-critical, real-time systems. For this work, resilience is defined as the ability to preserve and restore service availability and integrity under stated conditions of configuration, functional inputs and environmental conditions. To enable a quantitative approach, we define novel system service degradation metrics and propose a new mathematical definition of resilience. These behavioral-level metrics are based on the fundamental service classification criteria of correctness, detectability, symmetry and persistence. This approach consists of a Monte-Carlo-based stimulus injection experiment, on a physical implementation or an error-propagation model of a system, to generate a system response set that can be characterized in terms of dimensional error metrics and integrated to form an overall measure of resilience. We expect this approach to be helpful in gaining insight into the error containment and repair capabilities of systems for a wide range of conditions.

  10. Customer Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Li, Min; Jiao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ruijin

    The contemporary company attaches great importance to marketing relationship and customer relations is the core of this relationship. Further, customer satisfaction and loyalty is the core of the customer relationship management. Sometimes, high customer satisfaction causes low profit because enterprises do not realize that strengthening the loyalty of the aimed customer is the key of customer relationship management.

  11. Customer portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Ann Højbjerg; Freytag, Per Vagn; Zolkiewski, Judith

    2017-01-01

    gives managers a tool to help to cope with the dynamic aspects of the customer portfolio. Recognition of the importance of communication to the process, the development of trust and the role of legitimacy also provides areas that managers can focus upon in their relationship management processes......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend the discussion about customer portfolios beyond simple identification of models and how they can be used for balanced resource allocation to a discussion about how portfolios should take into account views from relationship partners and how they should...... that helps improve the understanding of how customer portfolio models can actually be applied from a relational perspective. Findings The key aspects of the conceptual framework relate to how alignment of the relationships in the portfolio is achieved. Critical to this are the interaction spaces...

  12. Modeling and analysis of the HPM pulse-width upset effect on CMOS inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinhai, Yu; Changchun, Chai; Liping, Qiao; Yintang, Yang; Yang, Liu; Xiaowen, Xi

    2015-05-01

    We derive analytical models of the excess carrier density distribution and the HPM (high-power microwave) upset susceptibility with dependence of pulse-width, which are validated by the simulated results and experimental data. Mechanism analysis and model derivation verify that the excess carriers dominate the current amplification process of the latch-up. Our results reveal that the excess carrier density distribution in P-substrate behaves as pulse-width dependence. The HPM upset voltage threshold Vp decreases with the incremental pulse-width, while there is an inflection point which is caused because the excess carrier accumulation in the P-substrate will be suppressed over time. For the first time, the physical essence of the HPM pulse-width upset effect is proposed to be the excess carrier accumulation effect. Validation concludes that the Vp model is capable of giving a reliable and accurate prediction to the HPM upset susceptibility of a CMOS inverter, which simultaneously considers technology information, ambient temperature, and layout parameters. From the model, the layout parameter LB has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the pulse-width upset effect: a CMOS inverter with minor LB is more susceptible to HPM, which enables us to put forward hardening measures for inverters that are immune from the HPM upset. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60776034) and the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2014CB339900).

  13. Customs Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    required, for the per- DASDD9-%M) ii the single point of contact for formance of customs inspection functions. customs inspecion matters .in the Office...STATUS Onfdlt dotl. member of Rr": 21 DATE if officer of corporation . slu title) ATP OoM 6A N-7s) PtavIoux MuITUONs MAY BE UN&D Figure l-9. Reld.. and...grips. Commonly called HW-4. Serial number over 300,000 denotes the in- corporation of modified hammer safety components. Model HW-5T Double Action

  14. Mobile-Customer Identity Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhan; XU Ji-sheng; XU Min; SUN Hong

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques, we propose an integrated mobile-customer identity recognition approach in this paper, based on customer's behavior characteristics extracted from the customer information database. To verify the effectiveness of this approach, a test has been run on the dataset consisting of 1 000 customers in 3 consecutive months. The result is compared with the real dataset in the fourth month consisting of 162 customers, which has been set as the customers for recognition. The high correct rate of the test (96.30%), together with 1.87% of the judge-by-mistake rate and 7.82% of the leaving-out rate, demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach.

  15. The Customer Service Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chip R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to embed customer service learning and customer loyalty including making customers think, examining every aspect of customers' service encounters with staff, providing follow-up, making learning fun, and involving customers in your business. (JOW)

  16. The Customer Service Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chip R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to embed customer service learning and customer loyalty including making customers think, examining every aspect of customers' service encounters with staff, providing follow-up, making learning fun, and involving customers in your business. (JOW)

  17. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjustment to the level of knowledge of the students. Students will need to reflect on how a mechanical...

  18. Soft error rate estimations of the Kintex-7 FPGA within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthlin, M. J.; Takai, H.; Harding, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the radiation testing performed on the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA in an effort to determine if the Kintex-7 can be used within the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter. The Kintex-7 device was tested with wide-spectrum neutrons, protons, heavy-ions, and mixed high-energy hadron environments. The results of these tests were used to estimate the configuration ram and block ram upset rate within the ATLAS LAr. These estimations suggest that the configuration memory will upset at a rate of 1.1 × 10-10 upsets/bit/s and the bram memory will upset at a rate of 9.06 × 10-11 upsets/bit/s. For the Kintex 7K325 device, this translates to 6.85 × 10-3 upsets/device/s for configuration memory and 1.49 × 10-3 for block memory.

  19. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  20. Quasi-periodic layer structure of die-upset NdFeB magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Bin; LI Yanfeng; WANG Huijie; LI Anhua; ZHU Minggang; LI Wei

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic magnets were prepared from melt-spun powders at different hot pressing temperatures from 550 to 700 ℃,then upset into fully dense anisotropic magnets at the same die-upsetting temperature of 850 ℃.Die-upset magnets had the characteristics of inhomogeneous microstructure,including well-aligned grains structure and nonaligned grains layers transverse to press direction,which was quasi-periodic layer structure with a total length of 5-15 μm.Nonaligned grains layers were mainly made of large grains and had higher Nd content.To clearly understand the formation of layer structure,the microstructure of isotropic precursors with different hot pressing temperatures and their subsequent die-upset magnets was investigated.A new interpretation for the formation of layer structure was proposed in this paper:the layer structure was correlated to the original ribbon interface which was divided into three types based on the contact forms.Because of the incomplete contact of neighboring ribbons,concentration of stress occurred in the contacted points and the Nd-rich phase was squeezed into interspaces at high temperature under stress.Due to the release of interfacial energy and the fluidity of enough Nd-rich liquid phases,the nonaligned layers with large grains formed both in hot compaction and subsequent hot deformation process.The layer structure affected the magnetic properties of die-upset magnets.With increase of the hot pressing temperature,the nonaligned grains layers became thicker,and the magnetic performance of die-upset magnets decreased.It was necessary to reduce the thickness of large grains layers for the preparation of high-performance die-upset magnets.

  1. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  2. Calibration of a neutron detector based on single event upset of SRAM memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, C., E-mail: carles.domingo@uab.ca [Departament de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Particulas, Univ. de Santiago, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Dpto. de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Univ. de Sevilla, 41009 Sevilla (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, 41009 Sevilla (Spain); Hartmann, G.H. [DKFZ E0400, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Amgarou, K.; Garcia-Fuste, M.J. [Departament de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Romero, M.T. [Dpto. de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Univ. de Sevilla, 41009 Sevilla (Spain); Boettger, R.; Nolte, R.; Wissmann, F.; Zimbal, A.; Schuhmacher, H. [PTB, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    One of the challenges of measuring neutron fluences around medical linacs is the fact that the scattered photon fluence is important and higher than the surrounding neutron leakage fluence. Additionally most electron accelerators are pulsed, with repetition rates of the order of hundreds of Hertz, while the pulse duration is in the microsecond range. For this reason, neutron fluence around RT linacs is usually measured through passive methods, with the inconvenience of their time consuming analysis. A new neutron detector, based on the relation between Single Event Upsets (SEU) in digital SRAM memories and the existing thermal neutron fluence, has been developed. This work reports the calibration results of prototypes of this detector, obtained from exposures to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (PTB) moderated {sup 252}Cf source, to PTB quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams of 0.565 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5 MeV, 8 MeV and 14.8 MeV, and to the GKSS thermal neutron beam.

  3. 基于模糊Kano模型的顾客需求重要度计算方法%A Customer Needs Importance Rating Method Based on Fuzzy Kano Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白涛; 李中凯

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of lacking classification capability in customer needs rating calculation,a customer needs classification and importance rating method based on fuzzy Kano model was proposed.The customer survey data were counted and analyzed with the fuzzy Kano model the customer needs were divided into three types such as must-be,one-dimensional and attractive.At the same time,the adjustment functions of customer needs importance were introduced,the customer needs category could be combined with the related importance calculation to guide enterprises getting the maximum customer satisfaction with the minimum cost input.The effectiveness of the proposed method was illustrated by the customer satisfaction evaluation of an enterprise's combine harvesters.%针对传统需求重要度计算缺乏需求分类处理能力的问题,提出一种基于模糊Kano模型的顾客需求分类和重要度计算方法。采用模糊Kano模型对顾客调查数据进行统计和分析,将顾客需求分为基本需求、期望需求和兴奋需求。同时,引入重要度调整函数,使需求类别与重要度计算相结合,从而指导企业以最小投入获得最大顾客满意度。某企业联合收割机顾客满意度的测评证明了该方法的有效性。

  4. Mental representations of attachment figures facilitate recovery following upsetting autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Emre; Zayas, Vivian; Günaydin, Gül; Hazan, Cindy; Kross, Ethan

    2012-08-01

    A growing literature shows that even the symbolic presence of an attachment figure facilitates the regulation of negative affect triggered by external stressors. Yet, in daily life, pernicious stressors are often internally generated--recalling an upsetting experience reliably increases negative affect, rumination, and susceptibility to physical and psychological health problems. The present research provides the first systematic examination of whether activating the mental representation of an attachment figure enhances the regulation of affect triggered by thinking about upsetting memories. Using 2 different techniques for priming attachment figure representations and 2 types of negative affect measures (explicit and implicit), activating the mental representation of an attachment figure (vs. an acquaintance or stranger) after recalling an upsetting memory enhanced recovery--eliminating the negative effects of the memory recall (Studies 1-3). In contrast, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure before recalling an upsetting memory had no such effect (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, activating the mental representation of an attachment figure after thinking about upsetting memories reduced negative thinking in a stream of consciousness task, and the magnitude of the attachment-induced affective recovery effects as assessed with explicit affect measures predicted mental and physical health in daily life (Study 3). Finally, a meta-analysis of the 3 studies (Study 4) showed that the regulatory benefits conferred by the mental representation of an attachment figure were weaker for individuals high on attachment avoidance. The implications of these findings for attachment, emotion regulation, and mental and physical health are discussed.

  5. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed...... to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. KEY FINDINGS: The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers...... companies. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacy staff report poorer quality in their encounters with immigrant customers, including sub-optimal counselling and frequent use of under-aged children as interpreters. Our study also reveals certain differences across personnel groups, which may be explained...

  6. The Competitive Causes and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel H Simon; Gomez, Miguel I.

    2005-01-01

    We conduct two studies to test three hypotheses: (1) Competition increases a firm's customer satisfaction; (2) Rivals' customer satisfaction increases a firm's customer satisfaction; (3) Rivals' customer satisfaction reduces a firm's sales. First, we use store-level customer satisfaction data from a supermarket chain. Next, we consider a range of industries, using brand-level customer satisfaction ratings from the American Customer Satisfaction Index. Results from both studies provide support...

  7. 酒店的组织公平性氛围和关心旅客氛围与旅客的投诉次数之间的关系%The Relationships among Organizational Justice Climate, Climate of Concern for Customers and the Event Rate of Customer Complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书翠; 陈为新; 朱水根

    2012-01-01

    An empirical study has been conducted in 166 departments of 57 hotels to examine the impact of organizational justice climate and the climate of concern for customers on the event rate of customer complaints. The result of HGLM analysis indicates that the level of climate of concern for customers not only mediates the positive relationship between organizational justice climate level and service quality, but also has a negative indirect effect on the event rate of customer complaints through its positive direct effect on departmental service quality. Furthermore, both the strength of hotel' s organizational justice climate and the climate level of concern for customers moderate the relationship between service quality and the event rate of customer complaints.%作者在57家酒店的166个服务部门进行了一次实证研究,探讨酒店的组织公平性氛围和关心旅客氛围与旅客的投诉次数之间的关系。数据分析结果表明,酒店关心旅客的氛围既会中介组织公平性氛围与部门的服务质量之间的正相关关系,又会通过部门的服务质量,对旅客的投诉次数产生间接的负向效应;酒店组织公平性氛围的强度和酒店关心旅客氛围的浓度会调节部门的服务质量与旅客投诉次数之间的关系。

  8. Investigation of Single Events Upsets in Silicon and GaAs Structures Using Reaction Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    bar kilo pascal (kPa) 1.000 000 X E+2 barn meter2 (m2) 1.000 000 X E-28 British Thermal unit (thermochemical) joule (J) 1.054 350 X E+3 calorie...DISCUSSION - I PARAACTER FT 0 104a 2 PARAMETER FIT ’ 14• EUTRON DATA Proton and heavy ion upset measurement results am 0 PROTON DATA shown in Table H...model: circuits are deliberately designed not to upset in the natural environment at ground level. This environment includes thermal fluctuations as

  9. Upset welded 304L and 316L vessels for storage tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of vessels for tritium storage tests were fabricated using upset welding. A solid-state resistance upset weld was used to join the two halves of each vessel at the girth. The vessels differ from production reservoirs in design, material, and fabrication process. One set was made from forged 304L stainless steel and the other from forged 316L stainless steel. Six vessels of each type were loaded with a tritium mix in November 1995 and placed in storage at 71 C. This memo describes and documents the fabrication of the twelve vessels.

  10. Heavy Ion Induced Single Event Upsets on 65 nm Advanced CMOS Technology SRAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Li; GAO; Li-juan; SHI; Shu-ting; LIU; Jian-cheng; WANG; Hui; FAN; Hui

    2012-01-01

    <正>With rapid development of semiconductor industry, the problem of single event effects (SEE) has become exacerbated with shrinking technology feature size and power supply voltages. Accompanying smaller technology scaling is closer spacing between transistors, smaller sensitive areas requiring less critical charge to upset, and lower power supply voltages resulting in a smaller critical charge (Qcrit) to upset. Experimental assessment of circuit sensitivity to radiation is of the most importance. And in this paper we studied the heavy ion characterization on 65 nm advanced CMOS technology SRAM.

  11. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business fun

  12. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business

  13. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business fun

  14. Modeling customer loyalty using customer lifetime value.

    OpenAIRE

    Glady, N.; Baesens, Bart; Croux, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    The definition and modeling of customer loyalty have been central issues in customer relationship management since many years. Recent papers propose solutions to detect customers that are becoming less loyal, also called churners. The churner status is then defined as a function of the volume of commercial transactions. In the context of a Belgian retail financial service company, our first contribution will be to redefine the notion of customer's loyalty by considering it from a customer-cen...

  15. First record of single event upset on the ground, Cray-1 computer memory at Los Alamos in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grider, Gary A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwanchuk, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morrison, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wender, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Normand, Eugene [EN ASSOCIATES, LLC; Wert, Jerry L [BOEING RESEARCH AND TEC; Johnson, Steve [CRAY, INC.

    2010-01-01

    Records of bit flips in the Cray-1 computer installed at Los Alamos in 1976 lead to an upset rate in the Cray-1 's bipolar SRAMs that correlates with the SEUs being induced by the atmospheric neutrons. In 1976 the Cray Research Company delivered its first supercomputer, the Cray-1, installing it at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos had competed with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Cray-1 and won, reaching an agreement with Seymour Cray to install the machine for a period of six months for free, after which they could decide whether to buy, lease or return it. As a result, Los Alamos personnel kept track of the computer reliability and performance and so we know that during those six months of operation, 152 memory parity errors were recorded. The computer memory consisted of approximately 70,000 1Kx1 bipolar ECL static RAMs, the Fairchild 10415. What the Los Alamos engineers didn't know is that those bit flips were the result of single event upsets (SEUs) caused by the atmospheric neutrons. Thus, these 152 bit flips were the first recorded SEUs on the earth, and were observed 2 years before the SEUs in the Intel DRAMs that had been found by May and Woods in 1978. The upsets in the DRAMs were shown to have been caused by alpha particles from the chip packaging material. In this paper we will demonstrate that the Cray-1 bit flips, which were found through the use of parity bits in the Cray-1, were likely due to atmospheric neutrons. This paper will follow the same approach as that of the very first paper to demonstrate single event effects, which occurred in satellite flip-flop circuits in 1975. The main difference is that in the four events that occurred over the course of 17 satellite years of operation were shown to be due to single event effects just a few years after those satellite anomalies were recorded. In the case of the Cray-1 bit flips, there has been a delay of more than 30 years between the occurrence of the bit

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Upset and Recovery of the National Ignition Facility's Optics Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bernardin

    1999-05-01

    temperature changes in the optical components. However, the corresponding recovery times of the optical components were found to be less than three hours, well within the seven hour limit posed by NW operations. Simulated laser shots also were found to create thermal upsets within the OM's optical components over a range of heat deposition rates. However, the recovery times of these thermal upsets were found to be less than one hour. Finally, the use of non-contact infrared thermocouples was demonstrated as an effective means to track the temperature of the OM's optics.

  17. Enhanced magnetic properties in Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering via die-upsetting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhihua; CHU Linhua; LI Jun; LIU Ying

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering with different die-upsetting processes were investigated.The results showed that the optimum magnetic properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets were obtained at 680 ℃ when the die-upset level was 60%,and the degree of magnetic alignment was 0.84.The microstructures showed that the coarse grains occurred predominantly within certain areas,and abnormal grain growth was not observed within the major areas of well-aligned grains.There existed many small spherical grains,which stacked together and were not aligned during die upsetting when the deformation temperature was 650 ℃.These small spherical grains grew up,and were aligned when the deformation temperature increased from 650 to 680 ℃,which could improve the crystallographic alignment of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  18. Direct observation of asperity deformation of specimens with random rough surfaces in upsetting and indentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2006-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system...

  19. Direct Observation of Asperity Deformation of Specimen with Random Rough Surface in Upsetting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system....

  20. Ground-based Simulation of Upset Recovery in DESDEMONA: Aspects of Motion Cueing and Motion Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Wentink, M.; Trujillo, M.; Huhne, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unsuccessful recovery from unusual flight attitudes, or “airplane upset”, is considered an important factor in civil aviation accidents. It is generally recognized that there is a clear need for enhanced training of recovery procedures from unusual flight attitudes, i.e. situations where an aircraft

  1. Direct Observation of Asperity Deformation of Specimen with Random Rough Surface in Upsetting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system...

  2. Final results of the supra project : Improved Simulation of Upset Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fucke, L.; Groen, E.; Goman, M.; Abramov, N.; Wentink, M.; Nooij, S.; Zaichik, L.E.; Khrabrov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the European research project SUPRA (Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation) is to develop technologies that eventually contribute to a reduction of risk of Loss of control - in flight (LOC-I) accidents, today's major cause of fatal accidents in commercial aviation. To this end th

  3. Are loyal customers profitable? : customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Øyvind

    2000-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is supposed to be positively related to profitability. This conception may be called “the paradigm of customer satisfaction”. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined this fundamental relationship. Thus, evidence for this “much talked about relationship” is questioned. In this working paper the focus is on the individual customer with respect to the relationships between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the customer level. The f...

  4. Measuring the upset of CMOS and TTL due to HPM-signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Esser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure the performance of electronic components when stressed by High Power Microwave signals a setup was designed and tested which allows a well-defined voltage signal to enter the component during normal operation, and to discriminate its effect on the component. The microwave signal is fed to the outside conductor of a coaxial cable and couples into the inner signal line connected to the device under test (DUT. The disturbing HF-signal is transferred almost independent from frequency to maintain the pulse shape in the time domain. The configuration designed to perform a TEM-coupling within a 50 Ohm system prevents the secondary system from feeding back to the primary system and, due to the geometrical parameters chosen, the coupling efficiency is as high as 50–90%. Linear dimensions and terminations applied allow for pulses up to a width of 12ns and up to a voltage level of 4–5 kV on the outside conductor. These pulse parameters proved to be sufficient to upset the DUTs tested so far. In more than 400 measurements a rectangular pulse of increasing voltage level was applied to different types of CMOS and TTL until the individual DUT was damaged. As well the pulse width (3, 6 or 12 ns and its polarity were varied in single-shot or repetitive-shot experiments (500 shots per voltage at a repetition rate of 3 Hz. The state of the DUT was continuously monitored by measuring both the current of the DUT circuit and that of the oscillator providing the operating signal for the DUT. The results show a very good reproducibility within a set of identical samples, remarkable differences between manufacturers and lower thresholds for repetitive testing, which indicates a memory effect of the DUT to exist for voltage levels significantly below the single-shot threshold.

  5. ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Pankaj Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is “merely the entry point for achieving a deeper foundation that rests on total customer engagement,” by Benson Smith and Tony Rutigliano. Everyone aims to satisfy the customers: in fact, you and your competitors may have the same customer satisfaction ratings. What will set you apart from your competition and ensure the growth of your business is to satisfy yourcustomers to the point that you engage them. An engaged customer is the most valuable asset of any organization. Engaged customers assure a business of sustained and profitable growth. They are the first who will continue to repurchase your products, and the most likely to recommend you to other people. Your goal, therefore, isnot just to generate sales, but bring in loyal and engaged customers. So today, leveraging customer contributions is an important source of competitive advantage – whether through advertising, user generated product reviews, customer service FAQs, forums where consumers can socialize with one another or contribute to product development. This paper examines the concept of customer engagement, principles and process of customer engagement,engagement metrics to measure customer engagement, strategies for engaging with customers online, how engagement drives business success & recent trends in customer engagement.

  6. Talking about Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Mary; Axelroth, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses customer service in information centers and how to define it. Topics include the effects of competition, that give customers more choices; defining customers, and defining services; communications; physical environment; change, in customers and in technology; measuring customer service; and evaluating policies and procedures. (LRW)

  7. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  8. Creating customer loyalty through service customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, Pedro S.; Henseler, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Although practitioners and scholars alike embrace service customization as a possibly powerful management instrument, its impact on customer relationships as well as contingencies for its effective application are not well understood. Drawing from relationship marketing and exchange theory

  9. Surveying your internal customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  10. King customer forever: Customer satisfaction and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myuers James

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available "King Customer!" So proclaimed the front cover of Business Week in a 1989 issue. At about the same time, "Rediscovering the Customer" was the title of a series of company vignettes in Fortune magazine. And a Wall Street Journal article asked, "For Customers, More Than Lip Service?" Combined, these three prestigious business publications reflected a new era in business firms perceptions of their customers and the role they should play in the formulation of company strategies and priorities. Had the "Era of the Customer" finally arrived in American business? .

  11. Customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Introduction:  The popularity of the EPSI Rating framework has grown considerably over the last few years and more and more companies are using this sort of information in their strategic planning process. The primary result of interest for businesses is the level of the seven indices in the EPSI...

