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Sample records for custom dna array

  1. DNA electrophoresis through microlithographic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevick, E.M.; Williams, D.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Electrophoresis is one of the most widely used techniques in biochemistry and genetics for size-separating charged molecular chains such as DNA or synthetic polyelectrolytes. The separation is achieved by driving the chains through a gel with an external electric field. As a result of the field and the obstacles that the medium provides, the chains have different mobilities and are physically separated after a given process time. The macroscopically observed mobility scales inversely with chain size: small molecules move through the medium quickly while larger molecules move more slowly. However, electrophoresis remains a tool that has yet to be optimised for most efficient size separation of polyelectrolytes, particularly large polyelectrolytes, e.g. DNA in excess of 30-50 kbp. Microlithographic arrays etched with an ordered pattern of obstacles provide an attractive alternative to gel media and provide wider avenues for size separation of polyelectrolytes and promote a better understanding of the separation process. Its advantages over gels are (1) the ordered array is durable and can be re-used, (2) the array morphology is ordered and can be standardized for specific separation, and (3) calibration with a marker polyelectrolyte is not required as the array is reproduced to high precision. Most importantly, the array geometry can be graduated along the chip so as to expand the size-dependent regime over larger chain lengths and postpone saturation. In order to predict the effect of obstacles upon the chain-length dependence in mobility and hence, size separation, we study the dynamics of single chains using theory and simulation. We present recent work describing: 1) the release kinetics of a single DNA molecule hooked around a point, frictionless obstacle and in both weak and strong field limits, 2) the mobility of a chain impinging upon point obstacles in an ordered array of obstacles, demonstrating the wide range of interactions possible between the chain and

  2. Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Benlloch, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the internationa...

  3. DNA Array-Based Gene Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Provenzano, Maurizio; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Pilati, Pierluigi; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease in most respects, including its cellularity, different genetic alterations, and diverse clinical behaviors. Traditional molecular analyses are reductionist, assessing only 1 or a few genes at a time, thus working with a biologic model too specific and limited to confront a process whose clinical outcome is likely to be governed by the combined influence of many genes. The potential of functional genomics is enormous, because for each experiment, thousands of relevant observations can be made simultaneously. Accordingly, DNA array, like other high-throughput technologies, might catalyze and ultimately accelerate the development of knowledge in tumor cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of DNA array technology in cancer research has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to carcinogenesis, tumor aggressiveness, and sensitivity to antiblastic agents. Given the revolutionary implications that the use of this technology might have in the clinical management of patients with cancer, principles of DNA array-based tumor gene profiling need to be clearly understood for the data to be correctly interpreted and appreciated. In the present work, we discuss the technical features characterizing this powerful laboratory tool and review the applications so far described in the field of oncology. PMID:15621987

  4. Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Benlloch, Sara; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Ghoussaini, Maya; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Dadaev, Tokhir; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Hayes, Richard B; Pharoah, Paul DP; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet; Ostrander, Elaine A; Signorello, Lisa B; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda B; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Dunning, Alison; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Maranian, Melanie J; Ahmed, Shahana; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Sawyer, Emma J; Morgan, Angela; Dearnaley, David P; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Van As, Nicholas J; Woodhouse, J; Thompson, Alan; Dudderidge, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Cox, Angela; Southey, Melissa; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Aly, Markus; Adolfsson, Jan; Xu, Jiangfeng; Zheng, Siqun; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Diver, W Ryan; Gaudet, Mia M; Stern, Mariana; Corral, Roman; Joshi, Amit D; Shahabi, Ahva; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo J; Auvinen, Anssi; Virtamo, Jarmo; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Røder, Andreas; Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Siddiq, Afshan; FitzGerald, Liesel; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika; Karyadi, Danielle; Blot, William J; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; McDonnell, Shannon K; Rinckleb, Antje; Drake, Bettina; Colditz, Graham; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Stephenson, Robert A; Teerlink, Craig; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Lose, Felicity; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Maia, Sofia; Paulo, Paula; Lange, Ethan; Cooney, Kathleen A; Antoniou, Antonis; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Easton, Douglas F

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ~30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies. PMID:23535732

  5. Concentrating and labeling genomic DNA in a nanofluidic array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie, Rodolphe; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Mir, Kalim U.

    2018-01-01

    , however, hinder the polymerase activity. We demonstrate a device and a protocol for the enzymatic labeling of genomic DNA arranged in a dense array of single molecules without attaching the enzyme or the DNA to a surface. DNA molecules accumulate in a dense array of pits embedded within a nanoslit due...... to entropic trapping. We then perform ϕ29 polymerase extension from single-strand nicks created on the trapped molecules to incorporate fluorescent nucleotides into the DNA. The array of entropic traps can be loaded with λ-DNA molecules to more than 90% of capacity at a flow rate of 10 pL min-1. The final...

  6. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  7. Tilted hexagonal post arrays: DNA electrophoresis in anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Dorfman, Kevin D

    2014-02-01

    Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show that DNA electrophoresis in a hexagonal array of micron-sized posts changes qualitatively when the applied electric field vector is not coincident with the lattice vectors of the array. DNA electrophoresis in such "tilted" post arrays is superior to the standard "un-tilted" approach; while the time required to achieve a resolution of unity in a tilted post array is similar to an un-tilted array at a low-electric field strengths, this time (i) decreases exponentially with electric field strength in a tilted array and (ii) increases exponentially with electric field strength in an un-tilted array. Although the DNA dynamics in a post array are complicated, the electrophoretic mobility results indicate that the "free path," i.e. the average distance of ballistic trajectories of point-sized particles launched from random positions in the unit cell until they intersect the next post, is a useful proxy for the detailed DNA trajectories. The analysis of the free path reveals a fundamental connection between anisotropy of the medium and DNA transport therein that goes beyond simply improving the separation device. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. High speed vision processor with reconfigurable processing element array based on full-custom distributed memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Shi, Cong; Qin, Qi; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid vision processor based on a compact full-custom distributed memory for near-sensor high-speed image processing is proposed. The proposed processor consists of a reconfigurable processing element (PE) array, a row processor (RP) array, and a dual-core microprocessor. The PE array includes two-dimensional processing elements with a compact full-custom distributed memory. It supports real-time reconfiguration between the PE array and the self-organized map (SOM) neural network. The vision processor is fabricated using a 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The circuit area of the distributed memory is reduced markedly into 1/3 of that of the conventional memory so that the circuit area of the vision processor is reduced by 44.2%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves correct functions.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High Density DNA Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Podgornik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Densely packed DNA arrays exhibit hexagonal and orthorhombic local packings, as well as a weakly first order transition between them. While we have some understanding of the interactions between DNA molecules in aqueous ionic solutions, the structural details of its ordered phases and the mechanism governing the respective phase transitions between them remains less well understood. Since at high DNA densities, i.e., small interaxial spacings, one can neither neglect the atomic details of the interacting macromolecular surfaces nor the atomic details of the intervening ionic solution, the atomistic resolution is a sine qua non to properly describe and analyze the interactions between DNA molecules. In fact, in order to properly understand the details of the observed osmotic equation of state, one needs to implement multiple levels of organization, spanning the range from the molecular order of DNA itself, the possible ordering of counterions, and then all the way to the induced molecular ordering of the aqueous solvent, all coupled together by electrostatic, steric, thermal and direct hydrogen-bonding interactions. Multiscale simulations therefore appear as singularly suited to connect the microscopic details of this system with its macroscopic thermodynamic behavior. We review the details of the simulation of dense atomistically resolved DNA arrays with different packing symmetries and the ensuing osmotic equation of state obtained by enclosing a DNA array in a monovalent salt and multivalent (spermidine counterions within a solvent permeable membrane, mimicking the behavior of DNA arrays subjected to external osmotic stress. By varying the DNA density, the local packing symmetry, and the counterion type, we are able to analyze the osmotic equation of state together with the full structural characterization of the DNA subphase, the counterion distribution and the solvent structural order in terms of its different order parameters and

  10. Custom ceramic microchannel-cooled array for high-power fiber-coupled application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Jeremy; Feeler, Ryan; Stephens, Ed

    2018-03-01

    A low-SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) diode array has been developed for a high-power fiber-coupled application. High efficiency ( 65%) diodes enable high optical powers while minimizing thermal losses. A large amount of waste heat is still generated and must be extracted. Custom ceramic microchannel-coolers (MCCs) are used to dissipate the waste heat. The custom ceramic MCC was designed to accommodate long cavity length diodes and micro-lenses. The coolers provide similar thermal performance as copper MCCs however they are not susceptible to erosion and can be cooled with standard filtered water. The custom ceramic micro-channel cooled array was designed to be a form/fit replacement for an existing copperbased solution. Each array consisted of three-vertically stacked MCCs with 4 mm CL, 976 nm diodes and beamshaping micro-optics. The erosion and corrosion resistance of ceramic array is intended to mitigate the risk of copperbased MCC corrosion failures. Elimination of the water delivery requirements (pH, resistivity and dissolved oxygen control) further reduces the system SWaP while maintaining reliability. The arrays were fabricated and fully characterized. This work discusses the advantages of the ceramic MCC technology and describes the design parameters that were tailored for the fiber-coupled application. Additional configuration options (form/fit, micro-lensing, alternate coolants, etc.) and on-going design improvements are also discussed.

  11. Optimised 'on demand' protein arraying from DNA by cell free expression with the 'DNA to Protein Array' (DAPA) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronny; Cook, Elizabeth A; Kastelic, Damjana; Taussig, Michael J; Stoevesandt, Oda

    2013-08-02

    We have previously described a protein arraying process based on cell free expression from DNA template arrays (DNA Array to Protein Array, DAPA). Here, we have investigated the influence of different array support coatings (Ni-NTA, Epoxy, 3D-Epoxy and Polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA)). Their optimal combination yields an increased amount of detected protein and an optimised spot morphology on the resulting protein array compared to the previously published protocol. The specificity of protein capture was improved using a tag-specific capture antibody on a protein repellent surface coating. The conditions for protein expression were optimised to yield the maximum amount of protein or the best detection results using specific monoclonal antibodies or a scaffold binder against the expressed targets. The optimised DAPA system was able to increase by threefold the expression of a representative model protein while conserving recognition by a specific antibody. The amount of expressed protein in DAPA was comparable to those of classically spotted protein arrays. Reaction conditions can be tailored to suit the application of interest. DAPA represents a cost effective, easy and convenient way of producing protein arrays on demand. The reported work is expected to facilitate the application of DAPA for personalized medicine and screening purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On the Adsorption of DNA Origami Nanostructures in Nanohole Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassat, Katharina; Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Bürger, Julius; Hanke, Marcel; Doostdar, Mahnaz; Lindner, Jörg K N; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2018-05-22

    DNA origami nanostructures are versatile substrates for the controlled arrangement of molecular capture sites with nanometer precision and thus have many promising applications in single-molecule bioanalysis. Here, we investigate the adsorption of DNA origami nanostructures in nanohole arrays which represent an important class of biosensors and may benefit from the incorporation of DNA origami-based molecular probes. Nanoholes with well-defined diameter that enable the adsorption of single DNA origami triangles are fabricated in Au films on Si wafers by nanosphere lithography. The efficiency of directed DNA origami adsorption on the exposed SiO 2 areas at the bottoms of the nanoholes is evaluated in dependence of various parameters, i.e., Mg 2+ and DNA origami concentrations, buffer strength, adsorption time, and nanohole diameter. We observe that the buffer strength has a surprisingly strong effect on DNA origami adsorption in the nanoholes and that multiple DNA origami triangles with 120 nm edge length can adsorb in nanoholes as small as 120 nm in diameter. We attribute the latter observation to the low lateral mobility of once adsorbed DNA origami on the SiO 2 surface, in combination with parasitic adsorption to the Au film. Although parasitic adsorption can be suppressed by modifying the Au film with a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer, the limited surface mobility of the adsorbed DNA origami still leads to poor localization accuracy in the nanoholes and results in many DNA origami crossing the boundary to the Au film even under optimized conditions. We discuss possible ways to minimize this effect by varying the composition of the adsorption buffer, employing different fabrication conditions, or using other substrate materials for nanohole array fabrication.

  13. High Performance Systolic Array Core Architecture Design for DNA Sequencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Nurdin Dayana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high performance systolic array (SA core architecture design for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA sequencer. The core implements the affine gap penalty score Smith-Waterman (SW algorithm. This time-consuming local alignment algorithm guarantees optimal alignment between DNA sequences, but it requires quadratic computation time when performed on standard desktop computers. The use of linear SA decreases the time complexity from quadratic to linear. In addition, with the exponential growth of DNA databases, the SA architecture is used to overcome the timing issue. In this work, the SW algorithm has been captured using Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL and simulated using Xilinx ISIM simulator. The proposed design has been implemented in Xilinx Virtex -6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and improved in the core area by 90% reduction.

  14. Method and apparatus for synthesis of arrays of DNA probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrina, Francesco; Sussman, Michael R.; Blattner, Frederick R.; Singh-Gasson, Sangeet; Green, Roland

    2002-04-23

    The synthesis of arrays of DNA probes sequences, polypeptides, and the like is carried out using a patterning process on an active surface of a substrate. An image is projected onto the active surface of the substrate utilizing an image former that includes a light source that provides light to a micromirror device comprising an array of electronically addressable micromirrors, each of which can be selectively tilted between one of at least two positions. Projection optics receives the light reflected from the micromirrors along an optical axis and precisely images the micromirrors onto the active surface of the substrate, which may be used to activate the surface of the substrate. The first level of bases may then be applied to the substrate, followed by development steps, and subsequent exposure of the substrate utilizing a different pattern of micromirrors, with further repeats until the elements of a two dimensional array on the substrate surface have an appropriate base bound thereto. The micromirror array can be controlled in conjunction with a DNA synthesizer supplying appropriate reagents to a flow cell containing the active substrate to control the sequencing of images presented by the micromirror array in coordination of the reagents provided to the substrate.

  15. Controlled Nucleation and Growth of DNA Tile Arrays within Prescribed DNA Origami Frames and Their Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Controlled nucleation of nanoscale building blocks by geometrically defined seeds implanted in DNA nanoscaffolds represents a unique strategy to study and understand the dynamic processes of molecular self-assembly. Here we utilize a two-dimensional DNA origami frame with a hollow interior and selectively positioned DNA hybridization seeds to control the self-assembly of DNA tile building blocks, where the small DNA tiles are directed to fill the interior of the frame through prescribed sticky end interactions. This design facilitates the construction of DNA origami/array hybrids that adopt the overall shape and dimensions of the origami frame, forming a 2D array in the core consisting of a large number of simple repeating DNA tiles. The formation of the origami/array hybrid was characterized with atomic force microscopy, and the nucleation dynamics were monitored by serial AFM scanning and fluorescence spectroscopy, which revealed faster kinetics of growth within the frame as compared to growth without the presence of a frame. Our study provides insight into the fundamental behavior of DNA-based self-assembling systems. PMID:24575893

  16. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Kang, Hyun Min; Ding, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands...... dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping...

  17. Design and Assembly of DNA Nano-Objects and 2D DNA Origami Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyan

    DNA, which plays a central role in biology as the carrier of genetic information, is also an excellent candidate for structural nanotechnology. Researches have proven that a variety of complicated DNA assemblies, such as objects, 2D & 3D crystals, and nanomechanical devices, can be fabricated through the combination of robust branched DNA motifs and sticky ends. This dissertation focuses on the design and construction of DNA nano--objects and 2D DNA origami arrays. In this dissertation, we first describe the formation of a triangular species that has four strands per edge, held together by PX interactions. We demonstrate by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that we can combine a partial triangle with other strands to form a robust four--stranded molecule. By combining them with a novel three--domain molecule, we also demonstrate by AFM that these triangles can be self--assembled into a linear array. Second, we demonstrate our attempts to design and self--assemble 2D DNA origami arrays using several different strategies. Specifically, we introduce the self--assembly of 2D DNA origami lattices using a symmetric cross--like design. This design strategy resulted in a well--ordered woven latticework array with edge dimensions of 2--3 mum. This size is likely to be large enough to connect bottom-up methods of patterning with top--down approaches. Third, we illustrate the design and construction of DNA nano--objects for exploring the substrate preferences of topoisomerase (topo) II. We designed and fabricated four double rhombus--like DNA molecules, each of which contains a different conformation of crossover in the middle, as possible substrates to establish the structural preferences for topo II. We characterized the formation of each substrate molecule by gel electrophoresis. Finally, we study the effect of M13 DNA knotting on the formation of the DNA origami tiles. We demonstrate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that knotted M13

  18. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Voight

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands of loci with promising but not yet compelling association evidence. To establish association at additional loci and to characterize the genome-wide significant loci by fine-mapping, we designed the "Metabochip," a custom genotyping array that assays nearly 200,000 SNP markers. Here, we describe the Metabochip and its component SNP sets, evaluate its performance in capturing variation across the allele-frequency spectrum, describe solutions to methodological challenges commonly encountered in its analysis, and evaluate its performance as a platform for genotype imputation. The metabochip achieves dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping and sequencing studies and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of complex human diseases and traits.

  19. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yick Ching Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01, and rice (p-value < 0.01 arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01 throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01 of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield.

  20. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yick Ching; Kwong, Qi Bin; Lee, Heng Leng; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA) exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01), and rice (p-value < 0.01) arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01) throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing) data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01) of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield. PMID:27600348

  1. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huali; Wei, Min; Wang, Jinshui

    2013-04-10

    The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  2. Colloidal silica films for high-capacity DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Marc Irving

    The human genome project has greatly expanded the amount of genetic information available to researchers, but before this vast new source of data can be fully utilized, techniques for rapid, large-scale analysis of DNA and RNA must continue to develop. DNA arrays have emerged as a powerful new technology for analyzing genomic samples in a highly parallel format. The detection sensitivity of these arrays is dependent on the quantity and density of immobilized probe molecules. We have investigated substrates with a porous, "three-dimensional" surface layer as a means of increasing the surface area available for the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes, thereby increasing the number of available probes and the amount of detectable bound target. Porous colloidal silica films were created by two techniques. In the first approach, films were deposited by spin-coating silica colloid suspensions onto flat glass substrates, with the pores being formed by the natural voids between the solid particles (typically 23nm pores, 35% porosity). In the second approach, latex particles were co-deposited with the silica and then pyrolyzed, creating films with larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area. For 0.3 mum films, enhancements of eight to ten-fold and 12- to 14-fold were achieved with the pure silica films and the films "templated" with polymer latex, respectively. In gene expression assays for up to 7,000 genes using complex biological samples, the high-capacity films provided enhanced signals and performed equivalently or better than planar glass on all other functional measures, confirming that colloidal silica films are a promising platform for high-capacity DNA arrays. We have also investigated the kinetics of hybridization on planar glass and high-capacity substrates. Adsorption on planar arrays is similar to ideal Langmuir-type adsorption, although with an "overshoot" at high solution concentration. Hybridization on high-capacity films is

  3. A Customized DNA Microarray for Microbial Source Tracking ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is estimated that more than 160, 000 miles of rivers and streams in the United States are impaired due to the presence of waterborne pathogens. These pathogens typically originate from human and other animal fecal pollution sources; therefore, a rapid microbial source tracking (MST) method is needed to facilitate water quality assessment and impaired water remediation. We report a novel qualitative DNA microarray technology consisting of 453 probes for the detection of general fecal and host-associated bacteria, viruses, antibiotic resistance, and other environmentally relevant genetic indicators. A novel data normalization and reduction approach is also presented to help alleviate false positives often associated with high-density microarray applications. To evaluate the performance of the approach, DNA and cDNA was isolated from swine, cattle, duck, goose and gull fecal reference samples, as well as soiled poultry liter and raw municipal sewage. Based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of results, findings suggest that the novel microarray approach may be useful for pathogen detection and identification of fecal contamination in recreational waters. The ability to simultaneously detect a large collection of environmentally important genetic indicators in a single test has the potential to provide water quality managers with a wide range of information in a short period of time. Future research is warranted to measure microarray performance i

  4. Membrane-Assisted Growth of DNA Origami Nanostructure Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes fulfill many important tasks within living organisms. In addition to separating cellular volumes, membranes confine the space available to membrane-associated proteins to two dimensions (2D), which greatly increases their probability to interact with each other and assemble into multiprotein complexes. We here employed two DNA origami structures functionalized with cholesterol moieties as membrane anchors—a three-layered rectangular block and a Y-shaped DNA structure—to mimic membrane-assisted assembly into hierarchical superstructures on supported lipid bilayers and small unilamellar vesicles. As designed, the DNA constructs adhered to the lipid bilayers mediated by the cholesterol anchors and diffused freely in 2D with diffusion coefficients depending on their size and number of cholesterol modifications. Different sets of multimerization oligonucleotides added to bilayer-bound origami block structures induced the growth of either linear polymers or two-dimensional lattices on the membrane. Y-shaped DNA origami structures associated into triskelion homotrimers and further assembled into weakly ordered arrays of hexagons and pentagons, which resembled the geometry of clathrin-coated pits. Our results demonstrate the potential to realize artificial self-assembling systems that mimic the hierarchical formation of polyhedral lattices on cytoplasmic membranes. PMID:25734977

  5. Membrane-assisted growth of DNA origami nanostructure arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, Samet; Kempter, Susanne; List, Jonathan; Xing, Yongzheng; Bae, Wooli; Schiffels, Daniel; Shih, William M; Simmel, Friedrich C; Liedl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes fulfill many important tasks within living organisms. In addition to separating cellular volumes, membranes confine the space available to membrane-associated proteins to two dimensions (2D), which greatly increases their probability to interact with each other and assemble into multiprotein complexes. We here employed two DNA origami structures functionalized with cholesterol moieties as membrane anchors--a three-layered rectangular block and a Y-shaped DNA structure--to mimic membrane-assisted assembly into hierarchical superstructures on supported lipid bilayers and small unilamellar vesicles. As designed, the DNA constructs adhered to the lipid bilayers mediated by the cholesterol anchors and diffused freely in 2D with diffusion coefficients depending on their size and number of cholesterol modifications. Different sets of multimerization oligonucleotides added to bilayer-bound origami block structures induced the growth of either linear polymers or two-dimensional lattices on the membrane. Y-shaped DNA origami structures associated into triskelion homotrimers and further assembled into weakly ordered arrays of hexagons and pentagons, which resembled the geometry of clathrin-coated pits. Our results demonstrate the potential to realize artificial self-assembling systems that mimic the hierarchical formation of polyhedral lattices on cytoplasmic membranes.

  6. Customization of the acoustic field produced by a piezoelectric array through interelement delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Barbone, Paul E.; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2008-01-01

    A method for producing a prescribed acoustic pressure field from a piezoelectric array was investigated. The array consisted of 170 elements placed on the inner surface of a 15 cm radius spherical cap. Each element was independently driven by using individual pulsers each capable of generating 1.2 kV. Acoustic field customization was achieved by independently controlling the time when each element was excited. The set of time delays necessary to produce a particular acoustic field was determined by using an optimization scheme. The acoustic field at the focal plane was simulated by using the angular spectrum method, and the optimization searched for the time delays that minimized the least squared difference between the magnitudes of the simulated and desired pressure fields. The acoustic field was shaped in two different ways: the −6 dB focal width was increased to different desired widths and the ring-shaped pressure distributions of various prescribed diameters were produced. For both cases, the set of delays resulting from the respective optimization schemes were confirmed to yield the desired pressure distributions by using simulations and measurements. The simulations, however, predicted peak positive pressures roughly half those obtained from the measurements, which was attributed to the exclusion of nonlinearity in the simulations. PMID:18537369

  7. A 4×8-Gbps VCSEL array driver ASIC and integration with a custom array transmitter module for the LHC front-end transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Di; Liu, Chonghan; Chen, Jinghong; Chramowicz, John; Gong, Datao; He, Huiqin; Hou, Suen; Liu, Tiankuan; Prosser, Alan; Teng, Ping-Kun; Xiang, Annie C.; Xiao, Le; Ye, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and experiment results of a 4×8-Gbps Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array driver ASIC with the adjustable active-shunt peaking technique and the novel balanced output structure under the Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process, and a custom array optical transmitter module, featuring a compact size of 10 mm×15 mm×5.3 mm. Both the array driver ASIC and the module have been fully tested after integration as a complete parallel transmitter. Optical eye diagram of each channel passes the eye mask at 8 Gbps/ch with adjacent channel working simultaneously with a power consumption of 150 mW/ch. The optical transmission of Bit-Error Rate (BER) less than 10E-12 is achieved at an aggregated data rate of 4×8-Gbps. - Highlights: • An anode-driven VCSEL Array driver ASIC with the configurable active-shunt peaking technique in pre-driving stages. • A novel full-differential balanced output structure is used to minimize the noise and crosstalk from the power. • A custom array optical transmitter module with custom low-cost reliable alignment method.

  8. A 4×8-Gbps VCSEL array driver ASIC and integration with a custom array transmitter module for the LHC front-end transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Di [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026 (China); Liu, Chonghan [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Chen, Jinghong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Real-Time Systems Engineering Department, Fermi National Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Gong, Datao [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); He, Huiqin [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Hou, Suen [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nangang 11529, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tiankuan [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Prosser, Alan [Real-Time Systems Engineering Department, Fermi National Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Teng, Ping-Kun [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nangang 11529, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Xiang, Annie C. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Xiao, Le [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Ye, Jingbo [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and experiment results of a 4×8-Gbps Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array driver ASIC with the adjustable active-shunt peaking technique and the novel balanced output structure under the Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process, and a custom array optical transmitter module, featuring a compact size of 10 mm×15 mm×5.3 mm. Both the array driver ASIC and the module have been fully tested after integration as a complete parallel transmitter. Optical eye diagram of each channel passes the eye mask at 8 Gbps/ch with adjacent channel working simultaneously with a power consumption of 150 mW/ch. The optical transmission of Bit-Error Rate (BER) less than 10E-12 is achieved at an aggregated data rate of 4×8-Gbps. - Highlights: • An anode-driven VCSEL Array driver ASIC with the configurable active-shunt peaking technique in pre-driving stages. • A novel full-differential balanced output structure is used to minimize the noise and crosstalk from the power. • A custom array optical transmitter module with custom low-cost reliable alignment method.

  9. DNA arrays : methods and protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 170

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rampal, Jang B

    2001-01-01

    "In DNA Arrays: Methods and Protocols, Jang Rampal and a authoritative panel of researchers, engineers, and technologists explain in detail how to design and construct DNA microarrays, as well as how to...

  10. Identification of DNA methylation biomarkers from Infinium arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Emes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications of DNA, such as cytosine methylation are differentially abundant in diseases such as cancer. A goal for clinical research is finding sites that are differentially methylated between groups of samples to act as potential biomarkers for disease outcome. However, clinical samples are often limited in availability, represent a heterogeneous collection of cells or are of uncertain clinical class. Array based methods for identification of methylation provide a cost effective method to survey a proportion of the methylome at single base resolution. The Illumina Infinium array has become a popular and reliable high throughput method in this field and are proving useful in the identification of biomarkers for disease. Here, we compare a commonly used statistical test with a new intuitive and flexible computational approach to quickly detect differentially methylated sites. The method rapidly identifies and ranks candidate lists with greatest inter-group variability whilst controlling for intra-group variability. Intuitive and biologically relevant filters can be imposed to quickly identify sites and genes of interest.

  11. Protocols for 16S rDNA Array Analyses of Microbial Communities by Sequence-Specific Labeling of DNA Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Rudi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of complex microbial communities are becoming increasingly important. Bottlenecks in these analyses, however, are the tools to actually describe the biodiversity. Novel protocols for DNA array-based analyses of microbial communities are presented. In these protocols, the specificity obtained by sequence-specific labeling of DNA probes is combined with the possibility of detecting several different probes simultaneously by DNA array hybridization. The gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA was chosen as the target in these analyses. This gene contains both universally conserved regions and regions with relatively high variability. The universally conserved regions are used for PCR amplification primers, while the variable regions are used for the specific probes. Protocols are presented for DNA purification, probe construction, probe labeling, and DNA array hybridizations.

  12. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom J. Whitaker

    2008-07-11

    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the

  13. A rapid method for screening arrayed plasmid cDNA library by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yingchun; Zhang Kaitai; Wu Dechang; Li Gang; Xiang Xiaoqiong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a PCR-based method for rapid and effective screening of arrayed plasmid cDNA library. Methods: The plasmid cDNA library was arrayed and screened by PCR with a particular set of primers. Results: Four positive clones were obtained through about one week. Conclusion: This method can be applied to screening not only normal cDNA clones, but also cDNA clones-containing small size fragments. This method offers significant advantages over traditional screening method in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency

  14. Development of Gene Expression Fingerprints for Identification of Environmental Contaminants Using cDNA Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inouye, L

    2004-01-01

    ...) to develop cDNA array-based assays that map gene expression from contaminant exposures. Results substantiate that distinct gene expression profiles exist for major contaminant classes such as PARs, PCBs, and PCDD/Fs...

  15. Simultaneous Profiling of DNA Mutation and Methylation by Melting Analysis Using Magnetoresistive Biosensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Dahl, Christina

    2017-01-01

    specificity. Genomic (mutation) or bisulphite-treated (methylation) DNA is amplified using nondiscriminatory primers, and the amplicons are then hybridized to a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor array followed by melting curve measurements. The GMR biosensor platform offers scalable multiplexed detection...

  16. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  17. Characterization of Dnmt1 Binding and DNA Methylation on Nucleosomes and Nucleosomal Arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schrader

    Full Text Available The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes and the organisation into higher order structures of chromatin limits the access of sequence specific DNA binding factors to DNA. In cells, DNA methylation is preferentially occuring in the linker region of nucleosomes, suggesting a structural impact of chromatin on DNA methylation. These observations raise the question whether DNA methyltransferases are capable to recognize the nucleosomal substrates and to modify the packaged DNA. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of nucleosome binding and nucleosomal DNA methylation by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Our binding studies show that Dnmt1 has a DNA length sensing activity, binding cooperatively to DNA, and requiring a minimal DNA length of 20 bp. Dnmt1 needs linker DNA to bind to nucleosomes and most efficiently recognizes nucleosomes with symmetric DNA linkers. Footprinting experiments reveal that Dnmt1 binds to both DNA linkers exiting the nucleosome core. The binding pattern correlates with the efficient methylation of DNA linkers. However, the enzyme lacks the ability to methylate nucleosomal CpG sites on mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, unless chromatin remodeling enzymes create a dynamic chromatin state. In addition, our results show that Dnmt1 functionally interacts with specific chromatin remodeling enzymes to enable complete methylation of hemi-methylated DNA in chromatin.

  18. Increasing the specificity and function of DNA microarrays by processing arrays at different stringencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Martin; Petersen, Jesper; Poulsen, Lena

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays have for a decade been the only platform for genome-wide analysis and have provided a wealth of information about living organisms. DNA microarrays are processed today under one condition only, which puts large demands on assay development because all probes on the array need to f...

  19. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olumi, Aria F; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the internationa...

  20. Concentrating Genomic Length DNA in a Microfabricated Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Abrams, Ezra S.; Boles, T. Christian

    2015-01-01

    the DNA molecules to minimal coil size using polyethylene glycol (PEG) derived depletion forces. We map out the sweet spot, where concentration occurs, as a function of PEG concentration and flow speed using a combination of theoretical analysis and experiment. Purification of DNA from enzymatic reactions...

  1. Detecting single DNA copy number variations in complex genomes using one nanogram of starting DNA and BAC-array CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Valent, Alexander; Soularue, Pascal; Perot, Christine; Inda, Maria Mar; Receveur, Aline; Smaïli, Sadek; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Bénard, Jean; Bernheim, Alain; Gidrol, Xavier; Danglot, Gisèle

    2004-07-29

    Comparative genomic hybridization to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-arrays (array-CGH) is a highly efficient technique, allowing the simultaneous measurement of genomic DNA copy number at hundreds or thousands of loci, and the reliable detection of local one-copy-level variations. We report a genome-wide amplification method allowing the same measurement sensitivity, using 1 ng of starting genomic DNA, instead of the classical 1 microg usually necessary. Using a discrete series of DNA fragments, we defined the parameters adapted to the most faithful ligation-mediated PCR amplification and the limits of the technique. The optimized protocol allows a 3000-fold DNA amplification, retaining the quantitative characteristics of the initial genome. Validation of the amplification procedure, using DNA from 10 tumour cell lines hybridized to BAC-arrays of 1500 spots, showed almost perfectly superimposed ratios for the non-amplified and amplified DNAs. Correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.99 were observed for regions of low-copy-level variations and all regions, respectively (including in vivo amplified oncogenes). Finally, labelling DNA using two nucleotides bearing the same fluorophore led to a significant increase in reproducibility and to the correct detection of one-copy gain or loss in >90% of the analysed data, even for pseudotriploid tumour genomes.