  12. Case Study and Application of Customer Rating Segmentation --Based on Securities CRM%客户风险评级管理研究与应用——基于证券CRM管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王园

    2012-01-01

    Based on theory of Customer Relationship Management, this paper constructs securities industry's multi -dimension segmentation model including 14 industrial characters indexes. Then combining K - means cluster algorithm and business intelligence, this paper brings forward Chinese securities industry's customer risk rating management model And aiming at Xiamen's one certain security company, this paper applies ease study to concrete customer information, and identifies efficiently customer groups with difference characters and risk preference, accordingly, security company can adopt personalized marketing strategies.%在客户关系管理理论的基础上,建立了包含14个行业特色指标的证券业多维细分模型,并结合K—means聚类算法和商务智能技术,提出基于K—means聚类方法的中国证券业客户风险评级管理模型,并结舍具体案例,对厦门某证券公司的具体客户信息进行了实证研究,有效的识别出了具有不同该特征以及风险偏好的客户群,证券公司可以据此推出个性化营销策略。

  13. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF CYLINDERS BEING UPSET BETWEEN SPHERICAL CONCAVE PLATEN AND CONCAVE SUPPORTING PLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guohui; XIAO Wenhui; NI Liyong; LIU Zhubai

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical analysis of cylinders being upset between spherical concave platen and concave supporting plate is conducted. Rigid-plastic mechanical models for cylinders are presented. When the ratio of height to diameter, is larger than 1, there exists two-dimensional tensile stress in the deformed body, when the ratio is smaller than 1, there exists shear stress in static hydraulic zone. The former breaks through the theory that there is three-dimensional compressive stress irrespective of any ratio of height to diameter. The latter satisfactorily explains the mechanism of layer-like cracks in disk-shaped forgings and the flanges of forged gear axles. The representation of the two models makes the upsetting theory into correct and perfect stage.

  14. Evolution of microstructure and texture in copper during repetitive extrusion-upsetting and subsequent annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.; Shu, D. Y.; Lin, J.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture in copper has been studied during repetitive extrusion-upsetting (REU) to a total von Mises strain of 4.7 and during subsequent annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the texture is significantly altered by each deformation pass....... A duplex ⟨001⟩ + ⟨111⟩ fiber texture with an increased ⟨111⟩ component is observed after each extrusion pass, whereas the ⟨110⟩ fiber component dominates the texture after each upsetting pass. During REU, the microstructure is refined by deformation-induced boundaries. The average cell size after a total...... strain of 4.7 is measured to be ∼0.3μm. This refined microstructure is unstable at room temperature as is evident from the presence of a small number of recrystallized grains in the deformed matrix. Pronounced recrystallization took place during annealing at 200 °C for 1 h with recrystallized grains...

  15. Compiler-level Implementation of Single Event Upset Errors Mitigation Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Piotrowski, A

    2010-01-01

    Single Event Upset is a common source of failure in microprocessor-based systems working in environment with increased radiation level especially in places like accelerators and synchrotrons, where sophisticated digital devices operate closely to the radiation source. One of the possible solutions to increase the radiation immunity of the microprocessor systems is a strict programming approach known as the Software Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance. Unfortunately, a manual implementation of SIHFT algorithms is difficult and can introduce additional problems with program functionality caused by human errors. In this paper author presents new approach to this problem, that is based on the modifications of the source code of the C language compiler. Protection methods are applied automatically during source code processing at intermediate representation of the compiled program. Index Terms—Software implemented hardware fault tolerance, Compilation techniques, Table protection algorithm, Single event upset, ...

  16. Queuing model with variable input rates, mistake service and impatient customers%输入率可变且有差错服务及不耐烦顾客的排队模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘全如

    2012-01-01

    在系统顾客容量不变的情况下,顾客到达系统后是否进入系统接受服务对销售行业影响是巨大的.从排队长度对顾客输入率的影响着手,研究了输入率、服务正确率及不耐烦顾客强度均与队长有关的排队模型,得出了进入系统的顾客流是泊松过程.系统中的顾客数是生灭过程,同时求得了系统的队长平稳分布,因没有进入系统而导致系统损失的概率、因不耐烦而离去的顾客的均值、单位时间内系统服务错误率、因系统容量有限而无法加入队列的损失概率等多项指标,得出了并非输入率越高系统就盈利越多、并非系统服务正确率越低系统就赚得越少等结论.还得到了能使企业利润最大化的系统容量及服务速度,为销售行业提高自己的销售业绩提供了很有价值的参考.%The customers do not necessarily get into the system though arriving at it in the case of a fixed customer number, which influences sales industry enormously. Focusing on the influence of queue length on input rate, we build up a queuing model with variable input rates,mistake service and impatient customers, and draw the following conclusions; the customers get into the system in Poissonian flow; the number of customers in the system is a birth-death process. We obtained the stationary queue length distribution of the model, the loss probability for the customers not entering the system while arriving at the system, the mean of the customers who leaves the system due to impatience, the service error rate per unit time and the loss probability for the customers not joining the queue due to the limited capacity of the system and so on. This paper also justifies the falsehood of the following assumptions: the bigger the input rate is, the more profit business will get; the bigger the number of impatient customers is, the less profit business will make. We also obtaind the appropriate service speed and capacity a

  17. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  18. Why Professor Richard Feynman was upset solving the Laplace equation for spherical waves?

    CERN Document Server

    Khelashvili, Anzor

    2013-01-01

    We take attention to the singular behavior of the Laplace operator in spherical coordinates, which was established in our earlier work. This singularity has many non-trivial consequences. In this article we consider only the simplest ones, which are connected to the solution of Laplace equation in Feynman classical books and Lectures. Feynman was upset looking in his derived solutions, which have a fictitious singular behavior at the origin. We show how these inconsistencies can be avoided.

  19. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  20. A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included...single µC signal line. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Microcontroller, digital upset, signal disruptions, probability of effect 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...2006). Building on this work to develop a system-level model for RF effects on a full digital system such as a PC is daunting, in part because of the

  1. Velocity Field and Variation of Wall Thickness During Tube Dieless Upsetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠堂; 栾瑰馥; 张士宏

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical analyses show that the variation of wall thickness is in direct proportion to outer-diameter, inter-diameter, and (√1 + Rs) (Rs is sectional increase ratio of tube), the theoretical calculated results of wall thickness during tube dieless upsetting are very approximate to the experimental one. As the width of deformation field increases, both the variation of wall thickness and the derivative of wall thickness variation to width of deformation field (tf/to) reduce.

  2. Upset in Response to a Sibling’s Partner’s Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Hellstrand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing evidence suggests that the psychological design of romantic jealousy differs for men and women: Men are more likely than women to report greater upset in response to a partner’s sexual than emotional infidelity, whereas women are more likely than men to report greater upset in response to a partner’s emotional than sexual infidelity. However, the observed sex difference can be explained after the fact by both an evolutionary analysis of past reproductive costs and a social constructionist analysis of social and gender role training. Attempting to disentangle these competing perspectives, researchers have measured participants’ upset in response to a sibling’s or a child’s partner’s infidelities. In contrast to what a socialization perspective would predict, participants’ sex did not seem to affect their responses; the key variable was the sex of the sibling or the child, in line with a heuristic application of the evolutionary perspective. The present study attempted not only to test these competing hypotheses but also to extend previous work by involving participants with a gay or lesbian sibling and examining whether participants’ responses are triggered by their sibling’s or sibling’s partner’s sex. In line with an evolutionary perspective, participants’ sex did not assert an effect on their responses. The key variable seemed to be the sex of the sibling (rather than the sex of the sibling’s partner, with participants reporting greater levels of upset in response to the sexual than emotional infidelity of a gay brother’s partner and to the emotional than sexual infidelity of a lesbian sister’s partner. The ensuing discussion offers suggestions for future work on sex-specific triggers of jealousy.

  3. Effect of different heating methods on deformation of metal plate under upsetting mechanism in laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongjun; Liu, Yancong; Yi, Peng; Hu, Jun

    2012-03-01

    In a laser forming process, different forming mechanisms have different deformation behaviors. The aim of laser forming is to acquire plane strain under an upsetting mechanism, while a plate undergoes a small bending deformation. In some industrial applications, the bending strain should not occur. To achieve high-precision forming, the deformation behaviors of a metal plate when an upsetting mechanism plays a dominant role are studied in the paper. Several heating methods are proposed to reduce the plane strain difference along the thickness direction and little bending deformation resulting from a small temperature difference between the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The results show that negligible bending deformation and a uniform plastic plane strain field can be obtained by simultaneously heating the top and bottom surfaces with the same process parameters. A conventional scanning method needs a larger spot diameter and slower scanning speed under the upsetting mechanism, but a smaller spot diameter and quicker scanning speed may be selected using the simultaneous heating method, which can greatly widen the potential scope of process parameters.

  4. Customer satisfaction and competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Paola; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    this by analyzing data collected on 2,105 customers of 118 branches of one of the biggest banks of an Italian banking group. We find that customer satisfaction impacts loyalty, which in turn has a direct effect on financial and non-financial customer value/total customer value/complex customer value. Moreover......We empirically address how customer satisfaction and loyalty in the banking industry may affect profitability. This helps to identify the strategy and competencies necessary to benefit from customer relationships which are important sources for improved performance in the banking. We do...

  5. STRATEGI CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MARKETING TERHADAP LOYALITAS PELANGGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Setyo Iriani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the banking industry had rapidly gave freedom to our customers in determining the choice touse their services, so if the value received was not as expected, then the customers were easy to move to anotherbank, which was considered in accordance with their wishes. Thus, banks were implementing various strategies,both offensive and defensive oriented. Defensive strategy was oriented to maintain customers by buildingrelationships with customers so that customers will be loyal to the bank. This study aimed to examine the effectof customer relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty of BNI and BCA in East Java. Total samplewas 210 clients, 105 clients each of BNI and BCA. Data was collected using interviews and questionnaires. Theresults showed that there was influence of customer relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty of BNIand BCA, because each customer provided high ratings on all indicators of the bank’s CRM strategy in whichthey saved money. Trust was the most decisive for customers in a comprehensive evaluation of the closeness ofthe relationship with the bank. Furthermore, customers of both banks showed high behavioral loyalty to eachbank.

  6. High Strain-Rate Testing of Mechanical Couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    tensile strength equal to or greater than that of the control bar but did not achieve the ductility of the control bar. Specimen UHC 9 failed close to...than the Grade 60 bar, but only slightly so at the rapid rate. Upset head system The upset head coupler ( UHC ) system performed very well under the...average performance of the UHC system under the intermediate strain-rate loading condition produced 99% of the dynamic ultimate strength, 61% of the

  7. Techniques of Microprocessor Testing and SEU (Single Event Upset)-Rate Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-15

    be tested in a simple computer configuration, e.g., single board computer . The proces- sor "self-tests"~ and the result of the self-test can be...register or in the program counter. Following such an event, the single board computer would sometimes lose track of itself, and a catastrophic

  8. Customer satisfaction and competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Paola; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    this by analyzing data collected on 2,105 customers of 118 branches of one of the biggest banks of an Italian banking group. We find that customer satisfaction impacts loyalty, which in turn has a direct effect on financial and non-financial customer value/total customer value/complex customer value. Moreover......, loyalty is a mediator between financial and not-financial customer value and two sources of customer satisfaction, namely relationships with the front office and the branch, on the one hand, and the products offered, on the other.......We empirically address how customer satisfaction and loyalty in the banking industry may affect profitability. This helps to identify the strategy and competencies necessary to benefit from customer relationships which are important sources for improved performance in the banking. We do...

  9. Single event upsets sensitivity of low energy proton in nanometer static random access memory%纳米静态随机存储器低能质子单粒子翻转敏感性研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗尹虹; 张凤祁; 王燕萍; 王圆明; 郭晓强; 郭红霞

    2016-01-01

    针对65,90,250 nm三种不同特征尺寸的静态随机存储器基于国内和国外质子加速器试验平台,获取了从低能到高能完整的质子单粒子翻转截面曲线。试验结果表明,对于纳米器件1 MeV以下低能质子所引起的单粒子翻转截面比高能质子单粒子翻转饱和截面最高可达3个数量级。采用基于试验数据和器件信息相结合的方法,构建了较为精确的复合灵敏体积几何结构模型,在此基础上采用蒙特卡罗方法揭示了低能质子穿过多层金属布线层,由于能量岐离使展宽能谱处于布拉格峰值的附近,通过直接电离方式将能量集中沉积在灵敏体积内,是导致单粒子翻转截面峰值的根本原因。并针对某一轨道环境预估了低能质子对空间质子单粒子翻转率的贡献。%Low-energy protons are able to generate enough energy through direct ionization to cause a high single event upset cross section as the feature size of semiconductor devices shrinks. It poses a large challenge on the present proton single event modeling test technique and the space upset rate prediction method. Experimental study of proton single event effect in three different feature sizes of static random access memory (SRAM) (i.e. 65 nm, 90 nm, and 250 nm) is carried out based on domestic low-energy proton accelerators and also the foreign middle-high proton accelerators. Complete cross section curves of proton single event upset from low energy to high energy are acquired. Test results show that single event upset cross section below 1 MeV proton is up to three orders of magnitude higher than the saturation cross section of high-energy proton in nanometer SRAM. However, single event upset is not observed for protons below 3 MeV in 250 nm SRAM, and no single event multiple-cell upsets occur for protons below 1 MeV in 90 nm and 65 nm SRAM. The accurate geometrical structure model of composite sensitive volume is constructed through the

  10. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  11. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  12. Evaluation of Distribution Network Customer Outage Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemīte, Laila; Gerhards, Jānis

    2009-01-01

    Customer outage cost criteria are considered, collected and analyzed outage costs in Latvia distribution network, as well as distribution network outage elimination structure, the most common outage causes, are proposed outage costs estimation model. Finally the discussion of results of expected customer outage costs and interrupted energy assessment rate calculation results in Latvia distribution network in 2007 are presented, based on customers' mean value of incomes, outcomes and profitability.

  13. Customers' evaluation of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tsosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis on the aspect chosen will provide an understanding and expand more on the strategic thinking that impact on corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise.

  14. Managing Customer Expectations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeff Parke

    2012-01-01

      If a service provider customer's satisfaction level is changing, find out if something has happened, either at the customer's end or at the service provider's, to affect their expectations or perceptions...

  15. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  16. Customer Experience Management Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Havíř, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to examine the phenomenon of customer experience and customer experience management through years and summarize recent knowledge in this area. Methodology/methods: The paper is built upon secondary research of research papers of renowned authors in the area of customer experience management. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to find out potential avenues of further research. Findings: Findings confirmed that customer experience is s...

  17. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  18. Customer loyalty building

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the customer loyalty. It gives an example of CRM project which aims to build the loyalty of customers to some brand or product so the customer would return to the company and would be satisfied with all products and services he get.

  19. Mass Customization and Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Mass customization (MC) has been introduced as the future of manufacturing, and great results have been proven. Recent research, however, documents a high failure rate for companies trying to adapt to MC as a business strategy. Making this transition is, as highlighted by several scholars...

  20. Customer perceptions of agency risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; Chen, Y C

    1996-04-01

    A government agency commissioned a baseline study of how its customers view the agency's risk information. The 70% response rate to a mail survey allows analysis by subgroups representing customers' primary interests. Although this agency traditionally has been responsible for ensuring plant and animal health at the farm gate (or where imported), responses emphasized emerging customer concerns about the environment and human health. Customers think many risk communication activities are important, but that the agency is not especially effective in conducting those activities. Customers are moderately satisfied with much of the risk information they receive, although many have little contact from or interaction with the agency. Customers identified other sources they use, which suggest potentially effective channels for this agency's risk messages. The study provides a baseline for measuring change in the agency's risk communication effectiveness. It also can be a model when other organizations plan their own risk communication evaluations.

  1. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  2. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  3. Ferromagnetic grain boundary signature in die-upset RE-Fe-B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson Lewis, L.; Zhu, Y.; Welch, D.O.

    1994-07-01

    Previous nanostructural and nanocompositional studies performed on the boundaries of deformed grains in two die-upset rare earth magnets with bulk compositions Nd{sub 13.75}Fe{sub 80.25}B{sub 6}, and Pr{sub 13.75}Fe{sub 80.25}B{sub 6} indicate that the intergranular phase in many grain boundaries is enriched in iron relative to the bulk. Preliminary magnetic data are presented that provide further evidence that this grain boundary phase is indeed iron-rich, and in fact appears to be ferromagnetic. Hysteresis loops were performed at 800 K on die-upset magnets with the above compositions. Each sample showed a clear hysteresis with coercivities between 34 and 40 Oe average remanence 4{pi}M{sub R} of 6.8 G for the Nd-based sample and 10.3 G for the Pr-based sample. The ferromagnetic signals measured at high temperature in these magnets are attributed to the iron-rich grain boundary phase. The implications of this conclusion with respect to coercivity are discussed.

  4. Uncertainty Modeling for Robustness Analysis of Control Upset Prevention and Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Khong, Thuan H.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Kwatny, Harry; Chang, Bor-Chin; Balas, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. Such systems (developed for failure detection, identification, and reconfiguration, as well as upset recovery) need to be evaluated over broad regions of the flight envelope and under extreme flight conditions, and should include various sources of uncertainty. However, formulation of linear fractional transformation (LFT) models for representing system uncertainty can be very difficult for complex parameter-dependent systems. This paper describes a preliminary LFT modeling software tool which uses a matrix-based computational approach that can be directly applied to parametric uncertainty problems involving multivariate matrix polynomial dependencies. Several examples are presented (including an F-16 at an extreme flight condition, a missile model, and a generic example with numerous crossproduct terms), and comparisons are given with other LFT modeling tools that are currently available. The LFT modeling method and preliminary software tool presented in this paper are shown to compare favorably with these methods.

  5. The case for customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Arthur C

    2004-09-01

    How does customer loyalty grow? Through good customer experiences. Yet some organizations seem to genuinely fail to understand that they can keep or lose a customer in the proverbial blink of an eye. And in this era of increasing customer demands across all industries, it's important that healthcare financial managers understand the correlation between customer loyalty and customer experience.

  6. Improvements in the process of boss bar upset forging into a horizontal forging machine with the aim of joint knuckle forging quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Nizamov, R. S.; Kharisov, I. Zh

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for tapered composing transition shaping has been put forward in the process of upset forging with the use of an experimental tool. The results of the upset forging process with the use of a new composing transition has been computer simulated.

  7. Effect of water chemistry upsets on the dynamics of corrective reagent dosing systems at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, V. N.; Yegoshina, O. V.; Bolshakova, N. A.; Yarovoi, V. O.; Latt, Aie Min

    2016-12-01

    Typical disturbances in the dynamics of a corrective reagent dosing system under unsteady-state conditions during the unsatisfactory operation of a chemical control system with some water chemistry upsets at thermal and nuclear power stations are considered. An experimental setup representing a physical model for the water chemistry control system is described. The two disturbances, which are most frequently encountered in water chemistry control practice, such as a breakdown or shutdown of temperature compensation during pH measurement and an increase in the heat-transfer fluid flow rate, have been modeled in the process of study. The study of the effect produced by the response characteristics of chemical control analyzers on the operation of a reagent dosing system under unsteady-state conditions is important for the operative control of a water chemistry regime state. The effect of temperature compensation during pH measurement on the dynamics of an ammonia-dosing system in the manual and automatic cycle chemistry control modes has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the reading settling time of a pH meter in the manual ammonia- dosing mode grows with a breakdown in temperature compensation and a simultaneous increase in the temperature of a heat-transfer fluid sample. To improve the efficiency of water chemistry control, some systems for the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid by a chemical parameter with the obligatory compensation of a disturbance in its flow rate have been proposed for use. Experimental results will possibly differ from industrial data due to a great length of sampling lines. For this reason, corrective reagent dosing systems must be adapted to the conditions of a certain power-generating unit in the process of their implementation.

  8. How Customers Choose Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Hera Oktadiana; Andhika Kurnia

    2011-01-01

    In the advancement of hospitality industry, thus it is important for hotel sales and marketing to understand the customer behavior in order to create effective marketing. Factors that influence customer behavior as individuality consist of personal and interpersonal factors. Personal factors include the needs, wants, motivation, perception, learning, personality, lifestyle, and self-concept. Meanwhile, interpersonal factors come from culture and sub-culture, group references, customers throug...

  9. Companies and the customers who hate them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Gail; Moon, Youngme

    2007-06-01

    Why do companies bind customers with contracts, bleed them with fees, and baffle them with fine print? Because bewildered customers, who often make bad purchasing decisions, can be highly profitable. Most firms that profit from customers' confusion are on a slippery slope. Over time, their customer-centric strategies for delivering value have evolved into company-centric strategies for extracting it. Not surprisingly, when a rival comes along with a friendlier alternative, customers defect. Adversarial value-extracting strategies are common in such industries as cell phone service, retail banking, and health clubs. Overly complex product and pricing options, for example, may have been designed to serve various segments. But in fact they take advantage of how difficult it is for customers to predict their needs (such as how many cell phone minutes they'll use each month) and make it hard for them to choose the right product. Similarly, penalties and fees, which may have been instituted to offset the costs of undesirable customer behavior, like bouncing checks, turn out to be very profitable. As a result, companies have no incentive to help customers avoid them. Tactics like these generate bad publicity and fuel customer defections, creating opportunities for competitors. Virgin Mobile USA, for example, has lured millions of angry cell phone customers away from the incumbents by offering a straightforward plan with no hidden fees, no time-of-day restrictions, and no contracts. ING Direct, now the fourth-largest thrift bank in the United States, offers accounts with no fees, no tiered interest rates, and no minimums. In industries where squeezing value from customers is commonplace, companies that dismantle these harmful practices and design a transparent, value-creating offer can head off customer retaliation and spur rapid growth.

  10. Customer relationships marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one clic...

  11. Customer relationship management systems in the energy economy; Customer Relationship Management-Systeme in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtel, K.; Kurp, F. [Process Management Consulting GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    In times of rising change of supplier rates increasing importance attaches to customer relationship management (CRM). Whereas in the past functions for addressing and developing customers were only found in key account management systems, these functions are now increasingly being used also in the business to customer area. Before this can happen however, a careful analyses of the existing systems and the requirements they need to fulfil is required.

  12. Monitoring Customer Satisfaction in Service Industry: A Cluster Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Horváth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key performance indicators of quality management system of an organization is customer satisfaction. The process of monitoring customer satisfaction is therefore an important part of the measuring processes of the quality management system. This paper deals with new ways how to analyse and monitor customer satisfaction using the analysis of data containing how the customers use the organisation services and customer leaving rates. The article used cluster analysis in this process for segmentation of customers with the aim to increase the accuracy of the results and on these results based decisions. The aplication example was created as a part of bachelor thesis.

  13. Monitoring Customer Satisfaction in Service Industry: A Cluster Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Horváth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the key performance indicators of quality management system of an organization is customer satisfaction. The process of monitoring customer satisfaction is therefore an important part of the measuring processes of the quality management system. This paper deals with new ways how to analyse and monitor customer satisfaction using the analysis of data containing how the customers use the organisation services and customer leaving rates. The article used cluster analysis in this process for segmentation of customers with the aim to increase the accuracy of the results and on these results based decisions. The aplication example was created as a part of bachelor thesis.