  2. Molecular identification of common Salmonella serovars using multiplex DNA sensor-based suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Muhsin; Carter-Conger, Jacqueline; Gao, Ning; Gilmore, David F; Ricke, Steven C; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of major foodborne pathogens and the leading cause of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. It is critical to develop a sensitive and rapid detection assay that can identify Salmonella to ensure food safety. In this study, a DNA sensor-based suspension array system of high multiplexing ability was developed to identify eight Salmonella serovars commonly associated with foodborne outbreaks to the serotype level. Each DNA sensor was prepared by activating pre-encoded microspheres with oligonucleotide probes that are targeting virulence genes and serovar-specific regions. The mixture of 12 different types of DNA sensors were loaded into a 96-well microplate and used as a 12-plex DNA sensor array platform. DNA isolated from Salmonella was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and the presence of Salmonella was determined by reading fluorescent signals from hybridization between probes on DNA sensors and fluorescently labeled target DNA using the Bio-Plex® system. The developed multiplex array was able to detect synthetic DNA at the concentration as low as 100 fM and various Salmonella serovars as low as 100 CFU/mL within 1 h post-PCR. Sensitivity of this assay was further improved to 1 CFU/mL with 6-h enrichment. The array system also correctly and specifically identified serotype of tested Salmonella strains without any cross-reactivity with other common foodborne pathogens. Our results indicate the developed DNA sensor suspension array can be a rapid and reliable high-throughput method for simultaneous detection and molecular identification of common Salmonella serotypes.

  3. Fractal assembly of micrometre-scale DNA origami arrays with arbitrary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-12-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures enable nanometre-precise patterning that can be used to create programmable molecular machines and arrays of functional materials. DNA origami is particularly versatile in this context because each DNA strand in the origami nanostructure occupies a unique position and can serve as a uniquely addressable pixel. However, the scale of such structures has been limited to about 0.05 square micrometres, hindering applications that demand a larger layout and integration with more conventional patterning methods. Hierarchical multistage assembly of simple sets of tiles can in principle overcome this limitation, but so far has not been sufficiently robust to enable successful implementation of larger structures using DNA origami tiles. Here we show that by using simple local assembly rules that are modified and applied recursively throughout a hierarchical, multistage assembly process, a small and constant set of unique DNA strands can be used to create DNA origami arrays of increasing size and with arbitrary patterns. We illustrate this method, which we term ‘fractal assembly’, by producing DNA origami arrays with sizes of up to 0.5 square micrometres and with up to 8,704 pixels, allowing us to render images such as the Mona Lisa and a rooster. We find that self-assembly of the tiles into arrays is unaffected by changes in surface patterns on the tiles, and that the yield of the fractal assembly process corresponds to about 0.95m - 1 for arrays containing m tiles. When used in conjunction with a software tool that we developed that converts an arbitrary pattern into DNA sequences and experimental protocols, our assembly method is readily accessible and will facilitate the construction of sophisticated materials and devices with sizes similar to that of a bacterium using DNA nanostructures.

  4. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  5. A 100 MS/s 9 bit 0.43 mW SAR ADC with custom capacitor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Wang; Zemin, Feng; Rongjin, Xu; Chixiao, Chen; Fan, Ye; Jun, Xu; Junyan, Ren

    2016-05-01

    A low power 9 bit 100 MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) with custom capacitor array is presented. A brand-new 3-D MOM unit capacitor is used as the basic capacitor cell of this capacitor array. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1 fF. Besides, the advanced capacitor array structure and switch mode decrease the power consumption a lot. To verify the effectiveness of this low power design, the 9 bit 100 MS/s SAR ADC is implemented in TSMC IP9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The measurement results demonstrate that this design achieves an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 7.4 bit, a signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 46.40 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 62.31 dB at 100 MS/s with 1 MHz input. The SAR ADC core occupies an area of 0.030 mm2 and consumes 0.43 mW under a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The figure of merit (FOM) of the SAR ADC achieves 23.75 fJ/conv. Project supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA014101).

  6. Fabrication of DNA nanotubes with an array of exterior magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Adele; Zarrabi, Ali; Gill, Pooria

    2017-10-01

    Described here a methodology for arraying of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the surface of DNA nanotubes (DNTs). Positioning of magnetic nanoparticles at exterior surface of DNTs were shaped after self-assembling of oligonucleotide staples within an M13mp18 DNA scaffold via an origami process. The staples were partially labeled with biotin to be arrayed at the surface of DNTs. Gel retardation assay of the DNTs carrying magnetic nanoparticles indicated a reversely behavioral electrophoretic movement in comparison to the nanotubes have been demonstrated previously. Also, high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed positioning magnetic nanoparticles at the exterior surface of DNTs, correctly. Ultrastructural characteristics of these DNA nanotubes using atomic force microscopy demonstrated topographic heights on their surfaces formed through positioning of magnetic nanoparticles outside the tubules. This nanoarchitecture would be potential for multiple arraying of nanoparticles that those be useful as functionalized chimeric nanocarriers for developing novel nanodrugs and nanobiosensors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. CGH and SNP array using DNA extracted from fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon Ruth N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of nucleic acids is limited by the availability of archival specimens and the quality and amount of the extracted material. Archived cytogenetic preparations are stored in many laboratories and are a potential source of total genomic DNA for array karyotyping and other applications. Array CGH using DNA from fixed cytogenetic preparations has been described, but it is not known whether it can be used for SNP arrays. Diagnostic bone marrow specimens taken during the assessment of hematological malignancies are also a potential source of DNA, but it is generally assumed that DNA must be extracted, or the specimen frozen, within a day or two of collection, to obtain DNA suitable for further analysis. We have assessed DNA extracted from these materials for both SNP array and array CGH. Results We show that both SNP array and array CGH can be performed on genomic DNA extracted from cytogenetic specimens stored in Carnoy's fixative, and from bone marrow which has been stored unfrozen, at 4°C, for at least 36 days. We describe a procedure for extracting a usable concentration of total genomic DNA from cytogenetic suspensions of low cellularity. Conclusions The ability to use these archival specimens for DNA-based analysis increases the potential for retrospective genetic analysis of clinical specimens. Fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow both provide DNA suitable for array karyotyping, and may be suitable for a wider range of analytical procedures.

  8. Avoiding cross hybridization by choosing nonredundant targets on cDNA arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Knudsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PROBEWIZ designs PCR primers for amplifying probes for cDNA arrays. The probes are designed to have minimal homology to other expressed sequences from a given organism. The primer selection is based on user-defined penalties for homology, primer quality, and proximity to the 3' end.......PROBEWIZ designs PCR primers for amplifying probes for cDNA arrays. The probes are designed to have minimal homology to other expressed sequences from a given organism. The primer selection is based on user-defined penalties for homology, primer quality, and proximity to the 3' end....

  9. Using genomic DNA-based probe-selection to improve the sensitivity of high-density oligonucleotide arrays when applied to heterologous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Townsend Henrik J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-density oligonucleotide (oligo arrays are a powerful tool for transcript profiling. Arrays based on GeneChip® technology are amongst the most widely used, although GeneChip® arrays are currently available for only a small number of plant and animal species. Thus, we have developed a method to improve the sensitivity of high-density oligonucleotide arrays when applied to heterologous species and tested the method by analysing the transcriptome of Brassica oleracea L., a species for which no GeneChip® array is available, using a GeneChip® array designed for Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. Genomic DNA from B. oleracea was labelled and hybridised to the ATH1-121501 GeneChip® array. Arabidopsis thaliana probe-pairs that hybridised to the B. oleracea genomic DNA on the basis of the perfect-match (PM probe signal were then selected for subsequent B. oleracea transcriptome analysis using a .cel file parser script to generate probe mask files. The transcriptional response of B. oleracea to a mineral nutrient (phosphorus; P stress was quantified using probe mask files generated for a wide range of gDNA hybridisation intensity thresholds. An example probe mask file generated with a gDNA hybridisation intensity threshold of 400 removed > 68 % of the available PM probes from the analysis but retained >96 % of available A. thaliana probe-sets. Ninety-nine of these genes were then identified as significantly regulated under P stress in B. oleracea, including the homologues of P stress responsive genes in A. thaliana. Increasing the gDNA hybridisation intensity thresholds up to 500 for probe-selection increased the sensitivity of the GeneChip® array to detect regulation of gene expression in B. oleracea under P stress by up to 13-fold. Our open-source software to create probe mask files is freely available http://affymetrix.arabidopsis.info/xspecies/ and may be used to facilitate transcriptomic analyses of a wide range of plant and animal

  10. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia using a DNA-array based platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Defesche, Joep C.; Tejedor, Diego; Castillo, Sergio; Stef, Marianne; Mata, Nelva; Gomez-Enterria, Pilar; Martinez-Faedo, Ceferino; Forga, Lluis; Mata, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Lipochip genetic diagnostic platform by assessing effectiveness, sensitivity, specificity and costs for the identification of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Spain. This platform includes the use of a DNA micro array, the detection of

  11. Quality Assurance on a Custom SiPMs Array for the Mu2e Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanov, N.; et al.

    2017-11-20

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the coherent $\\mu \\to e$ conversion on aluminum atoms. The detector system consists of a straw tube tracker and a crystal calorimeter. A pre-production of 150 Silicon Photomultiplier arrays for the Mu2e calorimeter has been procured. A detailed quality assur- ance has been carried out on each SiPM for the determination of its own operation voltage, gain, dark current and PDE. The measurement of the mean-time-to-failure for a small random sample of the pro-production group has been also completed as well as the determination of the dark current increase as a function of the ioninizing and non-ioninizing dose.

  12. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A.; Starbuck, Kristen D.; Kim, James C.; Bernay, Derek C.; Scangas, George A.; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Louis, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of cancer is rapidly evolving as a result of improvement in genomic technologies and the growing applicability of such analyses to clinical oncology. Array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA), particularly in solid tumors, and has been applied to the study of malignant gliomas. In the clinical setting, however, gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies and thus formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis, especially for rare types of gliomas. Moreover, the biological basis for the marked intratumoral heterogeneity in gliomas is most readily addressed in FFPE material. Therefore, for gliomas, the ability to use DNA from FFPE tissue is essential for both clinical and research applications. In this study, we have constructed a custom bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array and show excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting CNAs in a panel of paired frozen and FFPE glioma samples. Our study demonstrates a high concordance rate between CNAs detected in FFPE compared to frozen DNA. We have also developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. This labeling technique was applied to a panel of biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) to identify genetic changes unique to each component. Together, results from these studies suggest that BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH are sensitive tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and can enable genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas. PMID:21080181

  13. Use of a custom RT-PCR array to analyze toxicity pathways at different life stages in Brown Norway Rat Brain following acute Toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we utilized a custom designed RT-PCR array to examine the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.65 or 1.0 glkg) in the brains of ma1e Brown Norwa...

  14. Ultrasensitive DNA sequence detection using nanoscale ZnO sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitin; Dorfman, Adam; Hahm, Jong-in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 160 Fenske Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2006-06-28

    We report that engineered nanoscale zinc oxide structures can be effectively used for the identification of the biothreat agent, Bacillus anthracis by successfully discriminating its DNA sequence from other genetically related species. We explore both covalent and non-covalent linking schemes in order to couple probe DNA strands to the zinc oxide nanostructures. Hybridization reactions are performed with various concentrations of target DNA strands whose sequence is unique to Bacillus anthracis. The use of zinc oxide nanomaterials greatly enhances the fluorescence signal collected after carrying out duplex formation reaction. Specifically, the covalent strategy allows detection of the target species at sample concentrations at a level as low as a few femtomolar as compared to the detection sensitivity in the tens of nanomolar range when using the non-covalent scheme. The presence of the underlying zinc oxide nanomaterials is critical in achieving increased fluorescence detection of hybridized DNA and, therefore, accomplishing rapid and extremely sensitive identification of the biothreat agent. We also demonstrate the easy integration potential of nanoscale zinc oxide into high density arrays by using various types of zinc oxide sensor prototypes in the DNA sequence detection. When combined with conventional automatic sample handling apparatus and computerized fluorescence detection equipment, our approach can greatly promote the use of zinc oxide nanomaterials as signal enhancing platforms for rapid, multiplexed, high-throughput, highly sensitive, DNA sensor arrays.

  15. Ultrasensitive DNA sequence detection using nanoscale ZnO sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Dorfman, Adam; Hahm, Jong-in

    2006-01-01

    We report that engineered nanoscale zinc oxide structures can be effectively used for the identification of the biothreat agent, Bacillus anthracis by successfully discriminating its DNA sequence from other genetically related species. We explore both covalent and non-covalent linking schemes in order to couple probe DNA strands to the zinc oxide nanostructures. Hybridization reactions are performed with various concentrations of target DNA strands whose sequence is unique to Bacillus anthracis. The use of zinc oxide nanomaterials greatly enhances the fluorescence signal collected after carrying out duplex formation reaction. Specifically, the covalent strategy allows detection of the target species at sample concentrations at a level as low as a few femtomolar as compared to the detection sensitivity in the tens of nanomolar range when using the non-covalent scheme. The presence of the underlying zinc oxide nanomaterials is critical in achieving increased fluorescence detection of hybridized DNA and, therefore, accomplishing rapid and extremely sensitive identification of the biothreat agent. We also demonstrate the easy integration potential of nanoscale zinc oxide into high density arrays by using various types of zinc oxide sensor prototypes in the DNA sequence detection. When combined with conventional automatic sample handling apparatus and computerized fluorescence detection equipment, our approach can greatly promote the use of zinc oxide nanomaterials as signal enhancing platforms for rapid, multiplexed, high-throughput, highly sensitive, DNA sensor arrays

  16. DNA-Catalytically Active Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates-Based Colorimetric Multidimensional Sensor Array for Protein Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangcong; Chen, Zhengbo; Tan, Lulu; Lou, Tianhong; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-03

    A series of single-strand oligonucleotides functionalized catalytically active gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) as nonspecific receptors have been designed to build a protein sensing array. We take advantage of the correlation between the catalytic activity and the exposed surface area of AuNPs, i.e., DNA-proteins interactions mask the surface area of AuNPs, leading to poor catalytic performance of AuNPs. As the number of DNA-bound proteins increases, the surfaces of AuNPs become more masked; thus, the time of 4- nitrophenol/NaBH 4 reaction for color change (yellow → colorless) of the solution increases. Taking advantage of three nonspecific SH-labeled DNA sequences (A15, C15, and T15) as array sensing elements and the color-change time (CCT) of the solution as signal readout, colorimetric response patterns can be obtained on the array and identified via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Eleven proteins have been completely distinguished with 100% accuracy with the naked eye at the 30 nM level. Remarkably, two similar proteins (bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin), two different proteins (bovine serum albumin and concanavalin) at the same concentration, and the mixtures of the two proteins with different molar ratios have been discriminated with 100%. The practicability of this sensor array is further validated by high accuracy (100%) identification of 11 proteins in human serum samples.

  17. Sharpening spots: correcting for bleedover in cDNA array images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therneau, Terry; Tschumper, Renee C; Jelinek, Diane

    2002-03-01

    For cDNA array methods that depend on imaging of a radiolabel, we show that bleedover of one spot onto another, due to the gap between the array and the imaging media, can be a major problem. The images can be sharpened, however, using a blind convolution method based on the EM algorithm. The sharpened images look like a set of donuts, which concurs with our knowledge of the spotting process. Oversharpened images are actually useful as well, in locating the centers of each spot.

  18. DNA suspension arrays: silencing discrete artifacts for high-sensitivity applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Lalonde

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of low frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs has important implications in early screening for tumorgenesis, genetic disorders and pathogen drug resistance. Nucleic acid arrays are a powerful tool for genome-scale SNP analysis, but detection of low-frequency SNPs in a mixed population on an array is problematic. We demonstrate a model assay for HIV-1 drug resistance mutations, wherein ligase discrimination products are collected on a suspension array. In developing this system, we discovered that signal from multiple polymorphisms was obscured by two discrete hybridization artifacts. Specifically: 1 tethering of unligated probes on the template DNA elicited false signal and 2 unpredictable probe secondary structures impaired probe capture and suppressed legitimate signal from the array. Two sets of oligonucleotides were used to disrupt these structures; one to displace unligated reporter labels from the bead-bound species and another to occupy sequences which interfered with array hybridization. This artifact silencing system resulted in a mean 21-fold increased sensitivity for 29 minority variants of 17 codons in our model assay for mutations most commonly associated with HIV-1 drug resistance. Furthermore, since the artifacts we characterized are not unique to our system, their specific inhibition might improve the quality of data from solid-state microarrays as well as from the growing number of multiple analyte suspension arrays relying on sequence-specific nucleic acid target capture.

  19. Intensity correction method customized for multi-animal abdominal MR imaging with 3 T clinical scanner and multi-array coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Nakagami, Ryutaro; Furuta, Toshihiro; Fujii, Hirofumi; Sekine, Norio; Niitsu, Mamoru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of multiple small animals in a single session increases throughput of preclinical imaging experiments. Such imaging using a 3-tesla clinical scanner with multi-array coil requires correction of intensity variation caused by the inhomogeneous sensitivity profile of the coil. We explored a method for correcting intensity that we customized for multi-animal MR imaging, especially abdominal imaging. Our institutional committee for animal experimentation approved the protocol. We acquired high resolution T 1 -, T 2 -, and T 2 * -weighted images and low resolution proton density-weighted images (PDWIs) of 4 rat abdomens simultaneously using a 3T clinical scanner and custom-made multi-array coil. For comparison, we also acquired T 1 -, T 2 -, and T 2 * -weighted volume coil images in the same rats in 4 separate sessions. We used software created in-house to correct intensity variation. We applied thresholding to the PDWIs to produce binary images that displayed only a signal-producing area, calculated multi-array coil sensitivity maps by dividing low-pass filtered PDWIs by low-pass filtered binary images pixel by pixel, and divided uncorrected T 1 -, T 2 -, or T 2 * -weighted images by those maps to obtain intensity-corrected images. We compared tissue contrast among the liver, spinal canal, and muscle between intensity-corrected multi-array coil images and volume coil images. Our intensity correction method performed well for all pulse sequences studied and corrected variation in original multi-array coil images without deteriorating the throughput of animal experiments. Tissue contrasts were comparable between intensity-corrected multi-array coil images and volume coil images. Our intensity correction method customized for multi-animal abdominal MR imaging using a 3T clinical scanner and dedicated multi-array coil could facilitate image interpretation. (author)

  20. Assembling the Streptococcus thermophilus clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) array for multiplex DNA targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Cunfang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-06-01

    In addition to the advantages of scalable, affordable, and easy to engineer, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is superior for multiplex targeting, which is laborious and inconvenient when achieved by cloning multiple gRNA expressing cassettes. Here, we report a simple CRISPR array assembling method which will facilitate multiplex targeting usage. First, the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3/Cas locus was cloned. Second, different CRISPR arrays were assembled with different crRNA spacers. Transformation assays using different Escherichia coli strains demonstrated efficient plasmid DNA targeting, and we achieved targeting efficiency up to 95% with an assembled CRISPR array with three crRNA spacers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA micro array analysis of yeast global genome expression in response to ELF-MF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kyoh, B.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide spread public concern over the possible health risk of ELF-MF. Electromagnetic fields may produce a variety of effects in several biological systems, including the elevation of cancer risk and reduction of cell growth. Epidemiological studies have shown weak correlations between the exposure to ELF and the incidence of several cancers, but negative studies have also been reported. Moreover, there are some reports that basic biological events such as the cell cycle and DNA replication were affected by exposure to MF. However, to date the molecular mechanism of the MF effect on living organism is not clear. In this study, we used yeast DNA micro array to examine the transcriptional profile of all genes in response to ELF-MF. A few years ago it was difficult to carry out a global gene expression study to identify important genes regarding ELF-MF, however, today DNA micro arrays allow gene regulation in response to high density ELF-MF exposure. Thus we used micro array to analyze changes in mRNA abundance during ELF-MF exposure

  2. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Miele, Ermanno; Accardo, Angelo; Falqui, Andrea; Marini, Monica; Giugni, Andrea; Leoncini, Marco; De Angelis, Francesco De; Krahne, Roman; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  3. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Miele, Ermanno

    2014-08-08

    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  4. Evaluating Metabolite-Related DNA Oxidation and Adduct Damage from Aryl Amines Using a Microfluidic ECL Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Itti; Bhakta, Snehasis; Jiang, Di; Keyes, Tia E; Martin, Aaron; Forster, Robert J; Rusling, James F

    2017-11-21

    Damage to DNA from the metabolites of drugs and pollutants constitutes a major human toxicity pathway known as genotoxicity. Metabolites can react with metal ions and NADPH to oxidize DNA or participate in S N 2 reactions to form covalently linked adducts with DNA bases. Guanines are the main DNA oxidation sites, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is the initial product. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) microwell array that produces metabolites from test compounds and measures relative rates of DNA oxidation and DNA adduct damage. In this new array, films of DNA, metabolic enzymes, and an ECL metallopolymer or complex assembled in microwells on a pyrolytic graphite wafer are housed in dual microfluidic chambers. As reactant solution passes over the wells, metabolites form and can react with DNA in the films to form DNA adducts. These adducts are detected by ECL from a RuPVP polymer that uses DNA as a coreactant. Aryl amines also combine with Cu 2+ and NADPH to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) that oxidize DNA. The resulting 8-oxodG was detected selectively by ECL-generating bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-(4-(1,10-phenanthrolin-6-yl)-benzoic acid)Os(II). DNA/enzyme films on magnetic beads were oxidized similarly, and 8-oxodG determined by LC/MS/MS enabled array standardization. The array limit of detection for oxidation was 720 8-oxodG per 10 6 nucleobases. For a series of aryl amines, metabolite-generated DNA oxidation and adduct formation turnover rates from the array correlated very well with rodent 1/TD 50 and Comet assay results.

  5. A Robust Highly Aligned DNA Nanowire Array-Enabled Lithography for Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lin, Zhiqun; Kwon, Se Hun; Hong, Suck Won

    2015-12-09

    Because of its excellent charge carrier mobility at the Dirac point, graphene possesses exceptional properties for high-performance devices. Of particular interest is the potential use of graphene nanoribbons or graphene nanomesh for field-effect transistors. Herein, highly aligned DNA nanowire arrays were crafted by flow-assisted self-assembly of a drop of DNA aqueous solution on a flat polymer substrate. Subsequently, they were exploited as "ink" and transfer-printed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD)-grown graphene substrate. The oriented DNA nanowires served as the lithographic resist for selective removal of graphene, forming highly aligned graphene nanoribbons. Intriguingly, these graphene nanoribbons can be readily produced over a large area (i.e., millimeter scale) with a high degree of feature-size controllability and a low level of defects, rendering the fabrication of flexible two terminal devices and field-effect transistors.

  6. Microfluidic Arrayed Lab-On-A-Chip for Electrochemical Capacitive Detection of DNA Hybridization Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Dykstra, Peter H; Bentley, William E; Ghodssi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for DNA hybridization detection has been developed. The device comprises a 3 × 3 array of microelectrodes integrated with a dual layer microfluidic valved manipulation system that provides controlled and automated capabilities for high throughput analysis of microliter volume samples. The surface of the microelectrodes is functionalized with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes which enable specific detection of complementary ssDNA targets. These targets are detected by a capacitive technique which measures dielectric variation at the microelectrode-electrolyte interface due to DNA hybridization events. A quantitative analysis of the hybridization events is carried out based on a sensing modeling that includes detailed analysis of energy storage and dissipation components. By calculating these components during hybridization events the device is able to demonstrate specific and dose response sensing characteristics. The developed microfluidic LOC for DNA hybridization detection offers a technology for real-time and label-free assessment of genetic markers outside of laboratory settings, such as at the point-of-care or in-field environmental monitoring.

  7. THE BENEFITS OF CUSTOMIZED DNA DIRECTED NUTRITION TO BALANCE THE BRAIN REWARD CIRCUITRY AND REDUCE ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Downs, B.W.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R.; Fried, Lyle; Waite, Roger; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA Customization of nutraceutical products is here. In the truest sense, “Gene Guided Precision Nutrition™” and KB220 variants (a complex mixture of amino–acids, trace metals, and herbals) are the pioneers and standard-bearers for a state of the art DNA customization. Findings by both, Kenneth Blum, Ph.D. and Ernest Noble, Ph.D. concerning the role of genes in shaping cravings and pleasure- seeking, opened the doors to comprehension of how genetics control our actions and effect our mental and physical health. Moreover, technology that is related to KB220 variants in order to reduce or eradicate excessive cravings by influencing gene expression is a cornerstone in the pioneering of the practical applications of nutrigenomics. Continuing discoveries have been an important catalyst for the evolution, expansion, and scientific recognition of the significance of nutrigenomics and its remarkable contributions to human health. Neuro-Nutrigenomics is now a very important field of scientific investigation that offers great promise to improving the human condition. In the forefront is the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™), which unlike 23andMe, has predictive value for the severity of drug and alcohol abuse as well as other non-substance related addictive behaviors. While customization of neuronutrients has not yet been commercialized, there is emerging evidence that in the future, the concept will be developed and could have a significant impact in addiction medicine. PMID:28066828

  8. One-Dimensional Multichromophor Arrays Based on DNA: From Self-Assembly to Light-Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensslen, Philipp; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-10-20

    Light-harvesting complexes collect light energy and deliver it by a cascade of energy and electron transfer processes to the reaction center where charge separation leads to storage as chemical energy. The design of artificial light-harvesting assemblies faces enormous challenges because several antenna chromophores need to be kept in close proximity but self-quenching needs to be avoided. Double stranded DNA as a supramolecular scaffold plays a promising role due to its characteristic structural properties. Automated DNA synthesis allows incorporation of artificial chromophore-modified building blocks, and sequence design allows precise control of the distances and orientations between the chromophores. The helical twist between the chromophores, which is induced by the DNA framework, controls energy and electron transfer and thereby reduces the self-quenching that is typically observed in chromophore aggregates. This Account summarizes covalently multichromophore-modified DNA and describes how such multichromophore arrays were achieved by Watson-Crick-specific and DNA-templated self-assembly. The covalent DNA systems were prepared by incorporation of chromophores as DNA base substitutions (either as C-nucleosides or with acyclic linkers as substitutes for the 2'-deoxyribofuranoside) and as DNA base modifications. Studies with DNA base substitutions revealed that distances but more importantly relative orientations of the chromophores govern the energy transfer efficiencies and thereby the light-harvesting properties. With DNA base substitutions, duplex stabilization was faced and could be overcome, for instance, by zipper-like placement of the chromophores in both strands. For both principal structural approaches, DNA-based light-harvesting antenna could be realized. The major disadvantages, however, for covalent multichromophore DNA conjugates are the poor yields of synthesis and the solubility issues for oligonucleotides with more than 5-10 chromophore

  9. Detection of mitochondrial DNA with the compact bead array sensor system (cBASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Ibe, Carol N.; Caldwell, Jane M.; Levine, Jay F.; Whitman, Lloyd J.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2009-02-01

    Enteric pathogens are a significant contaminant in surface waters used for recreation, fish and shellfish harvesting, crop irrigation, and human consumption. The need for water monitoring becomes more pronounced when industrial, agricultural, and residential lands are found in close proximity. Fecal contamination is particularly problematic and identification of the pollution source essential to remediation efforts. Standard monitoring for fecal contamination relies on indicator organisms, but the technique is too broad to identify the source of contamination. Instead, real-time PCR of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an emerging method for identification of the contamination source. Presented herein, we evaluate an alternative technology, the compact Bead Array Sensor System (cBASS®) and its assay approach Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD), for the detection of mtDNA. Previously, we achieved multiplexed, attomolar detection of toxins and femtomolar detection of nucleic acids in minutes with FFD assays. More importantly, FFD assays are compatible with a variety of complex matrices and therefore potentially applicable for samples where the matrix would interfere with PCR amplification. We have designed a triplex assay for the NADH gene found in human, swine, and bovine mtDNA and demonstrated the specific detection of human mtDNA spiked into a waste water sample.

  10. A fully automated 384 capillary array for DNA sequencer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, T

    2003-03-20

    Phase I SpectruMedix has successfully developed an automatic 96-capillary array DNA prototype based on the multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system originated from Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University. With computer control of all steps involved in a 96-capillary array running cycle, the prototype instrument (the SCE9600) is now capable of sequencing 450 base pairs (bp) per capillary, or 48,000 bp per instrument run within 2 hrs. Phase II of this grant involved the advancement of the core 96 capillary technologies, as well as designing a high density 384 capillary prototype. True commercialization of the 96 capillary instrument involved finalization of the gel matrix, streamlining the instrument hardware, creating a more reliable capillary cartridge, and further advancement of the data processing software. Together these silos of technology create a truly commercializable product (the SCE9610) capable of meeting the operation needs of the sequencing centers.

  11. End-specific strategies of attachment of long double stranded DNA onto gold-coated nanofiber arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckys, Diana B; De Jonge, Niels; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    We report the effective and site-specific binding of long double stranded (ds)DNA to high aspect ratio carbon nanofiber arrays. The carbon nanofibers were first coated with a thin gold layer to provide anchorage for two controllable binding methods. One method was based on the direct binding of thiol end-labeled dsDNA. The second and enhanced method used amine end-labeled dsDNA bound with crosslinkers to a carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The bound dsDNA was first visualized with a fluorescent, dsDNA-intercalating dye. The specific binding onto the carbon nanofiber was verified by a high resolution detection method using scanning electron microscopy in combination with the binding of neutravidin-coated fluorescent microspheres to the immobilized and biotinylated dsDNA. Functional activity of thiol end-labeled dsDNA on gold-coated nanofiber arrays was verified with a transcriptional assay, whereby Chinese hamster lung cells (V79) were impaled upon the DNA-modified nanofibers and scored for transgene expression of the tethered template. Thiol end-labeled dsDNA demonstrated significantly higher expression levels than nanofibers prepared with control dsDNA that lacked a gold-binding end-label. Employing these site-specific and robust techniques of immobilization of dsDNA onto nanodevices can be of advantage for the study of DNA/protein interactions and for gene delivery applications.

  12. Functionalization of optical nanotip arrays with an electrochemical microcantilever for multiplexed DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Emeline; Duroure, Nathalie; Deiss, Frédérique; Leichlé, Thierry; Adam, Catherine; Mailley, Pascal; Aït-Ikhlef, Ali; Livache, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu; Sojic, Neso

    2013-08-07

    Optical nanotip arrays fabricated on etched fiber bundles were functionalized with DNA spots. Such unconventional substrates (3D and non-planar) are difficult to pattern with standard microfabrication techniques but, using an electrochemical cantilever, up to 400 spots were electrodeposited on the nanostructured optical surface in 5 min. This approach allows each spot to be addressed individually and multiplexed fluorescence detection is demonstrated. Finally, remote fluorescence detection was performed by imaging through the optical fiber bundle itself after hybridisation with the complementary sequence.

  13. A customized pigmentation SNP array identifies a novel SNP associated with melanoma predisposition in the SLC45A2 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maider Ibarrola-Villava

    Full Text Available As the incidence of Malignant Melanoma (MM reflects an interaction between skin colour and UV exposure, variations in genes implicated in pigmentation and tanning response to UV may be associated with susceptibility to MM. In this study, 363 SNPs in 65 gene regions belonging to the pigmentation pathway have been successfully genotyped using a SNP array. Five hundred and ninety MM cases and 507 controls were analyzed in a discovery phase I. Ten candidate SNPs based on a p-value threshold of 0.01 were identified. Two of them, rs35414 (SLC45A2 and rs2069398 (SILV/CKD2, were statistically significant after conservative Bonferroni correction. The best six SNPs were further tested in an independent Spanish series (624 MM cases and 789 controls. A novel SNP located on the SLC45A2 gene (rs35414 was found to be significantly associated with melanoma in both phase I and phase II (P<0.0001. None of the other five SNPs were replicated in this second phase of the study. However, three SNPs in TYR, SILV/CDK2 and ADAMTS20 genes (rs17793678, rs2069398 and rs1510521 respectively had an overall p-value<0.05 when considering the whole DNA collection (1214 MM cases and 1296 controls. Both the SLC45A2 and the SILV/CDK2 variants behave as protective alleles, while the TYR and ADAMTS20 variants seem to function as risk alleles. Cumulative effects were detected when these four variants were considered together. Furthermore, individuals carrying two or more mutations in MC1R, a well-known low penetrance melanoma-predisposing gene, had a decreased MM risk if concurrently bearing the SLC45A2 protective variant. To our knowledge, this is the largest study on Spanish sporadic MM cases to date.

  14. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  15. Custom CGH array profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 6p21.32 (HLA locus) in patients with venous malformations associated with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder thought to result from an interaction between environmental and genetic predisposing factors which have not yet been characterised, although it is known to be associated with the HLA region on 6p21.32. Recently, a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), consequent to stenosing venous malformation of the main extra-cranial outflow routes (VM), has been described in patients affected with MS, introducing an additional phenotype with possible pathogenic significance. Methods In order to explore the presence of copy number variations (CNVs) within the HLA locus, a custom CGH array was designed to cover 7 Mb of the HLA locus region (6,899,999 bp; chr6:29,900,001-36,800,000). Genomic DNA of the 15 patients with CCSVI/VM and MS was hybridised in duplicate. Results In total, 322 CNVs, of which 225 were extragenic and 97 intragenic, were identified in 15 patients. 234 known polymorphic CNVs were detected, the majority of these being situated in non-coding or extragenic regions. The overall number of CNVs (both extra- and intragenic) showed a robust and significant correlation with the number of stenosing VMs (Spearman: r = 0.6590, p = 0.0104; linear regression analysis r = 0.6577, p = 0.0106). The region we analysed contains 211 known genes. By using pathway analysis focused on angiogenesis and venous development, MS, and immunity, we tentatively highlight several genes as possible susceptibility factor candidates involved in this peculiar phenotype. Conclusions The CNVs contained in the HLA locus region in patients with the novel phenotype of CCSVI/VM and MS were mapped in detail, demonstrating a significant correlation between the number of known CNVs found in the HLA region and the number of CCSVI-VMs identified in patients. Pathway analysis revealed common routes of interaction of several of the genes involved in angiogenesis and immunity contained within this region. Despite the small

  16. Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC and its application for DNA methylation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottaviani Diego

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is essential for human immunity and is highly associated with common diseases, including cancer. While the genetics of the MHC has been studied intensively for many decades, very little is known about the epigenetics of this most polymorphic and disease-associated region of the genome. Methods To facilitate comprehensive epigenetic analyses of this region, we have generated a genomic tiling array of 2 Kb resolution covering the entire 4 Mb MHC region. The array has been designed to be compatible with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and expression profiling, including of non-coding RNAs. The array comprises 7832 features, consisting of two replicates of both forward and reverse strands of MHC amplicons and appropriate controls. Results Using MeDIP, we demonstrate the application of the MHC array for DNA methylation profiling and the identification of tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs. Based on the analysis of two tissues and two cell types, we identified 90 tDMRs within the MHC and describe their characterisation. Conclusion A tiling array covering the MHC region was developed and validated. Its successful application for DNA methylation profiling indicates that this array represents a useful tool for molecular analyses of the MHC in the context of medical genomics.

  17. Whole genome DNA copy number changes identified by high density oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jing

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in DNA copy number are one of the hallmarks of the genetic instability common to most human cancers. Previous micro-array-based methods have been used to identify chromosomal gains and losses; however, they are unable to genotype alleles at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Here we describe a novel algorithm that uses a recently developed high-density oligonucleotide array-based SNP genotyping method, whole genome sampling analysis (WGSA, to identify genome-wide chromosomal gains and losses at high resolution. WGSA simultaneously genotypes over 10,000 SNPs by allele-specific hybridisation to perfect match (PM and mismatch (MM probes synthesised on a single array. The copy number algorithm jointly uses PM intensity and discrimination ratios between paired PM and MM intensity values to identify and estimate genetic copy number changes. Values from an experimental sample are compared with SNP-specific distributions derived from a reference set containing over 100 normal individuals to gain statistical power. Genomic regions with statistically significant copy number changes can be identified using both single point analysis and contiguous point analysis of SNP intensities. We identified multiple regions of amplification and deletion using a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. We verified these results using an independent method based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that our approach is both sensitive and specific and can tolerate samples which contain a mixture of both tumour and normal DNA. In addition, by using known allele frequencies from the reference set, statistically significant genomic intervals can be identified containing contiguous stretches of homozygous markers, potentially allowing the detection of regions undergoing loss of heterozygosity (LOH without the need for a matched normal control sample. The coupling of LOH analysis, via SNP genotyping, with copy number

  18. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates. PMID:22482786

  19. The Species and Origin of Shark Fins in Taiwan's Fishing Ports, Markets, and Customs Detention: A DNA Barcoding Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Shun; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Chang, Hung-An; Huang, Chien-Kang; Shiao, Jen-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing consumption of shark products, along with the shark's fishing vulnerabilities, has led to the decrease in certain shark populations. In this study we used a DNA barcoding method to identify the species of shark landings at fishing ports, shark fin products in retail stores, and shark fins detained by Taiwan customs. In total we identified 23, 24, and 14 species from 231 fishing landings, 316 fin products, and 113 detained shark fins, respectively. All the three sample sources were dominated by Prionace glauca, which accounted for more than 30% of the collected samples. Over 60% of the species identified in the fin products also appeared in the port landings, suggesting the domestic-dominance of shark fin products in Taiwan. However, international trade also contributes a certain proportion of the fin product markets, as four species identified from the shark fin products are not found in Taiwan's waters, and some domestic-available species were also found in the customs-detained sample. In addition to the species identification, we also found geographical differentiation in the cox1 gene of the common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus), the pelagic thresher shark (A. pelagicus), the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena), and the scalloped hammerhead shark (S. lewini). This result might allow fishing authorities to more effectively trace the origins as well as enforce the management and conservation of these sharks.

  20. The Species and Origin of Shark Fins in Taiwan's Fishing Ports, Markets, and Customs Detention: A DNA Barcoding Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shun Chuang

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of shark products, along with the shark's fishing vulnerabilities, has led to the decrease in certain shark populations. In this study we used a DNA barcoding method to identify the species of shark landings at fishing ports, shark fin products in retail stores, and shark fins detained by Taiwan customs. In total we identified 23, 24, and 14 species from 231 fishing landings, 316 fin products, and 113 detained shark fins, respectively. All the three sample sources were dominated by Prionace glauca, which accounted for more than 30% of the collected samples. Over 60% of the species identified in the fin products also appeared in the port landings, suggesting the domestic-dominance of shark fin products in Taiwan. However, international trade also contributes a certain proportion of the fin product markets, as four species identified from the shark fin products are not found in Taiwan's waters, and some domestic-available species were also found in the customs-detained sample. In addition to the species identification, we also found geographical differentiation in the cox1 gene of the common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus, the pelagic thresher shark (A. pelagicus, the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena, and the scalloped hammerhead shark (S. lewini. This result might allow fishing authorities to more effectively trace the origins as well as enforce the management and conservation of these sharks.

  1. Utah optrode array customization using stereotactic brain atlases and 3-D CAD modeling for optogenetic neocortical interrogation in small rodents and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Ronald W; Merlin, Sam; Yona, Guy; Griffiths, Brandon; Angelucci, Alessandra; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy; Blair, Steve

    2017-10-01

    As the optogenetic field expands, the need for precise targeting of neocortical circuits only grows more crucial. This work demonstrates a technique for using Solidworks ® computer-aided design (CAD) and readily available stereotactic brain atlases to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the dorsal region of area visual cortex 4 (V4D) of the macaque monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ) visual cortex. The 3-D CAD model of the brain was used to customize an [Formula: see text] Utah optrode array (UOA) after it was determined that a high-density ([Formula: see text]) UOA caused extensive damage to marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) primary visual cortex as assessed by electrophysiological recording of spiking activity through a 1.5-mm-diameter through glass via. The [Formula: see text] UOA was customized for optrode length ([Formula: see text]), optrode width ([Formula: see text]), optrode pitch ([Formula: see text]), backplane thickness ([Formula: see text]), and overall form factor ([Formula: see text]). Two [Formula: see text] UOAs were inserted into layer VI of macaque V4D cortices with minimal damage as assessed in fixed tissue cytochrome oxidase staining in nonrecoverable surgeries. Additionally, two [Formula: see text] arrays were implanted in mice ( Mus musculus ) motor cortices, providing early evidence for long-term tolerability (over 6 months), and for the ability to integrate the UOA with a Holobundle light delivery system toward patterned optogenetic stimulation of cortical networks.

  2. Atomically precise arrays of fluorescent silver clusters: a modular approach for metal cluster photonics on DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M; Schultz, Danielle E; Swasey, Steven; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-03-24

    The remarkable precision that DNA scaffolds provide for arraying nanoscale optical elements enables optical phenomena that arise from interactions of metal nanoparticles, dye molecules, and quantum dots placed at nanoscale separations. However, control of ensemble optical properties has been limited by the difficulty of achieving uniform particle sizes and shapes. Ligand-stabilized metal clusters offer a route to atomically precise arrays that combine desirable attributes of both metals and molecules. Exploiting the unique advantages of the cluster regime requires techniques to realize controlled nanoscale placement of select cluster structures. Here we show that atomically monodisperse arrays of fluorescent, DNA-stabilized silver clusters can be realized on a prototypical scaffold, a DNA nanotube, with attachment sites separated by <10 nm. Cluster attachment is mediated by designed DNA linkers that enable isolation of specific clusters prior to assembly on nanotubes and preserve cluster structure and spectral purity after assembly. The modularity of this approach generalizes to silver clusters of diverse sizes and DNA scaffolds of many types. Thus, these silver cluster nano-optical elements, which themselves have colors selected by their particular DNA templating oligomer, bring unique dimensions of control and flexibility to the rapidly expanding field of nano-optics.

  3. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  4. Specific detection of oxytetracycline using DNA aptamer-immobilized interdigitated array electrode chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Niazi, Javed H [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Man Bock [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mbgu@korea.ac.kr

    2009-02-23

    An electrochemical sensing system for oxytetracycline (OTC) detection was developed using ssDNA aptamer immobilized on gold interdigitated array (IDA) electrode chip. A highly specific ssDNA aptamer that bind to OTC with high affinity was employed to discriminate other tetracyclines (TCs), such as doxycycline (DOX) and tetracycline (TET). The immobilized thiol-modified aptamer on gold electrode chip served as a biorecognition element for the target molecules and the electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the aptamers and the target molecules was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The current decrease due to the interference of bound OTC, DOX or TET was analyzed with the electron flow produced by a redox reaction between ferro- and ferricyanide. The specificity of developed EC-biosensor for OTC was highly distinguishable from the structurally similar antibiotics (DOX and TET). The dynamic range was determined to be 1-100 nM of OTC concentration in semi-logarithmic coordinates.

  5. Specific detection of oxytetracycline using DNA aptamer-immobilized interdigitated array electrode chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Niazi, Javed H.; Gu, Man Bock

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical sensing system for oxytetracycline (OTC) detection was developed using ssDNA aptamer immobilized on gold interdigitated array (IDA) electrode chip. A highly specific ssDNA aptamer that bind to OTC with high affinity was employed to discriminate other tetracyclines (TCs), such as doxycycline (DOX) and tetracycline (TET). The immobilized thiol-modified aptamer on gold electrode chip served as a biorecognition element for the target molecules and the electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the aptamers and the target molecules was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The current decrease due to the interference of bound OTC, DOX or TET was analyzed with the electron flow produced by a redox reaction between ferro- and ferricyanide. The specificity of developed EC-biosensor for OTC was highly distinguishable from the structurally similar antibiotics (DOX and TET). The dynamic range was determined to be 1-100 nM of OTC concentration in semi-logarithmic coordinates

  6. Genome-wide comparison of paired fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gliomas by custom BAC and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization: facilitating analysis of archival gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Gayatry; Engler, David A; Starbuck, Kristen D; Kim, James C; Bernay, Derek C; Scangas, George A; Rousseau, Audrey; Batchelor, Tracy T; Betensky, Rebecca A; Louis, David N

    2011-04-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a powerful tool for detecting DNA copy number alterations (CNA). Because diffuse malignant gliomas are often sampled by small biopsies, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks are often the only tissue available for genetic analysis; FFPE tissues are also needed to study the intratumoral heterogeneity that characterizes these neoplasms. In this paper, we present a combination of evaluations and technical advances that provide strong support for the ready use of oligonucleotide aCGH on FFPE diffuse gliomas. We first compared aCGH using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays in 45 paired frozen and FFPE gliomas, and demonstrate a high concordance rate between FFPE and frozen DNA in an individual clone-level analysis of sensitivity and specificity, assuring that under certain array conditions, frozen and FFPE DNA can perform nearly identically. However, because oligonucleotide arrays offer advantages to BAC arrays in genomic coverage and practical availability, we next developed a method of labeling DNA from FFPE tissue that allows efficient hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. To demonstrate utility in FFPE tissues, we applied this approach to biphasic anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and demonstrate CNA differences between DNA obtained from the two components. Therefore, BAC and oligonucleotide aCGH can be sensitive and specific tools for detecting CNAs in FFPE DNA, and novel labeling techniques enable the routine use of oligonucleotide arrays for FFPE DNA. In combination, these advances should facilitate genome-wide analysis of rare, small and/or histologically heterogeneous gliomas from FFPE tissues.

  7. MethLAB: a graphical user interface package for the analysis of array-based DNA methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaru, Varun; Barfield, Richard T; Schroeder, James W; Smith, Alicia K; Conneely, Karen N

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation changes may underlie numerous complex traits and diseases. The advent of commercial, array-based methods to interrogate DNA methylation has led to a profusion of epigenetic studies in the literature. Array-based methods, such as the popular Illumina GoldenGate and Infinium platforms, estimate the proportion of DNA methylated at single-base resolution for thousands of CpG sites across the genome. These arrays generate enormous amounts of data, but few software resources exist for efficient and flexible analysis of these data. We developed a software package called MethLAB (http://genetics.emory.edu/conneely/MethLAB) using R, an open source statistical language that can be edited to suit the needs of the user. MethLAB features a graphical user interface (GUI) with a menu-driven format designed to efficiently read in and manipulate array-based methylation data in a user-friendly manner. MethLAB tests for association between methylation and relevant phenotypes by fitting a separate linear model for each CpG site. These models can incorporate both continuous and categorical phenotypes and covariates, as well as fixed or random batch or chip effects. MethLAB accounts for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at a user-specified level. Standard output includes a spreadsheet-ready text file and an array of publication-quality figures. Considering the growing interest in and availability of DNA methylation data, there is a great need for user-friendly open source analytical tools. With MethLAB, we present a timely resource that will allow users with no programming experience to implement flexible and powerful analyses of DNA methylation data.

  8. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  9. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Brian; Datta, Parikkhit; Wu, Ying; Chan, Alan; Al Armour, John

    2006-06-30

    Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH) we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  10. A Tandemly Arranged Pattern of Two 5S rDNA Arrays in Amolops mantzorum (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Song, Menghuan; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to extend the knowledge of the 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amolops mantzorum were isolated, characterized, and mapped by FISH. Two forms of 5S rDNA, type I (209 bp) and type II (about 870 bp), were found in specimens investigated from various populations. Both of them contained a 118-bp coding sequence, readily differentiated by their non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sizes and compositions. Four probes (the 5S rDNA coding sequences, the type I NTS, the type II NTS, and the entire type II 5S rDNA sequences) were respectively labeled with TAMRA or digoxigenin to hybridize with mitotic chromosomes for samples of all localities. It turned out that all probes showed the same signals that appeared in every centromeric region and in the telomeric regions of chromosome 5, without differences within or between populations. Obviously, both type I and type II of the 5S rDNA arrays arranged in tandem, which was contrasting with other frogs or fishes recorded to date. More interestingly, all the probes detected centromeric regions in all karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. DNA-barcode directed capture and electrochemical metabolic analysis of single mammalian cells on a microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Erik S; Hsiao, Sonny C; Onoe, Hiroaki; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Francis, Matthew B; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-07-21

    A microdevice is developed for DNA-barcode directed capture of single cells on an array of pH-sensitive microelectrodes for metabolic analysis. Cells are modified with membrane-bound single-stranded DNA, and specific single-cell capture is directed by the complementary strand bound in the sensor area of the iridium oxide pH microelectrodes within a microfluidic channel. This bifunctional microelectrode array is demonstrated for the pH monitoring and differentiation of primary T cells and Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Single Jurkat cells exhibited an extracellular acidification rate of 11 milli-pH min(-1), while primary T cells exhibited only 2 milli-pH min(-1). This system can be used to capture non-adherent cells specifically and to discriminate between visually similar healthy and cancerous cells in a heterogeneous ensemble based on their altered metabolic properties.

  12. Multiplexed Microsphere Suspension-Array Assay for Urine Mitochondrial DNA Typing by C-Stretch Length in Hypervariable Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kimiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Takashi

    2018-07-01

    The standard method for personal identification and verification of urine samples in doping control is short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using nuclear DNA (nDNA). The DNA concentration of urine is very low and decreases under most conditions used for sample storage; therefore, the amount of DNA from cryopreserved urine samples may be insufficient for STR analysis. We aimed to establish a multiplexed assay for urine mitochondrial DNA typing containing only trace amounts of DNA, particularly for Japanese populations. A multiplexed suspension-array assay using oligo-tagged microspheres (Luminex MagPlex-TAG) was developed to measure C-stretch length in hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2), five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and one polymorphic indel. Based on these SNPs and the indel, the Japanese population can be classified into five major haplogroups (D4, B, M7a, A, D5). The assay was applied to DNA samples from urine cryopreserved for 1 - 1.5 years (n = 63) and fresh blood (n = 150). The assay with blood DNA enabled Japanese subjects to be categorized into 62 types, exhibiting a discriminatory power of 0.960. The detection limit for cryopreserved urine was 0.005 ng of nDNA. Profiling of blood and urine pairs revealed that 5 of 63 pairs showed different C-stretch patterns in HV1 or HV2. The assay described here yields valuable information in terms of the verification of urine sample sources employing only trace amounts of recovered DNA. However, blood cannot be used as a reference sample.

  13. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. Results In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. Conclusion Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  14. Biomarker-Based Analysis for Contaminants in Sediments/Soil: Review of Cell-Based Assays and cDNA Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inouye, Laura

    2000-01-01

    This technical note reviews the existing technology for cell-based biomarker assays and cDNA arrays and explores their potential as rapid, sensitive, and low-cost tools for sediment/soil toxicity screening...

  15. Digital quantification of gene methylation in stool DNA by emulsion-PCR coupled with hydrogel immobilized bead-array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Qiang; Song, Qinxin; Rui, Jianzhong; Zou, Bingjie; Zhou, Guohua

    2017-06-15

    Aberrations of gene methylation in stool DNA (sDNA) is an effective biomarker for non-invasive colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, it is challenging to accurately quantitate the gene methylation levels in sDNA due to the low abundance and degradation of sDNA. In this study, a digital quantification strategy was proposed by combining emulsion PCR (emPCR) with hydrogel immobilized bead-array. The assay includes following steps: bisulfite conversion of sDNA, pre-amplification by PCR with specific primers containing 5' universal sequences, emPCR of pre-amplicons with beaded primers to achieve single-molecular amplification and identification of hydrogel embedding beads coated with amplicons. The sensitivity and the specificity of the method are high enough to pick up 0.05% methylated targets from unmethylated DNA background. The successful detection of hypermethylated vimentin gene in clinical stool samples suggests that the proposed method should be a potential tool for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous-Time Random Walk Models of DNA Electrophoresis in a Post Array: II. Mobility and Sources of Band Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel W.; Dutta, Sarit; Laachi, Nabil; Tian, Mingwei; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Using the two-state, continuous-time random walk model, we develop expressions for the mobility and the plate height during DNA electrophoresis in an ordered post array that delineate the contributions due to (i) the random distance between collisions and (ii) the random duration of a collision. These contributions are expressed in terms of the means and variances of the underlying stochastic processes, which we evaluate from a large ensemble of Brownian dynamics simulations performed using different electric fields and molecular weights in a hexagonal array of 1 μm posts with a 3 μm center-to-center distance. If we fix the molecular weight, we find that the collision frequency governs the mobility. In contrast, the average collision duration is the most important factor for predicting the mobility as a function of DNA size at constant Péclet number. The plate height is reasonably well-described by a single post rope-over-pulley model, provided that the extension of the molecule is small. Our results only account for dispersion inside the post array and thus represent a theoretical lower bound on the plate height in an actual device. PMID:21290387

  17. CARAT: A novel method for allelic detection of DNA copy number changes using high density oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Shumpei

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA copy number alterations are one of the main characteristics of the cancer cell karyotype and can contribute to the complex phenotype of these cells. These alterations can lead to gains in cellular oncogenes as well as losses in tumor suppressor genes and can span small intervals as well as involve entire chromosomes. The ability to accurately detect these changes is central to understanding how they impact the biology of the cell. Results We describe a novel algorithm called CARAT (Copy Number Analysis with Regression And Tree that uses probe intensity information to infer copy number in an allele-specific manner from high density DNA oligonuceotide arrays designed to genotype over 100, 000 SNPs. Total and allele-specific copy number estimations using CARAT are independently evaluated for a subset of SNPs using quantitative PCR and allelic TaqMan reactions with several human breast cancer cell lines. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm are characterized using DNA samples containing differing numbers of X chromosomes as well as a test set of normal individuals. Results from the algorithm show a high degree of agreement with results from independent verification methods. Conclusion Overall, CARAT automatically detects regions with copy number variations and assigns a significance score to each alteration as well as generating allele-specific output. When coupled with SNP genotype calls from the same array, CARAT provides additional detail into the structure of genome wide alterations that can contribute to allelic imbalance.

  18. Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Isolated from Serum Using Sequenom MassARRAY Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Large epidemiologic studies have the potential to make valuable contributions to the assessment of gene-environment interactions because they prospectively collected detailed exposure data. Some of these studies, however, have only serum or plasma samples as a low quantity source of DNA.We examined whether DNA isolated from serum can be used to reliably and accurately genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using Sequenom multiplex SNP genotyping technology. We genotyped 81 SNPs using samples from 158 participants in the NYU Women's Health Study. Each participant had DNA from serum and at least one paired DNA sample isolated from a high quality source of DNA, i.e. clots and/or cell precipitates, for comparison.We observed that 60 of the 81 SNPs (74% had high call frequencies (≥95% using DNA from serum, only slightly lower than the 85% of SNPs with high call frequencies in DNA from clots or cell precipitates. Of the 57 SNPs with high call frequencies for serum, clot, and cell precipitate DNA, 54 (95% had highly concordant (>98% genotype calls across all three sample types. High purity was not a critical factor to successful genotyping.Our results suggest that this multiplex SNP genotyping method can be used reliably on DNA from serum in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  19. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying-Hong; Isono, Sayaka; Shibuya, Makoto; Tsuji, Masaharu; Adkar Purushothama, Charith-Raj; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Sano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3) CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in the phyllosphere of apple trees and identify key species

  20. DNA-templated photonic arrays and assemblies: design principles and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wu; Bonnard, Vanessa; Burley, Glenn A

    2011-07-11

    Molecular photonics is a rapidly developing and multi-disciplinary field of research involving the construction of molecular assemblies comprising photoactive building blocks that are responsive to a light stimulus. A salient challenge in this field is the controlled assembly of these building blocks with nanoscale precision. DNA exhibits considerable promise as an architecture for the templated assembly of photoactive materials. In this Concept Article we describe the progress that has been made in the area of DNA photonics, in which DNA acts as a platform for the construction of optoelectronic assemblies, thin films and devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High-Throughput Array Instrument for DNA-Based Breast Cancer Diagnostics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swerdlow, Harold

    2000-01-01

    ...) for breast-cancer diagnostics. These methods are based upon large numbers of discrete DNA spots placed on glass microscope slides typically, and hybridized to a probe derived from a tIssue or blood sample...

  2. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénard, Caroline; Wirth, Jennifer F; Suttle, Curtis A

    2016-06-14

    Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages. Filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc are widespread and ecologically important in freshwater, yet little is known about the genomic content of their viruses. Here we report the first genomic analysis of cyanophages infecting

  3. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research on acceleration of improving the base for biological resource information, and development of a technology to measure gene information (development of the DNA measuring technology using bead arrays); 1998 nendo seibutsu shigen joho kiban seibi kasokuka kenkyu idenshi joho no keisoku gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bizu array wo mochiita DNA keisoku gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It is necessary in the field of post-genoms to know statistical correlation between DNA orientation information and clinical data, which helped growth of DNA probe arrays (DNA chips). However, it is difficult in patent point of view to develop chips in Japan. On the other hand, a movement has begun to use beads fixed with DNA probes in place of DNA chips demarcated on the surface of solids. This is a method to investigate hybridized DNA by means of fluorescent detection, in which each bead retaining the DNA probes is colored to make identification of the retained probes possible, and hybridizing reaction is performed in aqueous solution. Hitachi has developed a DNA measuring technology using bead arrays. The bead array has probe fixing beads of about 100 {mu} m laid sequentially inside a capillary, wherein the array can be used to inspect a large number of genes. Thus, this method can be a DNA measuring technology which is inexpensive, and high in reproducibility. These features lead to a belief that the technology is suitable for gene inspection devices used in the process of medicine development and at the clinical sites. (NEDO)

  4. Multiplex preamplification of specific cDNA targets prior to gene expression analysis by TaqMan Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribal María

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate gene expression quantification using TaqMan Arrays (TA could be limited by the low RNA quantity obtained from some clinical samples. The novel cDNA preamplification system, the TaqMan PreAmp Master Mix kit (TPAMMK, enables a multiplex preamplification of cDNA targets and therefore, could provide a sufficient amount of specific amplicons for their posterior analysis on TA. Findings A multiplex preamplification of 47 genes was performed in 22 samples prior to their analysis by TA, and relative gene expression levels of non-preamplified (NPA and preamplified (PA samples were compared. Overall, the mean cycle threshold (CT decrement in the PA genes was 3.85 (ranging from 2.07 to 5.01. A high correlation (r between the gene expression measurements of NPA and PA samples was found (mean r = 0.970, ranging from 0.937 to 0.994; p Conclusion We demonstrate that cDNA preamplification using the TPAMMK before TA analysis is a reliable approach to simultaneously measure gene expression of multiple targets in a single sample. Moreover, this procedure was validated in genes from degraded RNA samples and low abundance expressed genes. This combined methodology could have wide applications in clinical research, where scarce amounts of degraded RNA are usually obtained and several genes need to be quantified in each sample.

  5. Design and Test of an Oscillation-based System Architecture for DNA Sensor Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Hongyuan; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Richardson, Andrew; Zhang, X.; Nouet, Pascal; Azais, Florence

    2005-01-01

    A DfT strategy for MEMS-based DNA sensors is investigated in this paper. Based on a fault-free and defect model developed for a single sensing element and the VHDL-AMS simulation results, it is implied that an oscillation-based interface might be a potential solution for both testing and read out of

  6. Feasibility of RNA and DNA Extraction from Fresh Pipelle and Archival Endometrial Tissues for Use in Gene Expression and SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D. Kissel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular markers of endometrial hyperplasia (neoplasia progression is critical to cancer prevention. To assess RNA and DNA quantity and quality from routinely collected endometrial samples and evaluate the performance of RNA- and DNA-based arrays across endometrial tissue types, we collected fresh frozen (FF Pipelle, FF curettage, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE hysterectomy specimens (benign indications from eight women. Additionally, neoplastic and uninvolved tissues from 24 FFPE archival hysterectomy specimens with endometrial hyperplasias and carcinomas were assessed. RNA was extracted from 15 of 16 FF and 51 of 51 FFPE samples, with yields >1.2 μg for 13/15 (87% FF and 50/51 (98% FFPE samples. Extracted RNA was of high quality; all samples performed successfully on the Illumina whole-genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation (WG-DASL array and performance did not vary by tissue type. While DNA quantity from FFPE samples was excellent, quality was not sufficient for successful performance on the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0. In conclusion, FF Pipelle samples, which are minimally invasive, yielded excellent quantity and quality of RNA for gene expression arrays (similar to FF curettage and should be considered for use in genomic studies. FFPE-derived DNA should be evaluated on new rapidly evolving sequencing platforms.

  7. GLINT: a user-friendly toolset for the analysis of high-throughput DNA-methylation array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Elior; Yedidim, Reut; Shenhav, Liat; Schweiger, Regev; Weissbrod, Omer; Zaitlen, Noah; Halperin, Eran

    2017-06-15

    GLINT is a user-friendly command-line toolset for fast analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation data generated using the Illumina human methylation arrays. GLINT, which does not require any programming proficiency, allows an easy execution of Epigenome-Wide Association Study analysis pipeline under different models while accounting for known confounders in methylation data. GLINT is a command-line software, freely available at https://github.com/cozygene/glint/releases . It requires Python 2.7 and several freely available Python packages. Further information and documentation as well as a quick start tutorial are available at http://glint-epigenetics.readthedocs.io . elior.rahmani@gmail.com or ehalperin@cs.ucla.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp. Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chénard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages.

  9. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hong He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. METHODS AND FINDINGS: First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in

  10. DNA array analysis of gene expression changes by Choto-san in the ischemic rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Tohda, Michihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Hayashi, Hisae; Murakami, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Choto-san on gene expression in the dementia model rat brain were studied using a DNA microarray system. Choto-san inhibited the expression of 181 genes that has been enhanced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO). Choto-san also reversed the expression inhibition of 32 genes induced by 2VO. These results may suggest that Choto-san, which has been therapeutically used as an antidementive drug, shows therapeutic effects through gene expression cha...

  11. The Species and Origin of Shark Fins in Taiwan’s Fishing Ports, Markets, and Customs Detention: A DNA Barcoding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Shun; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Chang, Hung-An; Huang, Chien-Kang; Shiao, Jen-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing consumption of shark products, along with the shark’s fishing vulnerabilities, has led to the decrease in certain shark populations. In this study we used a DNA barcoding method to identify the species of shark landings at fishing ports, shark fin products in retail stores, and shark fins detained by Taiwan customs. In total we identified 23, 24, and 14 species from 231 fishing landings, 316 fin products, and 113 detained shark fins, respectively. All the three sample sources were dominated by Prionace glauca, which accounted for more than 30% of the collected samples. Over 60% of the species identified in the fin products also appeared in the port landings, suggesting the domestic-dominance of shark fin products in Taiwan. However, international trade also contributes a certain proportion of the fin product markets, as four species identified from the shark fin products are not found in Taiwan’s waters, and some domestic-available species were also found in the customs-detained sample. In addition to the species identification, we also found geographical differentiation in the cox1 gene of the common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus), the pelagic thresher shark (A. pelagicus), the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena), and the scalloped hammerhead shark (S. lewini). This result might allow fishing authorities to more effectively trace the origins as well as enforce the management and conservation of these sharks. PMID:26799827

  12. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  13. Model-based clustering of DNA methylation array data: a recursive-partitioning algorithm for high-dimensional data arising as a mixture of beta distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiemels Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence. One of the most commonly studied epigenetic alterations is cytosine methylation, which is a well recognized mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and often occurs at tumor suppressor gene loci in human cancer. Arrays are now being used to study DNA methylation at a large number of loci; for example, the Illumina GoldenGate platform assesses DNA methylation at 1505 loci associated with over 800 cancer-related genes. Model-based cluster analysis is often used to identify DNA methylation subgroups in data, but it is unclear how to cluster DNA methylation data from arrays in a scalable and reliable manner. Results We propose a novel model-based recursive-partitioning algorithm to navigate clusters in a beta mixture model. We present simulations that show that the method is more reliable than competing nonparametric clustering approaches, and is at least as reliable as conventional mixture model methods. We also show that our proposed method is more computationally efficient than conventional mixture model approaches. We demonstrate our method on the normal tissue samples and show that the clusters are associated with tissue type as well as age. Conclusion Our proposed recursively-partitioned mixture model is an effective and computationally efficient method for clustering DNA methylation data.

  14. Probe design for expression arrays using OligoWiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Since all measurements from a DNA microarray is dependant on the probes used, a good choice of probes is of vital importa nce when designing custom micro-arrays. This chapter describes how to de sign expression arrays using the “ OligoWiz ” software suite. The general desired features of good...... probes and the issues which probe design must address are introduced and a conceptual (rather than mathematical) description of how OligoWiz scores the quality of th e potential probes is presented. This is followed by a detailed step-by-step guide to designing expression arrays with OligoWiz....

  15. Comparison of the cobas Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 and Linear Array HPV DNA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadorra, Mark; LaMere, Brandon J.; Kail, Randi; Aldrich, Carrie; Kinney, Walter; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    The cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test (cobas) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and identifies HPV16 and HPV18 separately as well as detecting a pool of 11 HR-HPV genotypes (HPV31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -68) and also HPV66. We compared cobas, Linear Array (LA), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assays for detection of carcinogenic HPV DNA, and cobas and LA for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA, among the first 1,852 women enrolled in the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort (PaP Cohort) study. Specimens were tested by all 3 assays 1 year after an HC2-positive result. In 1,824 specimens with cobas results, cobas had an 85.9% agreement with HC2 and 91.0% agreement with LA for carcinogenic HPV detection. When results between cobas and HC2 disagreed, cobas tended to call more women HPV positive (P < 0.01). Categorizing cobas and LA results hierarchically according to cancer risk (HPV16, HPV18, other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, or carcinogen negative), there was a 90% agreement for all categories of HPV (n = 1,824). We found good agreement between the two U.S. FDA-approved HPV tests, with discrepancies between the two assays due to specific characteristics of the individual assays. Additional studies are needed to compare HC2 and cobas for detecting and predicting CIN3 to understand the clinical implications of the discrepant test results between the two tests. PMID:22075592

  16. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  17. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  18. Customization Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Taps, Stig B.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of mass customization and product configuration in companies requires fundamental considerations about how products can fulfil the demand from customers. In order to support such decision-making, a multi-level model for customization is developed. This model identifies four different...... levels of customization, ranging from the structure level at the bottom, through the performance level and the experience level, to the learning level at the top. The model also has a dual view with customers/demand at one side and product/supplier at the other side. It is a rather general model, which...... can be applied to many types of products, and typically, product designers must decide how far up in levels the customization should aim. In this paper, the four-level customization model is applied to wheel chairs....