  14. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  15. Influences of lubricant pocket geometry and working conditions upon micro lubrication mechanisms in upsetting and strip drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, Ichiro; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    , during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid-viscoplastic finite-element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build-up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro-lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found between...

  16. Estimation of the probability of radiation failures and single particle upsets of integrated microcircuits onboard the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, NV; Popov, VD; Khamidullina, NM

    2005-01-01

    When designing the radio-electronic equipment for long-term operation in a space environment, one of the most important problems is a correct estimation of radiation stability of its electric and radio components (ERC) against radiation-stimulated doze failures and one-particle effects (upsets). The

  17. FE-Simulation of Technology of Upsetting φ73×5.51 EU Tubing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The FE-simulation software can be used to simulate and to optimize a system with computer, even before the system is designed. After a number of FE-simulations, main equipment and technological parameters for upsetting φ73×5.51 EU tubing have been obtained.

  18. Evaluation of single-event upset tolerance on 64Mbit DRAM and 16Mbit DRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, N.; Shindou, H.; Matsuzaki, K.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, T.; Itoh, H.; Nashiyama, I.

    1997-11-01

    In recent years, reduction in the mission cost is regarded as one of the most important matters, and thus much effort has been made to reduce the cost of electronic components used in spacecrafts without diminishing their performance. On this policy, there has been a growing interest in space application of commercial devices such as highly integrated memory ICs because of low prices and high performance of such devices. To ensure success in this application, it is indispensable to investigate radiation effects, e.g., single-event and total-dose effects, on commercial devices precisely. In the present study, we have evaluated single-event upset (SEU) tolerance for 1Mbit, 4Mbit SRAM and 16Mbit, 64Mbit DRAM by irradiation of high energy heavy ions such as 175MeV-Ar{sup 8+} and 450MeV-Xe{sup 23+}. We observed these SEU tolerance in space. (author)

  19. Evaluating the Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) Method to Join magnesium Castings to Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Stephen D. [FCA US LLC

    2015-08-19

    This presentation discusses advantages and best practices for incorporating magnesium in automotive component applications to achieve substantial mass reduction, as well as some of the key challenges with respect to joining, coating, and galvanic corrosion, before providing an introduction and status update of the U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense jointly sponsored Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) process development and evaluation project. This update includes sharing performance results of a benchmark evaluation of the self-pierce riveting (SPR) process for joining dissimilar magnesium (Mg) to aluminum (Al) materials in four unique coating configurations before introducing the UPJ concept and comparing performance results of the joints made with the UPJ process to those made with the SPR process.

  20. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  1. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event upsets and latch up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Umesh; S R Kulkarni; R Sandhya; G R Joshi; R Damle; M Ravindra

    2005-08-01

    Several very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices which are not available in radiation hardened version are still required to be used in spacecraft systems. Thus these components need to be tested for highenergy heavy ion irradiation to find out their tolerance and suitability in specific space applications. This paper describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) and single event latch up (SEL). The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon (Si), and silver (Ag), for studying single event effects (SEE) is briefly described. The heavy ion testing of a few VLSI devices is performed in the general purpose scattering chamber of the Pelletron facility, available at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The test results with respect to SEU and SEL are discussed.

  2. Numerical simulation of upsetting-extruding process of dispersion strengthened copper welding electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng-jun; ZHANG Ying-chun; HUANG Dian-yuan; LIU Xin-yu

    2007-01-01

    The simulation of the upsetting-extruding process of dispersion strengthened copper welding electrode was carried out using Deform-2D finite element analysis software, and the characteristics of metal flow and the effect of different friction factors were analysed. The results show that the whole forming process consists of a forward extrusion and a backward extrusion. When the friction factor of the female die is 0.4, it is advantageous to the forward extrusion forming of the electrode work nose part, while the friction factor of the male die is only 0.1, it would be benefit to the backward extrusion forming of the electrode fit-up hole part. Addition of a scoop channel with 1.5 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter at the bottom of the female die can avoid folds at the work nose. The rise in temperature is about 60 ℃ during the forming process.

  3. Single Event Upset Detection and Hardening schemes for CNTFET SRAM – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R.Rajalakshmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT provide a better alternative of silicon, when it comes to nano scales. Thanks to its high stability and high performance of carbon nanotube, CNT based FET (CNTFET devices which are gaining popularity of late. Single Event Upset (SEU in a device is caused due to radiation. Radiation can be through two ways, one due to charge particles present in the atmosphere and other due to alpha particles. In this article we review some of the detection and hardening schemes in CMOS SRAM and make related simulations on CNTFET SRAM. The aim of this paper is to present the challenges the CNTFET SRAM is facing when the radiation effects are introduced. A full experimentation of all the schemes of detection and correction schemes will be beyond the scope, so only certain experiments that can be well carried out with CNTFET SRAM memory is more focussed.

  4. A novel carbon nanotubefet based bulk built-in current sensor for single event upset detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R RAJALAKSHMI; R SUDHAKAR

    2016-05-01

    The continuous scaling down of circuits has resulted in the development of carbon nanotubes (CNT) which provides a better alternative of silicon. High device packing densities is one of the advantageous factors of CNTFET compared to CMOS technology. This paper describes the new bulk current based built-in current sensor (BBICS) for the detection of single event upset (SEU) in CNTFET SRAM with less number of transistors compared to previous designs. The advantage of it is that its ability to detect low ranges of microcurrent. The complete circuit, both SRAM and Sensor are built with CNTFET. This also possesses the advantage of being used in the detection of negative current pulses with the addition of an inverter circuit. This circuitoperates best for two different technology nodes. This built-in current sensor is connected to the bulk terminal of the CNTFET SRAM. PVT analysis and power dissipation analysis were done for the proposed circuit.

  5. New customer services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Møller Andersen, Frits; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the challenge of motivating energy service customers to make best use of available smart technologies. This can be done through economic incentives, but also through information and education, regulation and reorganisation, and by improving services or customer comfort...

  6. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors di

  7. Managing customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, Zoe

    2015-02-28

    Zoe Paget is the customer services manager at YourVets. Her role includes managing the company's call centre, social media marketing, working with the marketing department to develop customer care initiatives and reporting service levels to the company's directors. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  9. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  10. English Idioms and Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小乔

    2015-01-01

    Customs is a kind of social phenomenon. They are not the product of individuals but that of the collective in the society,which are affected by politics, economy, religion, literary art and so on and then affect those things in reverse. English idioms aregreatly influenced by English customs.

  11. REGIONAL CUSTOMS DIRECTORATES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABA STEFAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  12. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S. Y

  13. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  14. Customs Modernization Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Luc; Sokol, José B.

    2005-01-01

    This handbook aims to make a positive contribution to the efforts that many countries are undertaking to modernize their customs administrations. The handbook views a competent and well-organized customs service as one that successfully balances its various responsibilities to ensure a high level of compliance with revenue objectives and regulatory requirements while at the same time inter...

  15. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  16. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  17. Keeping Your Customers Satisfied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that because child care is a customer-service business with many of the same requirements as any retail business, it is important that providers communicate clearly, help their customers (especially parents), and understand their needs. Offers suggestions for meeting parents' needs and making them feel like active participants in their…

  18. Customer relationships marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one click of the mouse. Every one of them is characterized by specific needs, and, in that sense the company must strive to satisfy them with the right offer at the right time and through the right channel. The aim of the company is to have loyal customers who will help the company make maximized profit and competitive advantage on the market.

  19. CUSTOMER LOYALTY THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita IŠORAITĖ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  20. How Customers Choose Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Oktadiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the advancement of hospitality industry, thus it is important for hotel sales and marketing to understand the customer behavior in order to create effective marketing. Factors that influence customer behavior as individuality consist of personal and interpersonal factors. Personal factors include the needs, wants, motivation, perception, learning, personality, lifestyle, and self-concept. Meanwhile, interpersonal factors come from culture and sub-culture, group references, customers through stages before deciding to purchase. Begin with the awareness about the needs, customers then find information about the product or service that could be used to solve the problems. After having the information, customers select the best product and service before deciding to purchase. After purchasing, the last stage is evaluation of product and service, whether it is satisfying or not.

  1. Customer Retention Practices Among the Major Retailers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Sharmeela-Banu; K. Gengeswari; P. Padmashantini

    2012-01-01

    Since the last decade, many companies perceive the retention of the customer as a central topic in their management and marketing decisions. A firm can increase profits by 25-95 percent if it could improve its customer retention rates by 5 percent. A retained customer will be loyal due to the attachment and commitment to the organization. This customer will, then, recommend others to purchase and repurchase the companies’ products and services. Review on past literatures indicates that studie...

  2. Customer Clustering Based on Customer Purchasing Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chung Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer clustering has become a priority for enterprises because of the importance of customer relationship management. Customer clustering can improve understanding of the composition and characteristics of customers, thereby enabling the creation of appropriate marketing strategies for each customer group. Previously, different customer clustering approaches have been proposed according to data type, namely customer profile data, customer value data, customer transaction data, and customer purchasing sequence data. This paper considers the customer clustering problem in the context of customer purchasing sequence data. However, two major aspects distinguish this paper from past research: (1 in our model, a customer sequence contains itemsets, which is a more realistic configuration than previous models, which assume a customer sequence would merely consist of items; and (2 in our model, a customer may belong to multiple clusters or no cluster, whereas in existing models a customer is limited to only one cluster. The second difference implies that each cluster discovered using our model represents a crucial type of customer behavior and that a customer can exhibit several types of behavior simultaneously. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted through a retail data set, and the results show that the clusters obtained by our model can provide more accurate descriptions of customer purchasing behaviors.

  3. Customization and Customer-Product Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    , through the performance level and the experience level to the learning level at the top. This model has a dual view with customers/demand at one side and product/supplier at the other side. It is developed so that it can be generally applied and, typically, product designers must decide how far up...... in levels the customisation should aim. This paper sets special focus on the upper levels of customisation, especially the learning level, and it is shown that products with a large range of user-oriented functionalities often require much training to use and that customers on the other hand are sometimes......In order to support decision making in companies, who want to implement Mass Customisation (MC) and Product Configuration, a previously published model for customisation is developed. This model identifies customisation in four different levels, ranging from the structure level at the bottom...

  4. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations.

  5. When to "Fire" Customers: Customer Cost-Based Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwoong Shin; Sudhir, K.; Dae-Hee Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The widespread adoption of activity-based costing enables firms to allocate common service costs to each customer, allowing for precise measurement of both the cost to serve a particular customer and the customer's profitability. In this paper, we investigate how pricing strategies based on customer cost information affects a firm's customer acquisition and retention dynamics, and ultimately its profit, using a two-period monopoly model with high- and low-cost customer segments. Although past...

  6. Customer Loyalty Research : Can customer loyalty programs really build loyalty?

    OpenAIRE

    Romppanen, Maiju; Kellgren, Cecilia; Moradi, Ladan

    2007-01-01

    Background: During the last decades the efforts to foster customer relationships have become important due to increased competition in the consumer markets. One of the most popular strategies have been to introduce customer loyalty programs which are believed to enhance the customer loyalty. The popularity of the customer loyalty programs is based on the beliefs that loyal customers are lucrative and these programs would bond the customers to the company. More recently however, the discussion...

  7. RFM customer profitability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Veljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the customer profitability is a very important activity for each and every modern marketing oriented firm. By identifying profitable customer segments, the efficiency and the effectiveness of the marketing strategies can be significantly improved. One of the best-known methods for identifying the most valuable customers is the RFM method. The application of this method is particularly important in the decision-making process related to justification of the application of the various direct marketing strategies, and especially when the introduction of the new product into the market is the key issue.

  8. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  9. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  10. Integrating SERVQUAL with national customer satisfaction indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study is to integrate SERVQUAL with a national customer satisfaction index in this context the EPSI Rating framework. The data for this study comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2007. Here app. 1700 customers have evaluated there preferred bank. The questionnaire...... consists of two parts: the basic EPSI statement as well as 15 statements covering the 5 dimension from SERVQUAL. The results show that the importance of the 5 dimensions differs substantially among the different companies and that there is a clear link to overall satisfaction....

  11. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  12. Research on Manchu customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕

    2013-01-01

    As a minority in china, Manchu developed a rich colorful and splendid culture. It is worthwhile studying on its fairy tales, funeral rituals, marriage conventions, sacrificial practices, child-birth and raising customs as well as taboos.

  13. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  14. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  15. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  16. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  17. Achievement of Strategic ICT Business Objectives through Customer Retention in a Ghanaian Telecommunications Company

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; S. Owusu-Ansah; D. Nartey

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of customer retention on the achievement of strategic ICT business objectives at Airtel Ghana Limited, a telecommunications company in Ghana. Customer retention plays a critical role in enhancing Airtel’s strategic objectives. We discuss the factors that increase customer retention rate; which include customer care, customer satisfaction, service quality and commitment of staff. We used questionnaires to collect data from the staff of the custome...

  18. Customer satisfaction and business excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    , customer loyalty and performance, and optimal customer satisfaction is characterized which will help management choose the right quality parameters for improvement. Second, the paper describes empirical evidence that customer satisfaction measures, based on a modelling approach, have impact on economic......The topic for this paper is the link between customer satisfaction and business performance, which makes it possible to use customer satisfaction measures as basis for creating business excellence. First, the paper presents microeconomic models for the relationship between customer satisfaction...

  19. Customer satisfaction and business excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    The topic for this paper is the link between customer satisfaction and business performance, which makes it possible to use customer satisfaction measures as basis for creating business excellence. First, the paper presents microeconomic models for the relationship between customer satisfaction......, customer loyalty and performance, and optimal customer satisfaction is characterized which will help management choose the right quality parameters for improvement. Second, the paper describes empirical evidence that customer satisfaction measures, based on a modelling approach, have impact on economic...

  20. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  1. The customer has escaped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paul F; Cespedes, Frank V

    2003-11-01

    Every company makes choices about the channels it will use to go to market. Traditionally, the decision to sell through a discount superstore or a pricey boutique, for instance, was guided by customer demographics. A company would identify a target segment of buyers and go with the channel that could deliver them. It was a fair assumption that certain customer types were held captive by certain channels--if not from cradle to grave, then at least from initial consideration to purchase. The problem, the authors say, is that today's customers have become unfettered. As their channel options have proliferated, they've come to recognize that different channels serve their needs better at different points in the buying process. The result is "value poaching." For example, certain channels hope to use higher margin sales to cover the cost of providing expensive high-touch services. Potential customers use these channels to do research, then leap to a cheaper channel when it's time to buy. Customers now hunt for bargains more aggressively; they've become more sophisticated about how companies market to them; and they are better equipped with information and technology to make advantageous decisions. What does this mean for your go-to-market strategy? The authors urge companies to make a fundamental shift in mind-set toward designing for buyer behaviors, not customer segments. A company should design pathways across channels to help its customers get what they need at each stage of the buying process--through one channel or another. Customers are not mindful of channel boundaries--and you shouldn't be either. Instead, they are mindful of the value of individual components in your channels--and you should be, too.

  2. Customer relationship marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sæter, Jan Øyvind

    2006-01-01

    Customer relationship marketing has become an interesting choice of strategy for companies in today’s competitive markets. Different positioning strategies like price and product quality are easy to imitate, eluding the importance of sustainable competitive advantage. The customers need to be attracted and bonded towards the store through relationships. The paper discusses several factors affecting relationship marketing and the advantages with this strategy. Through the the...

  3. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Bordean; Alina Raileanu

    2008-01-01

    In order to maintain in a market economy with the competition becoming increasingly tough, with consumer preferences and demands more sophisticated and diverse, a company must manage in the best possible way the relations with the existing and potential customers to know their preferences, attitudes, purchasing behaviour, motivations, in order to attract the proper clients for their company products. These goals may be achieved by implementing a strategy called “Customer Relationship Manageme...

  4. Customs control of goods

    OpenAIRE

    Mentor Gashi; Ramadan Gashi

    2015-01-01

    Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research que...

  5. A simple and valuable approach for measuring customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, William C

    2005-08-01

    To determine the financial impact of poor customer satisfaction and the value of information gained from using a 1-question customer-satisfaction survey in a medical setting. A single-question customer-satisfaction survey was collected from customers presenting to an academic otolaryngology head and neck surgery outpatient clinic. The overall response rate was 25%, overall net promoter score was 67.3%, lowest net promoter score occurred on Wednesday and Friday, overall net potential referrals were 872, and potential lost revenue from dissatisfied customers equaled US 2.3 million dollars. A single-question customer-satisfaction survey may help identify areas of customer dissatisfaction that lead to a significant source of lost revenue. The competitive forces in today's health care environment require medical practices to address issues related to customer satisfaction.

  6. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  7. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... to handle shorter and faster product life cycles. Continuously changing customer needs are pushing companies' competence of continuous innovation to a maximum - but still this seems not to be enough to stay competitive on the global market and reach the goals of growth. This article therefore suggests...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  8. The Impact of Customer-Based Brand Equity on Customer Acquisition and Customer Retention

    OpenAIRE

    F. Stahl; Heitmann, M.; Lehmann, D R

    2010-01-01

    The topic of marketing accountability is of great interest to marketing researchers and professionals. In this paper, we model the impact of customer-based brand equity on customer acquisition and customer retention which can be used as the basis for calculating customer equity. Using actual purchase data of 39 automobile brands sold in the US between 1999 and 2008 we derive customer acquisition and customer retention from first-order Markov brand-switching matrices. Brand equity is defined b...

  9. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service : Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turunen, Susanna Marita 2011. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service. Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service. Master’s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 73. Appendix 1. This thesis discusses and studies service quality and customer satisfaction in internal customer service. The main objective is to find out what the service quality level in the internal customer service at Abloy Oy is and whether there exists a diffe...

  10. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service : Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turunen, Susanna Marita 2011. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service. Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service. Master’s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 73. Appendix 1. This thesis discusses and studies service quality and customer satisfaction in internal customer service. The main objective is to find out what the service quality level in the internal customer service at Abloy Oy is and whether there exists a diffe...

  11. Customer Engagement as a New Perspective in Customer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Reinartz, Werner J.; Krafft, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, customer management (CM) research has evolved and has had a significant impact on the marketing discipline. In an increasingly networked society where customers can interact easily with other customers and firms through social networks and other new media, the authors propose that custom

  12. Customer Engagement as a New Perspective in Customer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Reinartz, Werner J.; Krafft, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, customer management (CM) research has evolved and has had a significant impact on the marketing discipline. In an increasingly networked society where customers can interact easily with other customers and firms through social networks and other new media, the authors propose that custom

  13. Customer complaints and recovery effectiveness : A customer base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.; van Oest, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Although customer complaints are a well-studied aspect of business, no study has measured the impact of actual complaints and recoveries on subsequent customer purchasing. The authors develop a customer base model to investigate the effectiveness of recovery in preventing customer churn. They calibr

  14. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  15. Recovery of single event upset in advanced complementary metal-oxide semiconductor static random access memory cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun-Rui; Chen Shu-Ming; Liang Bin; Liu Bi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Using computer-aided design three-dimensional (3D) simulation technology,the recovery mechanism of single event upset and the effects of spacing and hit angle on the recovery are studied.It is found that the multi-node charge collection plays a key role in recovery and shielding the charge sharing by adding guard rings.It cannot exhibit the recovery effect.It is also indicated that the upset linear energy transfer (LET) threshold is kept constant while the recovery LET threshold increases as the spacing increases. Additionally,the effect of incident angle on recovery is analysed and it is shown that a larger angle can bring about a stronger charge sharing effect,thus strengthening the recovery ability.

  16. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakimura, N., E-mail: n-sakimura@ap.jp.nec.com [Green Platform Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nebashi, R.; Sugibayashi, T. [Green Platform Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba (Japan); Natsui, M.; Hanyu, T. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ohno, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm{sup 2}/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10{sup −12} per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (I{sub C0}) became less than 30 μA.

  17. Customer satisfaction toward TrueMove customer service

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Abbas, Haider; Koobgrabe, Chokaew; Chutima, Punyanuch

    2008-01-01

    Title: Customer Satisfaction toward TrueMove Customer Service Problem Statement: How are TrueMove customers satisfied with the customer service provided at TrueMove shops in Bangkok? Purpose: To evaluate “whether” and “how” TrueMove customers are satisfied or dissatisfied with the customer service provided at TrueMove shops in the Bangkok region with the help of evaluation of service quality by customers of the shop. Theory and Methods: The research bases mainly on quantitative method; that i...

  18. Analyzing Test-As-You-Fly Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  19. Characterization of System on a Chip (SoC) Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses Using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  20. SRAM single event upset calculation and test using protons in the secondary beam in the BEPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuanming; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Fengqi; Zhang Keying; Chen Wei; Luo Yinhong; Guo Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The protons in the secondary beam in the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) are first analyzed and a large proportion at the energy of 50 100 MeV supply a source gap of high energy protons.In this study,the proton energy spectrum of the secondary beam was obtained and a model for calculating the proton single event upset (SEU) cross section of a static random access memory (SRAM) cell has been presented in the BEPC secondary beam proton radiation environment.The proton SEU cross section for different characteristic dimensions has been calculated.The test of SRAM SEU cross sections has been designed,and a good linear relation between SEUs in SRAM and the fluence was found,which is evidence that an SEU has taken place in the SRAM.The SEU cross sections were measured in SRAM with different dimensions.The test result shows that the SEU cross section per bit will decrease with the decrease of the characteristic dimensions of the device,while the total SEU cross section still increases upon the increase of device capacity.The test data accords with the calculation results,so the high-energy proton SEU test on the proton beam in the BEPC secondary beam could be conducted.

  1. Texture evolution in upset-forged P/M and wrought tantalum: Experimentation and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingert, J.F.; Desch, P.B.; Bingert, S.R.; Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.

    1997-11-01

    Preferred orientations in polycrystalline materials can significantly affect their physical and mechanical response through the retention of anisotropic properties inherent to the single crystal. In this study the texture evolution in upset-forged PIM and wrought tantalum was measured as a function of initial texture, compressive strain, and relative position in the pressing. A <001>/<111> duplex fiber texture parallel to the compression axis was generally observed, with varying degrees of a radial component evident in the wrought material. The development of deformation textures derives from restricted crystallographic slip conditions that generate lattice rotations, and these grain reorientations can be modeled as a function of the prescribed deformation gradient. Texture development was simulated for equivalent deformations using both a modified Taylor approach and a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. A comparison between the predicted evolution and experimental results shows a good correlation with the texture components, but an overly sharp prediction at large strains from both the Taylor and VPSC models.

  2. Effect of material parameters on stress wave propagation during fast upsetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-jin; CHENG Li-dong

    2008-01-01

    Based'on a dynamic analysis method and an explicit algorithm, a dynamic explicit finite element code was developed for modeling the fast upsetting process of block under drop hammer impact, in which the hammer velocity during the deformation was calculated by energy conservation law according to the operating principle of hammer equipment. The stress wave propagation and its effect on the deformation were analyzed by the stress and strain distributions. Industrial pure lead, oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper and 7039 aluminum alloy were chosen to investigate the effect of material parameters on the stress wave propagation. The results show that the stress wave propagates from top to bottom of block, and then reflects back when it reaches the bottom surface. After that, stress wave propagates and reflects repeatedly between the upper surface and bottom surface. The stress wave propagation has a significant effect on the deformation at the initial stage, and then becomes weak at the middle-final stage. When the ratio of elastic modulus or the slope of stress-strain curve to mass density becomes larger, the velocity of stress wave propagation increases, and the influence of stress wave on the deformation becomes small.

  3. Noise impact of single-event upsets on an FPGA-based digital filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Keith S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caffrey, Michael P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Brian H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael J [BYU

    2009-01-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays are well-suited to DSP and digital communications applications. SRAM-based FPGAs, however, are susceptible to radiation-induced single-event upsets (SEUs) when deployed in space environments. These effects are often handled with the area and power-intensive TMR mitigation technique. This paper evaluates the effects of SEUs in the FPGA configuration memory as noise in a digital filter, showing that many SEUs in a digital communications system cause effects that could be considered noise rather than circuit failure. Since DSP and digital communications applications are designed to withstand certain types of noise, SEU mitigation techniques that are less costly than TMR may be applicable. This could result in large savings in area and power when implementing a reliable system. Our experiments show that, of the SEUs that affected the digital filter with a 20 dB SNR input signal, less than 14% caused an SNR loss of more than 1 dB at the output.

  4. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit.

  5. upSET, the Drosophila homologue of SET3, Is Required for Viability and the Proper Balance of Active and Repressive Chromatin Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Kyle A.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Zee, Barry M.; Wang, Charlotte I.; Park, Peter J.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin plays a critical role in faithful implementation of gene expression programs. Different post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins reflect the underlying state of gene activity, and many chromatin proteins write, erase, bind, or are repelled by, these histone marks. One such protein is UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast Set3 and mammalian KMT2E (MLL5). Here, we show that UpSET is necessary for the proper balance between active and repressed states. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing, we generated S2 cells that are mutant for upSET. We found that loss of UpSET is tolerated in S2 cells, but that heterochromatin is misregulated, as evidenced by a strong decrease in H3K9me2 levels assessed by bulk histone PTM quantification. To test whether this finding was consistent in the whole organism, we deleted the upSET coding sequence using CRISPR/Cas-9, which we found to be lethal in both sexes in flies. We were able to rescue this lethality using a tagged upSET transgene, and found that UpSET protein localizes to transcriptional start sites (TSS) of active genes throughout the genome. Misregulated heterochromatin is apparent by suppressed position effect variegation of the wm4 allele in heterozygous upSET-deleted flies. Using nascent-RNA sequencing in the upSET-mutant S2 lines, we show that this result applies to heterochromatin genes generally. Our findings support a critical role for UpSET in maintaining heterochromatin, perhaps by delimiting the active chromatin environment. PMID:28064188

  6. upSET, the Drosophila homologue of SET3, Is Required for Viability and the Proper Balance of Active and Repressive Chromatin Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. McElroy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin plays a critical role in faithful implementation of gene expression programs. Different post-translational modifications (PTMs of histone proteins reflect the underlying state of gene activity, and many chromatin proteins write, erase, bind, or are repelled by, these histone marks. One such protein is UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast Set3 and mammalian KMT2E (MLL5. Here, we show that UpSET is necessary for the proper balance between active and repressed states. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing, we generated S2 cells that are mutant for upSET. We found that loss of UpSET is tolerated in S2 cells, but that heterochromatin is misregulated, as evidenced by a strong decrease in H3K9me2 levels assessed by bulk histone PTM quantification. To test whether this finding was consistent in the whole organism, we deleted the upSET coding sequence using CRISPR/Cas-9, which we found to be lethal in both sexes in flies. We were able to rescue this lethality using a tagged upSET transgene, and found that UpSET protein localizes to transcriptional start sites (TSS of active genes throughout the genome. Misregulated heterochromatin is apparent by suppressed position effect variegation of the wm4 allele in heterozygous upSET-deleted flies. Using nascent-RNA sequencing in the upSET-mutant S2 lines, we show that this result applies to heterochromatin genes generally. Our findings support a critical role for UpSET in maintaining heterochromatin, perhaps by delimiting the active chromatin environment.

  7. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, conta

  8. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence,

  9. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, conta

  10. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  11. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  12. Take Five for Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J. Ax-Fultz; Barbara E. Eshbach; Evonne N. Loomis; Miller, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Businesses leverage excellent customer service to improve profitability. Although not profit-driven, libraries should leverage excellent customer service to achieve their unique missions. Evaluating and improving customer service practices will help a library determine if it is successfully serving its customers. The library should review three areas to improve customer service: the physical space of the library, how library employees work with library policies, and the communication skills o...

  13. Customer Satisfaction in Hotel Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bizi Mubiri, Joleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how customer satisfaction enhances customer loyalty in hotels. Specifically, the thesis used Lake Kivu Serena Hotel as a case study. Customer retention is achieved by involving customers in improving the quality of services offered by a hotel. Moreover, customers feel appreciated when they realize that the hotel is committed to improving their experience. Qualitative and quantitative methods of research were used to collect the data for the re-...

  14. Fresh perspectives on customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    McColl-Kennedy, Janet; Gustafsson, Anders; Jaakkola, Elina; Klaus, Phil; Radnor, Zoe; Perks, Helen; Friman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose is to provide directions for future research on: (1) broadening the role of customers in customer experience; (2) taking a practice-based approach to customer experience; and (3) recognizing the holistic, dynamic nature of customer experience across all touch points and over time. Design/methodology/approach – The approach is conceptual identifying current gaps in research on customer experience. Findings – The findings include a set of research questions and re...

  15. TOTAL QUALITY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Cruz Álvarez; Jesús Fabián López; Carlos Monge Perry

    2014-01-01

    In today’s business environment, all organizations are required to focus on their customers in order to fully understand their needs. There is a need to drive and engage strategic actions in order to close any potentials gaps between customer´s expectations and manufacture´s deliverables. Current customer satisfaction theory appears to be excluded from a holistic model that broadly covers the extent of customer satisfaction concept.This article empathizes the need of an integrated customer sa...

  16. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.; Bun, M.J.G.; van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a hitherto unstudied type of expense targeted at individual customer relatio

  17. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.; van Raaij, E.M.; Bun, M.; Vernooij, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and cus-tomer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a type of expenses targeted at individual customer relationships: the offer

  18. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management and Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsar Kristian P., Feliks Anggia; Panjaitan, Hotman

    2014-01-01

    This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. Fast food restaurant KFC, always strives to continue to make improvements in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on…

  19. Customer Retention Practices Among the Major Retailers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sharmeela-Banu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last decade, many companies perceive the retention of the customer as a central topic in their management and marketing decisions. A firm can increase profits by 25-95 percent if it could improve its customer retention rates by 5 percent. A retained customer will be loyal due to the attachment and commitment to the organization. This customer will, then, recommend others to purchase and repurchase the companies’ products and services. Review on past literatures indicates that studies on customer retention concentrated more on the manufacturing sector over the retailing despite its growing importance as a major service sub-sector. This study explores literatures pertaining to the factors that influence customer retention and its measures at great length. Factors such as top management support, switching costs, perceived service quality, customer satisfaction, interaction with customers, pricing, membership and employees are found to significantly influence the customer retention rate while customer retention rate can be measured by evaluating their characteristics in terms of repeat purchases, willingness in spreading positive word of mouth (WOM about the company to others, insensitiveness towards the changes in pricing of products and attitude of praising (not complaining. Based on the thorough literatures done, a theoretical framework is proposed and some possible recommendations are put forward for future researches.

  20. Early warning system for potential churners among mortgage customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irpan, Hamidah Muhd; Aidid, Sharifah Sakinah Syed Hassan; Mohmad, Sarahiza; Ibrahim, Noorazilah

    2014-07-01

    Retaining existing customer is a major task for many companies because cost to acquire new customers is higher than retaining existing customers. For mortgage business in Bank X, customer relationship management plays a big role to understand their customers' profile and churners so that suitable action can be done to retain their potential churners. Objectives of this study are (1) understanding their customers' profile and churners, (2) modeling potential churners using neural network model and (3) to deploy the model to identify potential churners. Data was divided into two parts: sampling (67,470 cases) and scoring (4,488 cases). Analysis was done using SAS Enterprise Miner. Dependent variable is churner/non churner while independent variables are balance and amount of loan, interest rate offered installment amount, loan performance, months in arrear, vintage, tenure, age, race and gender. Potential churners were identified as Malays, followed by Indian, other races and Chinese. Nonperforming loan and male customers tend to churn compared to performing loan and female customers. Younger customers with small loan amount, balance and monthly instalment, higher interest rate, have many months in arrears, longer vintage and tenure have higher tendency to churn from Bank X. Hence, Bank X should focus on the potential churners for their campaign to minimize the expenses of retaining existing customers by doing an effective campaign with high successful rate.

  1. Measuring customer loyalty using an extended RFM and clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Zalaghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the ability to identify the profitable customers, creating a long-term loyalty in them and expanding the existing relationships are considered as the key and competitive factors for a customer-oriented organization. The prerequisite for having such competitive factors is the presence of a very powerful customer relationship management (CRM. The accurate evaluation of customers’ profitability is considered as one of the fundamental reasons that lead to a successful customer relationship management. RFM is a method that scrutinizes three properties, namely recency, frequency and monetary for each customer and scores customers based on these properties. In this paper, a method is introduced that obtains the behavioral traits of customers using the extended RFM approach and having the information related to the customers of an organization; it then classifies the customers using the K-means algorithm and finally scores the customers in terms of their loyalty in each cluster. In the suggested approach, first the customers’ records will be clustered and then the RFM model items will be specified through selecting the effective properties on the customers’ loyalty rate using the multipurpose genetic algorithm. Next, they will be scored in each cluster based on the effect that they have on the loyalty rate. The influence rate each property has on loyalty is calculated using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.

  2. The Customer Citizenship Behaviors of Food Blog Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaung-Hwa Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared with previous studies that have focused on customers’ behavioral intentions or the factors that influence purchase behaviors on blogs or discussion boards, in this study, we examine the factors of independent food blogs or discussion boards that influence users’ customer citizenship behaviors. Six food blogs were selected based on the flow rate and food diaries. 323 Subjects were chosen from the blog user population and then interviewed to develop the data needed for this study. The results indicate that psychological needs, customer satisfaction, and customer-company identification positively affect customer citizenship behaviors. High satisfaction of customer-orientation is a critical management strategy on food blogs. This study adapts physically existing organizational behavior theory through appropriate inference and modification for virtual community. Unlike past studies that focused on customer purchase intention, this study emphasizes customer value and social media of the virtual community.

  3. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  4. Exogenous HIV-1 Nef upsets the IFN-γ-induced impairment of human intestinal epithelial integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Quaranta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mucosal tissues play a central role in the transmission of HIV-1 infection as well as in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Despite several clinical studies reported intestinal dysfunction during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying HIV-induced impairments of mucosal epithelial barrier are still unclear. It has been postulated that HIV-1 alters enterocytic function and HIV-1 proteins have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on human epithelial cell line. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated Caco-2 cells, as a model for homeostatic and inflamed gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. We investigated the effect of exogenous recombinant Nef on monolayer integrity analyzing its uptake, transepithelial electrical resistance, permeability to FITC-dextran and the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, we measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators. Exogenous Nef was taken up by Caco-2 cells, increased intestinal epithelial permeability and upset the IFN-γ-induced reduction of transepithelial resistance, interfering with tight junction protein expression. Moreover, Nef inhibited IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-3α production by Caco-2 cells while down-regulated IL-10 production. The simultaneous exposure of Caco-2 cells to Nef and IFN-γ did not affect cytokine secretion respect to untreated cells. Finally, we found that Nef counteracted the IFN-γ induced arachidonic acid cascade. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that exogenous Nef, perturbing the IFN-γ-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial cells, could prolong cell survival, thus allowing for accumulation of viral particles. Our results may improve the understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, supporting the discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  5. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  6. PRIORITIZATION OF CUSTOMER NEEDS IN HOUSE OF QUALITY USING CONJOINT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Durga Prasad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The priority structure of customer needs in House of Quality (HOQ forms the basis for the company to make the product more attractive to customers. In the traditional Quality Function Deployment (QFD approach, the priority structure of customer needs is developed through assigning different importance weights for customer needs, which are based on QFD team members' direct experience with the customers or on the results of surveys. In this paper Conjoint analysis is adopted to obtain the priority structure of customer needs. The priority ratings of customer needs may be different for different customer segments. k-means cluster method is used to cluster customers according to their main benefits. Prior to adopt the conjoint analysis, Factor analysis is employed to reduce the size of the customer needs portion of HOQ. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology to establish priority structure of customer needs.al unit, which would significantly improve the business.

  7. Design to learn: customizing services when the future matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ariely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based customization tools can be used to design service encounters that maximize customers' utility in the present or explore their tastes to provide more value in the future, where these two goals conflict with each other. Maximizing expected customer satisfaction in the present leads to slow rates of learning that may limit the ability to provide quality in the future. An emphasis on learning can lead to unsatisfied customers that will not only forego purchasing in the current period, but, more seriously, never return if they lose trust in the service provider's ability to meet their needs. This paper describes service design policies that balance the objectives of learning and selling by characterizing customer lifetime value as a function of knowledge. The analysis of the customization problem as a dynamic program yields three results. The first result is the characterization of customization policies that quantify the value of knowledge so as to adequately balance the expected revenue of present and future interactions. The second result is an analysis of the impact of operational decisions on loyalty, learning, and profitability over time. Finally, the quantification of the value of knowing the customer provides a connection between customer acquisition and retention policies, thus enhancing the current understanding of the mechanisms connecting service customization, value creation, and customer lifetime value.

  8. How to strengthen customer loyalty, using customer segmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNIC Elena Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Do you provide exceptional customer service?”, “Is the customer service in your company extraordinary?” “How to convert satis fied customers into loyal customers?” - are the most frequent questions of today’s managers and have driven the research on this article to getting the answer to a highly important marketing topic “How to strengthen customer loyalty using customer segmentation?”. Anyone who has bought a product or a service has probably suffered at least once from a company’s apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences. If this is the case, the company is in a wrong direction, since loyalty is the most powerful tool in today competitive market. To strengthen the bonds with these high-profit customers, innovative companies are deploying enterprise-wide strategies built on consumer segmentation.

  9. Customer Satisfaction Affects the Customer Loyalty: Evidence from Telecommunication Sector in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Usman Sattar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal the relation between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in telecommunication sector of Pakistan. Government took dramatic and drastic steps to make this industry a larger player in the economy. Low prices and high service quality made the industry grow at alarming rate. The qualitative research was conducted from 104 professionals of Pakistan, with a questionnaire and factor analysis was further used to confirm the analysis.

  10. Assesment of customer relationship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lesáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is customer relationship marketing and its new trends. The particular goal of the presented research study was to identify and analyse the indicators of customer relationship development in human resources recruitment / leasing companies. Nine indicators have been explored: mission statement concerning customer commitment, customer attraction, customer commitment, development of customer value, understanding customer needs, goals for customer satisfaction, after sales services, measurement of customer satisfaction, complaint management. The indicators were made sequentially operational in order to translate customer relationship development into specific activities designed to increase business performance. Based on a set of customer indicators four scientific hypotheses were tested. We proved that strong customer orientation has a positive impact on business performance. Out of nine indicators, seven of them have a strong impact on business outcomes. The research confirms that business performance increases with firm size and market density, and that introduction of quality management systems improves company performance. Finally, the appropriateness of the customer relationship indicators applied in human resources recruitment companies is discussed.

  11. Outsourcing customer support : The role of provider customer focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, S.H.K.; Rindfleisch, A.; Citrin, A.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of firms are outsourcing customer support to external service providers. This creates a triadic setting in which an outsourcing provider serves end customers on behalf of its clients. While outsourcing presents an opportunity to serve customers, service providers differ in their

  12. Outsourcing customer support : The role of provider customer focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, S.H.K.; Rindfleisch, A.; Citrin, A.

    An increasing number of firms are outsourcing customer support to external service providers. This creates a triadic setting in which an outsourcing provider serves end customers on behalf of its clients. While outsourcing presents an opportunity to serve customers, service providers differ in their

  13. Outsourcing customer support : The role of provider customer focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, S.H.K.; Rindfleisch, A.; Citrin, A.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of firms are outsourcing customer support to external service providers. This creates a triadic setting in which an outsourcing provider serves end customers on behalf of its clients. While outsourcing presents an opportunity to serve customers, service providers differ in their

  14. Customer Engagement as a New Perspective in Customer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Reinartz, Werner J.; Krafft, Manfred

    Since 2000, customer management (CM) research has evolved and has had a significant impact on the marketing discipline. In an increasingly networked society where customers can interact easily with other customers and firms through social networks and other new media, the authors propose that

  15. Managing Customer Participation and Customer Interactions in Service Delivery: the Case of Museums and Educational Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marlene Amorim; Maria João Rosa; Sandra Santos

    2014-01-01

      Background and Purpose - In this study we investigate determinants of customers' quality perceptions in service processes which involve customer participation and customer to customer interaction (CCI...

  16. Indian Hospitality Industry: Moving Towards Customer Oriented Information System (COIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Dr. Jaskaran Singh; Joshi, Madhur; Verma, Ramita

    2012-01-01

    Increasing occupancy rates and revenue by improving customer experience is the aim of modern Indian hospitality organizations. To achieve these results, hotel managers need to have a deep knowledge of customers needs, behavior, and preferences and be aware of the ways in which the services delivered create value for the customers and then stimulate their retention and loyalty. In this article a methodological framework to analyze the guesthotel relationship and to profile hotel guests is disc...

  17. EOSDIS Customer Support Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Boquist, C. L.

    2006-05-01

    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The observations collected by these missions are kept at geographically distributed data centers. EOSDIS manages over four petabytes of data accessed by over 200,000 distinct users last year. The data centers distributed more than 37 million Earth science data products during 2005 to a diverse customer community. An important goal for these data centers is to provide an adequate service at a uniform level for the user community to ensure we get the most benefit from our investment in space resources. This paper discusses the challenges, the ways the data centers coordinate among themselves to provide service, and recent results of measuring customer satisfaction with this service.

  18. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...... and legislative reform. 1 It discusses how well privacy and personal data concerns related to consumer profiling are addressed by two leading industry self-regulatory codes from the UK and the U.S. that aim to establish fair information practices for behavioural advertising by their member companies. It also...

  19. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies......Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... discusses the current limitations of using technology to protect consumers from privacy abuses related to profiling. Concluding that industry self-regulation and available privacy-enhancing technologies will not be adequate to close important privacy gaps related to consumer profiling without legislative...

  20. Customer Integration during Innovation Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex

    2012-01-01

    To stay viable, companies need to increase their innovation development investments over time. However, successful innovation development also cannot happen without customers, and thus companies seek opportunities to enhance their knowledge of current and future customer needs. As a result...... of companies’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with customers, research has investigated the importance of firm–customer interaction during innovation development. However, despite valuable insights into the performance-enhancing effects of customer integration, research has thus far overlooked...... the activities companies should engage in when integrating customers during innovation development. Thus, this study investigates how and when customer-oriented companies engage in customer interaction during innovation development. Using a multiple case study design, this study examines four substantive cases...

  1. Reasons for the upsetting cholesterol level during the community investigation from residents, physicians, and social aspects: The China Cholesterol Education Program (CCEP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jiang; GUAN Fei; WANG Jia-hong; HU Da-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The community medical center is the first barrier for lipid control. We aimed to survey the residents' cholesterol condition in the community, and pursue the reasons for the upsetting results from various aspects.Methods Residents and physicians were recruited from four community centers. Residents completed questionnaires and a physical examination as well as biochemical analysis. Physicians were also asked to complete a questionnaire,some of which were about basic knowledge of lipids.Results About 37.0% male and 48.1% female had elevated cholesterol levels. Residents' blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose (FG), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were positively associated with their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Framingham risk scoring (FRS) was strongly related to cholesterol (P <0.001 for LDL-C and TC). Residents' higher education grade was positively related to a normal cholesterol condition (P<0.001), while personal income was negatively related to it. Rural residents had higher percent of population with normal cholesterol level (normal cholesterol rate) than their city counterpart (P <0.001). Although physicians with college education had a much higher lipid knowledge level themselves, the physicians' factors had almost no relationship with the residents' cholesterol levels.Conclusions Management of hypercholesterolemia should be an important component of health strategy in Beijing.Education is imperative for residents as well as for physicians.

  2. Customer Satisfaction Survey for Raumacell

    OpenAIRE

    Haapala, Henri

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was conducted as a customer satisfaction survey for UPM RaumaCell. The aim and purpose of the project was to find the current customer satisfaction level of UPM RaumaCell. Theoretical part of the thesis was gathered from different types of business literature and some statistical literature was also used. Customer satisfaction was defined as a term and its importance was researched as was how to measure it. Customer satisfaction surveys were thoroughly explained and...

  3. Customer Complaint Behaviour in Service

    OpenAIRE

    Tronvoll, Bård

    2008-01-01

    It is vital for every service provider to get feedback from its customers. This is especially important when a customer has perceived an unfavourable service experience. One way to receive feedback from these customers is to encourage and make it easy for them to complain. Scholarly knowledge about complaint behaviour gives the service provider valuable insight about service problems and how to improve e.g. service offerings, service processes and interactions, to increase customer satisfacti...

  4. Estimation of the Probability of Radiation Failures and Single Particle Upsets of Integrated Microcircuits onboard the Fobos-Grunt Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.; Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2005-05-01

    When designing the radio-electronic equipment for long-term operation in a space environment, one of the most important problems is a correct estimation of radiation stability of its electric and radio components (ERC) against radiation-stimulated doze failures and one-particle effects (upsets). These problems are solved in this paper for the integrated microcircuits (IMC) of various types that are to be installed onboard the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft designed at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Lavochkin Research and Production Association.” The launching of this spacecraft is planned for 2009.