  19. Microneedle arrays coated with charge reversal pH-sensitive copolymers improve antigen presenting cells-homing DNA vaccine delivery and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Huu Thuy Trang; Kim, Nak Won; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Giang Phan, V H; Lee, Min Sang; Yin, Yue; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Doo Sung

    2018-01-10

    Successful delivery of a DNA vaccine to antigen-presenting cells and their subsequent stimulation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cell immunity remains an inefficient process. In general, the delivery of prophylactic vaccines is mainly mired by low transfection efficacy, poor immunogenicity, and safety issues from the materials employed. Currently, several strategies have been exploited to improve immunogenicity, but an effective strategy for safe and pain-free delivery of DNA vaccines is complicated. Herein, we report the rapid delivery of polyplex-based DNA vaccines using microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer and heparin. The charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer, composed of oligo(sulfamethazine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(amino urethane) (OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU), was used as a triggering layer in the polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly on microneedles. Charge reversal characteristics of this copolymer, that is, the OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU copolymer exhibit, positive charge at low pH (pH4.03) and becoming negative charge when exposed to physiological pH conditions (pH7.4), allowing the facile assembly and disassembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers. The electrostatic repulsion between heparin and OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU charge reversal copolymer triggered the release of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines laden on microneedles are effectively transfected into RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Vaccination of BALB/c mice by DNA vaccine-loaded microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer generated antigen-specific robust immune responses. These findings provide potential strategy of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymers coated microneedles for DNA vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. DNA-Sequence Based Typing of the Cronobacter Genus Using MLST, CRISPR-cas Array and Capsular Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ogrodzki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, within which a number of pathovars have been described. The most notable infections by Cronobacter spp. are of infants through the consumption of contaminated infant formula. The description of the genus has greatly improved in recent years through DNA sequencing techniques, and this has led to a robust means of identification. However some species are highly clonal and this limits the ability to discriminate between unrelated strains by some methods of genotyping. This article updates the application of three genotyping methods across the Cronobacter genus. The three genotyping methods were multilocus sequence typing (MLST, capsular profiling of the K-antigen and colanic acid (CA biosynthesis regions, and CRISPR-cas array profiling. A total of 1654 MLST profiled and 286 whole genome sequenced strains, available by open access at the PubMLST Cronobacter database, were used this analysis. The predominance of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus in clinical infections was confirmed. The majority of clinical strains being in the C. sakazakii clonal complexes (CC 1 and 4, sequence types (ST 8 and 12 and C. malonaticus ST7. The capsular profile K2:CA2, previously proposed as being strongly associated with C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates from severe neonatal infections, was also found in C. turicensis, C. dublinensis and C. universalis. The majority of CRISPR-cas types across the genus was the I-E (Ecoli type. Some strains of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii encoded the I-F (Ypseudo type, and others lacked the cas gene loci. The significance of the expanding profiling will be of benefit to researchers as well as governmental and industrial risk assessors.

  1. DNA-Sequence Based Typing of the Cronobacter Genus Using MLST, CRISPR-cas Array and Capsular Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Pauline; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    The Cronobacter genus is composed of seven species, within which a number of pathovars have been described. The most notable infections by Cronobacter spp. are of infants through the consumption of contaminated infant formula. The description of the genus has greatly improved in recent years through DNA sequencing techniques, and this has led to a robust means of identification. However some species are highly clonal and this limits the ability to discriminate between unrelated strains by some methods of genotyping. This article updates the application of three genotyping methods across the Cronobacter genus. The three genotyping methods were multilocus sequence typing (MLST), capsular profiling of the K -antigen and colanic acid (CA) biosynthesis regions, and CRISPR- cas array profiling. A total of 1654 MLST profiled and 286 whole genome sequenced strains, available by open access at the PubMLST Cronobacter database, were used this analysis. The predominance of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus in clinical infections was confirmed. The majority of clinical strains being in the C. sakazakii clonal complexes (CC) 1 and 4, sequence types (ST) 8 and 12 and C. malonaticus ST7. The capsular profile K2:CA2, previously proposed as being strongly associated with C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates from severe neonatal infections, was also found in C. turicensis , C. dublinensis and C. universalis . The majority of CRISPR- cas types across the genus was the I-E (Ecoli) type. Some strains of C. dublinensis and C. muytjensii encoded the I-F (Ypseudo) type, and others lacked the cas gene loci. The significance of the expanding profiling will be of benefit to researchers as well as governmental and industrial risk assessors.

  2. Development of maizeSNP3072, a high-throughput compatible SNP array, for DNA fingerprinting identification of Chinese maize varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Li; Wang, Feng-Ge; Zhao, Jiu-Ran; Yi, Hong-Mei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yang; Song, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant and evenly distributed throughout the maize ( Zea mays L.) genome. SNPs have several advantages over simple sequence repeats, such as ease of data comparison and integration, high-throughput processing of loci, and identification of associated phenotypes. SNPs are thus ideal for DNA fingerprinting, genetic diversity analysis, and marker-assisted breeding. Here, we developed a high-throughput and compatible SNP array, maizeSNP3072, containing 3072 SNPs developed from the maizeSNP50 array. To improve genotyping efficiency, a high-quality cluster file, maizeSNP3072_GT.egt, was constructed. All 3072 SNP loci were localized within different genes, where they were distributed in exons (43 %), promoters (21 %), 3' untranslated regions (UTRs; 22 %), 5' UTRs (9 %), and introns (5 %). The average genotyping failure rate using these SNPs was only 6 %, or 3 % using the cluster file to call genotypes. The genotype consistency of repeat sample analysis on Illumina GoldenGate versus Infinium platforms exceeded 96.4 %. The minor allele frequency (MAF) of the SNPs averaged 0.37 based on data from 309 inbred lines. The 3072 SNPs were highly effective for distinguishing among 276 examined hybrids. Comparative analysis using Chinese varieties revealed that the 3072SNP array showed a better marker success rate and higher average MAF values, evaluation scores, and variety-distinguishing efficiency than the maizeSNP50K array. The maizeSNP3072 array thus can be successfully used in DNA fingerprinting identification of Chinese maize varieties and shows potential as a useful tool for germplasm resource evaluation and molecular marker-assisted breeding.

  3. Quantitation of heteroplasmy of mtDNA sequence variants identified in a population of AD patients and controls by array-based resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Keith D; Valla, Jon; Szelinger, Szabolics; Schneider, Lonnie E; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Brown, Kevin M; Pearson, John V; Halperin, Rebecca; Dunckley, Travis; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Caselli, Richard J; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich A

    2006-08-01

    The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been well documented. Though evidence for the role of mitochondria in AD seems incontrovertible, the impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in AD etiology remains controversial. Though mutations in mitochondrially encoded genes have repeatedly been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, many of these studies have been plagued by lack of replication as well as potential contamination of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes. To assess the role of mtDNA mutations in the pathogenesis of AD, while avoiding the pitfalls of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes encountered in previous investigations and showcasing the benefits of a novel resequencing technology, we sequenced the entire coding region (15,452 bp) of mtDNA from 19 extremely well-characterized AD patients and 18 age-matched, unaffected controls utilizing a new, reliable, high-throughput array-based resequencing technique, the Human MitoChip. High-throughput, array-based DNA resequencing of the entire mtDNA coding region from platelets of 37 subjects revealed the presence of 208 loci displaying a total of 917 sequence variants. There were no statistically significant differences in overall mutational burden between cases and controls, however, 265 independent sites of statistically significant change between cases and controls were identified. Changed sites were found in genes associated with complexes I (30.2%), III (3.0%), IV (33.2%), and V (9.1%) as well as tRNA (10.6%) and rRNA (14.0%). Despite their statistical significance, the subtle nature of the observed changes makes it difficult to determine whether they represent true functional variants involved in AD etiology or merely naturally occurring dissimilarity. Regardless, this study demonstrates the tremendous value of this novel mtDNA resequencing platform, which avoids the pitfalls of erroneously amplifying nuclear-encoded mtDNA pseudogenes, and

  4. Transcriptomic SNP discovery for custom genotyping arrays: impacts of sequence data, SNP calling method and genotyping technology on the probability of validation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Emily; Thorne, Michael A S; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-08-26

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery is an important goal of many studies. However, the number of 'putative' SNPs discovered from a sequence resource may not provide a reliable indication of the number that will successfully validate with a given genotyping technology. For this it may be necessary to account for factors such as the method used for SNP discovery and the type of sequence data from which it originates, suitability of the SNP flanking sequences for probe design, and genomic context. To explore the relative importance of these and other factors, we used Illumina sequencing to augment an existing Roche 454 transcriptome assembly for the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). We then mapped the raw Illumina reads to the new hybrid transcriptome using BWA and BOWTIE2 before calling SNPs with GATK. The resulting markers were pooled with two existing sets of SNPs called from the original 454 assembly using NEWBLER and SWAP454. Finally, we explored the extent to which SNPs discovered using these four methods overlapped and predicted the corresponding validation outcomes for both Illumina Infinium iSelect HD and Affymetrix Axiom arrays. Collating markers across all discovery methods resulted in a global list of 34,718 SNPs. However, concordance between the methods was surprisingly poor, with only 51.0 % of SNPs being discovered by more than one method and 13.5 % being called from both the 454 and Illumina datasets. Using a predictive modeling approach, we could also show that SNPs called from the Illumina data were on average more likely to successfully validate, as were SNPs called by more than one method. Above and beyond this pattern, predicted validation outcomes were also consistently better for Affymetrix Axiom arrays. Our results suggest that focusing on SNPs called by more than one method could potentially improve validation outcomes. They also highlight possible differences between alternative genotyping technologies that could be

  5. Zinc finger arrays binding human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 genomic DNA: precursors of gene-therapeutics for in-situ reversal of associated cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV types 16 and 18 are the high-risk, sexually transmitted infectious causes of most cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN or cancers. While efficacious vaccines to reduce the sexual acquisition of these high-risk HPVs have recently been introduced, no virus-targeted therapies exist for those already exposed and infected. Considering the oncogenic role of the transforming (E6 and E7 genes of high-risk HPVs in the slow pathogenesis of cervical cancer, we hypothesize that timely disruption or abolition of HPV genome expression within pre-cancerous lesions identified at screening may reverse neoplasia. We aimed to derive model zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs for mutagenesis of the genomes of two high-risk HPV (types 16 & 18. Methods and results Using ZiFiT software and the complete genomes of HPV types16 and 18, we computationally generated the consensus amino acid sequences of the DNA-binding domains (F1, F2, & F3 of (i 296 & 327 contextually unpaired (or single three zinc-finger arrays (sZFAs and (ii 9 & 13 contextually paired (left and right three- zinc-finger arrays (pZFAs that bind genomic DNA of HPV-types 16 and 18 respectively, inclusive of the E7 gene (s/pZFAHpV/E7. In the absence of contextually paired three-zinc-finger arrays (pZFAs that bind DNA corresponding to the genomic context of the E6 gene of either HPV type, we derived the DNA binding domains of another set of 9 & 14 contextually unpaired E6 gene-binding ZFAs (sZFAE6 to aid the future quest for paired ZFAs to target E6 gene sequences in both HPV types studied (pZFAE6. This paper presents models for (i synthesis of hybrid ZFNs that cleave within the genomic DNA of either HPV type, by linking the gene sequences of the DNA-cleavage domain of the FokI endonuclease FN to the gene sequences of a member of the paired-HPV-binding ZFAs (pZFAHpV/E7 + FN, and (ii delivery of the same into precancerous lesions using HPV-derived viral plasmids or

  6. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  7. Customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmir, Rade B

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to present an analysis of the literature examining objective information concerning the subject of customer service, as it applies to the current medical practice. Hopefully, this information will be synthesized to generate a cogent approach to correlate customer service with quality. Articles were obtained by an English language search of MEDLINE from January 1976 to July 2005. This computerized search was supplemented with literature from the author's personal collection of peer-reviewed articles on customer service in a medical setting. This information was presented in a qualitative fashion. There is a significant lack of objective data correlating customer service objectives, patient satisfaction and quality of care. Patients present predominantly for the convenience of emergency department care. Specifics of satisfaction are directed to the timing, and amount of "caring". Demographic correlates including symptom presentation, practice style, location and physician issues directly impact on satisfaction. It is most helpful to develop a productive plan for the "difficult patient", emphasizing communication and empathy. Profiling of the customer satisfaction experience is best accomplished by examining the specifics of satisfaction, nature of the ED patient, demographic profile, symptom presentation and physician interventions emphasizing communication--especially with the difficult patient. The current emergency medicine customer service dilemmas are a complex interaction of both patient and physician factors specifically targeting both efficiency and patient satisfaction. Awareness of these issues particular to the emergency patient can help to maximize efficiency, minimize subsequent medicolegal risk and improve patient care if a tailored management plan is formulated.

  8. Hedging customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ravi; Glazer, Rashi

    2003-05-01

    You are a marketing director with $5 million to invest in customer acquisition and retention. Which customers do you acquire, and which do you retain? Up to a point, the choice is obvious: Keep the consistent big spenders and lose the erratic small ones. But what about the erratic big spenders and the consistent small ones? It's often unclear whether you should acquire or retain them and at what cost. Businesses have begun dealing with unpredictable customer behavior by following the practices of sophisticated investors who own portfolios comprising dozens of stocks with different, indeed divergent, histories and prospects. Each portfolio is diversified so as to produce the investor's desired returns at the particular level of uncertainty he or she can tolerate. Customers, too, are assets--risky assets. As with stocks, the cost of acquiring them is supposed to reflect the cash-flow values they are likely to generate. The authors explain how to construct a portfolio based on the notion that a customer's risk-adjusted lifetime value depends on its anticipated effect on the riskiness of the group it is joining. They also show how this approach was used to identify the best prospects for Myron Corporation, a global leader in the personalized business-gift industry. The concept of risk-adjusted lifetime value has a transforming power: For companies that rely on it, product managers will be replaced by customer managers, and the current method of accounting for profit and loss--which is by product--will be replaced by one that determines each customer's P&L. Once adjusted for risk, those P&Ls will become the firm's key performance and operational metric.

  9. Customer portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Ann Højbjerg; Freytag, Per Vagn; Zolkiewski, Judith

    2017-01-01

    gives managers a tool to help to cope with the dynamic aspects of the customer portfolio. Recognition of the importance of communication to the process, the development of trust and the role of legitimacy also provides areas that managers can focus upon in their relationship management processes......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend the discussion about customer portfolios beyond simple identification of models and how they can be used for balanced resource allocation to a discussion about how portfolios should take into account views from relationship partners and how they should...... that helps improve the understanding of how customer portfolio models can actually be applied from a relational perspective. Findings The key aspects of the conceptual framework relate to how alignment of the relationships in the portfolio is achieved. Critical to this are the interaction spaces...

  10. Customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  11. Customer Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Li, Min; Jiao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ruijin

    The contemporary company attaches great importance to marketing relationship and customer relations is the core of this relationship. Further, customer satisfaction and loyalty is the core of the customer relationship management. Sometimes, high customer satisfaction causes low profit because enterprises do not realize that strengthening the loyalty of the aimed customer is the key of customer relationship management.

  12. A complex array of Hpr consensus DNA recognition sequences proximal to the enterotoxin gene in Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynestad, S; Iwanejko, L A; Stewart, G S; Granum, P E

    1994-01-01

    Enterotoxin production in Clostridium perfringens is both strain dependent and sporulation associated. Underlying these phenotypic observations must lie a genetic and molecular explanation and the principal keys will be held within the DNA sequence both upstream and downstream of the structural gene cpe. In accordance with the above we have sequenced 4.1 kbp of DNA upstream of cpe in the type strain NCTC 8239. A region of DNA extending up to 1.5 kb 5' to cpe is conserved in all enterotoxin-positive strains. This region contains a putative ORF with substantial homology to an ORF in the Salmonella typhimurium IS200 insertion element and, in addition, contains multiple perfect consensus DNA-binding sequences for the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator Hpr. The detailed structural elements revealed by the sequence analysis are presented and used to develop a new perspective on the molecular basis of enterotoxin production in this important food-poisoning bacterium.

  13. The Customer Service Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chip R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to embed customer service learning and customer loyalty including making customers think, examining every aspect of customers' service encounters with staff, providing follow-up, making learning fun, and involving customers in your business. (JOW)

  14. A new sieving matrix for DNA sequencing, genotyping and mutation detection and high-throughput genotyping with a 96-capillary array system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Capillary electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a fast separation technique in DNA analysis. In this dissertation, a new sieving matrix is described for DNA analysis, especially DNA sequencing, genetic typing and mutation detection. A high-throughput 96 capillary array electrophoresis system was also demonstrated for simultaneous multiple genotyping. The authors first evaluated the influence of different capillary coatings on the performance of DNA sequencing. A bare capillary was compared with a DB-wax, an FC-coated and a polyvinylpyrrolidone dynamically coated capillary with PEO as sieving matrix. It was found that covalently-coated capillaries had no better performance than bare capillaries while PVP coating provided excellent and reproducible results. The authors also developed a new sieving Matrix for DNA separation based on commercially available poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). This sieving matrix has a very low viscosity and an excellent self-coating effect. Successful separations were achieved in uncoated capillaries. Sequencing of M13mp18 showed good resolution up to 500 bases in treated PVP solution. Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis and PVP solution was applied to mutation detection. A heteroduplex sample and a homoduplex reference were injected during a pair of continuous runs. A temperature gradient of 10 C with a ramp of 0.7 C/min was swept throughout the capillary. Detection was accomplished by laser induced fluorescence detection. Mutation detection was performed by comparing the pattern changes between the homoduplex and the heteroduplex samples. High throughput, high detection rate and easy operation were achieved in this system. They further demonstrated fast and reliable genotyping based on CTTv STR system by multiple-capillary array electrophoresis. The PCR products from individuals were mixed with pooled allelic ladder as an absolute standard and coinjected with a 96-vial tray. Simultaneous one-color laser-induced fluorescence

  15. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... application of financial analysis can lead to dysfunctional decisions that run counter to a company’s business model....

  16. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  17. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10-11 M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  18. ReseqChip: Automated integration of multiple local context probe data from the MitoChip array in mitochondrial DNA sequence assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spang Rainer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 is an oligonucleotide tiling array for the resequencing of the human mitochondrial (mt genome. For each of 16,569 nucleotide positions of the mt genome it holds two sets of four 25-mer probes each that match the heavy and the light strand of a reference mt genome and vary only at their central position to interrogate all four possible alleles. In addition, the MitoChip v2.0 carries alternative local context probes to account for known mtDNA variants. These probes have been neglected in most studies due to the lack of software for their automated analysis. Results We provide ReseqChip, a free software that automates the process of resequencing mtDNA using multiple local context probes on the MitoChip v2.0. ReseqChip significantly improves base call rate and sequence accuracy. ReseqChip is available at http://code.open-bio.org/svnweb/index.cgi/bioperl/browse/bioperl-live/trunk/Bio/Microarray/Tools/. Conclusions ReseqChip allows for the automated consolidation of base calls from alternative local mt genome context probes. It thereby improves the accuracy of resequencing, while reducing the number of non-called bases.

  19. Development and validation of an Haemophilus influenzae supragenome hybridization (SGH array for transcriptomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Janto

    Full Text Available We previously carried out the design and testing of a custom-built Haemophilus influenzae supragenome hybridization (SGH array that contains probe sequences to 2,890 gene clusters identified by whole genome sequencing of 24 strains of H. influenzae. The array was originally designed as a tool to interrogate the gene content of large numbers of clinical isolates without the need for sequencing, however, the data obtained is quantitative and is thus suitable for transcriptomic analyses. In the current study RNA was extracted from H. influenzae strain CZ4126/02 (which was not included in the design of the array converted to cDNA, and labelled and hybridized to the SGH arrays to assess the quality and reproducibility of data obtained from these custom-designed chips to serve as a tool for transcriptomics. Three types of experimental replicates were analyzed with all showing very high degrees of correlation, thus validating both the array and the methods used for RNA profiling. A custom filtering pipeline for two-condition unpaired data using five metrics was developed to minimize variability within replicates and to maximize the identification of the most significant true transcriptional differences between two samples. These methods can be extended to transcriptional analysis of other bacterial species utilizing supragenome-based arrays.

  20. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business

  1. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  2. Are loyal customers profitable? : customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Øyvind

    2000-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is supposed to be positively related to profitability. This conception may be called “the paradigm of customer satisfaction”. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined this fundamental relationship. Thus, evidence for this “much talked about relationship” is questioned. In this working paper the focus is on the individual customer with respect to the relationships between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the customer level. The f...

  3. Ultra-high-density 3D DNA arrays within nanoporous biocompatible membranes for single-molecule-level detection and purification of circulating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Fox, K.; Karle, T. J.; Lohrmann, A.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    alumina membrane. The few nanometer-thick, yet perfect and continuous DLC-coating confers the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the sensor, allowing its direct application in biological conditions. The selective detection is based on complementary hybridization of a fluorescently-tagged circulating cancer oncomarker (a 21-mer nucleic acid) with covalently immobilized DNA on the surface of the membrane. The captured DNAs are detected in the nanoporous structure of the sensor using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The flow-through membrane sensor demonstrates broad-range sensitivity, spanning from 1015 molecules per cm2 down to single molecules, which is several orders of magnitude improvement compared to the flat DNA microarrays. Our study suggests that these flow-through type nanoporous sensors represent a new powerful platform for large volume sampling and ultrasensitive detection of different chemical biomarkers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Time dependent fluorescence intensity measurements, photoluminescence decay on flat and nanoporous arrays, fluorophore time traces and photoluminescence of AAO and DLC-AAO. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07351g

  4. Customer Clustering Based on Customer Purchasing Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Chung Liu; Yen-Liang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Customer clustering has become a priority for enterprises because of the importance of customer relationship management. Customer clustering can improve understanding of the composition and characteristics of customers, thereby enabling the creation of appropriate marketing strategies for each customer group. Previously, different customer clustering approaches have been proposed according to data type, namely customer profile data, customer value data, customer transaction data, and customer...

  5. Customer Relationship Management: Upaya Pencapaian Profitabilitas Jangka Panjang

    OpenAIRE

    Triastity, Rahayu

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly and constantly changing business environment has forced businesses to reconsider their strategies in maintaining their customer base. Customers nowadays have a wide array of product choices, and worst – they are becoming increasingly disloyal. Such facts pose serious threats for some companies. For those who want to keep their customer base, an integrated approach of maintaining and managing customer relationship must be taken. This article proposes an integrated framework of mana...

  6. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  7. Identification of transcription coactivator OCA-B-dependent genes involved in antigen-dependent B cell differentiation by cDNA array analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Unkyu; Siegel, Rachael; Ren, Xiaodi; Gunther, Cary S; Gaasterland, Terry; Roeder, Robert G

    2003-07-22

    The tissue-specific transcriptional coactivator OCA-B is required for antigen-dependent B cell differentiation events, including germinal center formation. However, the identity of OCA-B target genes involved in this process is unknown. This study has used large-scale cDNA arrays to monitor changes in gene expression patterns that accompany mature B cell differentiation. B cell receptor ligation alone induces many genes involved in B cell expansion, whereas B cell receptor and helper T cell costimulation induce genes associated with B cell effector function. OCA-B expression is induced by both B cell receptor ligation alone and helper T cell costimulation, suggesting that OCA-B is involved in B cell expansion as well as B cell function. Accordingly, several genes involved in cell proliferation and signaling, such as Lck, Kcnn4, Cdc37, cyclin D3, B4galt1, and Ms4a11, have been identified as OCA-B-dependent genes. Further studies on the roles played by these genes in B cells will contribute to an understanding of B cell differentiation.

  8. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Rebecca L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis.

  9. Application of oligonucleotide array CGH to the simultaneous detection of a deletion in the nuclear TK2 gene and mtDNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulin; Li, Fang-Yuan; Bass, Harold N; Pursley, Amber; Schmitt, Eric S; Brown, Blaire L; Brundage, Ellen K; Mardach, Rebecca; Wong, Lee-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), encoded by the TK2 gene on chromosome 16q22, is one of the deoxyribonucleoside kinases responsible for the maintenance of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide pools. Defects in TK2 mainly cause a myopathic form of the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDDS). Currently, only point mutations and small insertions and deletions have been reported in TK2 gene; gross rearrangements of TK2 gene and possible hepatic involvement in patients with TK2 mutations have not been described. We report a non-consanguineous Jordanian family with three deceased siblings due to mtDNA depletion. Sequence analysis of the father detected a heterozygous c.761T>A (p.I254N) mutation in his TK2 gene; however, point mutations in the mother were not detected. Subsequent gene dosage analysis using oligonucleotide array CGH identified an intragenic approximately 5.8-kb deletion encompassing the 5'UTR to intron 2 of her TK2 gene. Sequence analysis confirmed that the deletion spans c.1-495 to c.283-2899 of the TK2 gene (nucleotide 65,136,256-65,142,086 of chromosome 16). Analysis of liver and muscle specimens from one of the deceased infants in this family revealed compound heterozygosity for the paternal point mutation and maternal intragenic deletion. In addition, a significant reduction of the mtDNA content in liver and muscle was detected (10% and 20% of age- and tissue-matched controls, respectively). Prenatal diagnosis was performed in the third pregnancy. The fetus was found to carry both the point mutation and the deletion. This child died 6months after birth due to myopathy. A serum specimen demonstrated elevated liver transaminases in two of the infants from whom results were available. This report expands the mutation spectrum associated with TK2 deficiency. While the myopathic form of MDDS appears to be the main phenotype of TK2 mutations, liver dysfunction may also be a part of the mitochondrial depletion syndrome caused by TK2 gene defects.

  10. Talking about Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Mary; Axelroth, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses customer service in information centers and how to define it. Topics include the effects of competition, that give customers more choices; defining customers, and defining services; communications; physical environment; change, in customers and in technology; measuring customer service; and evaluating policies and procedures. (LRW)

  11. From connection to customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatz, H.; Soeters, R.

    2001-01-01

    Energy companies can no longer be certain that a customer today will remain a customer tomorrow. They have to work hard to achieve that. They are going from thinking in terms of connections to pampering their customers. Good Customer Relationship Management is a way to achieve a competitive advantage. The whole organisation has to adapt, particularly the customer orientation of employees

  12. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  13. Customer Equity von KMUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for

  14. Development and evaluation of a 16S ribosomal DNA array-based approach for describing complex microbial communities in ready-to-eat vegetable salads packed in a modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Knut; Flateland, Signe L; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Bengtsson, Gunnar; Nissen, Hilde

    2002-03-01

    There is a clear need for new approaches in the field of microbial community analyses, since the methods used can be severely biased. We have developed a DNA array-based method that targets 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), enabling the direct detection and quantification of microorganisms from complex communities without cultivation. The approach is based on the construction of specific probes from the 16S rDNA sequence data retrieved directly from the communities. The specificity of the assay is obtained through a combination of DNA array hybridization and enzymatic labeling of the constructed probes. Cultivation-dependent assays (enrichment and plating) and cultivation-independent assays (direct fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) were used as reference methods in the development and evaluation of the method. The description of microbial communities in ready-to-eat vegetable salads in a modified atmosphere was used as the experimental model. Comparisons were made with respect to the effect of storage at different temperatures for up to 12 days and with respect to the geographic origin of the crisphead lettuce (Spanish or Norwegian), the main salad component. The conclusion drawn from the method comparison was that the DNA array-based method gave an accurate description of the microbial communities. Pseudomonas spp. dominated both of the salad batches, containing either Norwegian or Spanish lettuce, before storage and after storage at 4 degrees C. The Pseudomonas population also dominated the batch containing Norwegian lettuce after storage at 10 degrees C. On the contrary, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbial community of the batch containing Spanish lettuce after storage at 10 degrees C. In that batch, the Enterobacteriaceae also were abundant after storage at 4 degrees C as well as before storage. The practical implications of these results are that microbial communities in ready-to-eat vegetable salads can be

  15. Radioactive cDNA microarray in neurospsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Shin, Kyung Ho; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2003-01-01

    Microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes, in a systematic fashion, under a similar set of experimental conditions, thus making the data highly comparable. In some cases arrays are used simply as a primary screen leading to downstream molecular characterization of individual gene candidates. In other cases, the goal of expression profiling is to begin to identify complex regulatory networks underlying developmental processes and disease states. Microarrays were originally used with cell lines or other simple model systems. More recently, microarrays have been used in the analysis of more complex biological tissues including neural systems and the brain. The application of cDNA arrays in neuropsychiatry has lagged behind other fields for a number of reasons. These include a requirement for a large amount of input probe RNA in fluorescent-glass based array systems and the cellular complexity introduced by multicellular brain and neural tissues. An additional factor that impacts the general use of microarrays in neuropsychiatry is the lack of availability of sequenced clone sets from model systems. While human cDNA clones have been widely available, high quality rat, mouse, and drosophilae, among others are just becoming widely available. A final factor in the application of cDNA microarrays in neuropsychiatry is cost of commercial arrays. As academic microarray facilitates become more commonplace custom made arrays will become more widely available at a lower cost allowing more widespread applications. In summary, microarray technology is rapidly having an impact on many areas of biomedical research. Radioisotope-nylon based microarrays offer alternatives that may in some cases be more sensitive, flexible, inexpensive, and universal as compared to other array formats, such as fluorescent-glass arrays. In some situations of limited RNA or exotic species, radioactive membrane microarrays may be the most

  16. Radioactive cDNA microarray in neurospsychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Shin, Kyung Ho; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Meyoung Kon [Korea University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes, in a systematic fashion, under a similar set of experimental conditions, thus making the data highly comparable. In some cases arrays are used simply as a primary screen leading to downstream molecular characterization of individual gene candidates. In other cases, the goal of expression profiling is to begin to identify complex regulatory networks underlying developmental processes and disease states. Microarrays were originally used with cell lines or other simple model systems. More recently, microarrays have been used in the analysis of more complex biological tissues including neural systems and the brain. The application of cDNA arrays in neuropsychiatry has lagged behind other fields for a number of reasons. These include a requirement for a large amount of input probe RNA in fluorescent-glass based array systems and the cellular complexity introduced by multicellular brain and neural tissues. An additional factor that impacts the general use of microarrays in neuropsychiatry is the lack of availability of sequenced clone sets from model systems. While human cDNA clones have been widely available, high quality rat, mouse, and drosophilae, among others are just becoming widely available. A final factor in the application of cDNA microarrays in neuropsychiatry is cost of commercial arrays. As academic microarray facilitates become more commonplace custom made arrays will become more widely available at a lower cost allowing more widespread applications. In summary, microarray technology is rapidly having an impact on many areas of biomedical research. Radioisotope-nylon based microarrays offer alternatives that may in some cases be more sensitive, flexible, inexpensive, and universal as compared to other array formats, such as fluorescent-glass arrays. In some situations of limited RNA or exotic species, radioactive membrane microarrays may be the most

  17. Improving Internal Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    34Companies are recognizing that treating customers and associates like people has a very high value" (21:20). 2 Customer service has become more that... customer service is also a strategy with the focus towards people , not product (24:1). Customers are demanding quality service for several reasons...34 (39:45). External Customers . External customers are an organization’s ultimate consumers . They purchase the end product or service an organization

  18. Customer Relationship Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Leon

    2018-01-01

    Contents: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Concept of CRM, 3) The Customer Service/Sales Profile, 4) Customer Relationship, 5) Planning and implementing CRM projects, 6) Developing, managing and using customer-related databases, 7) Managing and Sharing Customer Data, 8) Tools for Capturing Customer Information, 9) E-Commerce: Customer Relationships on the Internet, 10) Information Technology for CRM, 11) Sales-force automation, 12) Marketing automation, 13) Service automation, 14) Presentations, 15)...

  19. King customer forever: Customer satisfaction and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myuers James

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available "King Customer!" So proclaimed the front cover of Business Week in a 1989 issue. At about the same time, "Rediscovering the Customer" was the title of a series of company vignettes in Fortune magazine. And a Wall Street Journal article asked, "For Customers, More Than Lip Service?" Combined, these three prestigious business publications reflected a new era in business firms perceptions of their customers and the role they should play in the formulation of company strategies and priorities. Had the "Era of the Customer" finally arrived in American business? .

  20. Pengaruh Customer Service Quality, Customer Perceived Value, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Trust Dan Switching Barriers Terhadap Customer Retention.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardjanti, Adiati; Amalia, Dinna

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh customer service quality, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, customer trust dan switching barriers terhadap customer retention. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pengujian hipotesis (testing hypotesis). Pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling dan keseluruhan hipotesis diuji dengan metode structural equation modeling yang menggunakan Amos 7.0. Data dalam peneliti...

  1. The IronChip evaluation package: a package of perl modules for robust analysis of custom microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazma Alvis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies greatly contribute to our understanding of complex relationships in gene regulatory networks. However, the complexity of array design, production and manipulations are limiting factors, affecting data quality. The use of customized DNA microarrays improves overall data quality in many situations, however, only if for these specifically designed microarrays analysis tools are available. Results The IronChip Evaluation Package (ICEP is a collection of Perl utilities and an easy to use data evaluation pipeline for the analysis of microarray data with a focus on data quality of custom-designed microarrays. The package has been developed for the statistical and bioinformatical analysis of the custom cDNA microarray IronChip but can be easily adapted for other cDNA or oligonucleotide-based designed microarray platforms. ICEP uses decision tree-based algorithms to assign quality flags and performs robust analysis based on chip design properties regarding multiple repetitions, ratio cut-off, background and negative controls. Conclusions ICEP is a stand-alone Windows application to obtain optimal data quality from custom-designed microarrays and is freely available here (see "Additional Files" section and at: http://www.alice-dsl.net/evgeniy.vainshtein/ICEP/

  2. Customer relationship management

    OpenAIRE

    Gudeliūnas, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    My name is Mindaugas Gudeliūnas. My bachelors thesis topic is "Customer Relationship Management". The main goal of my work was to investigate customers relationship management and to create modern system, which is fast, easy to use and made for small business. Customer relationship management is really beneficial for a lot of companies. It can make your relationships with a customer more reliable and loyal, it can automate a lot of processes, which are related to customer management, human re...