  5. Evaluating the Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) Method to Join Magnesium Castings to Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Stephen [FCA US LLC

    2016-02-24

    This presentation discusses advantages and best practices for incorporating magnesium in automotive component applications to achieve substantial mass reduction, as well as some of the key challenges with respect to joining, coating, and galvanic corrosion, before providing an introduction and status update of the U.S. Department of Energy and Department of Defense jointly sponsored Upset Protrusion Joining (UPJ) process development and evaluation project. This update includes sharing performance results of a benchmark evaluation of the self-pierce riveting (SPR) process for joining dissimilar magnesium (Mg) to aluminum (Al) materials in four unique coating configurations before introducing the UPJ concept and comparing performance results of the joints made with the UPJ process to those made with the SPR process. Key results presented include: • The benchmark SPR process can produce good joints in the MgAM60B-Al 6013 joint configuration with minimal cracking in the Mg coupons if the rivet is inserted from the Mg side into the Al side. • Numerous bare Mg to bare Al joints made with the SPR process separated after only 6-wks of accelerated corrosion testing due to fracture of the rivet as a result of hydrogen embrittlement • For the same joint configurations, UPJ demonstrated substantially higher pre-corrosion joint strengths and post-corrosion joint strengths, primarily because of the larger diameter protrusion compared to smaller SPR rivet diameter and reduced degradation due to accelerated corrosion exposure • As with the SPR process, numerous bare Mg to bare Al joints made with the UPJ process also separated after 6-wks of accelerated corrosion testing, but unlike the SPR experience, the UPJ joints experienced degradation of the boss and head because of galvanic corrosion of the Mg casting, not hydrogen embrittlement of the steel rivet. • In the configuration where both the Mg and Al were pretreated with Alodine 5200 prior to joining and the complete

  6. FinFET memory cell improvements for higher immunity against single event upsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajit, Ahmed Sattar

    The 21st century is witnessing a tremendous demand for transistors. Life amenities have incorporated the transistor in every aspect of daily life, ranging from toys to rocket science. Day by day, scaling down the transistor is becoming an imperious necessity. However, it is not a straightforward process; instead, it faces overwhelming challenges. Due to these scaling changes, new technologies, such as FinFETs for example, have emerged as alternatives to the conventional bulk-CMOS technology. FinFET has more control over the channel, therefore, leakage current is reduced. FinFET could bridge the gap between silicon devices and non-silicon devices. The semiconductor industry is now incorporating FinFETs in systems and subsystems. For example, Intel has been using them in their newest processors, delivering potential saving powers and increased speeds to memory circuits. Memory sub-systems are considered a vital component in the digital era. In memory, few rows are read or written at a time, while the most rows are static; hence, reducing leakage current increases the performance. However, as a transistor shrinks, it becomes more vulnerable to the effects from radioactive particle strikes. If a particle hits a node in a memory cell, the content might flip; consequently, leading to corrupting stored data. Critical fields, such as medical and aerospace, where there are no second chances and cannot even afford to operate at 99.99% accuracy, has induced me to find a rigid circuit in a radiated working environment. This research focuses on a wide spectrum of memories such as 6T SRAM, 8T SRAM, and DICE memory cells using FinFET technology and finding the best platform in terms of Read and Write delay, susceptibility level of SNM, RSNM, leakage current, energy consumption, and Single Event Upsets (SEUs). This research has shown that the SEU tolerance that 6T and 8T FinFET SRAMs provide may not be acceptable in medical and aerospace applications where there is a very high

  7. Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karac...

  8. The art of customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeni

    2007-10-01

    Strategies for improving the consumer service skills of finance staff include: Hire employees who have a customer service background. Work with your human resources department to provide customer service training. Monitor new hires extensively. Offer front-end employees scripted language for situations they may face on the job. Measure the quality of customer service provided. Provide incentives for performance.

  9. Energizing Companies through Customer Compliments

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfelsberger, Petra; Bruch, Heike; Herhausen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    While complaint management has received much attention, customer compliments and their systematic handling have been largely ignored. Based on two empirical studies, this article suggests that customer compliments bear great potential for benefiting firms, and gives recommendations on how managers can enable, stimulate, and amplify positive customer feedback.

  10. Customer satisfaction: The role of transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  11. Customer satisfaction: The role of transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  12. 700℃超超临界转子用617基合金镦粗工艺研究%Study on Upsetting Process of 617-Based Superalloy for A-USC Turbine Rotor Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵帅; 聂义宏; 朱怀沈; 白亚冠; 吴赟; 姜萍

    2016-01-01

    对617基合金375 mm吨级电渣锭镦粗工艺开展研究,通过对铸态试料进行高温拉伸、 Gleeble压缩,以及对60 mm×100 mm试样进行等比例锭模拟镦粗等试验,对617基合金的高温强度及塑性、锻造完整性、流变状况及动态再结晶行为等进行分析,确定617基合金开坯锻造温度区间应为950~1180℃,变形速率应为0.01~0.1 s-1。通过包覆保温棉解决了617基合金可锻温区狭窄的问题,通过数值模拟预测覫375 mm电渣锭在1180℃出炉镦粗时所需最大压机吨位约为3000 t,并在实际生产中得到验证。通过试验证明模拟镦粗件进行1180℃×2 h再结晶热处理能够得到较均匀的等轴晶组织,有利于下一火次的锻造工艺。试验结果表明,实际操作中需要多火次镦拔才能实现617基合金微观组织的均匀化。%Study was performed on the upsetting process of one-tonnage 375 mm ESR ingot in 671-based superalloy. High-temperature tensile test, Gleeble compression test and geometric-proportion simulating upsetting on a 60 mm ×100 mm test sample were carried out to analyze the elevated-temperature strength and plasticity, forging integrity, flow pattern and dynamic recrystallization behavior of 617-based superalloy. The results show that 617-based superalloy is cogged at temperatures between 950 ℃ and 1 180 ℃ under strain rate of 0.01~0.1 s-1 . Covering the ingot with thermal insulating asbestos solved the problem about forging temperature limitation. The numerical simulation predicts the maximum hydraulic press capacity required by the upsetting of 覫375 mm ESR ingot with tapping temperature of 1 180℃is about 3 000 MT. This has been proven in the actual production. The metallographic test revealed that even equiaxial microstructure can form when the upset ingot is subject to recrystallization heat treatment at 1180 ℃ for 2 hours, which is good for subsequent forging operation. The homogeneous microstructure

  13. The Effects of Customer Voice on Hotel Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Cvelbar, Ljubica Knežević

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of two critical customer voice variables on hotel performance. Specifically, the research provides a customer equity model in which the influences of both customer satisfaction and complaints are considered. The impact of the customer voice variables on hotel...... performance is investigated while considering the potential for moderating effects by hotel size and star rating. We use a more robust approach to measure firm performance than is traditionally used in satisfaction-performance studies. Finally the paper reports on the results of these investigations...

  14. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS - PROFILING AND SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Andrei SCRIDON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In any industry, the first step to finding and creating profitable customers isdetermining what drives profitability. This leads to better prospecting andmore successful customer relationship management. Any company cansegment and profile their customer base to uncover those profit drivers usingthe knowledge of their customers, products, and markets. Or they can usedata-driven techniques to find natural clusters in their customer or prospectbase. Whatever the method, the process will lead to knowledge andunderstanding that is critical to maintaining a competitive edge

  15. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems...

  16. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Triest (Sander); M.J.G. Bun (Maurice); E.M. van Raaij (Erik); M.J.A. Vernooij (Maarten)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a hitherto unstudied type of expense targeted at individual cust

  18. 47 CFR 76.972 - Customer service standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer service standards. 76.972 Section 76.972 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.972 Customer service standards. (a...

  19. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT TOWARDS IDEA CELLULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mehdipour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is a collective outcome of perception, evaluation, and psychological reactions to the consumption experience with a product or service. This researcharticle investigated the attitude of Idea cellular customers to Idea services. All the customers of Idea cellular in Hyderabad city (Andhra Pradesh constituted the population. The sample of the study is 2000 customers that randomly selected. A questionnaire was developed and validated through pilot testing and administered to thesample for the collection of data. The researcher personally visited respondents, thus 100% data were collected.The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by SPSS. Results showed that majority of the respondents of Idea prefer post-paid service than to pre paid and largest segment of respondents are of idea then comes Cell one, Airtel and Vodafone. this study showed that most of the respondents need improvement in service. Majority of respondents gave an excellent rate for “Idea Cellular” services.

  20. Who's your best customer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, S

    1998-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the best customers and prospects for managed care are the healthiest consumers. This is true only because of the meager extent to which premiums can be adjusted for varying risk among individuals. If a decent health/risk adjustment system were used, the best consumers for managed care to go after would be the highest-risk, highest users of health care, provided only that risk and use can be improved. The healthiest consumers have both the least potential for improvement and the least reasons for loyalty.

  1. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production......, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study...

  2. The mismanagement of customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Kumar, V

    2002-07-01

    Who wouldn't want loyal customers? Surely they should cost less to serve, they'd be willing to pay more than other customers, and they'd actively market your company by word of mouth, right? Maybe not. Careful study of the relationship between customer loyalty and profits plumbed from 16,000 customers in four companies' databases tells a different story. The authors found no evidence to support any of these claims. What they did find was that the link between customers and profitability was more complicated because customers fall into four groups, not two. Simply put: Not all loyal customers are profitable, and not all profitable customers are loyal. Traditional tools for segmenting customers do a poor job of identifying that latter group, causing companies to chase expensively after initially profitable customers who hold little promise of future profits. The authors suggest an alternative approach, based on well-established "event-history modeling" techniques, that more accurately predicts future buying probabilities. Armed with such a tool, marketers can correctly identify which customers belong in which category and market accordingly. The challenge in managing customers who are profitable but disloyal--the "butterflies"--is to milk them for as much as you can while they're buying from you. A softly-softly approach is more appropriate for the profitable customers who are likely to stay loyal--your "true friends." As for highly loyal but not very profitable customers--the "barnacles"--you need to find out if they have the potential to spend more than they currently do. And, of course, for the "strangers"--those who generate no loyalty and no profits--the answer is simple: Identify early and don't invest anything.

  3. Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Grewal, Dhruv; Leghorn, Robert; Shankar, Venkatesh; Teerling, Marije L.; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel customer management is the design, deployment, coordination, and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact, with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition, retention, and development. The authors identify five major challenges pr

  4. Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Grewal, Dhruv; Leghorn, Robert; Shankar, Venkatesh; Teerling, Marije L.; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel customer management is the design, deployment, coordination, and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact, with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition, retention, and development. The authors identify five major challenges

  5. Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Grewal, Dhruv; Leghorn, Robert; Shankar, Venkatesh; Teerling, Marije L.; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel customer management is the design, deployment, coordination, and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact, with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition, retention, and development. The authors identify five major challenges pr

  6. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as predictors of future business potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis come from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of approximately 2000 private customers evaluated...

  7. Incorporating Satisfaction into Customer Value Analysis: Optimal Investment in Lifetime Value

    OpenAIRE

    Teck-Hua Ho; Young-Hoon Park; Yong-Pin Zhou

    2006-01-01

    We extend the Schmittlein et al. model (1987) of customer lifetime value to include satisfaction. Customer purchases are modeled as Poisson events, and their rates of occurrence depend on the satisfaction of the most recent purchase encounter. Customers purchase at a higher rate when they are satisfied than when they are dissatisfied. A closed-form formula is derived for predicting total expected dollar spending from a customer base over a time period (0, ]. This formula reveals that approxim...

  8. Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Paananen; Marko Seppänen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review of customer value concepts and distinguishes complex customer value from the various perspectives. It structures the themes and dimensions between the various approaches along the customer value main lines in the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current literature and illustrates different types of value representations through a case example. Findings: Based on a comprehensive literature re...

  9. Using Customer Relationship Trajectories to Segment Customers and Predict Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, T.; Niraj, R.; Dawar, N.

    2007-01-01

    A central premise of relationship marketing theory is that economic benefits flow fromretaining customers. However, the early research focus on the duration of the relationship may obscure other important aspects of the interactions with the customer that drive profitability. Borrowing from the branding literature, where different types of customer relationships have been described (but not empirically examined), we study the patterns of business customers’ buying behavior, or trajectories th...

  10. Knowledge Management in Customer Integration: A Customer Input Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Füller, Kathrin; Abud, Elias; Böhm, Markus; Krcmar, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Customers can take an active role in the innovation process and provide their input (e.g., ideas, idea evaluations, or complaints) to the different phases of the innovation process. However, the management of a huge amount of unstructured customer input poses a challenge for companies. Existing software solutions focus on the early stages of idea management, and neglect the interoperability of tools, sharing, and reuse of customer inputs across innovation cycles and departments. Following the...

  11. Customer care in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Fred

    2015-01-20

    Viewing individuals in need of NHS care as customers has the potential to refocus the way their care is delivered. This article highlights some of the benefits of reframing the nurse-patient relationship in terms of customer care, and draws parallels between good customer care and the provision of high quality patient care in the NHS. It explores lessons to be learned from those who have studied the customer experience, which can be adapted to enhance the customer care experience within the health service. Developing professional expertise in the knowledge and skills that underpin good-quality interpersonal encounters is essential to improve the customer experience in health care and should be prioritised alongside the development of more technical skills. Creating a culture where emotional intelligence, caring and compassion are essential requirements for all nursing staff will improve patient satisfaction.

  12. Customer Loyalty in Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aysha Fathima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of challenges and cut throat competition in banking sector it has become inevitable for the banks to devise defensive strategies to retain their customers and build customer loyalty. The main aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting customer loyalty in online banks. To achieve this purpose, a detailed review of relevant literature was made and seven constructs were identified for the study. A survey was conducted and data was collected with a structured questionnaire. Pre analysis data screening was done to ensure that the study is fit for further statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship of constructs on customer loyalty. Results of the analysis identified customer satisfaction; bank’s reputation trust and habit were having significant influence on customer loyalty. Among the four factors, reputation of the bank and its corporate image is found to be more influential. Based on the findings, the implications and suggestions are made.

  13. Take Five for Customer Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Ax-Fultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses leverage excellent customer service to improve profitability. Although not profit-driven, libraries should leverage excellent customer service to achieve their unique missions. Evaluating and improving customer service practices will help a library determine if it is successfully serving its customers. The library should review three areas to improve customer service: the physical space of the library, how library employees work with library policies, and the communication skills of the library staff. By using the Take Five model, the library can make immediate, no-cost changes or plan for future improvements by taking just five minutes, every day, to assess specific areas. Over a few weeks or months, these small changes will result in better customer service.

  14. Customer service providers' attitudes relating to customer service and customer satisfaction in the customer-server exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Alex M; Kacmar, K Michele; Borchgrevink, Carl P

    2003-02-01

    The authors proposed and tested a model describing the relationship between customer service providers' perceptions and attitudes toward their service-related duties and their customers' perceptions of satisfaction with their service experiences. Results indicated that the perception of having standards for service delivery in an organization is strongly related to line-level employees' perceptions of support from coworkers and supervisors. Perceived support from coworkers was significantly related to service providers' customer orientation, whereas perceived support from supervisors showed a weaker relationship to a customer orientation. Ultimately, service providers' customer orientation was strongly related to customers' satisfaction with service. Finally, a set of post hoc analyses indicated that coworker and supervisory support explained a greater proportion of incremental variance in the model than did perceived organizational support alone.

  15. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  16. Customer Touch Point Histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Haurum, Helle

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the firm. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated what drive and explain customers’ engagement behaviours...... as reactions to their service encounters over time with a firm, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) mundane product and service environment indeed drives customers’ engagement behaviours and mediating capabilities...... are identified, (2) customers produce (positive) value for the firm through engagement behaviours when perceived alignment between firm-initiated experience and product/service is present, and (3) transactions matter and drive (other) engagement behaviours....

  17. What Customer Orders Really Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Robert J.; Larry J. Rankin

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies facing significant pricing competition need customer cost informations systems (CCISs) that reliably measure the resource costs of serving individual customers. Prices are often set by the market and competition, particularly from foreign imports, and severely restricts marketingÕs ability to adjust prices to cover costs. It is important that marketing personnel have access to accurate product and customer cost information. With such information, marketing personnel ca...

  18. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Reinartz, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  19. Waiting Lines and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The paper points out certain quantitative methods largely ignored by library service providers, highlights the importance of customer participation in service delivery process, examines the concepts service quality and customer satisfaction, emphasizes the need for appropriately handling waiting lines in service organisations, presents briefly the theory of waiting lines (queuing theory), psychology of customers in waiting lines with illustrations from library situations, discusses ways and m...

  20. Mass Customizing IT Service Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Brocke, Henrik Finn; Uebernickel, Falk; Brenner, Walter

    2010-01-01

    IT service providers shall achieve both cost reduction in their IT operations and customer individuality in service agreements. This article suggests adapting the well known principle of mass customization to balance individuality and standardization in service agreements. Dependent on the commitment modularity type, its employment may not only save time and resources at the point of customer involvement but also allow the pre-engineering of repeatable processes of provisioning and IT operati...

  1. Managing customer-centric information

    OpenAIRE

    Fellenz, Martin; BRADY, MAIREAD

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Hershey, PA Despite many years of business-orientated information and communication technology (ICT) deployment, contemporary organisations continue to struggle with customer-centric implementation of new technologies that are profitable and contribute to sustainable service business success. This chapter reviews the difficulties inherent in using ICTs to manage customer-related information, and identifies the particular challenges for customer-centric deployment of ICTs. It p...

  2. A compass for customer needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, J D; Murray, M

    1998-02-01

    Baldor Electric uses a tool it calls the value formula to help teach its employees to look at their work through the eyes of the customer. In fact, the goal of the value improvement process is to focus everyone on customer value, and the employees, by going through five training courses, learn how improving quality and service and reducing cost and time lead to higher value for the customer.

  3. Final report : Calgary Transit customer satisfaction survey 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This survey was conducted to measure the customer satisfaction of Calgary Transit users and gather information for further service improvements. The survey was conducted by telephone with a total of 500 current customers, and results were compared with previous surveys. The average number of trips per week among regular customers was 7.6, the lowest over the past 6 years. Twenty-six per cent of customers used the service more frequently due to higher gas prices, lack of a vehicle and the higher frequency of services. While most customers used buses, there was an increase in train usage in 2005, which was attributed to an increase in service frequency. Customers typically reported travelling during rush hour periods. Transit customers assigned a global score of 8.2 for service quality satisfaction and loyalty, which was consistent with previous scores. Seventy-two per cent of customers rated service quality as excellent or good. Approximately 1 in 5 customers perceived Calgary Transit to have improved over the previous year. Nearly half of the customers identified themselves as committed users of the service compared to other transportation methods, and most customers stated that having more service during peak hours and in new communities should be priorities. Sixty-four per cent of respondents supported fare increases to fund service additions. It was concluded that there was a significant increase in overall transit use in 2005, which may have been due to its perceived convenience and the influence of economic factors. It was noted that the increase has not affected customers' perceptions of service performance. 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Customer service and practice profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger P

    2004-06-01

    Customer service, one of the major dental practice business systems, is critical to your short- and long-term success. The world will keep changing, but customer service is not a fad that can go out of style. If anything, it becomes even more important, year after year, as your customers expect more service and better treatment. Your goal is to provide extensive customer service, with 100% of patients enjoying a great experience every single time they interact with your practice. The "Wow" experience helps your practice grow. You want your patients to become your friends. Why? Because friends refer friends. When your patients become your friends, higher profitability is the inevitable result.

  5. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...

  6. Customer requirements based ERP customization using AHP technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Daneva, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose– Customization is a difficult task for many organizations implementing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework based on customers’ requirements to examine the ERP customization choices for the enterprise. The analytical hierarchy pr

  7. Customer requirements based ERP customization using AHP technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Daneva, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose– Customization is a difficult task for many organizations implementing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework based on customers’ requirements to examine the ERP customization choices for the enterprise. The analytical hierarchy

  8. Undervalued or Overvalued Customers : Capturing Total Customer Engagement Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.; Aksoy, Lerzan; Donkers, Bas; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Wiesel, Thorsten; Tillmanns, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Customers can interact with and create value for firms in a variety of ways. This article proposes that assessing the value of customers based solely upon their transactions with a firm may not be sufficient, and valuing this engagement correctly is crucial in avoiding undervaluation and overvaluati

  9. Undervalued or Overvalued Customers : Capturing Total Customer Engagement Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.; Aksoy, Lerzan; Donkers, Bas; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Wiesel, Thorsten; Tillmanns, Sebastian

    Customers can interact with and create value for firms in a variety of ways. This article proposes that assessing the value of customers based solely upon their transactions with a firm may not be sufficient, and valuing this engagement correctly is crucial in avoiding undervaluation and

  10. Undervalued or Overvalued Customers : Capturing Total Customer Engagement Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.; Aksoy, Lerzan; Donkers, Bas; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Wiesel, Thorsten; Tillmanns, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Customers can interact with and create value for firms in a variety of ways. This article proposes that assessing the value of customers based solely upon their transactions with a firm may not be sufficient, and valuing this engagement correctly is crucial in avoiding undervaluation and overvaluati

  11. A Study to Investigate the Effect of Customer Value on Customer Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Onaran; Zeki Atil Bulut,; Alparslan Ozmen

    2013-01-01

    Beyond satisfying needs, customer value is the key to establish and maintain long run relationships. Hence, providing excellent customer value as a driving force of customer relationships management performance plays a key role in gaining sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships among dimensions of customer value, customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and customer relationship management performance. Data obtained from customers of thermal...

  12. A Study to Investigate the Effect of Customer Value on Customer Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Onaran,; Zeki Atil Bulut,; Alparslan Ozmen

    2013-01-01

    Beyond satisfying needs, customer value is the key to establish and maintain long run relationships. Hence, providing excellent customer value as a driving force of customer relationships management performance plays a key role in gaining sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships among dimensions of customer value, customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and customer relationship management performance. Data obtained from customers of thermal...

  13. The relationship between SERVQUAL, national customer satisfaction indices & consumer sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study is to integrate SERVQUAL with a national customer satisfaction index in this context the EPSI Rating framework and explore the possible relationship with consumer sentiment measures. The data for this study comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2007. Here app....... 1700 customers have evaluated their preferred bank. The questionnaire consists of two parts: the basic EPSI statement as well as 15 statements covering the 5 dimensions from SERVQUAL. Furthermore the respondents answered two questions related to consumer sentiment. The results show that both SERVQUAL...... and Consumer Sentiment will be valuable additions to the EPSI Rating framework....

  14. Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Paananen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review of customer value concepts and distinguishes complex customer value from the various perspectives. It structures the themes and dimensions between the various approaches along the customer value main lines in the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current literature and illustrates different types of value representations through a case example. Findings: Based on a comprehensive literature review, a framework how to scholars can structure customer value constructs is presented. Originality/value: In business and management research a conceptual confusion prevails and this paper attempts to clarify different types of customer value to provide a better resolution tool for scholars.

  15. Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication PrinciplesJoint Redundant Residue Number Systems and Module Isolation for Mitigating Single Event Multiple Bit Upsets in Datapath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Hu, Jianhao

    2010-12-01

    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles"Joint Redundant Residue Number Systems and Module Isolation for Mitigating Single Event Multiple Bit Upsets in Datapath"by Lei Li and Jianhao Hu,in the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol.57, no.6, Dec. 2010, pp. 3779-3786After careful and considered review of the content and authorship of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.This paper contains substantial duplication of original text from the paper cited below. The original text was copied without attribution (including appropriate references to the original author(s) and/or paper title) and without permission.Due to the nature of this violation, reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper, and future references should be made to the following articles:"Multiple Error Detection and Correction Based on Redundant Residue Number Systems"by Vik Tor Goh and M.U. Siddiqi,in the IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol.56, no.3, March 2008, pp.325-330"A Coding Theory Approach to Error Control in Redundant Residue Number Systems. I: Theory and Single Error Correction"by H. Krishna, K-Y. Lin, and J-D. Sun, in the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, vol.39, no.1, Jan 1992, pp.8-17In this paper, we propose a joint scheme which combines redundant residue number systems (RRNS) with module isolation (MI) for mitigating single event multiple bit upsets (SEMBUs) in datapath. The proposed hardening scheme employs redundant residues to improve the fault tolerance for datapath and module spacings to guarantee that SEMBUs caused by charge sharing do not propagate among the operation channels of different moduli. The features of RRNS, such as independence, parallel and error correction, are exploited to establish the radiation hardening architecture for the datapath in radiation environments. In the proposed

  16. The effect of heavy metal in CMOS on neutron induced single event upset simulated with Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Shan-chao

    2015-01-01

    Local metal interconnection is widely used in modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The most frequently used local materials are some heavy metals, such as tungsten (W) or copper (Cu). It's well known that single event upset (SEU) could occur in a CMOS under neutron exposure. In this paper the rectangular parallelepiped (RPP) method is used to investigate the SEU response of a typical CMOS. SEU induced by 1$\\sim$14\\:MeV neutrons are simulated with Geant4 and the cross sections are calculated. The results show that only in the structure with W, secondary particle $\\alpha$ is created and SEUs are generated when the energy of neutron is less than $4$\\:MeV.

  17. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: information to customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    This volume relates primarily to Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3, and deals with the content and methods of providing rate and conservation information to customers when Time-of-Day rates are used. Information to customers in the Demonstration and Pilot Projects fell mainly into four categories: administrative communications; explanations of new rate structures; information and advice on load management; and facts, recommendations and encouragements about energy conservation and end-use improvement. Administrative communications were about such matters as the existence of Projects, their funding, their periods of performance, the selection of their test customers, conditions of participation, procedural changes during the tests, and the time and conditions of ending the tests. These communications were important to good customer cooperation. All Demonstration Projects devoted considerable effort to the crucial task of clearly explaining the rationale of Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing and the test rate structures. The Projects then presented the concept of TOU pricing as a means of (a) fairly charging customers the true cost of their electricity and (b) rewarding them for shifting consumption to times when costs are less. For the most part, Demonstration Projects gave specific information on the individual customer's own rate structure and none on any others that were under test. The information was presented in face-to-face interviews, group presentations, television, radio, and print media, and traveling exhibits. The results are evaluated. (LCL)

  18. Linking customer satisfaction, quality, and strategic planning

    OpenAIRE

    Reis,Dayr; Peña,Leticia

    2000-01-01

    By acknowledging and dissecting the interconnected roles of customer satisfaction, quality, and strategic planning, this paper provides an analytical framework for creating a customer-driven organization and culture. It shows how quality starts and ends with the customer. Companies that are achieving long-term continuous improvement in quality tailored to customer satisfaction possess lasting characteristics such as customer orientation, customer consciousness, and customer responsiveness. In...

  19. Customer satisfaction of an apartment hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Khyarginen, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Customer satisfaction becomes the object of a research quite often, especially in business. If the company cares about its customers, it will put effort to know how satisfied they are with the services or products. Satisfied customers are loyal customers, who bring profit and other, new customers. Apartment Hotel Tampere MN, a new and developing company, is interested in keeping its customers satisfied. To expand and improve the services it is important for the hotel to measure customer s...

  20. Factors for Creating Online Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria Baranov; Liliana-Aurora Constantinescu

    2012-01-01

    Only those companies which succeed in building lasting relationships with online customers are those who customers are confident in and transact online securely. Furthermore, successful companies are those who pay attention to customer satisfaction, who are trying to understand customer needs and expectations and to fulfill them properly. Only those online store managers that focus more on gaining customer loyalty, than to customer acquisition succeed in the online business medium. Customer l...

  1. USING NLP APPROACH FOR ANALYZING CUSTOMER REVIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Abuleil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Web considers one of the main sources of customer opinions and reviews which they are represented in two formats; structured data (numeric ratings and unstructured data (textual comments. Millions of textual comments about goods and services are posted on the web by customers and every day thousands are added, make it a big challenge to read and understand them to make them a useful structured data for customers and decision makers. Sentiment analysis or Opinion mining is a popular technique for summarizing and analyzing those opinions and reviews. In this paper, we use natural language processing techniques to generate some rules to help us understand customer opinions and reviews (textual comments written in the Arabic language for the purpose of understanding each one of them and then convert them to a structured data. We use adjectives as a key point to highlight important information in the text then we work around them to tag attributes that describe the subject of the reviews, and we associate them with their values (adjectives.

  2. Customer Service in Ontario's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, John

    2005-01-01

    No doubt there are detractors who cringe at the prospect of connecting the term customer service with an institution of higher education. Some may consider the term demeaning. However, given the college funding crisis and current economic climate, a quality customer service strategy is a prudent adjunct to any marketing activity undertaken. It is…

  3. Flow Analysis of Code Customizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Inconsistency between metadata and code customizations is a major concern in modern, configurable enterprise systems. The increasing reliance on metadata, in the form of XML files, and code customizations, in the form of Java files, has led to a hybrid development platform. The expected consisten...

  4. On measurement of customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Kanji, Gopal; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn

    1992-01-01

    Based on a theoretical argument where company profit as a function of total customer satisfaction is maximized, a new system for measuring and balancing customer satisfaction with respect to individual quality characteritics is developed. A proced implementation is suggested and the results of a ...

  5. Customizing Curriculum with Digital Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    To effectively use digital resources in the classroom, teachers must customize the information, merge it with pre-existing curriculum, differentiate it for diverse student populations, and still meet standards-based learning goals. This article describes a solution to these challenges: the Curriculum Customization Service, which provides access to…

  6. 78 FR 41299 - Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 111 Customs Brokers CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 0 to 140, revised as of April 1, 2013,...

  7. Team Foundation Server 2013 customization

    CERN Document Server

    Beeming, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This book utilizes a tutorial based approach, focused on the practical customization of key features of the Team Foundation Server for collaborative enterprise software projects.This practical guide is intended for those who want to extend TFS. This book is for intermediate users who have an understanding of TFS, and basic coding skills will be required for the more complex customizations.

  8. PROBLEMS IN MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Isac Florin Lucian; Rusu Sergiu; Cureteanu Radu Silviu

    2012-01-01

    Companies that embrace client orientation are preoccupied by measuring the level of satisfaction of those who consume their products or utilizes their products. That is why, customer satisfaction has to be transposed in measurable parameters that can be understood and influenced. Nevertheless, measuring customer satisfaction involves a lot of problems.

  9. PROBLEMS IN MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Florin Lucian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Companies that embrace client orientation are preoccupied by measuring the level of satisfaction of those who consume their products or utilizes their products. That is why, customer satisfaction has to be transposed in measurable parameters that can be understood and influenced. Nevertheless, measuring customer satisfaction involves a lot of problems.

  10. On measurement of customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Kanji, Gopal; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn

    1992-01-01

    Based on a theoretical argument where company profit as a function of total customer satisfaction is maximized, a new system for measuring and balancing customer satisfaction with respect to individual quality characteritics is developed. A proced implementation is suggested and the results...

  11. Customer Satisfaction with Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, George; Rodger, Eleanor Jo

    1996-01-01

    Surveys conducted in 142 urban public libraries examined customer satisfaction, comparisons with other libraries, and factors affecting satisfaction. Overall, customers were satisfied with their libraries but experienced different levels of satisfaction based on convenience, availability of materials and information, and services facilitating…

  12. Customer-driven Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2011-01-01

    Demand chain management is a research area of increasing attention. It is the undertaking of reacting to customer requirements through a responsive chain going from customers through a focal company towards raw material distributors. With faster growing markets and increasing competition, companies...... look for new ways to gain competitive advantage. In competitive markets there is a tendency of shorter product life cycles, and thus a competitive factor is to keep at pace with the market or even driving the market by developing new products. This research study seeks to investigate Customer......-driven Product Development (CDPD) from a demand chain management perspective. CDPD is the counterpart to typical research and development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. The proposition is that letting customers initiate and participate in the product development process...

  13. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems......When dealing with complex product models, efficient knowledge distribution is essential to obtain success. This paper describes how product models can be applied to support the knowledge distribution. The change towards individualization will radically affect the knowledge application in relation...

  14. Customer Appeasement Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Nikseresht, Mohammad R; Maheshwari, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the current process scheduling algorithms which are used in modern operating systems (OS) have their roots in the classical scheduling paradigms which were developed during the 1970's. But modern computers have different types of software loads and user demands. We think it is important to run what the user wants at the current moment. A user can be a human, sitting in front of a desktop machine, or it can be another machine sending a request to a server through a network connection. We think that OS should become intelligent to distinguish between different processes and allocate resources, including CPU, to those processes which need them most. In this work, as a first step to make the OS aware of the current state of the system, we consider process dependencies and interprocess communications. We are developing a model, which considers the need to satisfy interactive users and other possible remote users or customers, by making scheduling decisions based on process dependencies and interproce...

  15. Customers Perception of Service Quality in the Nigerian Telecommunication Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Osotimehin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the customers’ perception of service quality in the Nigerian telecommunication sector. Data for the study was generated through questionnaire administered on a random sample of 250 undergraduate students spread across two public owned state Universities in Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics. One Sample Test statistic was employed in testing hypothesis. The results of the study revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between service quality and both, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, and also service quality is considered as a major factor in choosing telecommunication service provider in Nigeria. Further, the study revealed that the quality of service customers received from their service providers in terms of prompt service delivery, reliability, improved service, availability of effective and efficient customer care to assist customers help in assessing their rate of satisfaction.

  16. BENEFITSEGMENTATION: Case of a National Bank's Customers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnad Yunianto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fierce competition in Indonesian banking industry had forced banks to get closer to their customers in order to maintain their customer base. However, considering the banks limited resources and the market competition, raised question on which customers they should focus to serve. Benefit segmentation as one of the concept of market segmentation, provides a clear picture of which segment or type of customers the bank should focus. Undertaken in a national bank, this research was aimed to identify benefits desired by the customer in financial service; segments for the bank based on those benefits; and to identify whether there is a relationship between customers' demographics and their desired benefits. Factor analysis with principal component method was used to extract 29 banking attributes to a set of factors that capable to capture the main features of the responses. Cluster analysis was then applied to the dataset to identify whether a bundle of benefit might be sought by a specific customer segment. The last, chi-square test was applied to identify whether there is any correlation between the cluster and the demographic variables. Five factors (main benefits sought by the customers were found, namely:  safety-convenience; relational; bank's features; cost; and promotional incentives. Based on those factors, the customers could be classified into four segments, service-oriented (38.41%, rate sensitive (16.85%, incentive seekers (13.30%, and safety-convenience (31.44%. A significant correlation between demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, income, monthly spending, occupation, and number of children and desired customer benefits were found. Therefore, those demographic characteristics could be used to develop the customers' profiles.

  17. Gap Model for Dual Customer Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lun; TANG Xiaowo

    2008-01-01

    The customer value, the key problem in customer relationship management (CRM), was studied to construct a gap model for dual customer values. A basic description of customer values is given, and then the gaps between products and services in different periods for the customers and companies are analyzed based on the product or service life-cycle. The main factors that influence the perceived customer value were analyzed to define the "recognized value gap" and a gap model for the dual customer values was constructed to supply companies with a tool to analyze existing customer value gaps and improve customer relationship management.

  18. Cluster Analysis of Customer Reviews Extracted from Web Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shivashankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As e-commerce is gaining popularity day by day, the web has become an excellent source for gathering customer reviews / opinions by the market researchers. The number of customer reviews that a product receives is growing at very fast rate (It could be in hundreds or thousands. Customer reviews posted on the websites vary greatly in quality. The potential customer has to read necessarily all the reviews irrespective of their quality to make a decision on whether to purchase the product or not. In this paper, we make an attempt to assess are view based on its quality, to help the customer make a proper buying decision. The quality of customer review is assessed as most significant, more significant, significant and insignificant.A novel and effective web mining technique is proposed for assessing a customer review of a particular product based on the feature clustering techniques, namely, k-means method and fuzzy c-means method. This is performed in three steps : (1Identify review regions and extract reviews from it, (2 Extract and cluster the features of reviews by a clustering technique and then assign weights to the features belonging to each of the clusters (groups and (3 Assess the review by considering the feature weights and group belongingness. The k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering techniques are implemented and tested on customer reviews extracted from web pages. Performance of these techniques are analyzed.

  19. Multiserver Queue with Guard Channel for Priority and Retrial Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Kajiwara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a retrial queueing model where a group of guard channels is reserved for priority and retrial customers. Priority and normal customers arrive at the system according to two distinct Poisson processes. Priority customers are accepted if there is an idle channel upon arrival while normal customers are accepted if and only if the number of idle channels is larger than the number of guard channels. Blocked customers (priority or normal join a virtual orbit and repeat their attempts in a later time. Customers from the orbit (retrial customers are accepted if there is an idle channel available upon arrival. We formulate the queueing system using a level dependent quasi-birth-and-death (QBD process. We obtain a Taylor series expansion for the nonzero elements of the rate matrices of the level dependent QBD process. Using the expansion results, we obtain an asymptotic upper bound for the joint stationary distribution of the number of busy channels and that of customers in the orbit. Furthermore, we develop an efficient numerical algorithm to calculate the joint stationary distribution.

  20. 面向航空环境的多时钟单粒子翻转故障注入方法%A Single Event Upset Fault Injection Method Based on Multi-clock for Aviation Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛茜男; 李振; 姜承翔; 王鹏; 田毅

    2014-01-01

    随着新型电子器件越来越多地被机载航电设备所采用,单粒子翻转(Single Event Upset, SEU)故障已经成为影响航空飞行安全的重大隐患。首先,针对由于单粒子翻转故障的随机性,该文对不同时刻发生的单粒子翻转故障引入了多时钟控制,构建了SEU故障注入测试系统。然后模拟真实情况下单粒子效应引发的多时间点故障,研究了单粒子效应对基于FPGA构成的时序电路的影响,并在线统计了被测模块的失效数据和失效率。实验结果表明,对于基于FPGA构建容错电路,采用多时钟沿三模冗余(Triple Modular Redundancy, TMR)加固技术可比传统TMR技术提高约1.86倍的抗SEU性能;该多时钟SEU故障注入测试系统可以快速、准确、低成本地实现单粒子翻转故障测试,从而验证了SEU加固技术的有效性。%With the new electronic devices are increasingly used by airborne avionics equipment, Single Event Upset (SEU) fault has become a major hazard on aviation safety. Because of the randomness of SEU fault, the SEU fault occurs at any moments. Firstly, a multi-clock control is introduced to construct an SEU fault injection testing system. Secondly, the system simulates multi-time point of failure with real situations caused by single event upset effects. For sequential circuits constructed by SRAM-based FPGA, the influence of SEU is studied by the system and the failure data and failure rate of the undertest module is counted online. Two kinds of FPGA-based fault-tolerant circuit are tested by this system. Comparing with the traditional Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) technology, the anti-SEU performance of the proposed multi-clock edge TMR reinforcement technology is improved about 1.86-fold. The experiment results verify that the proposed multi-clock SEU fault injection testing system is a quick, low-cost and highly accurate test for the single-event upsets fault, and demonstrate the

  1. Achieving excellence--creating customer passion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuing, E E

    1999-08-01

    Customers are the lifeblood of any organization. Without them, it loses its meaning and purpose. Customers provide incentive, vitality, and growth. Serving them well requires a customer-focused culture and a customer-friendly system. It also requires unrelenting effort toward continuous improvement, but the rewards are well worth the effort: unflinching customer loyalty, sustainable growth, and impressive performance.

  2. Customer Service: Another Side of TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkin, Arlene Farber

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on the customer satisfaction element of Total Quality Management (TQM) in libraries, including definition of the terms customer and customer satisfaction, determining customer expectations, complaint systems, keeping customers, and empowerment of staff. Appendices list approaches libraries and other organizations have used to improve…

  3. 19 CFR 19.34 - Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs supervision. 19.34 Section 19.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage...

  4. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the...

  5. 19 CFR 146.3 - Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs supervision. 146.3 Section 146.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.3 Customs supervision. (a) Assignment of...

  6. Customer Service: Another Side of TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkin, Arlene Farber

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on the customer satisfaction element of Total Quality Management (TQM) in libraries, including definition of the terms customer and customer satisfaction, determining customer expectations, complaint systems, keeping customers, and empowerment of staff. Appendices list approaches libraries and other organizations have used to improve…

  7. Customer satisfaction measurement in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Markku; Määttä, Teuvo; Hakala, Taisto; Sivula, Tommi; Nousila-Wiik, Maria

    2003-07-01

    The annual patient volume in emergency medical services (EMS) systems is high worldwide. However, there are no comprehensive studies on customer satisfaction for EMS. The authors report how a customer satisfaction survey on EMS patients was conducted, the results, and the possible causes for dissatisfaction. Two prospective customer satisfactions surveys were conducted in an urban EMS system. Consecutive patients treated by EMS received a postal questionnaire approximately two weeks after service. Satisfaction was measured in a scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Neither EMS personnel nor patients were made aware prospectively that patient satisfaction would be measured. Response rates to the surveys were 36.8% (432/1,175) in 2000 and 40.0% (464/1,150) in 2002. The mean general grades for the service were 4.6 and 4.5, respectively. Patients reported the highest degree of dissatisfaction when they were not taken to their hospital of choice, when they perceived that the paramedics were not able to meet their needs, and when paramedics did not introduce themselves or communicate directly with the patient's relatives. In high-volume calls (i.e., frequent chief complaints), the general satisfaction was highest in patients with arrhythmias, breathing difficulties, and hypoglycemia. Patients with drug overdose included the highest proportion of unsatisfied patients. None of the background variables (e.g., gender, transport decision, working shift) was statistically related to general patient satisfaction. This study shows that customer satisfaction surveys can be successfully conducted for EMS. EMS systems should consider routinely using customer satisfaction surveys as a tool for quality measurement and improvement.

  8. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  9. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  10. Customer Service: insourcing or outsourcing? An Analysis of Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Thaiis Aparecido Cansado; MINCIOTTI, Silvio Augusto

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays customers have a growing knowledge of their strong decision purchase power and Consumer protection laws are very active. Therefore, Customer Service (CS) is assuming an important position inside the enterprises. This article is an attempt to verify if outsourcing interferes on Call Center customers’ perceived quality. An exploratory research was carried out considering 184 interviewers and 55 enterprises indicated by themselves. All results were treated by Statistical analysis techni...

  11. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  12. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  13. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  14. The Self-Leading Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to a Ph.D. design research, conducted in a medium sized Danish bank. The research demonstrates a human-centred perspective and resulted in a radical new type of banking service represented in the MoneyWorkshop. The MoneyWorkshop helps customers uncover their dominant values...... and emotions and makes them increasingly aware of their preferred personal values related to money. Participation in this workshop made customers increasingly empowered and ‘self-leading’. People even changed their ‘money behaviour’ – now in accordance with their values. The paper explains the Money......-Leading Customer...

  15. Value disciplines: measuring customer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dannhauser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Competitiveness Report: 1999, South Africa ranks poorly in terms of delivering customer services (Garelli, 1999. In order to assist South African organisations to identify their customers' value preferences, three scales collectively called the Customer Preference Questionnaire (CPQ were developed. Opsomming Luidens die World Competitiveness Report: 1999 vaar Suid-Afrika swak ten opsigte van klientediens-lewering (Garelli, 1999. Om Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies te help met die identifisering van hulle kliente se waardevoorkeure, is drie skale wat gesamentlik die Klientevoorkeurvraelys (CPQ genoem word, ontwikkel.

  16. Clustering analysis of telecommunication customers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hong; ZHENG Yan; WU Ye-rong

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a clustering method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for telecommunication customer subdivision is presented. First, the features of telecommunication customers (such as the calling behavior and consuming behavior) are extracted. Second, the similarities between the multidimensional feature vectors of telecommunication customers are computed and mapped as the distance between samples on a two-dimensional plane. Finally, the distances are adjusted to approximate the similarities gradually by GA. One advantage of this method is the independent distribution of the sample space. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. Role of Customs Duties in the Formation of Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela - Anca Postole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accession to the European Union, starting price and trade exchange liberalization, alongside a strong exchange rate reform, required a depth rethinking of the customs duty system and also influenced the role of this category of tax in establishing budgetary resources.This study reviews the impact of customs duties on changing levels of revenues collected at the state budget. The analysis used is the econometric modeling based on a single- factor regression model.But in Romania, customs duties do not have any major impact on budget revenues and the effects of their collection on the state budget revenues are felt within two months of collection.

  18. Comparison of two methods for customer differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Gabor (Adriana); Y. Guang (Yang); S. Axsäter (Sven)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn response to customer specific time guarantee requirements, service providers can offer differentiated ser- vices. However, conventional customer differentiation methods often lead to high holding costs and may have some practical drawbacks. We compare two customer differentiation poli

  19. Custom Visualization without Real Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas

    Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first...

  20. Fuzzy indicators for customer retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Fernández, Leslier; Nicolas, Carolina; Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the existence of a gap on how to measure this relationship. Following this idea, this study proposes six fuzzy key performance indicators that aims to measure customer retention and loyalty of the portfolio...

  1. Customer satisfaction and complaint behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    must in the eyes of the customer. This could be ... Coping refers to the psychological and behavioural efforts undertaken ... Tshwane region of Gauteng. ... been used successfully to measure consumers' expectations for and satisfaction/.

  2. Marketing management of customers loyalty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M.N. Ivannikova

    2014-01-01

    .... The article considers the loyalty program as marketing tool, characterized by system approach and directed upon chosen customers target group loyalty forming with the aim to create and uphold long term relations...

  3. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  4. Marketing management enhances customer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, I R; Petras, G J; Bradford, C

    1992-10-01

    The implementation of automated marketing management systems in hospitals across the United States can change dramatically the way in which a hospital builds business by managing relationships with prospective customers.

  5. Organisational Effectiveness and Customer Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrož, Milan; Praprotnik, Martina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a test of the relationship between organizational culture as a crucial indicator of organizational effectiveness and customer satisfaction using service-unit data from two health resorts...

  6. Study on Customer Demands for Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; YANG Mingzhong; LI Yibing; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the satisfaction degree of customers' individual demands for products and reduce the risk of the product innovation, the characteristics of customer demands for product innovation are analyzed, and the type and content of customer demands are discussed. Then the framework of customer demands acquisition for product innovation is established. Finally, the prototype system of customer demands information acquisition and product customization for product innovation which takes mobile phone as the example is developed successfully.

  7. Understanding Customers' Evaluations Through Mining Airline Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Yakut; Tugba Turkoglu; Fikriye Yakut

    2015-01-01

    Data mining can be evaluated as a strategic tool to determine the customer profiles in order to learn customer expectations and requirements. Airline customers have different characteristics and if passenger reviews about their trip experiences are correctly analyzed, companies can increase customer satisfaction by improving provided services. In this study, we investigate customer review data for in-flight services of airline companies and draw customer models with respect to suc...

  8. Customer-centered brand management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Roland T; Zeithaml, Valarie A; Lemon, Katherine N

    2004-09-01

    Most executives today agree that their efforts should be focused on growing the lifetime value of their customers. Yet few companies have come to terms with the implications of that idea for their marketing management. Oldsmobile, for example, enjoyed outstanding brand equity with many customers through the 1980s. But as the century wore further on, the people who loved the Olds got downright old. So why did General Motors spend so many years and so much money trying to reposition and refurbish the tired,tarnished brand? Why didn't GM managers instead move younger buyers along a path of less resistance, toward another of the brands in GM's stable--or even launch a wholly new brand geared to their tastes? Catering to new customers, even at the expense of the brand, would surely have been the path to profits. The reason, argue the authors, is that in large consumer-goods companies like General Motors, brands are the raison d'etre. They are the focus of decision making and the basis of accountability. But this overwhelming focus on growing brand equity is inconsistent with the goal of growing customer equity. Drawing on a wide range of current examples, the authors offer seven tactics that will put brands in the service of growing customer equity. These include replacing traditional brand managers with a new position--the customer segment manager; targeting brands to as narrow an audience as possible; developing the capability and the mind-set to hand off customers from one brand to another within the company; and changing the way brand equity is measured by basing calculations on individual, rather than average, customer data.