  3. Customer relationship management system

    OpenAIRE

    Selenis, Laimonas

    2004-01-01

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is one of the biggest problems for many companies today. By analyzing history records (profiles) of its customers, organization can effectively adapt its business activity to users needs and create better products and services. Proper analysis of customer profiles can help to predict the behaviour of the customers. After grouping customer profiles by similar attributes, company can easier handle its interactions with similar users. Such group profiling c...

  4. Managing customer knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Phil. (Information Management) Customer relationship management has been exposed as a strategic failure, unveiling only customer dissatisfaction. A new method for managing customers is consequently required. The effect of the knowledge economy has brought about a change in global orientation, in the focus on customer wants and needs to increase satisfaction. There was then a shift in focus from information to knowledge. In such an economy, the customer knowledge management strategy, as ...

  5. Customer satisfaction and competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Paola; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    We empirically address how customer satisfaction and loyalty in the banking industry may affect profitability. This helps to identify the strategy and competencies necessary to benefit from customer relationships which are important sources for improved performance in the banking. We do......, loyalty is a mediator between financial and not-financial customer value and two sources of customer satisfaction, namely relationships with the front office and the branch, on the one hand, and the products offered, on the other....... this by analyzing data collected on 2,105 customers of 118 branches of one of the biggest banks of an Italian banking group. We find that customer satisfaction impacts loyalty, which in turn has a direct effect on financial and non-financial customer value/total customer value/complex customer value. Moreover...

  6. Customer engagement behavior : Theoretical foundations and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, J.; Lemon, K.N.; Mittal, V.; Nass, S.; Pick, D.; Pirner, P.; Verhoef, P.C.

    This article develops and discusses the concept of customer engagement behaviors (CEB), which we define as the customers' behavioral manifestation toward a brand or firm, beyond purchase, resulting from motivational drivers. CEBs include a vast array of behaviors including word-of-mouth (WOM)

  7. Pengaruh Customer Relationship Management (Crm) Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Dan Customer Loyalty Pada Pelanggan Matahari Department Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Meyske

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect Benefits of Customer Relationship Management and Customer satisfation to Customer Loyalty in Customers Matahari Department Store. Customer relationship management (CRM) is part of a marketing strategy to get satisfaction and increase customer loyalty. CRM and customer satisfaction can encourage customer loyalty where customers do not easily switch to other companies. The population is all customers Matahari Department Store, and the sample are ...

  8. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  9. A novel probe density controllable electrochemiluminescence biosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of Hg2+ based on DNA hybridization optimization with gold nanoparticles array patterned self-assembly platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Zhang, An; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Zixuan; Chen, Yaowen; Lu, Fushen; Chen, Zhanguang

    2013-11-15

    Biosensor based on DNA hybridization holds great potential to get higher sensitivity as the optimal DNA hybridization efficiency can be achieved by controlling the distribution and orientation of probe strands on the transducer surface. In this work, an innovative strategy is reported to tap the sensitivity potential of current electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing system by dispersedly anchoring the DNA beacons on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) array which was electrodeposited on the glassy carbon electrode surface, rather than simply sprawling the coil-like strands onto planar gold surface. The strategy was developed by designing a "signal-on" ECL biosensing switch fabricated on the GNPs nanopatterned electrode surface for enhanced ultra-sensitivity detection of Hg(2+). A 57-mer hairpin-DNA labeled with ferrocene as ECL quencher and a 13-mer DNA labeled with Ru(bpy)3(2+) as reporter were hybridized to construct the signal generator in off-state. A 31-mer thymine (T)-rich capture-DNA was introduced to form T-T mismatches with the loop sequence of the hairpin-DNA in the presence of Hg(2+) and induce the stem-loop open, meanwhile the ECL "signal-on" was triggered. The peak sensitivity with the lowest detection limit of 0.1 nM was achieved with the optimal GNPs number density while exorbitant GNPs deposition resulted in sensitivity deterioration for the biosensor. We expect the present strategy could lead the renovation of the existing probe-immobilized ECL genosensor design to get an even higher sensitivity in ultralow level of target detection such as the identification of genetic diseases and disorders in basic research and clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear survivin and its relationship to DNA damage repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer investigated using tissue array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songliu Hu

    Full Text Available To investigate the predictive role and association of nuclear survivin and the DNA double-strand breaks repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs, Ku heterodimeric regulatory complex 70-KD subunit (Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM.The protein expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 256 patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors that inuenced the overall survival and disease-free survival of NSCLC.The expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. By dichotomizing the specimens as expressing low or high levels of nuclear survivin, nuclear survivin correlated significantly with the pathologic stage (P = 0.009 and lymph node status (P = 0.004. The nuclear survivin levels were an independent prognostic factor for both the overall survival and the disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with low Ku70 and DNA-PKcs expression had a greater benefit from radiotherapy than patients with high expression of Ku70 (P = 0.012 and DNA-PKcs (P = 0.02. Nuclear survivin expression positively correlated with DNA-PKcs (P<0.001 and Ku70 expression (P<0.001.Nuclear survivin may be a prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with resected stage I-IIIA NSCLC. DNA-PKcs and Ku70 could predict the effect of radiotherapy in patients with NSCLC. Nuclear survivin may also stimulates DNA double-strand breaks repair by its interaction with DNA-PKcs and Ku70.

  11. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  12. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  13. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  14. Comparison of DNA quantification methodology used in the DNA extraction protocol for the UK Biobank cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Samantha; Peakman, Tim; Sheard, Simon; Almond, Rachael

    2017-01-05

    UK Biobank is a large prospective cohort study in the UK established by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Wellcome Trust to enable approved researchers to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. A wide range of phenotypic data has been collected at recruitment and has recently been enhanced by the UK Biobank Genotyping Project. All UK Biobank participants (500,000) have been genotyped on either the UK Biobank Axiom® Array or the Affymetrix UK BiLEVE Axiom® Array and the workflow for preparing samples for genotyping is described. The genetic data is hoped to provide further insight into the genetics of disease. All data, including the genetic data, is available for access to approved researchers. Data for two methods of DNA quantification (ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy [UV/Vis]) measured on the Trinean DropSense™ 96 and PicoGreen®) were compared by two laboratories (UK Biobank and Affymetrix). The sample processing workflow established at UK Biobank, for genotyping on the custom Affymetrix Axiom® array, resulted in high quality DNA (average DNA concentration 38.13 ng/μL, average 260/280 absorbance 1.91). The DNA generated high quality genotype data (average call rate 99.48% and pass rate 99.45%). The DNA concentration measured on the Trinean DropSense™ 96 at UK Biobank correlated well with DNA concentration measured by PicoGreen® at Affymetrix (r = 0.85). The UK Biobank Genotyping Project demonstrated that the high throughput DNA extraction protocol described generates high quality DNA suitable for genotyping on the Affymetrix Axiom array. The correlation between DNA concentration derived from UV/Vis and PicoGreen® quantification methods suggests, in large-scale genetic studies involving two laboratories, it may be possible to remove the DNA quantification step in one laboratory without affecting downstream analyses. This would result in

  15. Assesment of customer relationship development

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmar Lesáková

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is customer relationship marketing and its new trends. The particular goal of the presented research study was to identify and analyse the indicators of customer relationship development in human resources recruitment / leasing companies. Nine indicators have been explored: mission statement concerning customer commitment, customer attraction, customer commitment, development of customer value, understanding customer needs, goals for customer satisfaction, after sales ...

  16. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  17. The case for customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Arthur C

    2004-09-01

    How does customer loyalty grow? Through good customer experiences. Yet some organizations seem to genuinely fail to understand that they can keep or lose a customer in the proverbial blink of an eye. And in this era of increasing customer demands across all industries, it's important that healthcare financial managers understand the correlation between customer loyalty and customer experience.

  18. Customer satisfaction research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormasi, T

    1987-03-01

    A review of four aspects of the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria's study of customer satisfaction covers: (1) corporate goals to meet its responsibility as a public utility and operate as a successful marketing organization, (2) the history of customer satisfaction research by GFC, (3) measurements of customer satisfaction through expectations research, and (4) case studies involving domestic appliance maintenance and gas mains renewal. Continuous validation of GFC's policies and procedures is the basis for future growth and success. 3 tables.

  19. Developing customer databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S K; Shenbaga, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among pharmaceutical companies that more product and customer-specific approaches to marketing and selling a new drug can result in substantial increases in sales. Marketers and researchers taking a proactive micro-marketing approach to identifying, profiling, and communicating with target customers are likely to facilitate such approaches and outcomes. This article provides a working framework for creating customer databases that can be effectively mined to achieve a variety of such marketing and sales force objectives.

  20. Customization and Customer-Product Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    , through the performance level and the experience level to the learning level at the top. This model has a dual view with customers/demand at one side and product/supplier at the other side. It is developed so that it can be generally applied and, typically, product designers must decide how far up...... in levels the customisation should aim. This paper sets special focus on the upper levels of customisation, especially the learning level, and it is shown that products with a large range of user-oriented functionalities often require much training to use and that customers on the other hand are sometimes...

  1. Membangun Customer Loyalty Nasabah Bank melalui Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sumarto, Sumarto

    2007-01-01

    In the relation between bank and its customer, the bank should to capable to fulfill need and satisfy through services and create the value to the customer. So in the compete situation, to give customer satisfaction is main duty of bank in order that the customer loyal permanently. The customer satisfaction is primary cause for building customer loyalty. More and more loyal customer to the bank, that's indicate the service superiority of its bank. Base description above this research purpose...

  2. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  3. Analysis of phage Mu DNA transposition by whole-genome Escherichia coli tiling arrays reveals a complex relationship to distribution of target selection protein B, transcription and chromosome architectural elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Lou, Zheng; Cui, Hong; Shang, Lei; Harshey, Rasika M

    2011-09-01

    Of all known transposable elements, phage Mu exhibits the highest transposition efficiency and the lowest target specificity. In vitro, MuB protein is responsible for target choice. In this work, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the genome-wide distribution of MuB and its relationship to Mu target selection using high-resolution Escherichia coli tiling DNA arrays. We have also assessed how MuB binding and Mu transposition are influenced by chromosome-organizing elements such as AT-rich DNA signatures, or the binding of the nucleoid-associated protein Fis, or processes such as transcription. The results confirm and extend previous biochemical and lower resolution in vivo data. Despite the generally random nature of Mu transposition and MuB binding, there were hot and cold insertion sites and MuB binding sites in the genome, and differences between the hottest and coldest sites were large. The new data also suggest that MuB distribution and subsequent Mu integration is responsive to DNA sequences that contribute to the structural organization of the chromosome.

  4. Potential roles of DNA methylation in the initiation and establishment of replicative senescence revealed by array-based methylome and transcriptome analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuho Sakaki

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is classified into two groups: replicative and premature senescence. Gene expression and epigenetic changes are reported to differ between these two groups and cell types. Normal human diploid fibroblast TIG-3 cells have often been used in cellular senescence research; however, their epigenetic profiles are still not fully understood. To elucidate how cellular senescence is epigenetically regulated in TIG-3 cells, we analyzed the gene expression and DNA methylation profiles of three types of senescent cells, namely, replicatively senescent, ras-induced senescent (RIS, and non-permissive temperature-induced senescent SVts8 cells, using gene expression and DNA methylation microarrays. The expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and immune response was commonly either down- or up-regulated in the three types of senescent cells, respectively. The altered DNA methylation patterns were observed in replicatively senescent cells, but not in prematurely senescent cells. Interestingly, hypomethylated CpG sites detected on non-CpG island regions ("open sea" were enriched in immune response-related genes that had non-CpG island promoters. The integrated analysis of gene expression and methylation in replicatively senescent cells demonstrated that differentially expressed 867 genes, including cell cycle- and immune response-related genes, were associated with DNA methylation changes in CpG sites close to the transcription start sites (TSSs. Furthermore, several miRNAs regulated in part through DNA methylation were found to affect the expression of their targeted genes. Taken together, these results indicate that the epigenetic changes of DNA methylation regulate the expression of a certain portion of genes and partly contribute to the introduction and establishment of replicative senescence.

  5. New customer services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Møller Andersen, Frits; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the challenge of motivating energy service customers to make best use of available smart technologies. This can be done through economic incentives, but also through information and education, regulation and reorganisation, and by improving services or customer comfort...

  6. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  7. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  8. REGIONAL CUSTOMS DIRECTORATES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABA STEFAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  9. Managing customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, Zoe

    2015-02-28

    Zoe Paget is the customer services manager at YourVets. Her role includes managing the company's call centre, social media marketing, working with the marketing department to develop customer care initiatives and reporting service levels to the company's directors. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  11. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  12. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  13. Application of high-resolution capillary array electrophoresis with automated fraction collection for GeneCalling analysis of the yeast genomic DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, J.; Ruiz-Martinez, M. C.; Hammond, R.; Minarik, M.; Foret, František; Sosic, Z.; Klepárník, Karel; Karger, B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2003), s. 639-647 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0772; GA ČR GA303/00/0928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary array * fraction collection * gene expression profiling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  14. Impact of Customer Relationship Management on Customer Loyalty, Customer Retention and Customer Profitability for Hotelier Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra-Dinora Orantes-Jiménez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the entrance of strategies oriented to marketing relational in Hotelier Sector, the traditional way of travel agents and other representatives arranging hospitality services for hotel and travel reservations has changed. The strategies oriented to customer relationship management are a relatively new area of specialty loyalty marketing in the hotel and hotelier sector, with advancements being made constantly. The use of this type of strategy can allow hoteliers or companies to tailor special guest programs, services and promotions based on hotel guest preferences. The hotel can use the data collected in a program to identify the needs of particular customers across hotel chains to be able to use marketing that can be targeted at specific groups of people. It also gives hoteliers the opportunity to evaluate frequent guest programs, personalize their services and perform trend analysis. A program based in marketing relational is typically run by hotels and companies to collect guest information and transaction data for use and examining to allow hoteliers to see target groups that should be marketed too. Based on these transactions hotels are able to create and manage guest loyalty programs and reward schemes. This research approach is to appraise the impact of customer relationship management on customer profitability as mediated by customer loyalty and customer retention within the hotelier sector of Mexico, and specifically for those hoteliers classified like of three stars. A sample of 100 hotels three stars was interviewed as respondents in this study. The objective of the study was to find the impact relationship between effective customer relationship implementation, customer loyalty, and customer retention and customer profitability. The findings of the study add value to hotels three stars in Mexico, and provide some invaluable statistical results essential for hotel managers and owners to successfully enhance customer loyalty

  15. CUSTOMER LOYALTY THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita IŠORAITĖ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  16. Customer relationships marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one click of the mouse. Every one of them is characterized by specific needs, and, in that sense the company must strive to satisfy them with the right offer at the right time and through the right channel. The aim of the company is to have loyal customers who will help the company make maximized profit and competitive advantage on the market.

  17. Delivering customer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, J.

    1997-01-01

    Convergence of the energy industries began with customer's demands for the best energy choice and value. In a converged energy market customers buy year-round home comfort, rather than gas heat or electric air conditioning. Union Gas has been facilitating cogeneration development to its customers since the mid 1980's. A brief description of the corporate context of Union Gas and Centra Gas was provided. Convergence at the retail level was discussed in detail. The essence of converge at the retail level is that an energy service provider will tailor products and services to meet a customer's specific needs for choice, value and best prices. Consequently, a residential customer will have the choice to select an environmentally preferred fuel source for home comfort, plus billing options, merchandise and repair services, all for one price, and from one utility

  18. How Customers Choose Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Oktadiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the advancement of hospitality industry, thus it is important for hotel sales and marketing to understand the customer behavior in order to create effective marketing. Factors that influence customer behavior as individuality consist of personal and interpersonal factors. Personal factors include the needs, wants, motivation, perception, learning, personality, lifestyle, and self-concept. Meanwhile, interpersonal factors come from culture and sub-culture, group references, customers through stages before deciding to purchase. Begin with the awareness about the needs, customers then find information about the product or service that could be used to solve the problems. After having the information, customers select the best product and service before deciding to purchase. After purchasing, the last stage is evaluation of product and service, whether it is satisfying or not.

  19. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  20. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  1. The Impact of Customer Relationship Management to Customer Loyalty Through Customer Satisfaction in Cabal Dining Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda; Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Wattilete, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Customer relationship management is the one influencing customer loyalty, but to get customer loyalty we should know how to make customer satisfaction. This research is purposed to analyze the impact of customer relationship management to customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in Cabal Dining Manado. This research used the Path analysis as the method of this research. Population in this research is mainly in this research is people in Manado. The sample of this research is 100 respond...

  2. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  3. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  4. The influence of customer relationship management information on customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatovič, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to approve that customer relationship management (CRM) has influenced on customer loyalty. In order to achieve this purpose the work was divided into four main tasks: review of the relevant literature; analyze the influence of customer relationship management on customer loyalty and approve its importance for companies, research of the concrete business-to-business (B2B) Company CRM process and its customer loyalty, and the development of the customer rela...

  5. Customer Loyalty Research : Can customer loyalty programs really build loyalty?

    OpenAIRE

    Romppanen, Maiju; Kellgren, Cecilia; Moradi, Ladan

    2007-01-01

    Background: During the last decades the efforts to foster customer relationships have become important due to increased competition in the consumer markets. One of the most popular strategies have been to introduce customer loyalty programs which are believed to enhance the customer loyalty. The popularity of the customer loyalty programs is based on the beliefs that loyal customers are lucrative and these programs would bond the customers to the company. More recently however, the discussion...

  6. When to "Fire" Customers: Customer Cost-Based Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwoong Shin; K. Sudhir; Dae-Hee Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The widespread adoption of activity-based costing enables firms to allocate common service costs to each customer, allowing for precise measurement of both the cost to serve a particular customer and the customer's profitability. In this paper, we investigate how pricing strategies based on customer cost information affects a firm's customer acquisition and retention dynamics, and ultimately its profit, using a two-period monopoly model with high- and low-cost customer segments. Although past...

  7. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  8. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  9. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  10. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  11. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  12. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  13. A customer service journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDecandelaere, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Converting security team members from simple rule enforcers to superior customer service providers required changes in leadership attitudes, rules, training, and other security traditions, but it has paid off in staff performance and recognition, according to the author.

  14. Improving customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Today, the competition among enterprises is growing in intensity and organizations of all types and sizes have increasingly come to understand the importance of customer satisfaction and good services. The purpose of this study is to investigate the present level of customer satisfaction with language training institutes and find out any possible areas of improvement. This thesis will discuss and analyze the factors that influence the customer’s level of satisfaction and assist the case compa...

  15. Customer Poaching and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Branca Esteves

    2007-01-01

    This article is a first look at the dynamic effects of customer poaching in homogeneous product markets, where firms need to invest in advertising to generate awareness. When a firm can recognize customers with different past purchasing histories, it may send them targeted advertiseraents with different prices. It is shown that only the firm that advertises the highest price in the first period will engage in price discrimination, and that poaching clearly benefits the discriminating firm, Th...

  16. Temporal Gene Expression Profiling of the Wheat Leaf Rust Pathosystem Using cDNA Microarray Reveals Differences in Compatible and Incompatible Defence Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Banks, Travis W.; McCallum, Brent; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we detail the construction of a custom cDNA spotted microarray containing 7728 wheat ESTs and the use of the array to identify host genes that are differentially expressed upon challenges with leaf rust fungal pathogens. Wheat cultivar RL6003 (Thatcher Lr1) was inoculated with Puccinia triticina virulence phenotypes BBB (incompatible) or TJB (7-2) (compatible) and sampled at four different time points (3, 6, 12, and 24 hours) after inoculation. Transcript expression levels rela...

  17. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  18. Customer satisfaction and business excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    The topic for this paper is the link between customer satisfaction and business performance, which makes it possible to use customer satisfaction measures as basis for creating business excellence. First, the paper presents microeconomic models for the relationship between customer satisfaction......, customer loyalty and performance, and optimal customer satisfaction is characterized which will help management choose the right quality parameters for improvement. Second, the paper describes empirical evidence that customer satisfaction measures, based on a modelling approach, have impact on economic...

  19. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  20. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  1. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service : Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turunen, Susanna Marita 2011. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service. Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service. Master’s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 73. Appendix 1. This thesis discusses and studies service quality and customer satisfaction in internal customer service. The main objective is to find out what the service quality level in the internal customer service at Abloy Oy is and whether there exists a diffe...

  2. Shouldn’t customers control customized product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, L.P.M.; Langerak, F.; Rijsdijk, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, customized product development (CPD) is increasingly prevalent in business-to-business settings, which has motivated manufacturers into development approaches wherein the customer plays an active role. When the customer is merely viewed as a passive receiver of the customized product, the

  3. Customer complaints and recovery effectiveness : A customer base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.; van Oest, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Although customer complaints are a well-studied aspect of business, no study has measured the impact of actual complaints and recoveries on subsequent customer purchasing. The authors develop a customer base model to investigate the effectiveness of recovery in preventing customer churn. They

  4. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  5. CGHPRO – A comprehensive data analysis tool for array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenzner Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridisation is a molecular cytogenetic technique for the genome wide detection of chromosomal imbalances. It is based on the co-hybridisation of differentially labelled test and reference DNA onto arrays of genomic BAC clones, cDNAs or oligonucleotides, and after correction for various intervening variables, loss or gain in the test DNA can be indicated from spots showing aberrant signal intensity ratios. Now that this technique is no longer confined to highly specialized laboratories and is entering the realm of clinical application, there is a need for a user-friendly software package that facilitates estimates of DNA dosage from raw signal intensities obtained by array CGH experiments, and which does not depend on a sophisticated computational environment. Results We have developed a user-friendly and versatile tool for the normalization, visualization, breakpoint detection and comparative analysis of array-CGH data. CGHPRO is a stand-alone JAVA application that guides the user through the whole process of data analysis. The import option for image analysis data covers several data formats, but users can also customize their own data formats. Several graphical representation tools assist in the selection of the appropriate normalization method. Intensity ratios of each clone can be plotted in a size-dependent manner along the chromosome ideograms. The interactive graphical interface offers the chance to explore the characteristics of each clone, such as the involvement of the clones sequence in segmental duplications. Circular Binary Segmentation and unsupervised Hidden Markov Model algorithms facilitate objective detection of chromosomal breakpoints. The storage of all essential data in a back-end database allows the simultaneously comparative analysis of different cases. The various display options facilitate also the definition of shortest regions of overlap and simplify the

  6. Pengaruh Customer Perceived Value Terhadap Customer Satisfaction PT. Xyz

    OpenAIRE

    Sucahyo, Martinus Wilman

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini membahas tentang Customer Perceived Value terhadap Customer Satisfaction PT. XYZ. Dalam penelitian ini, Customer Perceived Value diukur melalui dimensi Core Product Value, Service Value dan Relationship Value. Masing-masing dimensi ini akan diuji pengaruhnya terhadap Customer Satisfaction, baik secara simultan maupun secara parsial, serta dimensi mana yang paling berpengaruh terhadap Customer Satisfaction. Sampel penelitian berjumlah 100 pelanggan PT. XYZ. Data penelitian diola...

  7. Enhancing customer value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabel, B.

    1996-01-01

    A discussion on how Westcoast Gas Services Inc., is striving to meet customer satisfaction was presented. A strategic business unit called storage, transportation and service is a customer-centered, energy service enterprise dedicated to providing value-added service. The company is placing emphasis on better coordination of sales and marketing activities, especially in areas of customer relationship management and product development. Deregulation was responsible for the changing marketplace. It resulted in increased competition, energy alliances and multi-fuel opportunities. Some of the ways Westcoast Gas Service plans to survive and prosper in this new world of competition were outlined. Among the ideas mentioned were consumer orientation, superior information about consumers and competitors, quick adaptation to changing market conditions, anticipation of consumer needs, and appropriate product development

  8. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  9. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence,

  10. Competitive Effects of Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova

    2010-01-01

    Earlier theoretical literature on mass customization maintains that customization reduces product differentiation and intensifies price competition. In contrast, operations management studies argue that customization serves primarily to differentiate a company from its competitors. Interactive involvement of the customer in product design creates an affective relationship with the firm, relaxing price competition. This paper provides a model that incorporates consumer involvement to explain t...

  11. Web Based Customized Design

    OpenAIRE

    Moi, Morten Benestad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the methods needed to create a web based application to remotely customize a CAD model. This includes customizing a CAD model by using a graphical user interface to be able to remotely control the inputs to- and outputs from the model in NX, and to get the result sent back to the user. Using CAD systems such as NX requires intensive training, is often a slow process and gives a lot of room for errors. An intuitive, simple user interface will eliminate the need for CAD trai...

  12. Engineering customized TALE nucleases (TALENs) and TALE transcription factors by fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyon, Deepak; Maeder, Morgan L; Khayter, Cyd; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Foley, Jonathan E; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-07-01

    Customized DNA-binding domains made using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeats are rapidly growing in importance as widely applicable research tools. TALE nucleases (TALENs), composed of an engineered array of TALE repeats fused to the FokI nuclease domain, have been used successfully for directed genome editing in various organisms and cell types. TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs), consisting of engineered TALE repeat arrays linked to a transcriptional regulatory domain, have been used to up- or downregulate expression of endogenous genes in human cells and plants. This unit describes a detailed protocol for the recently described fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly method. FLASH enables automated high-throughput construction of engineered TALE repeats using an automated liquid handling robot or manually using a multichannel pipet. Using the automated approach, a single researcher can construct up to 96 DNA fragments encoding TALE repeat arrays of various lengths in a single day, and then clone these to construct sequence-verified TALEN or TALE-TF expression plasmids in a week or less. Plasmids required for FLASH are available by request from the Joung lab (http://eGenome.org). This unit also describes improvements to the Zinc Finger and TALE Targeter (ZiFiT Targeter) web server (http://ZiFiT.partners.org) that facilitate the design and construction of FLASH TALE repeat arrays in high throughput. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  14. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  15. Building Agents to Serve Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuceanu, Mihai; Fox, Mark S.; Hong, Lei; Lallement, Yannick; Zhang, Zhongdong

    2004-01-01

    AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help companies provide better-quality and more costeffective customer service. Our customer-service agents use natural language to interact with customers, enabling customers to state their intentions directly instead of searching for the places on the Web site that may address their concern. We use planning methods to search systematically for the solution to the customer's problem, ensuring that a r...

  16. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS - PROFILING AND SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Andrei SCRIDON

    2008-01-01

    In any industry, the first step to finding and creating profitable customers isdetermining what drives profitability. This leads to better prospecting andmore successful customer relationship management. Any company cansegment and profile their customer base to uncover those profit drivers usingthe knowledge of their customers, products, and markets. Or they can usedata-driven techniques to find natural clusters in their customer or prospectbase. Whatever the method, the process will lead to ...

  17. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  18. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  19. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Salim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  20. DNA microarray technology in nutraceutical and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Stratton, Yiwen; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-04-15

    The quality and quantity of diet is a key determinant of health and disease. Molecular diagnostics may play a key role in food safety related to genetically modified foods, food-borne pathogens and novel nutraceuticals. Functional outcomes in biology are determined, for the most part, by net balance between sets of genes related to the specific outcome in question. The DNA microarray technology offers a new dimension of strength in molecular diagnostics by permitting the simultaneous analysis of large sets of genes. Automation of assay and novel bioinformatics tools make DNA microarrays a robust technology for diagnostics. Since its development a few years ago, this technology has been used for the applications of toxicogenomics, pharmacogenomics, cell biology, and clinical investigations addressing the prevention and intervention of diseases. Optimization of this technology to specifically address food safety is a vast resource that remains to be mined. Efforts to develop diagnostic custom arrays and simplified bioinformatics tools for field use are warranted.

  1. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management and Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsar Kristian P., Feliks Anggia; Panjaitan, Hotman

    2014-01-01

    This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. Fast food restaurant KFC, always strives to continue to make improvements in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on…

  2. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.; van Raaij, E.M.; Bun, M.; Vernooij, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and cus-tomer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a type of expenses targeted at individual customer relationships: the

  3. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.; Bun, M.J.G.; van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a hitherto unstudied type of expense targeted at individual customer

  4. Creating Customer Delight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes that college admissions officers interested in improving service should focus on creating customer delight rather than simply satisfaction, studying the system when things go wrong rather than placing blame, establishing employee well-being as the highest priority of the organization, providing necessary tools and training…

  5. Students as Customers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The idea that students might be treated as customers triggers academics' antipathy, which in turn can lead to managerial irritation and political frustration. There are different discourses which barely overlap as their protagonists speak past one another. This article argues that these differences can be reconciled by re-conceiving the…

  6. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  7. CMOS gate array characterization procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, James P.

    1993-09-01

    Present procedures are inadequate for characterizing the radiation hardness of gate array product lines prior to personalization because the selection of circuits to be used, from among all those available in the manufacturer's circuit library, is usually uncontrolled. (Some circuits are fundamentally more radiation resistant than others.) In such cases, differences in hardness can result between different designs of the same logic function. Hardness also varies because many gate arrays feature large custom-designed megacells (e.g., microprocessors and random access memories-MicroP's and RAM's). As a result, different product lines cannot be compared equally. A characterization strategy is needed, along with standardized test vehicle(s), methodology, and conditions, so that users can make informed judgments on which gate arrays are best suited for their needs. The program described developed preferred procedures for the radiation characterization of gate arrays, including a gate array evaluation test vehicle, featuring a canary circuit, designed to define the speed versus hardness envelope of the gate array. A multiplier was chosen for this role, and a baseline multiplier architecture is suggested that could be incorporated into an existing standard evaluation circuit chip.

  8. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  9. What is a free customer worth? Armchair calculations of nonpaying customers' value can lead to flawed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil; Mela, Carl F

    2008-11-01

    Free customers who are subsidized by paying customers are essential to a vast array of businesses, such as media companies, employment services, and even IT providers. But because they generate revenue only indirectly, figuring out the true value of those customers--and how much attention to devote them--has always been a challenge. Traditional customer-valuation models don't help; they focus exclusively on paying customers and largely ignore network effects, or how customers help draw other customers to a business. Now a new model, devised by professors Gupta, of Harvard Business School, and Mela, of Fuqua School of Business, takes into account not only direct network effects (where buyers attract more buyers or sellers more sellers) but also indirect network effects (where buyers attract more sellers or vice versa) . The model calculates the precise long-term impact of each additional free customer on a company's profits, factoring in the degree to which he or she brings in other customers--whether free or paying--and the ripple effect of those customers. The model helped an online auction house make several critical decisions. The business made its money on fees charged to sellers but recognized that its free customers--its buyers--were valuable, too. As competition heated up, the company worried that it wasn't wooing enough buyers. Using the model, the business discovered that the network effects of buyers were indeed large and that those customers were worth over $1,000 each--much more than had been assumed. Armed with that information, the firm increased its research on buyers, invested more in targeting them with ads, and improved their experience. The model also helped the company identify the effects of various pricing strategies on sellers, showing that they became less price-sensitive over time. As a result, the company raised the fees it charged them as well.

  10. CUSTOMS POLICY, CUSTOMS BUSINESS, CUSTOMS REGULATION: TO PROBLEM OF CONCEPTION CORRELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Molokovich; K. N. Shabeka

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological comprehension of customs regulation place and role in provision of trade and transport activity under conditions of world integration processes is considered in the paper.The essence of such economic categories as «customs policy», «customs regulation», «customs and tariff regulation», «customs business» is ascertained with the help of justified argumentation, clear conception approaches.

  11. Nanobody®-based chromatin immunoprecipitation/micro-array analysis for genome-wide identification of transcription factor DNA binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Duc, Trong; Peeters, Eveline; Muyldermans, Serge; Charlier, Daniel; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies® are single-domain antibody fragments derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies. Because of their small size, straightforward production in Escherichia coli, easy tailoring, high affinity, specificity, stability and solubility, nanobodies® have been exploited in various biotechnological applications. A major challenge in the post-genomics and post-proteomics era is the identification of regulatory networks involving nucleic acid–protein and protein–protein interactions. Here, we apply a nanobody® in chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) for genome-wide identification of DNA–protein interactions. The Lrp-like regulator Ss-LrpB, arguably one of the best-studied specific transcription factors of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was chosen for this proof-of-principle nanobody®-assisted ChIP. Three distinct Ss-LrpB-specific nanobodies®, each interacting with a different epitope, were generated for ChIP. Genome-wide ChIP-chip with one of these nanobodies® identified the well-established Ss-LrpB binding sites and revealed several unknown target sequences. Furthermore, these ChIP-chip profiles revealed auxiliary operator sites in the open reading frame of Ss-lrpB. Our work introduces nanobodies® as a novel class of affinity reagents for ChIP. Taking into account the unique characteristics of nanobodies®, in particular, their short generation time, nanobody®-based ChIP is expected to further streamline ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq experiments, especially in organisms with no (or limited) possibility of genetic manipulation. PMID:23275538

  12. Transcription profiling suggests that mitochondrial topoisomerase IB acts as a topological barrier and regulator of mitochondrial DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Zhang, Hongliang; Khiati, Salim; Wu, Xiaolin; Pommier, Yves

    2017-12-08

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for cell viability because it encodes subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. Mitochondrial topoisomerase IB (TOP1MT) facilitates mtDNA replication by removing DNA topological tensions produced during mtDNA transcription, but it appears to be dispensable. To test whether cells lacking TOP1MT have aberrant mtDNA transcription, we performed mitochondrial transcriptome profiling. To that end, we designed and implemented a customized tiling array, which enabled genome-wide, strand-specific, and simultaneous detection of all mitochondrial transcripts. Our technique revealed that Top1mt KO mouse cells process the mitochondrial transcripts normally but that protein-coding mitochondrial transcripts are elevated. Moreover, we found discrete long noncoding RNAs produced by H-strand transcription and encompassing the noncoding regulatory region of mtDNA in human and murine cells and tissues. Of note, these noncoding RNAs were strongly up-regulated in the absence of TOP1MT. In contrast, 7S DNA, produced by mtDNA replication, was reduced in the Top1mt KO cells. We propose that the long noncoding RNA species in the D-loop region are generated by the extension of H-strand transcripts beyond their canonical stop site and that TOP1MT acts as a topological barrier and regulator for mtDNA transcription and D-loop formation.