  9. Achievement of Strategic ICT Business Objectives through Customer Retention in a Ghanaian Telecommunications Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of customer retention on the achievement of strategic ICT business objectives at Airtel Ghana Limited, a telecommunications company in Ghana. Customer retention plays a critical role in enhancing Airtel’s strategic objectives. We discuss the factors that increase customer retention rate; which include customer care, customer satisfaction, service quality and commitment of staff. We used questionnaires to collect data from the staff of the customer unit, who are directly in charge of customer service, customer retention and marketing. The quantitative method was used for data analysis. The main findings of the study were that customer retention strategies existed for Airtel Ghana and that management was committed to implementing these strategies and that these strategies contributed significantly to the achievement of Airtel Ghana Limited’s business objectives. Although challenges existed, management was keen to overcome them because of the expected benefits of customer retention. These include increase in customer base, customer loyalty and profitability. We recommended that more effort be put in by management of Airtel Ghana to arrest the challenges by providing effective systems and funds when required, adequate IT support, reduction in management approval level bureaucracies and adequate staffing for the customer retention unit.

  10. 47 CFR 32.4040 - Customers' deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4040 Customers' deposits... for the payment for telecommunications service. (b) Advance payments made by prospective customers...

  11. Customizing of Hemodialysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to the 22nd edition of "The American Illustrated Medical Dictionary",dialysis[dia=through,apart,across or between;lysis=to loose]is defined as the process of separating crystalloids and colloids in solution by the differences in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane:crystalloids pass through readily,colloids very slowly or not at all(1).

  12. Entropy-Based Credit Evaluation for Mobile Telephone Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zong-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The arrears problem puzzled most mobile communication corporations in China. In information theory, the Shannon entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a signal or random event. Motivated by entropy theory especially the Shannon Entropy, in this study, one called customer information entropy is defined and proposed to credit evaluation for arrearage customers of cellular telephone. The proposed customer information entropy is based on customer’s behavior attributes. Arrearage customers often include malevolent ones and non-malevolent ones. 52364 arrearage customers among a total number of 400000 ones in a mobile communication corporation are chosen for experiment. The proposed measure yields good results in its application of credit evaluation for 52364 arrearage customers in August and September. Its correct evaluation rates for malevolent and non-malevolent of the 52364 arrearage ones both are over 90.0%: among the 52364 arrearage customers, 90.75% of the non-malevolent ones, whose entropy changes is less than zero, while for the entropy changes of the malevolent ones, 95.36% is equal to zero and 1.57% is more than zero. The experimental results indicate that the entropy changes of the non-malevolent ones could be considered as negative and nonnegative for the malevolent ones. The proposed show its potential practicality.

  13. Optimizing Terminal Delivery of Perishable Products considering Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness of products and timeliness of delivery are two critical factors which have impact on customer satisfaction in terminal delivery of perishable products. This paper investigates how to make a cost-saving vehicle scheduling for perishable products by maximizing customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is defined from the two aspects of freshness and time window. Then we develop a priority function based on customer satisfaction and use the hierarchical clustering method to identify customer service priority. Based on the priority, a multiobjective vehicle scheduling optimization model for perishable products is formulated to maximize customer satisfaction and minimize total delivery costs. To solve the proposed model, a priority-based genetic algorithm (PB-GA is designed. Numerical experiments and sensitivity analysis are performed to show the validity and advantage of our approach. Results indicate that PB-GA can achieve better solutions than traditional genetic algorithm. The improvement of customer satisfaction is higher than the decrease rate of total costs within a certain shelf life range, which reveals that the proposed method is applicable to the terminal delivery of perishable products.

  14. A comparison of heavy ion induced single event upset susceptibility in unhardened 6T/SRAM and hardened ADE/SRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zeng, Chuanbin; Geng, Chao; Liu, Tianqi; Khan, Maaz; Yan, Weiwei; Hou, Mingdong; Ye, Bing; Sun, Youmei; Yin, Yanan; Luo, Jie; Ji, Qinggang; Zhao, Fazhan; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of unhardened 6T/SRAM and hardened active delay element (ADE)/SRAM, fabricated with 0.35 μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was investigated at heavy ion accelerator. The mechanisms were revealed by the laser irradiation and resistor-capacitor hardened techniques. Compared with conventional 6T/SRAM, the hardened ADE/SRAM exhibited higher tolerance to heavy ion irradiation, with an increase of about 80% in the LET threshold and a decrease of ∼64% in the limiting upset cross-section. Moreover, different probabilities between 0 → 1 and 1 → 0 transitions were observed, which were attributed to the specific architecture of ADE/SRAM memory cell. Consequently, the radiation-hardened technology can be an attractive alternative to the SEU tolerance of the device-level.

  15. The Role of Multichannel Marketing in Customer Retention and Loyalty: Study in Emerald Bank Customer in Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambarwati, Ambarwati

    Attention on the relationship between customer retention, customer loyalty, and customer satisfaction that serves as "seed" of customer loyalty highlight the important factors for multichannel management...

  16. Resistance Upset Welding of ODS Steel Fuel Claddings—Evaluation of a Process Parameter Range Based on Metallurgical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Corpace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance upset welding is successfully applied to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steel fuel cladding. Due to the strong correlation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the ODS steel, this study focuses on the consequences of the welding process on the metallurgical state of the PM2000 ODS steel. A range of process parameters is identified to achieve operative welding. Characterizations of the microstructure are correlated to measurements recorded during the welding process. The thinness of the clad is responsible for a thermal unbalance, leading to a higher temperature reached. Its deformation is important and may lead to a lack of joining between the faying surfaces located on the outer part of the join which can be avoided by increasing the dissipated energy or by limiting the clad stick-out. The deformation and the temperature reached trigger a recrystallization phenomenon in the welded area, usually combined with a modification of the yttrium dispersion, i.e., oxide dispersion, which can damage the long-life resistance of the fuel cladding. The process parameters are optimized to limit the deformation of the clad, preventing the compactness defect and the modification of the nanoscale oxide dispersion.

  17. Neutron-induced Single Event Upset on the RPC front-end chips for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Belli, G; Bruno, G; Colaleo, A; De Bari, A; Guida, R; Iaselli, G; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Manera, S; Marangelli, B; Merlo, M; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Romano, F; Torre, P; Vitulo, P

    2002-01-01

    Neutrons from a reactor and from a cyclotron have been used to characterise the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) front-end chip to neutron-induced damaging events. Single Event Upset (SEU) cross-sections have been measured up to 60 MeV for different chip thresholds. Tests at a reactor were done with an integrated fast (E sub n >3 MeV) neutron fluence of 1.7x10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2 and a thermal neutron fluence of 9.5x10 sup 1 sup 1 cm sup - sup 2. High-energy neutrons from a cyclotron were used up to a fluence of 10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2. Data indicate the existence of a chip SEU sensitivity already at thermal energy and a saturated SEU cross-section from 3 to 60 MeV. Values of the SEU cross-sections from the thermal run well agree with those obtained by another CMS group that uses the same technology (0.8 mu m BiCMOS) though with different architecture. Cross-sections obtained with fast neutrons (from 3 MeV to about 10 MeV) are consistently higher by one order of magnitude compared to the therm...

  18. How to Regain Lost Customers in Electronic Commerce: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has experienced rapid growth in last years. B2C electronic commerce often has a high customer loss rate. To regain the lost customers is a major concern of online vendors. This paper investigates the strategies for winning back lost customers (price promotion and relationship investment through field experiment on a major B2C website in China. Research findings indicate the two strategies are effective in regaining lost customers online, depending on the customers’ prior relationship time with the vendor, and lapse time from the vendor. The study has contribution to electronic commerce and has practical implications for B2C vendors on customer management.

  19. Realization and Application of Customer Attrition Early Warning Model in Security Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yizhen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the customer attrition early warning model based on data warehouse and data mining technologies, which is achieved and applied in our security company. The modeling variables can be selected by means of the combination with decision tree and the gradual regression in Logistic regression. Then customer attrition early warning model can be constructed based on Logistic regression. The results show that the model can strongly promote the customer attrition capturing rate, push on the building of the company customer marketing management and customer service management organization, and economize the marketing cost. The company profits promotion and trade competitive power can be promised.

  20. the customer at the final frontier of mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Jensen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    , some of the factors influencing the use of this business paradigm are discussed and it is argued that the customer is the major limiting factor at the final frontier of mass customisation. Until recently mass customisation have mainly been turned towards the structural design of products, whereas...... this paper argues that there might be a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. As a result of this manufactures will have to hone the balance of trade-offs, as the paradigm of mass customisation becomes a commodity....

  1. The Customer at the Final Frontier of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    , some of the factors influencing the use of this business paradigm are discussed and it is argued that the customer is the major limiting factor at the final frontier of mass customisation. Until recently mass customisation have mainly been turned towards the structural design of products, whereas...... this paper argues that there might be a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. As a result of this manufactures will have to hone the balance of trade-offs, as the paradigm of mass customisation becomes a commodity....

  2. The Customer at the Final Frontier of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    , some of the factors influencing the use of this business paradigm are discussed and it is argued that the customer is the major limiting factor at the final frontier of mass customisation. Until recently mass customisation have mainly been turned towards the structural design of products, whereas...... this paper argues that there might be a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. As a result of this manufactures will have to hone the balance of trade-offs, as the paradigm of mass customisation becomes a commodity....

  3. Magnetic Properties Improvement of Die-upset Nd-Fe-B Magnets by Dy-Cu Press Injection and Subsequent Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zexuan; Ju, Jinyun; Wang, Jinzhi; Yin, Wenzong; Chen, Renjie; Li, Ming; Jin, Chaoxiang; Tang, Xu; Lee, Don; Yan, Aru

    2016-12-01

    Ultrafine-grained die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets are of importance because they provide a wide researching space to redesign the textured structures. Here is presented a route to obtain a new die-upset magnet with substantially improved magnetic properties. After experiencing the optimized heat treatment, both the coercivity and remanent magnetization of the Dy-Cu press injected magnets increased substantially in comparison with those of the annealed reference magnets, which is distinct from the reported experimental results on heavy rare-earth diffusion. To study the mechanism, we analyzed the texture evolution in high-temperature annealed die-upset magnets, which had significant impact on the improvement of remanent magnetization. On basis of the results, we find that the new structures are strongly interlinked with the initial structures. With injecting Dy-Cu eutectic alloy, an optimized initial microstructure was achieved in the near-surface diffused regions, which made preparations for the subsequent texture improvement. Besides, the Dy gradient distribution of near-surface regions of the Dy-Cu press injected magnets was also investigated. By controlling the initial microstructure and subsequent diffusion process, a higher performance magnet is expected to be obtained.

  4. Magnetic Properties Improvement of Die-upset Nd-Fe-B Magnets by Dy-Cu Press Injection and Subsequent Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zexuan; Ju, Jinyun; Wang, Jinzhi; Yin, Wenzong; Chen, Renjie; Li, Ming; Jin, Chaoxiang; Tang, Xu; Lee, Don; Yan, Aru

    2016-12-06

    Ultrafine-grained die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets are of importance because they provide a wide researching space to redesign the textured structures. Here is presented a route to obtain a new die-upset magnet with substantially improved magnetic properties. After experiencing the optimized heat treatment, both the coercivity and remanent magnetization of the Dy-Cu press injected magnets increased substantially in comparison with those of the annealed reference magnets, which is distinct from the reported experimental results on heavy rare-earth diffusion. To study the mechanism, we analyzed the texture evolution in high-temperature annealed die-upset magnets, which had significant impact on the improvement of remanent magnetization. On basis of the results, we find that the new structures are strongly interlinked with the initial structures. With injecting Dy-Cu eutectic alloy, an optimized initial microstructure was achieved in the near-surface diffused regions, which made preparations for the subsequent texture improvement. Besides, the Dy gradient distribution of near-surface regions of the Dy-Cu press injected magnets was also investigated. By controlling the initial microstructure and subsequent diffusion process, a higher performance magnet is expected to be obtained.

  5. Best Practices in Customs Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Popa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main aspects related to the modernisation process of the European Union customs legislation and identifies a series of benefits that arise from implementing the measures of the Modernised Community customs code. In this context, foreign trade companies must adapt their logistics strategies to the new customs system, a necessary condition in order to obtain competitive advantages. In an increasingly competitive global environment, best practices in the customs activity have a positive influence both on the international trade as well as on the consumer safety and protection. The results of implementing best practices are also found in rankings made by different institutions and international organisations regarding the competitiveness in logistics and ease in the development of foreign trade transactions. They mainly relate to reducing the time for the necessary clearance procedure and reducing the logistics costs by decreasing the number of physical and documentation checks, giving a priority treatment to consignments when they are selected for control, the possibility to choose the location for customs controls and less information to submit in summary declarations.

  6. SEU rate calculation with GEANT4 (comparison with CREME 86)

    CERN Document Server

    Inguimbert, C

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on single-event upset (SEU) rate calculations using the GEANT4 code. Single event effect rate modeling can be performed using various approaches. In this paper, we propose to compare the standard rectangular parallepiped (RPP) cosmic ray effects in microelectronic code (CREME86) model with our direct Monte Carlo simulation using the GEANT 4 (radiation transport code developed by CERN) software. The results obtained on two device types are in good agreement with CREME86. (14 refs).

  7. The use of Prezi for customer journeys and customer service excellence

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, JL

    2012-01-01

    As part of Leeds Metropolitan University Libraries and Learning Innovation’s (LLI) commitment to customer service and the revalidation of its Customer Service Excellence (CSE) award, we were looking for a new way to present the ‘customer journeys’ that customers take when using our services. Customer journeys are defined as ‘a method of identifying the key processes that the customer encounters when they interact with the organisation’ (Customer Service Excellence, 2012a.) We wanted to use th...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6623 - Customer services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer services. 32.6623 Section 32.6623... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6623 Customer services. (a... includes: (1) Initiating customer service orders and records; (2) Maintaining and billing customer accounts...

  9. Online Banking Customers: Insights from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Christian Berger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Online banking is wide spread among German banking customers. But what really characterizes those customers? Using data from a nation-wide survey of about 20,000 retail banking customers, the authors analyze the profile of online banking customers and their banking behavior.

  10. 7 CFR 1230.7 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1230.7 Section 1230.7 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.7 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.4 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1206.4 Section 1206.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.4 Customs. Customs means the Customs and Border Protection of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security....

  12. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.6 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1219.6 Section 1219.6 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.6 Customs. Customs means the United States Customs Service....

  14. 7 CFR 1221.7 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1221.7 Section 1221.7 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.7 Customs. Customs means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security....

  15. 7 CFR 1207.313 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1207.313 Section 1207.313... PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.313 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of the Treasury. National...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.129 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1260.129 Section 1260.129... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.129 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of the Treasury....

  17. 32 CFR 637.6 - Customs investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Customs investigations. 637.6 Section 637.6... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.6 Customs investigations. (a) Customs violations will be investigated as prescribed in AR 190-41. When customs authorities...

  18. A Review : Benefits and Critical Factors of Customer Relationship Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pal Dhaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer Relationship Management (CRM is a technical jargon which is a blend of methodologies, software and internet, which are used by a company to achieve its goal through the identification and satisfaction of customer’s stated and unstated needs and wants. This software addresses customer life cycle management. This system manages company interactions with current and future customers. It involves technology to organize, automate and synchronize business processes. CRM application is an essential tool for a company to grow and help to increase the satisfaction of customers. There are many benefits of CRM; those make the market environment customer centric. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies and identify those benefits which affect customers and company both. But CRM has many problems also because of them CRM gets failure. Its failure rate is more than its success rate. We also elaborated its failure factors and along with them its critical success factors which help in making CRM a successful project for a company, however implementation of CRM is a complex task.

  19. Multinational Channel Strategy and Customer Value in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick O. Aila, Hazel Mumbo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of multinational channel strategy on customer value by assessing customer demand side issues. It assess the relationship between order cycle time, stock availability and sales to describe the impact of distribution strategy on customer value. The study was carried in locations comprised of Equator Bottlers Limited franchise territory within five districts in Western Kenya. A cross-section survey using a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was prepared for analysis by editing, coding, categorizing and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of distributors were found to be located within the major urban areas of Kisumu and Kericho as a result of proximity to the plant and high rates of consumption. In order to increase the value offered to customers, there is need to reduce order cycle times to the bare minimum of one day for stock replenishment.

  20. A Study to Investigate the Effect of Customer Value on Customer Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Onaran,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond satisfying needs, customer value is the key to establish and maintain long run relationships. Hence, providing excellent customer value as a driving force of customer relationships management performance plays a key role in gaining sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships among dimensions of customer value, customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and customer relationship management performance. Data obtained from customers of thermal hotels in Afyon, was analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Results reveal that emotional value being the most influential dimension and social value being the least influential one, dimensions of customer value affect customer satisfaction directly by 80%. Besides, it is revealed that customer satisfaction has strong effect on customer relationship management performance and brand loyalty and considerable part of this effect is mediated by the indirect effect of customer value. Thus, we can say that dimensions of customer value has an indirect effect on customer relationship management performance and brand loyalty mediated by customer satisfaction.

  1. Customer and cost sharing in a Jackson network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith; Scheinhardt, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider a Jackson network of independent service stations. To improve upon the total expected waiting time, the stations may redistribute the total arrival rate of customers over all queues. We investigate this situation by means of arrival rate games. These are cooperative TU cost

  2. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic... last CAFTA-DR country will be liquidated or reliquidated at the applicable rate of duty for that good... excess customs duties paid with respect to such entry, with interest accrued from the date of entry...

  3. Custom v. Standardized Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss when and why custom multi-factor risk models are warranted and give source code for computing some risk factors. Pension/mutual funds do not require customization but standardization. However, using standardized risk models in quant trading with much shorter holding horizons is suboptimal: (1 longer horizon risk factors (value, growth, etc. increase noise trades and trading costs; (2 arbitrary risk factors can neutralize alpha; (3 “standardized” industries are artificial and insufficiently granular; (4 normalization of style risk factors is lost for the trading universe; (5 diversifying risk models lowers P&L correlations, reduces turnover and market impact, and increases capacity. We discuss various aspects of custom risk model building.

  4. Linking Customer Interaction and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Laursen, Keld; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The notion that firms can improve their innovativeness by tapping users and customers for knowledge has become prominent in innovation studies. Similar arguments have been made in the marketing literature. We argue that neither literatures take sufficient account of firm organization. Specifically......, firms that attempt to leverage user and customer knowledge in the context of innovation must design an internal organization appropriate to support it. This can be achieved in particular through the use of new organizational practices, notably, intensive vertical and lateral communication, rewarding...... employees for sharing and acquiring knowledge, and high levels of delegation of decision rights. In this paper, six hypotheses were developed and tested on a data set of 169 Danish firms drawn from a 2001 survey of the 1,000 largest firms in Denmark. A key result is that the link from customer knowledge...

  5. Reducing wait time in a hospital pharmacy to promote customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different interventions on wait times at a hospital outpatient pharmacy: (1) giving feedback to employees about customer satisfaction with wait times and (2) giving a combined intervention package that included giving more specific feedback about actual wait times and goal setting for wait time reduction in addition to the customer satisfaction feedback. The relationship between customer satisfaction ratings and wait times was examined to determine whether wait times affected customer service satisfaction. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCBA' within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction; and A' was a follow-up condition that was similar to the original baseline condition. Wait times were reduced by approximately 20%, and there was concomitant increased shift in levels of customer satisfaction, as indicated by the correlation between these variables (r = -0.57 and P customer's wait time. Data from this study may provide useful preliminary benchmarking data for standard pharmacy wait times.

  6. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  7. The silent customers: measuring customer satisfaction in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, I K; Koenig, H F

    1991-12-01

    Nursing home administrators concerned with customer satisfaction and quality of care need a tool to assess and monitor ongoing satisfaction of nursing home residents and family members. The authors report a preliminary effort to develop such a survey using focus groups.

  8. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  9. Take control of customizing Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Come up to speed quickly on Leopard's new features! So, what's new in Leopard? What's all the fuss about? This book shows you, through a hands-on guided tour of the adjustments, tweaks, and customizations you can make in the System and the Finder. Apple boasts of 300 new features in Leopard, but to make the most of those features, turn to Matt Neuburg for a road map on how to customize Leopard so it's right for you. Matt shows you how to protect your data with Time Machine, including instructions for searching through previous files with Spotlight. You'll also learn how to peek at files with

  10. Modeling churn using customer lifetime value

    OpenAIRE

    Glady, Nicolas; Baesens, Bart; Croux, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The definition and modeling of customer loyalty have been central issues in customer relationship management since many years. Recent papers propose solutions to detect customers that are becoming less loyal, also called churners. The churner status is then defined as a function of the volume of commercial transactions. In the context of a Belgian retail financial service company, our first contribution is to redefine the notion of customer loyalty by considering it from a customer-centric vi...

  11. Modeling Customer's Satisfaction Behavior through Uninorms

    OpenAIRE

    Depaire, Benoit; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2006-01-01

    During the last three decades, the focus of customer satisfaction research has shifted from what it was about the product or service that customers found satisfying to how and why customers became satisfied. This resulted into several models that try to explain the customer's satisfaction behaviour, among which the expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm is one of the most prominent models. This model identifies three elements which have an influence on the customer's satisfaction level: i.e perf...

  12. Study on Customer Demands for Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; YANG Mingzhong; LI Yibing; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the satisfaction degree of customers' individual demands on products and reduce the risk of the product innovation, the characteristics of customer demands for product innovation are analyzed, and their type and content are discussed. Then the framework of customer demands acquisition for product innovation is established. Finally, the prototype system of customer demands information acquisition and product customization for product innovation which takes mobile phone as the example is developed successfully.

  13. Measuring Air Force Contracting customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This research gathers background information to identify which customer satisfaction elements should be included in a standardized tool that measures the level of customer satisfaction for AF Contracting’s external and internal customers. This research conducts a comprehensive literature review of the prominent customer satisfaction trends, while exploring the idiosyncrasies of customer satisfaction that are unique to AF Contracting. F...

  14. Employee and customer satisfaction in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Wood, Ben D

    2010-01-01

    There were multiple factors identified in a literature review that have a relationship to customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and links between employee and customer satisfaction. Some of the factors identified were communication, wait times, perceived value, trust, dissatisfaction with management, changes in the workplace, vision,and fun at work. Managers must identify these topics to ensure customer satisfaction, customer loyalty,and employee satisfaction which will ultimately have a positive impact on their organizations.

  15. ANTECEDENTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleu Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication with customers. In the context of the development of social networks, the introduction of social media applications in customer relationship management activities bring important changes in this area. Thus, managers need to pay attention to the interaction management as an important process of CRM and enhance the customer relationship management capabilities. The study propose a conceptual research model of several antecedents of customer relationship managements capabilities and provide the linkage between this antecedents and CRM capabilities. First, following review of existing research literature related to customer relationship management, there are some conceptual clarification on customer relationship management. Second, are presented the working concepts: the adoption of interactive technologies, customer concept, customer empowerment, customer relationship orientation and customer-centric management system. Then, it is proposed the conceptual model and finally are presented conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and research directions. From a theoretical perspective, this paper highlights the importance of marketing actions at the individual customer level and reveal the impact of adoption by companies of interactive technologies so that organizations have the opportunity to engage in conversations with customers and respond in real time the requirements that they launched the online environment. Nowadays, customers feel empowered and play

  16. customer satsisfaction survey of omena hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola, Ebenezer

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor’s thesis examines the importance of customer satisfaction via customers’ opinions. The objective of the thesis is to measure the level of satisfaction of Customers in Omena hotels in Helsinki region. The research exposes the expectation of customers that could assist the Omena hotels to upgrade their IT-enabled business operational services. The theory part of this thesis covers the concept of customer satisfaction, customer service and service quality dimensions. The empiri...

  17. Efficient Product Customization by Structure Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, M.;Rupp, T.;Lindemann, U.

    2017-01-01

    The presented approach describes a new strategy for creating product structures, which are suitable for further customer driven product customization – i.e. the customization can be carried out within less time and for lower costs. The required input data is knowledge on the interconnectivity between product components and knowledge of principal scopes of customization demands (e.g. which components or functions customers would like to individualize, which ones are unknown or hidden). By mean...

  18. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  19. Comparison of two methods for customer differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor, Adriana; Guang, Yang; Axsäter, Sven

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn response to customer specific time guarantee requirements, service providers can offer differentiated ser- vices. However, conventional customer differentiation methods often lead to high holding costs and may have some practical drawbacks. We compare two customer differentiation policies: stock reservation and pipeline stock priority for high priority customers. We derive exact analytical expressions of the waiting time distri- bution of both types of customers for a stock res...

  20. The four faces of mass customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, J H; Pine, B J

    1997-01-01

    Virtually all executives today recognize the need to provide outstanding service to customers. Focusing on the customer, however, is both an imperative and a potential curse. In their desire to become customer driven, many companies have resorted to inventing new programs and procedures to meet every customer's request. But as customers and their needs grow increasingly diverse, such an approach has become a surefire way to add unnecessary cost and complexity to operations. Companies around the world have embraced mass customization in an attempt to avoid those pitfalls. Readily available information technology and flexible work processes permit them to customize goods or services for individual customers in high volumes at low cost. But many managers have discovered that mass customization itself can produce unnecessary cost and complexity. They are realizing that they did not examine thoroughly enough what kind of customization their customers would value before they plunged ahead. That is understandable. Until now, no framework has existed to help managers determine the type of customization they should pursue. James Gilmore and Joseph Pine provide managers with just such a framework. They have identified four distinct approaches to customization. When designing or redesigning a product, process, or business unit, managers should examine each approach for possible insights into how to serve their customers best. In some cases, a single approach will dominate the design. More often, however, managers will need a mix of some or all of the four approaches to serve their own particular set of customers.

  1. Single event upsets of spacecraft microelectronics exposed to solar cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N V; Nymmik, R A

    1996-11-01

    The technique for evaluating the SEU rate induced by solar particle incidence on spacecraft microelectronics is described, including the contributions from the primary (heavy ion-induced) and secondary proton-induced) SEU mechanisms. The technique is based on original computational models for solar particle energy spectra and for SEU occurrence in electronics. The technique was used to analyze the data of the TDRS-1 Fairchild 93L422 IC exposed to protons and ions during the solar cosmic ray event of September-October 1989. The analysis included the distribution of the microcircuit shielding. A strong dependence of solar proton-to-ion ratio on the shielding thickness was indicated by the calculations.

  2. Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty as Predictors of Future Business Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of app. 2000 private customers evaluated their...

  3. Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty as Predictors of Future Business Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of app. 2000 private customers evaluated their...

  4. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Vanhoof, K.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This defin

  5. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  6. Traditional Han Chinese Marriage Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; LI

    2016-01-01

    MARRIAGE is important to everyone.To the average family,marriage means producing children so that its blood lineage can continue down to the next generation.A grand and joyful wedding is an essential symbol of marriage,as from that moment on,a man and woman have promised to love each other and cleave together forever.Various customs

  7. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  8. Customer Satisfaction with Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    2001-01-01

    A model for evaluating customer satisfaction with training programs was tested with training purchasers. The model confirmed two types of projects: training aimed at achieving learning results and at changing job performance. The model did not fit for training intended to support organizational change. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  9. Customer satisfaction with training programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution, a model of evaluation of customer satisfaction about training programs is described. The model is developed and implemented for an association of training companies. The evaluation has been conducted by an independent organisation to enhance the thrustworthiness of the evaluati

  10. Customer Satisfaction with Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    2001-01-01

    A model for evaluating customer satisfaction with training programs was tested with training purchasers. The model confirmed two types of projects: training aimed at achieving learning results and at changing job performance. The model did not fit for training intended to support organizational change. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  11. Digital Integration: Towards Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Finn

    “Mass production in lots of one” is a phrase coined by Oliver Morton in a seminal piece for The Economist (1994). In few words this sentence contains the essence (and schism) of true customization aiming at manufacturing the artifact for the mass. Emerging Nanotechnologies are said to enable...

  12. The customers borrowing behavior during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina LUCA (BRĂTUCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis determined the transition of the Romanian banking system from excess of liquidity to deficit, namely from an aggressive lending activity to a significant reduction of credit growth rate. In our country, the high indebtedness rate, especially in foreign currencies, is the main vulnerable spot of the population sector. The main objective of this paperwork is to analyze factors that influence the customers in their decision to borrow in foreign currencies or in Ron. In this matter, it was used a regional econometric model for panel data in order to see Romania’s customers borrowing preferences and to analyze if the crises have changed their behavior.

  13. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  14. ROLE OF DEMANDING CUSTOMER: THE INFLUENCE OF UTILITARIAN AND HEDONIC VALUES ON LOYALTY CUSTOMER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purwanto; Kuswandi; Sunjoto

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of Utilitarian Value, Hedonic Value on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Demanding Customers Moderation among customers of Modern Café in Surabaya...

  15. the customer at the final frontier of mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Jensen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Mass customisation is no longer new. A decade of industrial experience have shown how this business paradigm have been used – and abused. Like any other evolutionary process of a business paradigm, the exploitation of mass customisation may be expected to stabilise as it matures. In this article......, some of the factors influencing the use of this business paradigm are discussed and it is argued that the customer is the major limiting factor at the final frontier of mass customisation. Until recently mass customisation have mainly been turned towards the structural design of products, whereas...... this paper argues that there might be a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. As a result of this manufactures will have to hone the balance of trade-offs, as the paradigm of mass customisation becomes a commodity....

  16. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  17. Marketing research of organic agricultural products' customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.

  18. Mastering Microsoft Forefront UAG 2010 Customization

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ari, Erez

    2012-01-01

    "Mastering Microsoft Forefront UAG 2010 Customization" is a hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions for enhancing the functionality of UAG through customization. Each topic details one key aspect of functionality and the operative mechanism behind it, and suggests functionality that can be achieved with customization, along with helpful code samples. Whether you are a seasoned UAG consultant, deployment and support engineer or a UAG customer, this book is for you. Consultants will be able to enhance the services you can provide for UAG customization, while the book helps customers to ach

  19. DEVELOPING WHAT CUSTOMERS REALLY NEED: INVOLVING CUSTOMERS IN INNOVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEL E. A. WEBER; MATHIEU C. D. P. WEGGEMAN; JOAN E. VAN AKEN

    2012-01-01

    Involving users in new product design and development is in itself not a new phenomenon. Academic research on the subject, however, is relatively new. Since this new millennium research on user involvement in innovations has multiplied, exhibiting that firms who actively involve users in their innovation process can benefit from this initiative, even though literature also warns us for relying too much and too actively on the participation of customers in innovation. However, research is main...

  20. Customs Representation in Simplified Customs Procedures in Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Ivaković

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available When introduced in 2000 the use of authorized consigneeand consignor status was not particularly popular among companies,despite its apparent advantages. The number of the statususers compared to the total number of exporters and importerswas almost negligible. The aim of this paper was to find outto which extent the simplified customs procedures have beenaccepted in Croatia through an objective outline of advantagesand disadvantages that the companies - users of the simplifiedprocedures face on a daily basis.

  1. Analyzing behavior in customer relationships accounting for customer-to-customer interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Veel bedrijven houden zich tegenwoordig bezig met customer relationship management (CRM). Ze hebben ingezien dat klanten een waardevol bezit zijn en ook als zodanig behandeld dienen te worden. Een van de hoofddoelen van CRM is om waardevolle relaties met bestaande klanten op te bouwen. Bedrijven kun

  2. Analyzing behavior in customer relationships accounting for customer-to-customer interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Veel bedrijven houden zich tegenwoordig bezig met customer relationship management (CRM). Ze hebben ingezien dat klanten een waardevol bezit zijn en ook als zodanig behandeld dienen te worden. Een van de hoofddoelen van CRM is om waardevolle relaties met bestaande klanten op te bouwen. Bedrijven kun

  3. A Determination Method of Optimal Customization Degree of Logistics Service Supply Chain with Mass Customization Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customization degree is a very important field of mass customization. Its improvement could enhance customer satisfaction and further increase customer demand while correspondingly it will increase service price and decrease customer satisfaction and demand. Therefore this paper discusses how to deal with such issues in logistics service supply chain (LSSC with a logistics service integrator (LSI and a customer. With the establishment of customer demand function for logistics services and profit functions of the LSI and the customer, three different decision modes are proposed (i.e., customization degree dominated by LSI, customization degree dominated by customer, and customization degree decided by concentrated supply chain; many interesting findings are achieved. Firstly, to achieve customization cooperation between LSI and customer, measures should be taken to make the unit increase cost of the customized logistics services lower than a certain value. Secondly, there are differences between the optimal customization degree dominated by LSI and that dominated by customer. And in both cases, the dominator could realize more profit than the follower. Thirdly, with the profit secondary distribution strategy, the modified decentralized decision mode could accomplish the maximum profit achieved in centralized decision mode and meanwhile get the optimal customization degree.

  4. Effect of Custom-Made Footwear on Foot Ulcer Recurrence in Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bus, Sicco A.; Waaijman, Roelof; Arts, Mark; Haart, Mirjam de; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa; van Baal, Jeff; Nollet, Frans

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Custom-made footwear is the treatment of choice to prevent foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes. This footwear primarily aims to offload plantar regions at high ulcer risk. However, ulcer recurrence rates are high. We assessed the effect of offloading-improved custom-made footwear and the role of footwear adherence on plantar foot ulcer recurrence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomly assigned 171 neuropathic diabetic patients with a recently healed plantar foot ulcer to custom-made...

  5. Basic Features of Customer Satisfaction with Train Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Akiko; Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Saito, Ayano

    This paper aims to reveal the fundamental features of customer satisfaction with train schedules, which is one of the most basic services provided by a railway company. A customer satisfaction survey of passengers who frequently utilize three lines in the metropolitan area was conducted; we obtained the following findings: (a) out of nine factors to evaluate a train schedule from a passenger's viewpoint, the four most important ones are the frequency of trains running, punctuality, congestion rate, and time distance; (b) the ride-frequency influences the degree of satisfaction with train schedules in a particular line; and (c) it is important to set a numeric goal for the level of customer satisfaction by grasping the relationship between the transport service and a passenger's satisfaction with that service. The difference between customer satisfaction and passenger disutility is also discussed. The findings are expected to help conduct customer satisfaction surveys and also to form the basis for establishing a method by which to evaluate a train schedule from passengers' satisfaction ratings.

  6. Marketing management of customers loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Ivannikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is consideration of theoretical and methodical principles of development and practical application of customers’ loyalty programs which help to define the program choice criteria for a business. The results of the analysis. The article considers the loyalty program as marketing tool, characterized by system approach and directed upon chosen customers target group loyalty forming with the aim to create and uphold long term relations with. Theoretical regulations of the loyalty program stated in the article by the author are formed at the criterion basis of their classification (due to number of participants, essence of entering barriers and conditions; at the condition of customers encouragement; depending on the given advantage; depending on the target group character and types. Taking into consideration the above mentioned programs types, the author defines the appropriateness of their application for light industry goods customers. The author classifies the types of programs according to organizational and economic component and with respect to privileges levels of the chosen target group of customers. In the context of the given research work, the author considers theoretical, methodological and managerial fundamentals and implementation of loyalty program for light industry goods customers. We offer to fulfill the process loyalty program development in four stages (organizational and managerial, informational and methodological, financial and economical, controlling and correcting. Each of them holds corresponding components and consistent actions. To estimate the efficiency of loyalty program, the author suggests to using the following methods choosing only those which are corresponding to the parameters of customer loyalty and additional economic effect gaining. While researching and estimating the level of customer loyalty of a business, the author suggested the following issues, directed

  7. A Customized Finger Brachytherapy Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more consta...

  8. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  9. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  10. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...... in other countries, e.g. in the Scandinavian countries. This development will demand even more focus on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in order to stay in business and may also demand that existing actors on the market place form new coalitions. Promising new partners may be identified, partly...... based upon measures identifying how potential partners are perceived by the customers. Based on results from the European Customer Satisfaction study, a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in Europe is conducted. Some specific Danish results are shown and the relationship between customer...

  11. Improving managed care value through customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Dennis J

    2002-06-01

    The ability of managed care providers to deliver high-quality customer service to managed care customers depends on their adoption of basic customer-service principles. To apply these principles effectively, providers need to understand and work to exceed the particular needs and expectations of these customers, which include boards of directors, senior executives, physicians, healthcare providers, clinical and patient financial services managers and staff, employers, brokers, and patients. Although these needs and expectations can be predicted to some extent, providers would be wise to implement regular surveys of customers and an open procedure for soliciting customer feedback about service issues. Better customer service for the broad range of managed care customers translates into higher levels of employer and patient satisfaction, which ultimately benefits providers.

  12. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  13. Customized PEC modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Martin B. (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the project ''Customized PEC modules'' was to move from the production hand-made individual DSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) in the laboratory to the production of DSC modules in a semi-automated process. At the same time allowing sufficient variation in the product's specification for real tailoring of the product to the application. The tailoring can be related to the module's electrical output and size, but also to the possibility of designing patterns for decoration or communication purposes by playing around with the shape, size and layout of the individual cells forming the module. This was to be accomplished mainly by screen printing of DSC components on glass substrates at Mekoprint. For reaching this goal the work was divided into a number of steps. The central part of the work done was in the initial conception activity and the following manufacturing activity. An activity regarding optimization included several tasks of optimization and adaptation of the existing laboratory process for manufacturing of the DSCs. Finally, work focused on international activities was done. All the steps needed for the production of customized DSC modules have been demonstrated in this project. In combination with the development of a high performing printable sealant and sealing method all the prerequisites for producing customized DSC modules have been demonstrated. (LN)

  14. Maximum Potential Score (MPS: An operating model for a successful customer-focused strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of marketers’ chief objectives is to achieve customer loyalty, which is a key factor for profitable growth. Therefore, they need to develop a strategy that attracts and maintains customers, giving them adequate motives, both tangible (prices and promotions and intangible (personalized service and treatment, to satisfy a customer and make him loyal to the company. Finding a way to accurately measure satisfaction and customer loyalty is very important. With regard to typical Relationship Marketing measures, we can consider listening to customers, which can help to achieve a competitive sustainable advantage. Customer satisfaction surveys are essential tools for listening to customers. Short questionnaires have gained considerable acceptance among marketers as a means to achieve a customer satisfaction measure. Our research provides an indication of the benefits of a short questionnaire (one/three questions. We find that the number of questions survey is significantly related to the participation in the survey (Net Promoter Score or NPS. We also prove that a the three question survey is more likely to have more participants than a traditional survey (Maximum Potential Score or MPS . Our main goal is to analyse one method as a potential predictor of customer loyalty. Using surveys, we attempt to empirically establish the causal factors in determining the satisfaction of customers. This paper describes a maximum potential operating model that captures with a three questions survey, important elements for a successful customer-focused strategy. MPS may give us lower participation rates than NPS but important information that helps to convert unhappy customers or just satisfied customers, into loyal customers.

  15. Identification with the retail organization and customer-perceived employee similarity: effects on customer spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G

    2012-09-01

    Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.

  16. Integrated Multichannel Customer Service Plan For Stark

    OpenAIRE

    Oinasmaa, Roosa

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to introduce three compatible integrated customer service templates for Stark according to the needs and wants of the customer service department. These providers all offer integrated technological solutions for multichannel services. This was done in order to improve work efficiency and thus have a positive effect on the customer experience. The purpose of the thesis was to find out what tools and programs the customer service representatives and the hea...

  17. Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action

    OpenAIRE

    Lervik-Olsen, Line; Witell, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand ...

  18. Customers Purchasing Behavior : Famifarm Oy, Joroinen Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Shodeinde, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The study is looking at customer side and responsiveness in buying Järvikylä range of products (let-tuce and herbs) in respect to easy recognition at shops. Most importantly, behavior of customers and prospective buyers in decision making process and motivating factors towards Järvikylä products. Finding customers’ reactions to the products and suggesting possible ways of satisfying customers and creating customer-based brand for Järvikylä brand. Theoretical data was collected from books,...

  19. Customer profitability analysis in a particular firm

    OpenAIRE

    Turková, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis entitled "Customer profitability analysis in a particular firm" deals with approaches which are possible to use in an enterprise practice when analyzing customer profitability. The theoretical part describes tools and methods of management accounting which are used to analyze the profitability of customers. The application part consists of appraisal of the firm's current system of analyzing customer profitability and proposal of a new system. In the conclusion some recomme...

  20. Measuring customer satisfaction in food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Akhtari; Amir Parviz Akhtari; Ahmad Torfi

    2015-01-01

    Customers are financial and intellectual capital of the firm and its survival and success depend on the attitude and firm performance to its customers. The goal of this article is to study customer satisfaction in Bonny Chow National Distribution Company and offering a model to evaluate customer satisfaction and also to study strength and weakness to improve and facilitate the defects. This study is descriptive, because it collects data and analyzes hypothesis based on expert survey. The ques...

  1. Customers Purchasing Behavior : Famifarm Oy, Joroinen Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Shodeinde, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The study is looking at customer side and responsiveness in buying Järvikylä range of products (let-tuce and herbs) in respect to easy recognition at shops. Most importantly, behavior of customers and prospective buyers in decision making process and motivating factors towards Järvikylä products. Finding customers’ reactions to the products and suggesting possible ways of satisfying customers and creating customer-based brand for Järvikylä brand. Theoretical data was collected from books,...

  2. Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action

    OpenAIRE

    Lervik-Olsen, Line; Witell, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand ...

  3. A Customer Ecosystem Perspective on Service

    OpenAIRE

    Voima, PÀivi; Heinonen, kristina; Strandvik, Tore; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob; Arantola-Hattab, Leena Johanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper conceptualises customer ecosystems, which are defined as systems of actors related to the customer that are relevant concerning a specific service. Moving from provider-driven dyads and service systems to customer ecosystems, the paper uncovers multiple implications for service marketers regarding the definition of the customer, configurations of value units, scope of value formation, as well as relevant actor systems. The paper extends the perspective on service and suggests impli...

  4. Improving Customer Satisfaction: A People CMM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-11

    Work Environment Customer Relationship Management Program 19 Improving Customer Satisfaction: A People CMM Perspective P. Buttles, S. McGraw, D...Professional in 2009 and Customer Care Manager in July 2006. He has a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Pittsburgh and a bachelor of science...conferences throughout the United States and Europe. He has as a bachelor of science degree in management . 4 Improving Customer Satisfaction: A

  5. Performance Indicators in the Customer Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Jeflea Victor

    2011-01-01

    In the early years of direct marketing, much of the growth in revenue took place through the acquisition of new customers. Today, however, markets are more saturated. New customers are gained mainly at the expense of competitors. This makes it more difficult and expensive to acquire new customers. To compensate, many companies are relying on their current customer base to generate the bulk of their profits. They are staying competitive by placing more emphasis on developing new products and s...

  6. Building Customer Value in Relationship Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Slawomir Czarniewski

    2014-01-01

    In business, the customer as capital is not a new idea, but scientific literature has only recently begun to explore the topic in depth. Increasingly, studies are focusing on consumers as customers of enterprises. Attempts to measure the value of customers for the company have a short history and a single approach has not yet been worked out. On the basis of literature on the subject and practical approaches, this study presents several ways to measure the value of customers for the company. ...

  7. 19 CFR 24.14 - Salable Customs forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salable Customs forms. 24.14 Section 24.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.14 Salable Customs forms. (a) Customs forms for sale...

  8. The Eric Cantor Upset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2014-01-01

    US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business......US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business...

  9. The Impact of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Programs on Customer`s Loyalty: An Evidence from Telecommunication Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Irfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan; Muhammad Arslan Sarwar; Binesh Sarwar; Naeem Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    All well reputed organizations know that the key to success lies in their customers. Hence in today’s world, the companies who do not provide value to their customers bring an opportunity for the competitors to jump in and steal these customers. Same rule applies in Telecommunication sector hence this research focuses on finding the impact of service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty programs on customer’s loyalty in Telecommunication sector of Pakistan. All Telecom service provi...

  10. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...

  11. Are women more loyal customers than men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn); V. Melnyk (Valentina); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor almost every company the retention of customers and the creation of customer loyalty is a huge driver of profits. If an organisation were able to increase customer retention by just 1%, such an improvement would have a significant impact on profitability.

  12. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the...

  13. Mass Customization in the Electronics Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    production of standard components in the Far East, and order-based final assembly based on customer orders in various production sites around the world in close customer proximity. The results of applying mass customization principles include a reduction of the overall delivery time for a complete system...

  14. 12 CFR 368.5 - Customer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer information. 368.5 Section 368.5 Banks... GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.5 Customer information. Prior to the execution of a transaction... make reasonable efforts to obtain information concerning: (a) The customer's financial status; (b)...

  15. Trends in Marketing: Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Describes the basics of Customer Relationship Management, a process whereby the customer interacts with the company, the company responds by learning to meet that individual's needs, and the customer is more likely to become loyal. Suggests how marketing students can learn the fundamentals of it. (JOW)

  16. Administrative jurisdiction of customs of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    DOROSH M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The author describes the customs authorities as subjects of administrative jurisdiction, serving a variety of executive power. The customs authorities of Ukraine in nature play an important role in the law enforcement activities of the state. There is a constant struggle against customs violations.

  17. China Builds Its "Intelligent" Modern Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China General Administration of Customs (CAAC) has started to fully implement the second step of building the modem customs system. Relying on risk management system, it has realized an "intelligent" customs supervision system in practice.It is known that the annual number of import and export deals in China is over 100 mil-

  18. Trends in Marketing: Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Describes the basics of Customer Relationship Management, a process whereby the customer interacts with the company, the company responds by learning to meet that individual's needs, and the customer is more likely to become loyal. Suggests how marketing students can learn the fundamentals of it. (JOW)

  19. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...

  20. An Overview of Customer Satisfaction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard

    This document is a report on how California community colleges can incorporate customer satisfaction models and theories from business to better serve students. Emphasis is given to two levels of customer satisfaction: macro- and micro-models. Macro-models look at how customer satisfaction relates to other elements or priorities of community…