  13. Evaluation of the performance of different plastics used to seal nylon cDNA arrays Avaliação da performance de diferentes plásticos usados para selar arranjos de cDNA em náilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulino da Costa Netto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available cDNA arrays are a powerful tool for discovering gene expression patterns. Nylon arrays have the advantage that they can be re-used several times. A key issue in high throughput gene expression analysis is sensitivity. In the case of nylon arrays, signal detection can be affected by the plastic bags used to keep membranes humid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of five types of plastics on the radioactive transmittance, number of genes with a signal above the background, and data variability. A polyethylene plastic bag 69 μm thick had a strong shielding effect that blocked 68.7% of the radioactive signal. The shielding effect on transmittance decreased the number of detected genes and increased the data variability. Other plastics which were thinner gave better results. Although plastics made from polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl chloride (both 13 μm thick and polyethylene (29 and 7 μm thick showed different levels of transmittance, they all gave similarly good performances. Polyvinylidene chloride and polyethylene 29 mm thick were the plastics of choice because of their easy handling. For other types of plastics, it is advisable to run a simple check on their performance in order to obtain the maximum information from nylon cDNA arrays.Os arranjos de cDNA são uma poderosa ferramenta para o estudo de padrões de expressão gênica. Os arranjos em membranas de náilon apresentam ainda a vantagem de poderem ser reutilizados diversas vezes. Porém, um ponto bastante delicado em estudos de expressão gênica em larga escala é a sensibilidade. No caso de arranjos em membranas de náilon, a detecção dos sinais pode ser afetada pelo envoltório plástico utilizado para manter as membranas úmidas. Nesse estudo, nós avaliamos os efeitos de cinco tipos de plásticos na transmissão radioativa detectada, no número de genes com sinal acima da emissão de fundo e na variabilidade dos dados. O plástico produzido com polietileno com 69 μm de

  14. Nucleic acid nanomaterials: Silver-wired DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Pascal; Ennifar, Eric

    2017-10-01

    DNA double helical structures are supramolecular assemblies that are typically held together by classical Watson-Crick pairing. Now, nucleotide chelation of silver ions supports an extended silver-DNA hybrid duplex featuring an uninterrupted silver array.

  15. Standards and Customer Service: Employees Behavior towards Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring effective customer service requires targeted efforts in a number of areas, one of which is to develop service standards for each market segment. The development and implementation of standards requires the organization to accurately determine customer service types, the cost of providing alternative services, and measures for measuring and controlling the services provided. At the core of the developed and implemented standards is the development and establishment of the customer service policy, which should start with a consumer demand analysis. The definition of customer service level should allow for quantitative measurement because the vague and quantifiable policy does not provide opportunities for evaluation and control of the activities and expenses of customer service. When developing service standards, it is appropriate to apply an algorithm that focuses primarily on standards related to employee behavior towards customers. This paper explores the need and capability to develop customer service standards and provides an algorithm for developing standards for employee behavior toward customers.

  16. How to strengthen customer loyalty, using customer segmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNIC Elena Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Do you provide exceptional customer service?”, “Is the customer service in your company extraordinary?” “How to convert satis fied customers into loyal customers?” - are the most frequent questions of today’s managers and have driven the research on this article to getting the answer to a highly important marketing topic “How to strengthen customer loyalty using customer segmentation?”. Anyone who has bought a product or a service has probably suffered at least once from a company’s apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences. If this is the case, the company is in a wrong direction, since loyalty is the most powerful tool in today competitive market. To strengthen the bonds with these high-profit customers, innovative companies are deploying enterprise-wide strategies built on consumer segmentation.

  17. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Vebrová; Kateřina Venclová; Stanislav Rojík

    2016-01-01

    Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary ...

  18. 75 FR 55303 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Service Annual Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Request; Commercial Service Annual Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: International Trade Administration... assistance services. The CS uses an Annual Customer Satisfaction Survey to measure client's overall satisfaction with the full array of services and experiences they have had with the CS on an annual basis. The...

  19. Customization of biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homo, Julien; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Benbrahim, Allel; Grabar, Natalia; Dupuch, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Within the biomedical area over one hundred terminologies exist and are merged in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, which gives over 1 million concepts. When such huge terminological resources are available, the users must deal with them and specifically they must deal with irrelevant parts of these terminologies. We propose to exploit seed terms and semantic distance algorithms in order to customize the terminologies and to limit within them a semantically homogeneous space. An evaluation performed by a medical expert indicates that the proposed approach is relevant for the customization of terminologies and that the extracted terms are mostly relevant to the seeds. It also indicates that different algorithms provide with similar or identical results within a given terminology. The difference is due to the terminologies exploited. A special attention must be paid to the definition of optimal association between the semantic similarity algorithms and the thresholds specific to a given terminology.

  20. Assesment of customer relationship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lesáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is customer relationship marketing and its new trends. The particular goal of the presented research study was to identify and analyse the indicators of customer relationship development in human resources recruitment / leasing companies. Nine indicators have been explored: mission statement concerning customer commitment, customer attraction, customer commitment, development of customer value, understanding customer needs, goals for customer satisfaction, after sales services, measurement of customer satisfaction, complaint management. The indicators were made sequentially operational in order to translate customer relationship development into specific activities designed to increase business performance. Based on a set of customer indicators four scientific hypotheses were tested. We proved that strong customer orientation has a positive impact on business performance. Out of nine indicators, seven of them have a strong impact on business outcomes. The research confirms that business performance increases with firm size and market density, and that introduction of quality management systems improves company performance. Finally, the appropriateness of the customer relationship indicators applied in human resources recruitment companies is discussed.

  1. Solar array qualification through qualified analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdemans, J.; Cruijssen, H. J.; Wijker, J. J.

    1991-04-01

    To achieve qualification is in general a very expensive exercise. For solar arrays this is done by a dedicated test program through which final qualification is achieved. Due to severe competition on the solar array market, cheaper means are looked for to achieve a qualified product for the customers. One of the methods is to drastically limit the environmental test program and to qualify the solar-array structure against its environmental loads by analysis. Qualification by analysis is possible. The benefits are that a significant amount of development effort can be saved in case such a powerful tool is available. Extensive testing can be avoided thus saving time and money.

  2. Outsourcing customer support : The role of provider customer focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, S.H.K.; Rindfleisch, A.; Citrin, A.

    An increasing number of firms are outsourcing customer support to external service providers. This creates a triadic setting in which an outsourcing provider serves end customers on behalf of its clients. While outsourcing presents an opportunity to serve customers, service providers differ in their

  3. Customer retention through supplier-organization-customer relationship management

    OpenAIRE

    Žvirelienė, Renata; Bučiūnienė, Ilona; Škudienė, Vida; Sakalas, Algimantas

    2009-01-01

    The research objective was to assess the relationship marketing outputs' (internal relationship, relationship with customer, relationship with supplier) interrelationship and their relationship with customers' retention. The internal and external relationship dimensions of commitment, satisfaction, trust, communication, cooperation and empathy were used to measure supplier-organization-customer relationship strength. The survey was conducted in cargo vehicles trading industry companies in Lit...

  4. Customer Engagement as a New Perspective in Customer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Reinartz, Werner J.; Krafft, Manfred

    Since 2000, customer management (CM) research has evolved and has had a significant impact on the marketing discipline. In an increasingly networked society where customers can interact easily with other customers and firms through social networks and other new media, the authors propose that

  5. The design of a semi-custom intergrated circuit for the SLAC SLC timing control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-01-01

    A semi-custom (gate array) integrated circuit has been designed for use in the SLAC Linear Collider timing and control system. The design process and SLAC's experiences during the phases of the design cycle are described. Issues concerning the partitioning of the design into semi-custom and standard components are discussed. Functional descriptions of the semi-custom integrated circuit and the timing module in which it is used are given

  6. Design of a semi-custom integrated circuit for the SLAC SLC timing control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1984-10-01

    A semi-custom (gate array) integrated circuit has been designed for use in the SLAC Linear Collider timing and control system. The design process and SLAC's experiences during the phases of the design cycle are described. Issues concerning the partitioning of the design into semi-custom and standard components are discussed. Functional descriptions of the semi-custom integrated circuit and the timing module in which it is used are given

  7. Impact of Customer Relationship Management on Customer Loyalty, Customer Retention and Customer Profitability for Hotelier Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra-Dinora Orantes-Jiménez; Graciela Vázquez-Álvarez; Ricardo Tejeida-Padilla

    2017-01-01

    Since the entrance of strategies oriented to marketing relational in Hotelier Sector, the traditional way of travel agents and other representatives arranging hospitality services for hotel and travel reservations has changed. The strategies oriented to customer relationship management are a relatively new area of specialty loyalty marketing in the hotel and hotelier sector, with advancements being made constantly. The use of this type of strategy can allow hoteliers or companies to tailo...

  8. Partnership with the customer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachta, Gregory S.

    This discussion will recount some historical observations about establishing partnerships with the customer. It suggests that such partnerships are established as the natural evolutionary product of a continuous improvement culture. Those are warm, ethereal terms about a topic that some people think already suffers from an excess of hot air. We will focus on some real-world activities and workplace artifacts to show there are substantive concepts behind the TQM buzzwords.

  9. CERTS customer adoption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  10. Toward Customized Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minvielle, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Patients want their personal needs to be taken into account. Accordingly, the management of care has long involved some degree of personalization. In recent times, patients’ wishes have become more pressing in a moving context. As the population ages, the number of patients requiring sophisticated combinations of longterm care is rising. Moreover, we are witnessing previously unvoiced demands, preferences and expectations (eg, demand for information about treatment, for care complying with religious practices, or for choice of appointment dates). In view of the escalating costs and the concerns about quality of care, the time has now come to rethink healthcare delivery. Part of this reorganization can be related to customization: what is needed is a customized business model that is effective and sustainable. Such business model exists in different service sectors, the customization being defined as the development of tailored services to meet consumers’ diverse and changing needs at near mass production prices. Therefore, its application to the healthcare sector needs to be seriously considered. PMID:29524957

  11. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  12. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  13. Customer Integration during Innovation Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex

    2012-01-01

    of companies’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with customers, research has investigated the importance of firm–customer interaction during innovation development. However, despite valuable insights into the performance-enhancing effects of customer integration, research has thus far overlooked......To stay viable, companies need to increase their innovation development investments over time. However, successful innovation development also cannot happen without customers, and thus companies seek opportunities to enhance their knowledge of current and future customer needs. As a result...... the activities companies should engage in when integrating customers during innovation development. Thus, this study investigates how and when customer-oriented companies engage in customer interaction during innovation development. Using a multiple case study design, this study examines four substantive cases...

  14. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  15. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  16. Customizable PCR-microplate array for differential identification of multiple pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woubit, Abdela; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Roberts, Sherrelle; Graham, Martha; Kim, Moonil; Samuel, Temesgen

    2013-11-01

    Customizable PCR-microplate arrays were developed for the rapid identification of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Yersinia pestis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Previously, we identified highly specific primers targeting each of these pathogens. Here, we report the development of customizable PCR-microplate arrays for simultaneous identification of the pathogens using the primers identified. A mixed aliquot of genomic DNA from 38 strains was used to validate three PCR-microplate array formats. Identical PCR conditions were used to run all the samples on the three formats. Specific amplifications were obtained on all three custom plates. In preliminary tests performed to evaluate the sensitivity of these assays in samples inoculated in the laboratory with Salmonella Typhimurium, amplifications were obtained from 1 g of beef hot dog inoculated at as low as 9 CFU/ml or from milk inoculated at as low as 78 CFU/ml. Such microplate arrays could be valuable tools for initial identification or secondary confirmation of contamination by these pathogens.

  17. Risk management in customs control

    OpenAIRE

    Drobot, Elena; Klevleeva, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    The particularities of risk-management system implementation within customs control are discussed in the article. The authors single out the elements of risk-management system, evaluate effectiveness of risk-management in customs control. The main reasons for non-implementation of risk-management system in customs control are described, as well. Particular attention is paid to the benefits of customs risk management.

  18. Energizing Companies through Customer Compliments

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfelsberger, Petra; Bruch, Heike; Herhausen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    While complaint management has received much attention, customer compliments and their systematic handling have been largely ignored. Based on two empirical studies, this article suggests that customer compliments bear great potential for benefiting firms, and gives recommendations on how managers can enable, stimulate, and amplify positive customer feedback.

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. The art of customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeni

    2007-10-01

    Strategies for improving the consumer service skills of finance staff include: Hire employees who have a customer service background. Work with your human resources department to provide customer service training. Monitor new hires extensively. Offer front-end employees scripted language for situations they may face on the job. Measure the quality of customer service provided. Provide incentives for performance.

  1. 19 CFR 146.3 - Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs supervision. 146.3 Section 146.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.3 Customs supervision. (a) Assignment of Customs officers. Customs officers will be...

  2. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems...

  3. Customs control of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causse, B.

    1998-01-01

    Customs officers take part in the combat against illicit traffic od radioactive materials by means of different regulations dealing with nuclear materials, artificial radiation sources or radioactive wastes. The capability of customs officers is frequently incomplete and difficult to apply due to incompatibility of the intervention basis. In case of contaminated materials, it seems that the customs is not authorised directly and can only perform incidental control. In order to fulfil better its mission of fighting against illicit traffic of radioactive materials customs established partnership with CEA which actually includes practical and theoretical training meant to augment the capabilities of customs officers

  4. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS - PROFILING AND SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Andrei SCRIDON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In any industry, the first step to finding and creating profitable customers isdetermining what drives profitability. This leads to better prospecting andmore successful customer relationship management. Any company cansegment and profile their customer base to uncover those profit drivers usingthe knowledge of their customers, products, and markets. Or they can usedata-driven techniques to find natural clusters in their customer or prospectbase. Whatever the method, the process will lead to knowledge andunderstanding that is critical to maintaining a competitive edge

  5. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...... customized products are essential to consider during product development....

  6. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  7. Managing Customer Value

    OpenAIRE

    William B. Dodds

    1999-01-01

    This paper builds the framework for linking the established work of competitive advantage with the emerging discipline of value marketing. The outcome of this linkage is the concept of strategic value management. Strategic value management focuses on the right combinations of product quality, customer service and fair prices as the key to selling to todayÕs value conscious consumers. The core of the strategy stresses the firmÕs ability to combine and manage these dimensions of value in a way ...

  8. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...... discusses the current limitations of using technology to protect consumers from privacy abuses related to profiling. Concluding that industry self-regulation and available privacy-enhancing technologies will not be adequate to close important privacy gaps related to consumer profiling without legislative...

  9. Services Supporting the Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gremyr, Ida; Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on customer and user experience of advanced service offerings, focusing mechanisms such as e.g. feedback processes as a means to utilise and learn from users’ experiences. The purpose is to understand how servitization changes the constellation of actors in aftermarket value...... creation, and what mechanisms are needed for firms to exploit the interactions in these new constellation as a basis for service improvement and development. By studying two manufacturing firms offering advanced services, this paper points to changed actor configurations (both intra- and inter......-organisational) and interaction mechanisms (existing and new) when transitioning to offering more advanced services such as “services supporting customers”....

  10. To Customize or Not to Customize? Exploring Science Teacher Customization in an Online Lesson Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg-Tobias, Joshua; Beheshti, Elham; Staudt, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are increasingly giving science teachers the ability to access and customize science lessons. However, there is substantial debate in the literature about whether and under what conditions teacher customization benefit student learning. In this study, we examined teacher customization of inquiry-based science lessons from an…

  11. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Triest (Sander); M.J.G. Bun (Maurice); E.M. van Raaij (Erik); M.J.A. Vernooij (Maarten)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a hitherto unstudied type of expense targeted at individual

  12. The mismanagement of customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Kumar, V

    2002-07-01

    Who wouldn't want loyal customers? Surely they should cost less to serve, they'd be willing to pay more than other customers, and they'd actively market your company by word of mouth, right? Maybe not. Careful study of the relationship between customer loyalty and profits plumbed from 16,000 customers in four companies' databases tells a different story. The authors found no evidence to support any of these claims. What they did find was that the link between customers and profitability was more complicated because customers fall into four groups, not two. Simply put: Not all loyal customers are profitable, and not all profitable customers are loyal. Traditional tools for segmenting customers do a poor job of identifying that latter group, causing companies to chase expensively after initially profitable customers who hold little promise of future profits. The authors suggest an alternative approach, based on well-established "event-history modeling" techniques, that more accurately predicts future buying probabilities. Armed with such a tool, marketers can correctly identify which customers belong in which category and market accordingly. The challenge in managing customers who are profitable but disloyal--the "butterflies"--is to milk them for as much as you can while they're buying from you. A softly-softly approach is more appropriate for the profitable customers who are likely to stay loyal--your "true friends." As for highly loyal but not very profitable customers--the "barnacles"--you need to find out if they have the potential to spend more than they currently do. And, of course, for the "strangers"--those who generate no loyalty and no profits--the answer is simple: Identify early and don't invest anything.

  13. Customization and design of directed self-assembly using hybrid prepatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joy; Doerk, Gregory S.; Rettner, Charles T.; Singh, Gurpreet; Tjio, Melia; Truong, Hoa; Arellano, Noel; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Brink, Markus; Tsai, Hsinyu; Liu, Chi-Chun; Guillorn, Michael; Sanders, Daniel P.

    2015-03-01

    Diminishing error tolerance renders the customization of patterns created through directed self-assembly (DSA) extremely challenging at tighter pitch. A self-aligned customization scheme can be achieved using a hybrid prepattern comprising both organic and inorganic regions that serves as a guiding prepattern to direct the self-assembly of the block copolymers as well as a cut mask pattern for the DSA arrays aligned to it. In this paper, chemoepitaxy-based self-aligned customization is demonstrated using two types of organic-inorganic prepatterns. CHEETAH prepattern for "CHemoepitaxy Etch Trim using a self-Aligned Hardmask" of preferential hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ, inorganic resist), non-preferential organic underlayer is fabricated using electron beam lithography. Customized trench or hole arrays can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays and CHEETAH prepattern. Herein, we also introduce a tone-reversed version called reverse-CHEETAH (or rCHEETAH) in which customized line segments can be achieved through co-transfer of DSA-formed arrays formed on a prepattern wherein the inorganic HSQ regions are nonpreferential and the organic regions are PMMA preferential. Examples of two-dimensional self-aligned customization including 25nm pitch fin structures and an 8-bar "IBM" illustrate the versatility of this customization scheme using rCHEETAH.

  14. Customer-driven competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Ontario Hydro`s customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro`s Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro`s franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro`s system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation.

  15. Customer-driven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation

  16. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  17. Programmable delay unit incorporating a semi-custom integrated circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The synchronization of SLC accelerator control and monitoring functions is realized by a CAMAC module, the PDU II (Programmable Delay Unit II, SLAC 253-002), which includes a semi-custom gate array integrated circuit. The PDU II distributes 16 channels of independently programmable delayed pulses to other modules within the same CAMAC crate. The delays are programmable in increments of 8.4 ns. Functional descriptions of both the module and the semi-custom integrated circuit used to generate the output pulses are given

  18. Using Customer Relationship Trajectories to Segment Customers and Predict Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tanya; Niraj Rakesh; Dawar Niraj

    2007-01-01

    A central premise of relationship marketing theory is that economic benefits flow fromretaining customers. However, the early research focus on the duration of the relationship may obscure other important aspects of the interactions with the customer that drive profitability. Borrowing from the branding literature, where different types of customer relationships have been described (but not empirically examined), we study the patterns of business customers’ buying behavior, or trajectories th...

  19. customer satisfaction, customer relationship management, Fuzzy Delphi, system dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Habib A. Mirghafoori; Ali Morovati Sharifabadi; Ensiyeh Taki

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors which are affecting customers satisfaction of Mobarake steel complex . Since there is a wide rang of factors affecting customer satisfaction,this paper pays attention to those factors which have CRM approach. The investigation society of the research is the marketing experts of Moabarake steel complex who have direct relationship with customers.At first, the factors were identified by experts using Fuzzy Delphi method and then the relationship between facto...

  20. Customer Retention & Customer Relationship Marketing: Strategi Pemasaran Yang Potensial

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia, Ariesya

    2004-01-01

    The traditional marketing approach advocates the marketing mix principles and the quest for market share dominance through mass marketing techniques and a focus on new customer acquisition. This approach has guided managers for decades in planning in implementing their marketing strategies. But nowadays, traditional approach has been changed by customer retention. Customer retention, in the traditional marketing approach, is however seen as the 'end' rather than the means to delivering long-t...

  1. Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Grewal, Dhruv; Leghorn, Robert; Shankar, Venkatesh; Teerling, Marije L.; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel customer management is the design, deployment, coordination, and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact, with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition, retention, and development. The authors identify five major challenges

  2. Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Grewal, Dhruv; Leghorn, Robert; Shankar, Venkatesh; Teerling, Marije L.; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Multichannel customer management is the design, deployment, coordination, and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact, with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition, retention, and development. The authors identify five major challenges

  3. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as predictors of future business potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis come from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of approximately 2000 private customers evaluated...

  4. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  5. Customer Touch Point Histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Haurum, Helle

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the firm. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated what drive and explain customers’ engagement behaviours...... as reactions to their service encounters over time with a firm, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) mundane product and service environment indeed drives customers’ engagement behaviours and mediating capabilities...... are identified, (2) customers produce (positive) value for the firm through engagement behaviours when perceived alignment between firm-initiated experience and product/service is present, and (3) transactions matter and drive (other) engagement behaviours....

  6. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  7. Customer experiences and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Customer experiences and expectations from competition and cogeneration in the power industry were reviewed by Charles Morton, Director of Energy at CPC International, by describing Casco's decision to get into cogeneration in the early 1990s in three small corn milling plants in Cardinal, London and Port Colborne, Ontario, mainly as result of the threat of a 40 per cent increase in power prices. He stressed that cost competitiveness of cogeneration is entirely site-specific, but it is generally more attractive in larger facilities that operate 24 hours a day, where grid power is expensive or unreliable. Because it is reliable, cogeneration holds out the prospect of increased production-up time, as well as offering a hedge against higher energy costs, reducing the company's variable costs when incoming revenues fall short of costs, and providing an additional tool in head-to-head competition

  8. Custom anatomic healing abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Gowda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants with their increasing success rates and predictability of final outcome are fast becoming the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth. Considering the success of immediate implant placement in reducing tissue loss and achieving good esthetic results, is making it a more popular treatment modality in implant dentistry. Understanding the management of gingival tissues in relation to implants to obtain maximum esthetics is of utmost importance. The use of provisional abutments and immediate temporization has a proven track record of their ability to produce optimal esthetics and to guide the tissue response during the healing phase. With careful patient selection and execution, customized healing abutments can provide an effective method to enhance the esthetic and emergence profile for anterior implant restorations.

  9. Detecting drugs at customs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbert, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The principle of measuring ions by their drift times at atmospheric pressure is not new, but it has been only recently that ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been realised as a powerful method of identifying certain molecules of importance at low concentrations. The impetus has arisen initially from the desire of the military to detect chemical warfare agents in the field but more recently has been taken up by police and customs services to monitor drugs of abuse and explosives. The Australian Customs Service (Border Technology) has purchased a number of IM spectrometers and has installed them in all international ports and airports. The first cases of persons apprehended for importation of controlled substances with evidence from IMS have appeared in the courts and the legal system is coming to terms with this new forensic tool. Ion mobility spectrometry may be thought of as time of flight mass spectrometry at atmospheric pressure. The presence of gas gives the possibility of a number of ion-molecule reactions, and the time taken to traverse drift tubes of a few centimetres at a field of typically 25 kV m -1 is around 10-20 ms. Ions are generated by a 63 Ni source, which ionises the carrier gas (dry air), which in turn ionises the injected analyte. Detection limits in the low ppb range are found for many substances. Details of sample collection, sensitivity and limitations of the ion mobility spectrometry are given. Extensions to IMS include the use of Fourier Transform method, electro spray and neural networks

  10. Customer care in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Fred

    2015-01-20

    Viewing individuals in need of NHS care as customers has the potential to refocus the way their care is delivered. This article highlights some of the benefits of reframing the nurse-patient relationship in terms of customer care, and draws parallels between good customer care and the provision of high quality patient care in the NHS. It explores lessons to be learned from those who have studied the customer experience, which can be adapted to enhance the customer care experience within the health service. Developing professional expertise in the knowledge and skills that underpin good-quality interpersonal encounters is essential to improve the customer experience in health care and should be prioritised alongside the development of more technical skills. Creating a culture where emotional intelligence, caring and compassion are essential requirements for all nursing staff will improve patient satisfaction.

  11. Take Five for Customer Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Ax-Fultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses leverage excellent customer service to improve profitability. Although not profit-driven, libraries should leverage excellent customer service to achieve their unique missions. Evaluating and improving customer service practices will help a library determine if it is successfully serving its customers. The library should review three areas to improve customer service: the physical space of the library, how library employees work with library policies, and the communication skills of the library staff. By using the Take Five model, the library can make immediate, no-cost changes or plan for future improvements by taking just five minutes, every day, to assess specific areas. Over a few weeks or months, these small changes will result in better customer service.

  12. Predictive Systems for Customer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Ravi; Albert, Sam; Singh, Vinod Kumar; Kannan, Pallipuram V.

    With the coming of age of web as a mainstream customer service channel, B2C companies have invested substantial resources in enhancing their web presence. Today customers can interact with a company, not only through the traditional phone channel but also through chat, email, SMS or web self-service. Each of these channels is best suited for some services and ill-matched for others. Customer service organizations today struggle with the challenge of delivering seamlessly integrated services through these different channels. This paper will evaluate some of the key challenges in multi-channel customer service. It will address the challenge of creating the right channel mix i.e. providing the right choice of channels for a given customer/behavior/issue profile. It will also provide strategies for optimizing the performance of a given channel in creating the right customer experience.

  13. 19 CFR 19.34 - Customs supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs supervision. 19.34 Section 19.34 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.34 Customs supervision. Port...

  14. Analisa Pengaruh Customer Experience Terhadap Customer Loyalty Dengan Customer Engagement Dan Customer Trust Sebagai Variabel Intervening Di the Body Shop

    OpenAIRE

    Felita, Christina Irene

    2015-01-01

    Perkembangan bisnis ritel saat ini berkembang sangat pesat. Sebagai Perusahaan ritel yang bergerak di bidang beauty & personal care, The Body Shop harus memiliki keunggulan bersaing agar dapat menang dalam persaingan yang ketat. Salah satu strategi untuk menciptakan keunggulan bersaing adalah dengan memberikan customer experience yang tepat dan memuaskan sehingga dapat memanjakan mereka sebagai customer dan membuat mereka menjadi customer yang loyal. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengan...

  15. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Reinartz

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  16. Customer Segmentation by Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty and Customer Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Vebrová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty and customer involvement are two important concepts that help explain and understand a significant part of consumer shopping behavior. The aim of the present work is to identify factors influencing brand loyalty and customer involvement. A further aim is to consider subsequent segmentation of customers with respect to different degrees of brand loyalty and customer involvement. The research was focused on the field of Czech telecommunication services – mobile operators. Primary data were acquired through the method of questionnaire survey. In total, the questionnaire was completed by 340 respondents, of which 319 respondents owned their mobile phones for private purposes only. For more accurate interpretation of the identified factors the Exploratory Factor Analysis method was used. Four factors of brand loyalty were extracted, which account for 75 % of the variability of the original parameters: (1 Cognitive affective loyalty, (2 Trustworthiness, (3 Attitudinal loyalty and (4 Commitment and three factors of customer involvement were found to account for 71 % variability of the original parameters: (1 Social involvement, (2 Centrality, (3 Importance. High loyalty customers mostly have only one SIM card and 73 % of them use a tariff. In a further group of highly involved customers own from 80 % only one SIM card. This study forms part of a research programme investigating the influence of customer involvement on brand loyalty.

  17. Influence of Customer Focused Mission Statement on Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of customer‑focused mission statements on customer satisfaction in selected cell phone manufacturing companies in the United States. The study employed content analysis for the mission statement and data from America customer satisfaction index (ACSI. In analysing our data, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression techniques were used. The result showed that product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image mission statement components are strongly positively correlated with customer satisfaction. Customer, survival, growth and profitability and market mission statement components are insignificantly negatively correlated with customer satisfaction. The study, therefore, recommends that companies that want to remain competitive by enhancing customer satisfaction should formulate mission statements from a customer perspective so that they include product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image components. The main limitation of the study represents the sample size and structure. This study empirically investigated the correlation and association of nine mission statement components with customer satisfaction.

  18. Customer requirements based ERP customization using AHP technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Daneva, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose– Customization is a difficult task for many organizations implementing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new framework based on customers’ requirements to examine the ERP customization choices for the enterprise. The analytical hierarchy

  19. Undervalued or Overvalued Customers : Capturing Total Customer Engagement Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.; Aksoy, Lerzan; Donkers, Bas; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Wiesel, Thorsten; Tillmanns, Sebastian

    Customers can interact with and create value for firms in a variety of ways. This article proposes that assessing the value of customers based solely upon their transactions with a firm may not be sufficient, and valuing this engagement correctly is crucial in avoiding undervaluation and

  20. Smart Automation, Customer Experience and Customer Engagement in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ullah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge to cleaner and more sustainable transportation is the lack of adoptability of electric vehicles (EVs by customers. Therefore, most of the vehicles we see on the road use fossil fuel instead of sustainable green energy sources. One way to improve customer acceptance is to market EVs as a socially desirable product, rather than only environmentally friendly. The silver lining to promote is the potential of information and communications technology (ICT features in EVs, which can lead to a deeper connection between the EVs and their users. These engaging technologies can bring customers closer to the company, resulting in generating big data, which can lead to even deeper insights into customer preferences. Because the technology of vehicle connectivity and automation is just taking off, it is important to understand how these technologies in EVs can enhance customer experiences and result in sustainable customer engagement. Unfortunately, this important research area remains neglected. This research, therefore, is focused on building a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of electric vehicle (EV automation and connectivity on customer experience, and ultimately, customer engagement.

  1. A Study to Investigate the Effect of Customer Value on Customer Satisfaction, Brand Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Onaran,; Zeki Atil Bulut,; Alparslan Ozmen

    2013-01-01

    Beyond satisfying needs, customer value is the key to establish and maintain long run relationships. Hence, providing excellent customer value as a driving force of customer relationships management performance plays a key role in gaining sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships among dimensions of customer value, customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and customer relationship management performance. Data obtained from customers of thermal...

  2. Captivate the customer or vanish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, J.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout its expansion program in the 1960s and its energy efficiency programs in the 1970s and 1980s, Hydro-Quebec had a satisfactory proportion of satisfied customers. However, at the end of the 1980s, the utility's customer satisfaction rating slipped below 50% for the first time. Hydro-Quebec's first response was to re-establish transmission system reliability. Service interruptions per customer were reduced from 10 h/y in 1989 to just over 4 h in 1993. Starting in 1990, the utility devised a strategy aimed at fully integrated quality management, with customer service as the top priority. A series of performance commitments was adopted which pinpointed 27 specific targets, each linked to a specific activity; of those targets, 16 are directly related to customer service. A training plan was developed which makes the customer the focus of every action taken by a Hydro-Quebec employee, and office hours have been reorganized in response to constantly evolving customer needs. A courtesy call strategy has been adopted to anticipate customer expectations before they are expressed. Highly personalized and accurately targeted informational tools have been developed for each customer category and a toll-free energy efficiency hotline has been established. Energy efficiency publications are distributed to business and residential customers. Satisfaction with Hydro-Quebec activities rose from 77% in 1992 to 93% in 1993, and credibility in energy efficiency rose from 73% to 85%. A new project being investigated is an electronic superhighway with a variety of customer applications including home automation, load and meter telecontrol, telebilling, and direct payment

  3. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality Customer Service Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    Since its establishment in 1992 the RPII has been committed to the provision of high quality services to its customers. This report outlines how the RPII will work towards providing a high quality service to our customers and the standards we aim for in the provision of our services

  5. Customer Service in Ontario's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, John

    2005-01-01

    No doubt there are detractors who cringe at the prospect of connecting the term customer service with an institution of higher education. Some may consider the term demeaning. However, given the college funding crisis and current economic climate, a quality customer service strategy is a prudent adjunct to any marketing activity undertaken. It is…

  6. Essays on multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konus, U.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to gain a greater understanding of multichannel customer behavior and how firms can manage their multichannel marketing activities. The first study reveals that three customer segments can be identified based on their orientation towards using multiple channels

  7. On measurement of customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Kanji, Gopal; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn

    1992-01-01

    Based on a theoretical argument where company profit as a function of total customer satisfaction is maximized, a new system for measuring and balancing customer satisfaction with respect to individual quality characteritics is developed. A proced implementation is suggested and the results...

  8. Rational customs clearance technology choice

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  9. Customer Satisfaction with Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, George; Rodger, Eleanor Jo

    1996-01-01

    Surveys conducted in 142 urban public libraries examined customer satisfaction, comparisons with other libraries, and factors affecting satisfaction. Overall, customers were satisfied with their libraries but experienced different levels of satisfaction based on convenience, availability of materials and information, and services facilitating…

  10. Customizing Curriculum with Digital Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    To effectively use digital resources in the classroom, teachers must customize the information, merge it with pre-existing curriculum, differentiate it for diverse student populations, and still meet standards-based learning goals. This article describes a solution to these challenges: the Curriculum Customization Service, which provides access to…

  11. Team Foundation Server 2013 customization

    CERN Document Server

    Beeming, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This book utilizes a tutorial based approach, focused on the practical customization of key features of the Team Foundation Server for collaborative enterprise software projects.This practical guide is intended for those who want to extend TFS. This book is for intermediate users who have an understanding of TFS, and basic coding skills will be required for the more complex customizations.

  12. 78 FR 41299 - Customs Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 111 Customs Brokers CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 0 to 140, revised as of April 1, 2013, on page 684, in Sec. 111.13, in paragraph (b), reinstate the second...

  13. Multifluorophore DNA Origami Beacon as a Biosensing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selnihhin, Denis; Sparvath, Steffen Møller; Preus, Søren

    2018-01-01

    -based sensors are limited by cumbersome and time-consuming readouts involving advanced experimental techniques. Here we describe design, construction, and characterization of an optical DNA origami nanobiosensor device exploiting arrays of precisely positioned organic fluorophores. Two arrays of donor...

  14. Customer value - the missing link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, A.R.; Martin, M.G.; Wagner, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    For many years electric utilities found it easy to provide value to their shareholders. With a monopoly service and decreasing costs it was easy to sell 70% more electricity each year and earn attractive returns. In the last 20 years electric utilities have teamed that it is not possible to provide value to their shareholders without providing value to their customers. Detroit Edison is learning that customer value is not always what the utility thinks it is. There is no better way to find out what customers value than to ask them. Detroit Edison has done a lot of direct asking in the last couple of years, through market research and individual interviews, and has learned indirectly from customers when a particular program does not succeed as we thought it should. Two areas where more has been learned about customer value are Demand Side Management (DSM) and Power Quality

  15. Customer-driven Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2011-01-01

    look for new ways to gain competitive advantage. In competitive markets there is a tendency of shorter product life cycles, and thus a competitive factor is to keep at pace with the market or even driving the market by developing new products. This research study seeks to investigate Customer......Demand chain management is a research area of increasing attention. It is the undertaking of reacting to customer requirements through a responsive chain going from customers through a focal company towards raw material distributors. With faster growing markets and increasing competition, companies......-driven Product Development (CDPD) from a demand chain management perspective. CDPD is the counterpart to typical research and development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. The proposition is that letting customers initiate and participate in the product development process...

  16. DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Yu, Lu; Shen, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as a material to self-assemble designed nanostructures, including DNA 2D arrays, 3D nanostructures, DNA nanotubes and DNA nanomechanical devices, has showed great promise in biomedical applications. Various DNA nanostructures have been used for protein characterization, enzyme assembly, biosensing, drug delivery and biomimetic assemblies. In this review, we will present recent advances of DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research field.

  17. Factors for Creating Online Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria Baranov; Liliana-Aurora Constantinescu

    2012-01-01

    Only those companies which succeed in building lasting relationships with online customers are those who customers are confident in and transact online securely. Furthermore, successful companies are those who pay attention to customer satisfaction, who are trying to understand customer needs and expectations and to fulfill them properly. Only those online store managers that focus more on gaining customer loyalty, than to customer acquisition succeed in the online business medium. Customer l...

  18. Linking customer satisfaction, quality, and strategic planning

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Dayr; Peña, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    By acknowledging and dissecting the interconnected roles of customer satisfaction, quality, and strategic planning, this paper provides an analytical framework for creating a customer-driven organization and culture. It shows how quality starts and ends with the customer. Companies that are achieving long-term continuous improvement in quality tailored to customer satisfaction possess lasting characteristics such as customer orientation, customer consciousness, and customer responsiveness. In...

  19. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, Stefano [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Campos-Olivas, Ramon [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Duchateau, Phillippe [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.montoya@cpr.ku.dk [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT IN CUSTOMS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Valerievna Drobot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Customs administrations operating in the modern global economy are faced with a complex range of challenges. The prime responsibilities remain the collection of revenues and the protection of the society, but these demanding tasks must be performed effectively and efficiently, whilst at the same time facilitating the flow of legitimate goods. Risk management is a logical and systematic method of identifying, analyzing and managing risks. Risk management can be associated with any activity, function or process within the organization and will enable the organization to take advantage of opportunities and minimize potential losses. Minimization of the human factor in customs control through the implementation of non-intrusive inspection equipment can be very useful. The particularities of risk-management system (RMS implementation within customs control are discussed in the article. The authors single out the elements of the risk-management system, evaluate the effectiveness of risk-management in customs control. The main reasons for non-implementation of the risk-management system in customs control are described as well. The particular attention is paid to the benefits of customs risk management. The authors’ hypothesis is that risk management in customs control must find a balance between costs and benefits to address all risks equally. Criteria are needed to decide what constitutes an acceptable or unacceptable risk. Thus, system analysis and risk management system are the effective mechanisms for acceleration of customs clearance and improve the quality of customs control. As a conclusion, the authors give recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of risk management system in customs control.

  1. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  2. Mass Customization: more technology, less publicity and customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Heloísa Braga Vasques

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to mass customization as an individual marketing strategy, centered on costumer's order, by means of technology, emphasizing the sensibility, the flexibility and the elasticity. Such an approach is based on the mass customization advantages and its principles of flexibility: the postponement, the resenquencing and the process standardization. Moreover, the article refers to the Hewlett-Packard, (PCs success, due to its power of integrating the designs of products, processes and supply network. We can, thus, think about the end of the advertisement. So, the old message: “Buy it now!” is not worthwhile anymore. The intelligence, nowadays, by means of technology, creates a "fatal", customized relationship with each customer. And it sells much more.

  3. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  4. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department...

  5. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  6. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  7. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A Customer Relationship Management System to Target Customers at Cisco

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Bhaskar

    2004-01-01

    This case describes the implementation of an Internet empowered Customer Relationship Management (CRM) at Cisco Systems Inc. After describing the organizational background of Cisco, the case takes the student into the issues that the executives faced after the market crash in 2001. John Chambers, Cisco CEO, and his team decided to strengthen Cisco’s relationship with the customers so that the company could emerge stronger when the markets recovered. Questions are raised as to the implementa...

  9. Worldwide Warehouse: A Customer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Management Office (PMO) and the customers (returnees and buyers) 23 will be developed or adapted from existing software programs. The hardware could be... customer requirements and desires is the first aspect to be approached. Sections 4.7 to 4.11 were dedicated to inivestigate those relationships and...R x NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB WORLDWIDE WAREHOUSE: Ju’a-noj1c0[ed 0 A CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE J-f-c-.tion .......... THESIS By D i s ib , tio

  10. Multidexterity in Customer Relationship Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Based on the many contributions covering business-to-business relationship management found in the pages of Industrial Marketing Management and other prominent journals within the field of business market management, we suggest framing the managerial challenge of customer relationship management...... in terms of multidexterity, i.e., the simultaneous management of (potentially) competing agendas. We build our arguments on the extant literature about ambidexterity, and we explore the existence of multidexterity in customer relationship management as well as the managerial implications of multidexterity....... In addition, we develop a research agenda for deriving additional insights about customer relationship management....

  11. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  12. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  13. The value of customer preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-01-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed

  14. Functionalization and Self-Assembly of DNA Bidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Eritja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotides carrying amino, thiol groups, as well as fluorescein, c-myc peptide sequence and nanogold at internal positions were prepared and used for the assembly of bidimensional DNA arrays.

  15. When Does Salespeople’s Customer Orientation Lead to Customer Loyalty? : The Differential Effects of Relational and Functional Customer Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Christian; Müller, Michael; Klarmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Is a customer orientation universally effective for salespeople? Or does its effectiveness depend on the selling situation? While previous research has largely neglected this question, this study investigates contextual influences on the link between customer-oriented behaviors and customer loyalty. To do so, it takes a role theory perspective on salesperson customer orientation by distinguishing functional customer orientation and relational customer orientation. It then investigates which t...

  16. Pengaruh Customer Experience Quality Terhadap Customer Satisfaction & Customer Loyalty Di Kafe Excelso Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya: Perspektif B2C

    OpenAIRE

    Senjaya, Vivie

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses about the quality of the customer experience, which is thought to affect customer satisfaction at Cafe Excelso Tunjungan Plaza Surabaya. In this study, the variable of the customer experience quality is measured through the dimensions of accessibility, competence, customer recognition, helpfulness, personalization, problem solving, promise fulfillment, and value for time. Each of these dimensions will be partially tested how it affects customer satisfaction and customer l...

  17. EFEK CUSTOMER CUSTOMER INTERACTION TERHADAP SATISFACTION DAN WORD OF MOUTH PADA HOTEL MANDARIN ORIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Hijir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research was the effect of Customer to Customer Interaction affect satisfaction, word of mouth, in mandarin oriental hotel. The objective of this research is to examine the impact of Customer satisfaction, Service Atmosphere, Personal Interaction, Customer Customer Interaction, Word of Mouth. The design of this research applies primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 200 customer who are using Mandarin Oriental Hotel. Data analysis method used in this research is Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of this research there is positive impact Personal Interaction Quality toward customer Satisfaction, there is positive impact Service Atmosphere toward Customer Satisfaction, there is positive impact Service atmosphere toward Customer Customer Interaction, there is positive impact Customer Customer Interaction toward Customer Satisfaction, there is positive impact Customer Customer Interaction toward Word of Mouth, there is positive impact Customer Satisfaction toward Word of Mouth.

  18. Development and validation of a high density SNP genotyping array for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays provide extensive information on polymorphic variation across the genome of species of interest. Such information can be used in studies of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of selection in breeding programs. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), these goals are currently hampered by the lack of a high-density SNP genotyping platform. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop and test a dense Atlantic salmon SNP array. Results SNP discovery was performed using extensive deep sequencing of Reduced Representation (RR-Seq), Restriction site-Associated DNA (RAD-Seq) and mRNA (RNA-Seq) libraries derived from farmed and wild Atlantic salmon samples (n = 283) resulting in the discovery of > 400 K putative SNPs. An Affymetrix Axiom® myDesign Custom Array was created and tested on samples of animals of wild and farmed origin (n = 96) revealing a total of 132,033 polymorphic SNPs with high call rate, good cluster separation on the array and stable Mendelian inheritance in our sample. At least 38% of these SNPs are from transcribed genomic regions and therefore more likely to include functional variants. Linkage analysis utilising the lack of male recombination in salmonids allowed the mapping of 40,214 SNPs distributed across all 29 pairs of chromosomes, highlighting the extensive genome-wide coverage of the SNPs. An identity-by-state clustering analysis revealed that the array can clearly distinguish between fish of different origins, within and between farmed and wild populations. Finally, Y-chromosome-specific probes included on the array provide an accurate molecular genetic test for sex. Conclusions This manuscript describes the first high-density SNP genotyping array for Atlantic salmon. This array will be publicly available and is likely to be used as a platform for high-resolution genetics research into traits of evolutionary and economic importance in

  19. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  20. Comparison of two methods for customer differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Gabor (Adriana); Y. Guang (Yang); S. Axsäter (Sven)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn response to customer specific time guarantee requirements, service providers can offer differentiated ser- vices. However, conventional customer differentiation methods often lead to high holding costs and may have some practical drawbacks. We compare two customer differentiation

  1. FY 2002 Customer Satisfaction Survey Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... In addition, the survey queried customers in six areas: Customer Service Experiences, Global Customer Service Performance, DTIC Products and Services, DTIC Online Services, User Demographics, Communication/Access and Information Requirements...

  2. Customer service: the key to market differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, D A

    1997-06-01

    Fierce competition in the subacute care environment makes customer service orientation essential. Four steps help to achieve quality customer service are: (1) institute core values; (2) identify your customers; (3) understand human resources; and (4) establish an efficient system.

  3. The Effects of Customer Value and Switching Barrier to Customer Loyalty at PT. Telkomsel Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mintje, Saniati Muliani M.

    2013-01-01

    Customer value is customer's perceived preference for and evaluation of those product or service. It is one of factor that can attract customers. While, switching barrier is difficult of switch product or service by a customer who is not satisfied with the existing service. It is a factor that can keep customers. so, with definition of Customer Value and Switching barrier above, it can concluded that, by creating Customer value and Switching Barrier it can create customer loyalty. The Pur...

  4. Pengaruh Hubungan Pelanggan (Customer Relationship) Terhadap Nilai Pelanggan (Customer Value) Pada Grosir Busana Muslim Ud. Leni

    OpenAIRE

    Napitupulu, Romeo Sahala

    2016-01-01

    Customer relationship is the company's strategy to gain profit through customer management efforts . Customer relationship is a process of changing customer behavior from time to time and learn from every customer interaction , adjust the action , and strengthen the bond between the customer and the company. This is the main principle that is important in marketing . There are two activities in a customer relationship are: consumer information and complaint handling . Customer relationship cl...

  5. Customer-centered brand management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Roland T; Zeithaml, Valarie A; Lemon, Katherine N

    2004-09-01

    Most executives today agree that their efforts should be focused on growing the lifetime value of their customers. Yet few companies have come to terms with the implications of that idea for their marketing management. Oldsmobile, for example, enjoyed outstanding brand equity with many customers through the 1980s. But as the century wore further on, the people who loved the Olds got downright old. So why did General Motors spend so many years and so much money trying to reposition and refurbish the tired,tarnished brand? Why didn't GM managers instead move younger buyers along a path of less resistance, toward another of the brands in GM's stable--or even launch a wholly new brand geared to their tastes? Catering to new customers, even at the expense of the brand, would surely have been the path to profits. The reason, argue the authors, is that in large consumer-goods companies like General Motors, brands are the raison d'etre. They are the focus of decision making and the basis of accountability. But this overwhelming focus on growing brand equity is inconsistent with the goal of growing customer equity. Drawing on a wide range of current examples, the authors offer seven tactics that will put brands in the service of growing customer equity. These include replacing traditional brand managers with a new position--the customer segment manager; targeting brands to as narrow an audience as possible; developing the capability and the mind-set to hand off customers from one brand to another within the company; and changing the way brand equity is measured by basing calculations on individual, rather than average, customer data.

  6. Customer database for Watrec Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Melnichikhina, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a development project for Watrec Oy. Watrec Oy is a Finnish company specializes in “waste-to-energy” issues. Customer Relation Management (CRM) strategies are now being applied within the company. The customer database is the first and trial step towards CRM strategy in Watrec Oy. The reasons for database project lie in lacking of clear customers’ data. The main objectives are: - To integrate the customers’ and project data; - To improve the level of sales and mar...

  7. Customer Relationship Management : Strategy Process Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Din, Fazal

    2014-01-01

    Before the advent of globalization the mantra of "Customer is King", was preached by large organizations. With the development of technology and the business environment, multinationals better understand the importance of customer retention and customer loyalty. Customer loyalty, attained by sustainable customer relationship, is the focus of most of the companies around the world. For any large organization customer relationship management, under the umbrella of business vision, mission and o...

  8. ANTESEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA BUDGET HOTEL

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Rahma

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...

  9. Report on research results of the FY 2000 medical/engineering cooperative research project. Fundamental research on microelectrode-aided gene information measurement system (Research and development of gene diagnostic system using superhigh-sensitivity microelectrode DNA chip ECA - electrochemical array); 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Bisho denkyoku riyo idenshi joho keisoku system ni kansuru kiban kenkyu (chokokandogata bisho denkyoku DNA chip ECA (denki kagaku allay) wo mochiita idenshi shindan system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The fundamental research is conducted for developing the microelectrode on which a synthetic oligonucletide probe is immobilized, and for establishing the system capable of detecting the hybrid formation simply and quickly, in order to develop the advanced DNA chips for diagnosis. The project results include development of the prototype array electrode with 25 1mm-diameter gold electrodes uniformly arranged at intervals of 4.5mm; development of the electrochemical activity analyzer for multi-electrode systems, showing the performance almost on a level with that of the existing electrochemical analyzer for the single-electrode systems; establishment of the gene databases; development of the method which can produce a sufficient quantity of nucleic acid for DNA chip analysis by studying the method of preparing the nucleic acid from the blood serum, preparing RNA from a trace quantity of the living liver sample and amplifying the genes, wherein the nucleic acid is produced while its profile before the amplification is kept intact; and establishment of the method for detecting the hepatitis B virus by combining the electrochemical detection of DNA by a non-immobilized probe with the PCR method. (NEDO)

  10. Towards a DNA Nanoprocessor: Reusable Tile-Integrated DNA Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2016-08-22

    Modern electronic microprocessors use semiconductor logic gates organized on a silicon chip to enable efficient inter-gate communication. Here, arrays of communicating DNA logic gates integrated on a single DNA tile were designed and used to process nucleic acid inputs in a reusable format. Our results lay the foundation for the development of a DNA nanoprocessor, a small and biocompatible device capable of performing complex analyses of DNA and RNA inputs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TING-YING LEI

    lent oligonucleotide-based array-CGH to determine the exact breakpoints in 14 patients with partial deletions of chromo- some 13q21.1-qter. They were able to refine the smallest deletion region linked to cleft lip/palate (13q31.3–13q33.1). Except for the arrays that measure DNA copy number differ- ences only, SNP arrays, ...

  12. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...

  13. Volumetric Real-Time Imaging Using a CMUT Ring Array

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Woo; Oralkan, Ömer; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Gencel, Mustafa; Stephens, Douglas N.; O’Donnell, Matthew; Sahn, David J.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2012-01-01

    A ring array provides a very suitable geometry for forward-looking volumetric intracardiac and intravascular ultrasound imaging. We fabricated an annular 64-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array featuring a 10-MHz operating frequency and a 1.27-mm outer radius. A custom software suite was developed to run on a PC-based imaging system for real-time imaging using this device.

  14. Relationship Marketing, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Commitment dan Customer Loyalty (Studi pada sebuah Bank Nasional di Denpasar)

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Martini, Luh Kadek

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches to marketing strategy applied by the organization to maintain companies viability and customer loyalty. This condition is the hope for every organization, considering the role of consumers as the companys assets can not be underestimated. Relationship marketing concept as a new breakthrough in the world of marketing gives new faces to build sustainable customer loyalty. With proper relationship marketing concept application, will be realized that the commit behavior of cons...

  15. Motivating Customer Service Employees to Deliver Service Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whisnant, Andre

    1999-01-01

    .... With higher levels of customer service, greater customer satisfaction will follow. This increased customer satisfaction leads to increased customer loyalty and retention, producing higher sales...

  16. the customer at the final frontier of mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Jensen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    , some of the factors influencing the use of this business paradigm are discussed and it is argued that the customer is the major limiting factor at the final frontier of mass customisation. Until recently mass customisation have mainly been turned towards the structural design of products, whereas...... this paper argues that there might be a need for an increased focus on the fulfilment of customer needs. As a result of this manufactures will have to hone the balance of trade-offs, as the paradigm of mass customisation becomes a commodity....

  17. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  18. Self-assembled DNA Structures for Nanoconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Yin, Peng; Park, Sung Ha; Li, Hanying; Feng, Liping; Guan, Xiaoju; Liu, Dage; Reif, John H.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, a number of research groups have begun developing nanofabrication methods based on DNA self-assembly. Here we review our recent experimental progress to utilize novel DNA nanostructures for self-assembly as well as for templates in the fabrication of functional nano-patterned materials. We have prototyped a new DNA nanostructure known as a cross structure. This nanostructure has a 4-fold symmetry which promotes its self-assembly into tetragonal 2D lattices. We have utilized the tetragonal 2D lattices as templates for highly conductive metallic nanowires and periodic 2D protein nano-arrays. We have constructed and characterized a DNA nanotube, a new self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. We have also demonstrated an aperiodic DNA lattice composed of DNA tiles assembled around a long scaffold strand; the system translates information encoded in the scaffold strand into a specific and reprogrammable barcode pattern. We have achieved metallic nanoparticle linear arrays templated on self-assembled 1D DNA arrays. We have designed and demonstrated a 2-state DNA lattice, which displays expand/contract motion switched by DNA nanoactuators. We have also achieved an autonomous DNA motor executing unidirectional motion along a linear DNA track.

  19. Effects of Customer Engagement Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Żyminkowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Research addressing the customer engagement behavior (CEB has rapidly developed in the marketing discipline, contributing to the knowledge on network organization. However, insights into the specific outcomes of CEB remain largely nebulous. Few comprehensive conceptual frameworks of CEB effects exists in the literature to-date. The empirical verification of CEB outcomes, particularly at the firm level, is still missing. Design/methodology/approach - In this article we first provide an overview of the CEB conceptualizations and its effects. Next we develop the CEB firm-level performance outcomes framework. Finally we explore CEB process, forms and outcomes in Stanley Black & Decker, applying qualitative methodological approach (case research incl. participant observation. Findings - We propose the logically arranged CEB effects in the conceptual model integrated with marketing metrics which are related to the recent advances in customer equity and customer asset management. Research implications/limitations - In empirical research we focused on the CEB effects related to one type of customer behaviors, i.e. Stanley Black& Decker customers' involvement in the product development and innovation which is a limitation in obtain-ing the comprehensive empirical picture of all CEB forms and its outcomes. Further empirical research (incl. quantitative one is necessary to verify our conceptual model. Originality/value/contribution - Our model of firm-level performance effects of CEB extends existing proposals and contributes to the knowledge on effective CEB management process in network organizations.

  20. How We Make DNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbauer, Klaus F; Engelhardt, Floris A S; Stahl, Evi; Hechtl, Vera K; Stömmer, Pierre; Seebacher, Fabian; Meregalli, Letizia; Ketterer, Philip; Gerling, Thomas; Dietz, Hendrik

    2017-10-05

    DNA origami has attracted substantial attention since its invention ten years ago, due to the seemingly infinite possibilities that it affords for creating customized nanoscale objects. Although the basic concept of DNA origami is easy to understand, using custom DNA origami in practical applications requires detailed know-how for designing and producing the particles with sufficient quality and for preparing them at appropriate concentrations with the necessary degree of purity in custom environments. Such know-how is not readily available for newcomers to the field, thus slowing down the rate at which new applications outside the field of DNA nanotechnology may emerge. To foster faster progress, we share in this article the experience in making and preparing DNA origami that we have accumulated over recent years. We discuss design solutions for creating advanced structural motifs including corners and various types of hinges that expand the design space for the more rigid multilayer DNA origami and provide guidelines for preventing undesired aggregation and on how to induce specific oligomerization of multiple DNA origami building blocks. In addition, we provide detailed protocols and discuss the expected results for five key methods that allow efficient and damage-free preparation of DNA origami. These methods are agarose-gel purification, filtration through molecular cut-off membranes, PEG precipitation, size-exclusion chromatography, and ultracentrifugation-based sedimentation. The guide for creating advanced design motifs and the detailed protocols with their experimental characterization that we describe here should lower the barrier for researchers to accomplish the full DNA origami production workflow. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. PENGARUH SYSTEMIC FAIRNESS DARI LAYANAN INTERNET BANKING TERHADAP CUSTOMER SATISFACTION DENGAN CUSTOMER TRUST DAN CUSTOMER PERCEIVED VALUE SEBAGAI VARIABEL INTERVENING

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Putra Pratama

    2014-01-01

    The background of this research is to investigate and analyze the effect of systematic fairness from internet banking services to customer satisfaction with customer trust and customer perceived value as intervening variable. The objective of this research findings in internet banking, fairness that includes distributive fairness, procedural fairness and informational fairness is positively related to customer satisfaction. Trust is identified as the key mediator of fairness to customer sa...

  2. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  3. Custom v. Standardized Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss when and why custom multi-factor risk models are warranted and give source code for computing some risk factors. Pension/mutual funds do not require customization but standardization. However, using standardized risk models in quant trading with much shorter holding horizons is suboptimal: (1 longer horizon risk factors (value, growth, etc. increase noise trades and trading costs; (2 arbitrary risk factors can neutralize alpha; (3 “standardized” industries are artificial and insufficiently granular; (4 normalization of style risk factors is lost for the trading universe; (5 diversifying risk models lowers P&L correlations, reduces turnover and market impact, and increases capacity. We discuss various aspects of custom risk model building.

  4. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991, small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) a Department of Energy facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The custom processing facility is a limited production area designed to recover unirradiated uranium fuel. A small amount of the nuclear material received and stored at the ICPP is unique and incompatible with the major head end dissolution processes. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility for processing these materials in an economical fashion in the CPP-627 hot chemistry laboratory. Two glass dissolvers were contained in a large walk in hood area. Utilities for dissolution and connections to the major ICPP uranium separation facility were provided. The fuel processing operations during this campaign involved dissolving uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid

  5. 47 CFR 32.6623 - Customer services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer services. 32.6623 Section 32.6623... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6623 Customer services. (a... includes: (1) Initiating customer service orders and records; (2) Maintaining and billing customer accounts...

  6. Online Banking Customers: Insights from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Christian Berger; Sonja Gensler

    2007-01-01

    Online banking is wide spread among German banking customers. But what really characterizes those customers? Using data from a nation-wide survey of about 20,000 retail banking customers, the authors analyze the profile of online banking customers and their banking behavior.

  7. 7 CFR 1207.313 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1207.313 Section 1207.313... PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.313 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of the Treasury. [56 FR 40229, Aug...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.7 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1230.7 Section 1230.7 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.7 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.4 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1206.4 Section 1206.4 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.4 Customs. Customs means the Customs and Border Protection of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ...

  10. 27 CFR 44.227 - Customs procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs procedure. 44.227..., WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.227 Customs procedure. The customs... having inspected the articles and supervised the lading thereof on the export carrier, the customs...

  11. 32 CFR 637.6 - Customs investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Customs investigations. 637.6 Section 637.6... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.6 Customs investigations. (a) Customs violations will be investigated as prescribed in AR 190-41. When customs authorities find...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.129 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1260.129 Section 1260.129... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.129 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of the Treasury. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.6 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1219.6 Section 1219.6 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.6 Customs. Customs means the United States Customs Service. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.7 - Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs. 1221.7 Section 1221.7 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.7 Customs. Customs means the U.S. Customs and Border Protection of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ...

  15. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or previous...

  16. Customer-Centricity for Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kilara, Tanaya; Rhyne, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Every business depends on winning customer loyalty by providing value. This is also true when customers are from the base of the social and economic pyramid (BOP). Financial service providers who are serving or who want to serve this important customer segment need to invest in understanding the customers' needs and develop products that meet those needs. An important part of becoming cust...

  17. Investigating The Effects Of Customer Perceptions Resulted From Online Shopping Sites On Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. vildan ateş

    2017-01-01

    Customer satisfaction has an important role providing continuity, profitability of online shopping sites and in the development of customer loyalty. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of customer perceptions arising from online shopping sites’ on customers’ satisfaction and to reveal a customer satisfaction model related to customer perceptions. Firstly, the indicators of customer satisfaction about online shopping sites and the customer perceptions thought...

  18. Analytical Devices Based on Direct Synthesis of DNA on Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Niu, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Güder, Firat; Cheng, Chao-Min; Liu, David; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-05

    This paper addresses a growing need in clinical diagnostics for parallel, multiplex analysis of biomarkers from small biological samples. It describes a new procedure for assembling arrays of ssDNA and proteins on paper. This method starts with the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides covalently linked to paper and proceeds to assemble microzones of DNA-conjugated paper into arrays capable of simultaneously capturing DNA, DNA-conjugated protein antigens, and DNA-conjugated antibodies. The synthesis of ssDNA oligonucleotides on paper is convenient and effective with 32% of the oligonucleotides cleaved and eluted from the paper substrate being full-length by HPLC for a 32-mer. These ssDNA arrays can be used to detect fluorophore-linked DNA oligonucleotides in solution, and as the basis for DNA-directed assembly of arrays of DNA-conjugated capture antibodies on paper, detect protein antigens by sandwich ELISAs. Paper-anchored ssDNA arrays with different sequences can be used to assemble paper-based devices capable of detecting DNA and antibodies in the same device and enable simple microfluidic paper-based devices.

  19. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  20. 3D DNA Crystals and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Paukstelis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA’s molecular recognition properties have made it one of the most widely used biomacromolecular construction materials. The programmed assembly of DNA oligonucleotides has been used to create complex 2D and 3D self-assembled architectures and to guide the assembly of other molecules. The origins of DNA nanotechnology are rooted in the goal of assembling DNA molecules into designed periodic arrays, i.e., crystals. Here, we highlight several DNA crystal structures, the progress made in designing DNA crystals, and look at the current prospects and future directions of DNA crystals in nanotechnology.

  1. Grooming customers and keeping customers loyal; Kunden pflegen - Kunden erhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufholz, W [Hamburger Gaswerke GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Over the medium term the German gas economy must be prepared to meet new challenges as they arise. Customer grooming will attain particular importance in this connection. Customer grooming is an instrument for securing the future; it must be oriented to specific target groups and is not solely the task of the actual sales team. The relationship between the gas supply company and its customers is burdened with inherent problems. While the consumer would rather like to feel like a customer, he actually has the impression of dealing with an official authority. The present paper develops some basic thoughts on this matter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die deutsche Gaswirtschaft wird sich mittelfristig immer neuen Herausforderungen des Marktes stellen muessen. Besondere Bedeutung wird dabei zukuenftig die Kundenpflege haben. Kundenpflege ist ein Instrument der Zukunftssicherung, sie muss zielgruppenorientiert sein und ist nicht allein Aufgabe der eigentlichen Vertriebsmannschaft. Dabei ist die Beziehung zwischen dem Gasversorgungsunternehmen und seinen Kunden nicht ohne Widersprueche. Einerseits moechte sich der Verbraucher als Kunde fuehlen und andererseits hat er den Eindruck, mit einer Behoerde zu verhandeln. Zu diesem Themenkreis werden einige grundsaetzliche Ausfuehrungen gemacht. (orig.)

  2. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    based upon measures identifying how potential partners are perceived by the customers. Based on results from the European Customer Satisfaction study, a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in Europe is conducted. Some specific Danish results are shown and the relationship between customer...... loyalty, supermarket type and ownership structure is studied. The relationship between results after taxes and customer loyalty is documented.......Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...

  3. Customer loyalty in Internet banking

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...

  4. Customer-centered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  5. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    To end business relationships, or to more actively terminate relationships, has long been acknowledged as part of customer relationship management. However, compared to other elements such as initiation and maintenance of relationships, little is known about the termination of business...... relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  6. [Customer orientation in ambulant medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M

    2014-07-01

    Due to developments of the health market, economic aspects of the health system are more relevant. In this upcoming market the patient is regarded as customer and the doctor as provider of medical services. Studies on customer orientation in the ambulant medicine lag behind this dynamic. An aim of the study is to comprehend the attitudes of the doctors referring to the customer orientation. In a second step the findings are discussed according to statements of health-care paticipants. Developments in role comprehension of doctor and patient are focused to gain results in scientific and practical applications. Guideline-supported, partly narrative interviews with n=9 gynaecologists and n=11 general practitioners in Freiburg/Germany are recorded, transcribed and reviewed in a qualitative analysis. The statements of the doctors show patient satisfaction has an incremental meaning sspecially regarding the sequence of patient relationship and economic management of the doctor's workplace. The doctor's role comprehension meets with a refusal of the role of salesman and the patient as customer. The method of interviews is suitable to gather empirical impressions of the doctors. The control sample is adequate, however a bias due to inhomogeneous thematic affinitiy and local social-demographics might be possible. The customer orientation has become an important factor in doctor-patient relationtships. The relevance of the doctor-patient conversation and the risk of misuse of the patient confidence are mentioned by the doctors. The doctor as paternalistic care provider gives way to the customer-focused service provider. The doctor's necessity of autonomyssss and dependency on patient satisfaction have potential for conflict. Intensive mention of customer orientation in medicine in the media emphasises its importance. Rational handling with the possibilities of individual health markets is a prospective challange. Further research could be established in all aspects of

  7. Asymmetric effects in customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füller, Johann; Matzler, Kurt; Faullant, Rita

    2006-01-01

    The results of this study on customer satisfaction in snowboard areas show that the relationship between an attribute and overall satisfaction can indeed be asymmetric. A 30-item self-administered survey was completed by snowboarders (n=2526) in 51 areas in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Italy....... Results show that waiting time is a dissatisfier; it has a significant impact on overall customer satisfaction in the low satisfaction condition and becomes insignificant in the high satisfaction situation. Restaurants and bars are hybrids, i.e. importance does not depend on performance. Slopes, fun...

  8. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  9. Take control of customizing Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Come up to speed quickly on Leopard's new features! So, what's new in Leopard? What's all the fuss about? This book shows you, through a hands-on guided tour of the adjustments, tweaks, and customizations you can make in the System and the Finder. Apple boasts of 300 new features in Leopard, but to make the most of those features, turn to Matt Neuburg for a road map on how to customize Leopard so it's right for you. Matt shows you how to protect your data with Time Machine, including instructions for searching through previous files with Spotlight. You'll also learn how to peek at files with

  10. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  11. Efficient Product Customization by Structure Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, M.;Rupp, T.;Lindemann, U.

    2017-01-01

    The presented approach describes a new strategy for creating product structures, which are suitable for further customer driven product customization – i.e. the customization can be carried out within less time and for lower costs. The required input data is knowledge on the interconnectivity between product components and knowledge of principal scopes of customization demands (e.g. which components or functions customers would like to individualize, which ones are unknown or hidden). By mean...

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ON FACULTY

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačič, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Just as companies, non-profit educational institutions are in the market and have their customers. Their market is not a market from the commercial and business oriented organizations, and their customers are not customers as in the conventional, economic-market sense. Educational institutions are not in the market only to increase sales, but also for better communication with their customers, to increase customer satisfaction, as well as for the achievement of other, non-economic objectives....

  13. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  14. Employee and customer satisfaction in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Wood, Ben D

    2010-01-01

    There were multiple factors identified in a literature review that have a relationship to customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and links between employee and customer satisfaction. Some of the factors identified were communication, wait times, perceived value, trust, dissatisfaction with management, changes in the workplace, vision,and fun at work. Managers must identify these topics to ensure customer satisfaction, customer loyalty,and employee satisfaction which will ultimately have a positive impact on their organizations.

  15. Modeling Customer's Satisfaction Behavior through Uninorms

    OpenAIRE

    Depaire, Benoit; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2006-01-01

    During the last three decades, the focus of customer satisfaction research has shifted from what it was about the product or service that customers found satisfying to how and why customers became satisfied. This resulted into several models that try to explain the customer's satisfaction behaviour, among which the expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm is one of the most prominent models. This model identifies three elements which have an influence on the customer's satisfaction level: i.e perf...

  16. Customer Relationship Management Influence on Customer Value, Product Quality and Service Quality in Improving Customer Satisfaction and Its Implication on the Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Harryani, Sri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on the Customer Value (CV), Product Quality (PQ) and Service Quality (SQ) in improving Customer Satisfaction (CS) that will have implications on the Customer Loyalty (CL). The research focuses on corporate banking, where customers serve as the research sample. The data in this research using the primary data and secondary data. Source primary data used questionnaire and source the secondary da...

  17. ANTECEDENTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleu Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication with customers. In the context of the development of social networks, the introduction of social media applications in customer relationship management activities bring important changes in this area. Thus, managers need to pay attention to the interaction management as an important process of CRM and enhance the customer relationship management capabilities. The study propose a conceptual research model of several antecedents of customer relationship managements capabilities and provide the linkage between this antecedents and CRM capabilities. First, following review of existing research literature related to customer relationship management, there are some conceptual clarification on customer relationship management. Second, are presented the working concepts: the adoption of interactive technologies, customer concept, customer empowerment, customer relationship orientation and customer-centric management system. Then, it is proposed the conceptual model and finally are presented conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and research directions. From a theoretical perspective, this paper highlights the importance of marketing actions at the individual customer level and reveal the impact of adoption by companies of interactive technologies so that organizations have the opportunity to engage in conversations with customers and respond in real time the requirements that they launched the online environment. Nowadays, customers feel empowered and play

  18. customer satsisfaction survey of omena hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola, Ebenezer

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor’s thesis examines the importance of customer satisfaction via customers’ opinions. The objective of the thesis is to measure the level of satisfaction of Customers in Omena hotels in Helsinki region. The research exposes the expectation of customers that could assist the Omena hotels to upgrade their IT-enabled business operational services. The theory part of this thesis covers the concept of customer satisfaction, customer service and service quality dimensions. The empiri...

  19. ANTECEDENTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tuleu Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media) have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication w...

  20. Development of a Fibre-Phased Array Laser-EMAT Ultrasonic System for Defect Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, C; Demachi, K; Koyama, K; Uesaka, M; Fukuchi, T; Chen, Z

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a phased array laser ultrasound system with using fibre optic delivery and a custom-designed focusing objective lens has been developed for enhancing the ultrasound generation. The fibre-phased array method is applied to improve the sensitivity and detecting ability of the laser-EMAT system for defect inspection

  1. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  2. Linking Customer Interaction and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Laursen, Keld; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    employees for sharing and acquiring knowledge, and high levels of delegation of decision rights. In this paper, six hypotheses were developed and tested on a data set of 169 Danish firms drawn from a 2001 survey of the 1,000 largest firms in Denmark. A key result is that the link from customer knowledge...

  3. Students: Customers, Clients or Pawns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The metaphor of the student as a consumer or customer is widely used within contemporary higher education, and impacts on the ways in which students, academics and institutions behave. These, and a number of alternative metaphors for the student, are critically reviewed. The alternatives considered include both contemporary (student as client or…

  4. Market mechanisms and customer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boethius, O. [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The paper relates to market mechanisms and customer preferences regarding alternative fuels for road transports. Globally, road transports are to 99% dependent on crude oil. According to the author, one third of the crude oil is consumed for road transports. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is discussed in this connection

  5. Custom Orthotics Changed My Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

  6. Customer satisfaction with training programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution, a model of evaluation of customer satisfaction about training programs is described. The model is developed and implemented for an association of training companies. The evaluation has been conducted by an independent organisation to enhance the thrustworthiness of the

  7. Typology of customer driven manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, J.C.; Wortmann, J.C.; Muntslag, D.R.; Timmermans, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this chapter has been to introduce a variety of customer driven manufacturing situations. This variety has been placed in a two-dimensional grid, which constitutes a typology. For some of these types, production management issues were discussed in section 6.3. It was concluded that an

  8. Customer Satisfaction with Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    2001-01-01

    A model for evaluating customer satisfaction with training programs was tested with training purchasers. The model confirmed two types of projects: training aimed at achieving learning results and at changing job performance. The model did not fit for training intended to support organizational change. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  9. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  10. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  11. Digital Integration: Towards Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Finn

    “Mass production in lots of one” is a phrase coined by Oliver Morton in a seminal piece for The Economist (1994). In few words this sentence contains the essence (and schism) of true customization aiming at manufacturing the artifact for the mass. Emerging Nanotechnologies are said to enable...

  12. Mass Customization and Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Mass customization (MC) has been introduced as the future of manufacturing, and great results have been proven. Recent research, however, documents a high failure rate for companies trying to adapt to MC as a business strategy. Making this transition is, as highlighted by several scholars...

  13. Online Customization of Retailers’ Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natorina Alona O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop recommendations on correct online customization of retailers’ activities in the online space based on results of studying and analyzing trends in digital activity of consumers under real time conditions and taking into account the factors directly influencing buyers’ purchasing from corresponding online retailers. The trends of changes in digital forms of contacting consumers in different countries and regions of the world are studied, and their access to the digital content with details of gadget types and devices is analyzed. The level of digital activity of consumers in the online space is diagnosed in accordance with the consumer inclusion index using the GfK methodology. It is grounded that retailers are advisable to look for new tools of online customization with mandatory consideration of consumer preferences, which depend on the influence of various factors on their behavior. It is found out that a high level of online confidence in a retailer acts as a catalyst for purchasing on the Internet, and factors influencing it are identified. The prerequisites for successful online customization of retailers’ activities are considered, and categories of behavioral patterns of potential buyers to achieve the most effective digital promotion of retailers in the online space are proposed. The aspects of online customization that guarantee the necessary level of competitiveness of retailers for effective functioning in the online space are justified.

  14. Opinion Summarizationof CustomerComments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miao; Wu, Guoshi

    Web 2.0 technologies have enabled more and more customers to freely comment on different kinds of entities, such as sellers, products and services. The large scale of information poses the need and challenge of automatic summarization. In many cases, each of the user-generated short comments implies the opinions which rate the target entity. In this paper, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer comments of a product. The algorithm proposed in this researchis more reliable on opinion identification because it is unsupervised and the accuracy of the result improves as the number of comments increases. Our research is performed in four steps: (1) mining the frequent aspects of a product that have been commented on by customers; (2) mining the infrequent aspects of a product which have been commented by customers (3) identifying opinion words in each comment and deciding whether each opinion word is positive, negative or neutral; (4) summarizing the comments. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using comments of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  15. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  16. Customized News in Your Mailbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Customized Internet services deliver news and selected research via e-mail, fax, Web browser, or their own software. Some are clipping services while others are full-fledged online newspapers. Most charge a monthly subscription fee, but a few are free to registered users. Provides the addresses, cost, scope, and evaluation of eight services. (PEN)

  17. Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty as Predictors of Future Business Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of app. 2000 private customers evaluated their...

  18. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Parts 1, 3, 22 et al. Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures... Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations... amend existing regulations to require enhanced customer protections, risk management programs, internal...

  19. Analisa Pengaruh Customer Experience Quality Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Di Hotel Bintang 3 Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Njoto, Mellisa Oktaviani; Tjahyadi, Nency Lifia; Aprillia, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Customer experience quality merupakan penilaian yang dirasakan konsumen tentang keunggulan atau superioritas dari pengalaman yang didapatkan oleh konsumen. Dalam penelitian kali ini, peneliti menetapkan customer experience quality sebagai variabel yang mempengaruhi customer satisfaction. Customer experience quality memiliki 8 dimensi, yaitu helpfulness, value for time, customer recognition, promise fulfillment, problem solving, personalization, competence, dan accessibility. Penelitian ini be...

  20. Micromirror array nanostructures for anticounterfeiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert A.

    2004-06-01

    The optical characteristics of pixellated passive micro mirror arrays are derived and applied in the context of their use as reflective optically variable device (OVD) nanostructures for the protection of documents from counterfeiting. The traditional design variables of foil based diffractive OVDs are shown to be able to be mapped to a corresponding set of design parameters for reflective optical micro mirror array (OMMA) devices. The greatly increased depth characteristics of micro mirror array OVDs provides an opportunity for directly printing the OVD microstructure onto the security document in-line with the normal printing process. The micro mirror array OVD architecture therefore eliminates the need for hot stamping foil as the carrier of the OVD information, thereby reducing costs. The origination of micro mirror array devices via a palette based data format and a combination electron beam lithography and photolithography techniques is discussed via an artwork example and experimental tests. Finally the application of the technology to the design of a generic class of devices which have the interesting property of allowing for both application and customer specific OVD image encoding and data encoding at the end user stage of production is described. Because of the end user nature of the image and data encoding process these devices are particularly well suited to ID document applications and for this reason we refer this new OVD concept as biometric OVD technology.

  1. The FPGA Pixel Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2013-01-01

    A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested. -- Highlights: ► We describe the novelty and need for the FPGA Pixel Array Detector. ► We describe the specifications and design of the Diode, ASIC and FPGA layers. ► We highlight the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) for speckle as an example application. ► Simulated FPGA output calculates the ACF for different input bitstreams to 100 ns. ► Reduced data transfer rate by 640× and sped up real-time ACF by 100× other methods.

  2. Nanoparticle sorting in silicon waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. T.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Yap, P. H.; Wang, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the optical fractionation of nanoparticles in silicon waveguide arrays. The optical lattice is generated by evanescent coupling in silicon waveguide arrays. The hotspot size is tunable by changing the refractive index of surrounding liquids. In the experiment, 0.2-μm and 0.5-μm particles are separated with a recovery rate of 95.76%. This near-field approach is a promising candidate for manipulating nanoscale biomolecules and is anticipated to benefit the biomedical applications such as exosome purification, DNA optical mapping, cell-cell interaction, etc.

  3. EVALUATING A CUSTOMER-CENTRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi-Nicolae DUMITRESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer focus is, at best, only one element of the relationship between a company and its customers. At worst it is a board-room buzzworld, witch makes every board member feel a little more secure. Not unlike the phrase “working towards equal opportunities”, it is showing an awareness of a need but is not addressing the issues. Customer focus must lead to something meaningful, will probably require sacrifices and is just one of the steps necessary to become truly customer-centric. A customer focus puts your customers high on your list of priorities. When you put your customers into the heart of your business, make customers part of the culture, then you to become customer-centric.

  4. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This

  5. Customs Representation in Simplified Customs Procedures in Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Ivaković

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available When introduced in 2000 the use of authorized consigneeand consignor status was not particularly popular among companies,despite its apparent advantages. The number of the statususers compared to the total number of exporters and importerswas almost negligible. The aim of this paper was to find outto which extent the simplified customs procedures have beenaccepted in Croatia through an objective outline of advantagesand disadvantages that the companies - users of the simplifiedprocedures face on a daily basis.

  6. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." Eeles RA, Olama AA, Benlloch S, Saunders EJ, Leongamornlert DA, Tymrakiewicz M, Ghoussaini M, Luccarini C, Dennis J, Jugurnauth-Little S, Dadaev T, Neal DE, Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Muir K, Giles GG, Severi G, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Haiman CA, Schumacher F, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L, Lindstrom S, Kraft P, Hunter DJ, Gapstur S, Chanock SJ, Berndt SI, Albanes D, Andriole G, Schleutker J, Weischer M, Canzian F, Riboli E, Key TJ, Travis RC, Campa D, Ingles SA, John EM, Hayes RB, Pharoah PD, Pashayan N, Khaw KT, Stanford JL, Ostrander EA, Signorello LB, Thibodeau SN, Schaid D, Maier C, Vogel W, Kibel AS, Cybulski C, Lubinski J, Cannon-Albright L, Brenner H, Park JY, Kaneva R, Batra J, Spurdle AB, Clements JA, Teixeira MR, Dicks E, Lee A, Dunning AM, Baynes C, Conroy D, Maranian MJ, Ahmed S, Govindasami K, Guy M, Wilkinson RA, Sawyer EJ, Morgan A, Dearnaley DP, Horwich A, Huddart RA, Khoo VS, Parker CC, Van As NJ, Woodhouse CJ, Thompson A, Dudderidge T, Ogden C, Cooper CS, Lophatananon A, Cox A, Southey MC, Hopper JL, English DR, Aly M, Adolfsson J, Xu J, Zheng SL, Yeager M, Kaaks R, Diver WR, Gaudet MM, Stern MC, Corral R, Joshi AD, Shahabi A, Wahlfors T, Tammela TL, Auvinen A, Virtamo J, Klarskov P, Nordestgaard BG, Røder MA, Nielsen SF, Bojesen SE, Siddiq A, Fitzgerald LM, Kolb S, Kwon EM, Karyadi DM, Blot WJ, Zheng W, Cai Q, McDonnell SK, Rinckleb AE, Drake B, Colditz G, Wokolorczyk D, Stephenson RA, Teerlink C, Muller H, Rothenbacher D, Sellers TA, Lin HY, Slavov C, Mitev V, Lose F, Srinivasan S, Maia S, Paulo P, Lange E, Cooney KA, Antoniou AC, Vincent D, Bacot F, Tessier DC; COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association of Urological Surgeons' Section of Oncology; UK ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ~30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  8. Marketing research of organic agricultural products' customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.

  9. CUSTOMIZED PRODUCTS: THE INTEGRATING RELATIONSHIP MARKETING, AGILE MANUFACTURING AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR MASS CUSTOMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman BARUTCU

    2007-01-01

    A customized product is a special product designed and manufactured for individual customers to meet their individual needs. Managers need to understand why customers demand and how companies supply customized products. The importance of this study is to highlight business, marketing and manufacturing strategies so as to supply customized products efficiently. It is expected from a manufacturer to successfully adopt relationship marketing, mass customization, agile manufacturing and supply ch...

  10. Using alternative segmentation techniques to examine residential customer`s energy needs, wants, and preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollander, C.; Kidwell, S. [Union Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Banks, J.; Taylor, E. [Cambridge Reports/Research International, MA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine residential customers` attitudes toward energy usage, conservation, and efficiency, and to examine the implications of these attitudes for how the utility should design and communicate about programs and services in these areas. This study combined focus groups and customer surveys, and utilized several customer segmentation schemes -- grouping customers by geodemographics, as well as customers` energy and environmental values, beliefs, and opinions -- to distinguish different segments of customers.

  11. Efek Customer Customer Interaction Terhadap Satisfaction Dan Word of Mouth Pada Hotel Mandarin Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Hijir, Putri

    2016-01-01

    The background of this research was the effect of Customer to Customer Interaction affect satisfaction, word of mouth, in mandarin oriental hotel. The objective of this research is to examine the impact of Customer satisfaction, Service Atmosphere, Personal Interaction, Customer Customer Interaction, Word of Mouth. The design of this research applies primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 200 customer who are using Mandarin Oriental Hotel. Data analysis method used in this re...

  12. The impact of development of customer online banking skills on customer adviser skills

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, M.; Bobillier Chaumon, M.-E.; Retour, Didier

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The object of this article is the development of customer banking skills as a result of using online banking and its impact on the competence of customer advisers in face-to-face customer contacts. We focus on the use of software applications by customer advisers (CA) during customer contacts. The main results show that online banking enables customers to develop a range of banking skills. In order to deliver the service required by the context, advisers select the req...

  13. Monitoring of fiscal revenue authorities in the field of customs legislation clarification and customs risk minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fedir Tkachyk; Kateryna Krysovata

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the role of customs consulting in the activities of fiscal authorities and highlights the modern specifics of customs risks management. The monitoring of explanatory work on realization of customs and tax policy for the implementation of preventive initiatives to minimize the customs risks and documentary inspection was conducted. The strategic development priorities of consultancy activities of customs bodies in terms of minimizing customs offenses were proposed.

  14. THE ROLE OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN MEDIATING MARKETING COMMUNICATION EFFECT ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Dimyati,

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the effect of a) marketing communication on customer satisfaction; b) marketing communication on customer loyalty; c) customer satisfaction on customer loyalty; and d) to identify the role of customer satisfaction in mediating marketing communication effect on customer loyalty of the IM3 user community in Jember regency, East Java province. The study was designed in a form confirmatory research, with the whole IM3 community members in the regency as the ...

  15. Microarrays (DNA Chips) for the Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Betsy; Sussman, Michael; BonDurant, Sandra Splinter; Nienhuis, James; Krysan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and optimized the necessary laboratory materials to make DNA microarray technology accessible to all high school students at a fraction of both cost and data size. The primary component is a DNA chip/array that students "print" by hand and then analyze using research tools that have been adapted for classroom use. The…

  16. A Determination Method of Optimal Customization Degree of Logistics Service Supply Chain with Mass Customization Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customization degree is a very important field of mass customization. Its improvement could enhance customer satisfaction and further increase customer demand while correspondingly it will increase service price and decrease customer satisfaction and demand. Therefore this paper discusses how to deal with such issues in logistics service supply chain (LSSC with a logistics service integrator (LSI and a customer. With the establishment of customer demand function for logistics services and profit functions of the LSI and the customer, three different decision modes are proposed (i.e., customization degree dominated by LSI, customization degree dominated by customer, and customization degree decided by concentrated supply chain; many interesting findings are achieved. Firstly, to achieve customization cooperation between LSI and customer, measures should be taken to make the unit increase cost of the customized logistics services lower than a certain value. Secondly, there are differences between the optimal customization degree dominated by LSI and that dominated by customer. And in both cases, the dominator could realize more profit than the follower. Thirdly, with the profit secondary distribution strategy, the modified decentralized decision mode could accomplish the maximum profit achieved in centralized decision mode and meanwhile get the optimal customization degree.

  17. Custom Visualization without Real Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas

    Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first...... contribution of the thesis is a taxonomy for Information Visualization development tools. Existing taxonomies from the Information Visualization field are helpful, but none of them can properly categorize visualization tools from a user development perspective. The categorization of 20 Information...... Visualization tools proves the applicability of this taxonomy, and the result showed that there are no Dragand- Drop tools that allow end-user developers as well as programmers to create custom visualizations. The second contribution is a new visualization development approach, the Drag...

  18. Semi-customizing patient surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjær, Erik; Ammentorp, Jette; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The study investigated the needs and consequences of semi-customizing patient satisfaction surveys to low organizational levels and explored whether patient satisfaction was correlated with local organizational conditions. Design. From 1999 to 2006, the County of Aarhus carried out 398....... Establishing a link between patient satisfaction and organizational variables broadens the quality development focus to include more than simply analysis of specific questions. Semi-customizing patient surveys are recommended....... surveys during four rounds in eight hospitals. To explain differences between the wards, data on the 40 wards with the best and the 40 wards with the worst evaluations (identified by patient surveys) were compared with the data from job satisfaction surveys and management information systems. Setting...

  19. Menciptakan Customer Experience Menggunakan Merk

    OpenAIRE

    Prabawanti, Benedicta Evienia

    2006-01-01

    The most brand theory defines brand as identifies only and differentiate one product from another. That means the brand is identity of product that signify ownership and guarantee quality. This paradigm about brand misses the very essences of a brand as rich of sensory, affective, and cognitive associations that result of memorable and rewarding brand experience. The brand experience increases the value of product in customer mind. The Manning Selvage & Lee, a research firm, find that bra...

  20. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  1. Enabling model customization and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minho; Fishwick, Paul A.

    2003-09-01

    Until fairly recently, the idea of dynamic model content and presentation were treated synonymously. For example, if one was to take a data flow network, which captures the dynamics of a target system in terms of the flow of data through nodal operators, then one would often standardize on rectangles and arrows for the model display. The increasing web emphasis on XML, however, suggests that the network model can have its content specified in an XML language, and then the model can be represented in a number of ways depending on the chosen style. We have developed a formal method, based on styles, that permits a model to be specified in XML and presented in 1D (text), 2D, and 3D. This method allows for customization and personalization to exert their benefits beyond e-commerce, to the area of model structures used in computer simulation. This customization leads naturally to solving the bigger problem of model integration - the act of taking models of a scene and integrating them with that scene so that there is only one unified modeling interface. This work focuses mostly on customization, but we address the integration issue in the future work section.

  2. Customized PEC modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Martin B. (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the project ''Customized PEC modules'' was to move from the production hand-made individual DSCs (dye-sensitized solar cells) in the laboratory to the production of DSC modules in a semi-automated process. At the same time allowing sufficient variation in the product's specification for real tailoring of the product to the application. The tailoring can be related to the module's electrical output and size, but also to the possibility of designing patterns for decoration or communication purposes by playing around with the shape, size and layout of the individual cells forming the module. This was to be accomplished mainly by screen printing of DSC components on glass substrates at Mekoprint. For reaching this goal the work was divided into a number of steps. The central part of the work done was in the initial conception activity and the following manufacturing activity. An activity regarding optimization included several tasks of optimization and adaptation of the existing laboratory process for manufacturing of the DSCs. Finally, work focused on international activities was done. All the steps needed for the production of customized DSC modules have been demonstrated in this project. In combination with the development of a high performing printable sealant and sealing method all the prerequisites for producing customized DSC modules have been demonstrated. (LN)

  3. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  4. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  5. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  6. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...... in other countries, e.g. in the Scandinavian countries. This development will demand even more focus on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in order to stay in business and may also demand that existing actors on the market place form new coalitions. Promising new partners may be identified, partly...... based upon measures identifying how potential partners are perceived by the customers. Based on results from the European Customer Satisfaction study, a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in Europe is conducted. Some specific Danish results are shown and the relationship between customer...

  7. Predicting retail banking customers' attitude towards Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    at increasing the adoption of Internet banking use among retail banking .... customers to access and perform financial transactions on their bank account from ..... customers barely agree with the statements that measured this construct.

  8. WisDOT statewide customer satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and initiate a new customer satisfaction tool that would establish a set of baseline : departmental performance measures and be sustainable for future use. ETC Institute completed a statewide customer : survey...

  9. Idaho Transportation Department 2011 customer satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    In the spring and summer of 2011, the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) commissioned a statewide customer satisfaction survey of Idaho residents to assess their perception of ITDs performance in several key areas of customer service. The areas...

  10. Measuring Air Force Contracting Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT MEASURING AIR FORCE CONTRACTING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ...... satisfaction elements should be included in a standardized tool that measures the level of customer satisfaction for AF Contracting’s external and

  11. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  12. Liquid crystal-based hydrophone arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzeli, Zourab; Silvestri, Leonardo; Michie, Andrew; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.; Guo, Qi; Pozhidaev, Eugene P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.; Ladouceur, Francois

    2012-09-01

    We describe a fiber optic hydrophone array system that could be used for underwater acoustic surveillance applications (e.g. military, counter terrorist, and customs authorities in protecting ports and harbors), offshore production facilities or coastal approaches as well as various marine applications. In this paper, we propose a new approach to underwater sonar systems using the voltage-controlled liquid crystals and simple multiplexing method. The proposed method permits measurement of sound under water at multiple points along an optical fiber using the low cost components and standard single mode fiber, without complex interferometric measurement techniques, electronics or demodulation software.

  13. Chromosomal DNA replication of Vicia faba cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1976-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA replication of higher plant cells has been investigated by DNA fiber autoradiography. The nuclear DNA fibers of Vicia root meristematic cells are organized into many tandem arrays of replication units or replicons which exist as clusters with respect to replication. DNA is replicated bidirectionally from the initiation points at the average rate of 0.15 μm/min at 20 0 C, and the average interinitiation interval is about 16 μm. The manner of chromosomal DNA replication in this higher plant is similar to that found in other eukaryotic cells at a subchromosomal level. (auth.)

  14. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  15. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  16. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  17. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  18. A Measurement of Civil Engineering Customer Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    and the people who consume it" (2iv-xvii). More recently, service providers have become aware of the importance of customer satisfaction, but most do... customer as both a consumer and a co-producer; that is, the customer is the recipient of the service, and, at the same time, is involved in the...base civil engineering customers are more like consumers and less like co-producers because the BCE works on facilities, not on the occupants

  19. Improving Customer Satisfaction: A People CMM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-11

    Work Environment Customer Relationship Management Program 19 Improving Customer Satisfaction: A People CMM Perspective P. Buttles, S. McGraw, D...Professional in 2009 and Customer Care Manager in July 2006. He has a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Pittsburgh and a bachelor of science...conferences throughout the United States and Europe. He has as a bachelor of science degree in management . 4 Improving Customer Satisfaction: A

  20. Changes in approach to customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepańska, Katarzyna; Gawron, Patryk Paweł

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses an overview of customer loyalty theoretical framework. It presents both, the classic approach to the subject of loyalty as well as the results of its ongoing evolution. This allowed the identification of factors affecting customer loyalty and a statement that the concept of loyalty can be seen in varying degrees, in terms of criteria other than behavioral. Finding of not enough empirical research on customer loyalty in the long types of market and specific customer group...

  1. Customer value and financial services distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Anita

    2017-01-01

    This research effort seeks to investigate the co-creation of customer value in distribution channels of financial services as perceived by customers. In financial services, an in-depth investigation of customer value is necessary because of its recognised strategic imperative for competitive advantage (Woodruff, 1997). The Service Dominant Logic further demonstrates the importance of customer value as the basis of customers’ evaluations of products or service offerings (Vargo and Lusch, 2004)...

  2. Customer's potential value: The role of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Komulainen, Hanna; Mainela, Tuija; Tähtinen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    Current views on value creation emphasize the role of the customer, mutual investments, and value co-creation. Nevertheless, at present the customer-focused research concentrates on value expectations and value experiences as outcomes but disregards the analysis of potential value that is dependent on the customer's activity and learning in the process. The present study explores customer perceived value as a multidimensional phenomenon incorporating expected, realized, and potential dimensio...

  3. Customer Activity: A Perspective on Service Use

    OpenAIRE

    Mickelsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Due to changes in technology, customers are increasingly empowered in their interactions with companies. Information is readily available, and customers can choose, learn and contribute in ways previously unimaginable. Even though marketers have acknowledged the importance of understanding the customer as an active participant in service, there have been few efforts to systematically understand and illustrate the customer’s structures of activity. Customer activity has within marketing tr...

  4. Analisa Customer Value dan Customer Experience terhadap Customer Loyalty dengan Customer Satisfaction sebagai Variabel Intervening (Studi pada Waroeng Spesial Sambal Cabang Purwokerto)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariningsih, Kuswanti; Muji Rahayu, Tri Septin

    2015-01-01

    This research was based on the comptitive business condition in restaurant business that was getting more competitive, therefore the corporates had to make a new marketing strategy to stay and achieve he higher market. This research aimed to test the effect of customer value and customer experience toward customer loyalty with customer satisfaction as intervening variable. The data were gained by questionnaire method to the 110 respondent of waroeng spesial sambal cabang purwok...

  5. Customer Value Sebagai Sumberdaya Informasi Bagi Perusahaan

    OpenAIRE

    Pujihastuti, Isti

    2007-01-01

    Buy a product or services is a process and are influenced many factors. ext. customer's satisfaction. The concept of customer satisfaction suggests strong relationship to customer value in a hierarchical model. Starting at the bottom of the hierarchy, customer learn to think about products and performances attribute. When purchasing and using a product, they learn concequence experiences, reflected in value in use and possession value, that is the next level up in the hierarchy. The top level...

  6. Customer Satisfaction Using Data Mining Approach

    OpenAIRE

    ORALHAN, Burcu; UYAR, Kumru; ORALHAN, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Customers and products are the mainassets for every business. Companies make their best to satisfy customersbecause of coming back to their companies. After sales service related todifferent steps that make customers are satisfied with the company service andproducts. After sales service covers different many activities to investigatewhether the customer is satisfied with the service, products or not? Hence,after sales service is acting very crucial role for customer satisfaction,retention an...

  7. Identification with the retail organization and customer-perceived employee similarity: effects on customer spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G

    2012-09-01

    Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.

  8. Customer Feedback: A Framework for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micceri, Ted; Takalkar, Pradnya; Waugh, Gordon

    This paper is designed to identify effective methods and to lay out steps that can be used in a customer feedback survey process. In order for the results of any customer survey to stimulate useful changes in an organization, it is essential that the support of key players be present from the beginning. Developing a customer feedback process is a…

  9. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping up...

  10. 12 CFR 368.5 - Customer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer information. 368.5 Section 368.5 Banks... GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.5 Customer information. Prior to the execution of a transaction recommended to a non-institutional customer, a bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall...

  11. Trends in Marketing: Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Describes the basics of Customer Relationship Management, a process whereby the customer interacts with the company, the company responds by learning to meet that individual's needs, and the customer is more likely to become loyal. Suggests how marketing students can learn the fundamentals of it. (JOW)

  12. The strategic value of customer profitability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to

  13. Preference clustering in customer satisfaction measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze whether or not segments with different customer preferences and customer satisfaction can be identified. This analysis is based on customer satisfaction data from the Danish banking industry from the years 2004 and 2005. The analysis showed that the preference...

  14. 47 CFR 32.4040 - Customers' deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customers' deposits. 32.4040 Section 32.4040... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4040 Customers' deposits. (a) This account shall include the amount of cash deposited with the company by customers as security...

  15. Are women more loyal customers than men?

    OpenAIRE

    Osselaer, Stijn; Melnyk, Valentina; Bijmolt, Tammo

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor almost every company the retention of customers and the creation of customer loyalty is a huge driver of profits. If an organisation were able to increase customer retention by just 1%, such an improvement would have a significant impact on profitability.

  16. Membangun Customer Relationship Management dalam Bisnis

    OpenAIRE

    Darudiato, Suparto; Novianto, Chiko; Hendra, Hendra; Reynaldo, Reynaldo; Selvi, Selvi

    2011-01-01

    Customer relationship management dapat dijadikan alat oleh perusahaan dalam mengembangkan bisnisnya agar mendapat perhatian dari customer dan pasar. Paper ini disusun berdasarkan penelitian yang menggambarkan hubungan bisnis dan pengaruh pelanggan terhadap perusahaan, serta bagaimana sebuah customer relationship management dapat membantu perusahaan dalam meraih pangsa pasar. Data dan informasi dalam studi ini didapatkan dari studi pustaka yang mengacu pada buku referensi dan jurnal yang berhu...

  17. STRATEGI CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MARKETING TERHADAP LOYALITAS PELANGGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Setyo Iriani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the banking industry had rapidly gave freedom to our customers in determining the choice touse their services, so if the value received was not as expected, then the customers were easy to move to anotherbank, which was considered in accordance with their wishes. Thus, banks were implementing various strategies,both offensive and defensive oriented. Defensive strategy was oriented to maintain customers by buildingrelationships with customers so that customers will be loyal to the bank. This study aimed to examine the effectof customer relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty of BNI and BCA in East Java. Total samplewas 210 clients, 105 clients each of BNI and BCA. Data was collected using interviews and questionnaires. Theresults showed that there was influence of customer relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty of BNIand BCA, because each customer provided high ratings on all indicators of the bank’s CRM strategy in whichthey saved money. Trust was the most decisive for customers in a comprehensive evaluation of the closeness ofthe relationship with the bank. Furthermore, customers of both banks showed high behavioral loyalty to eachbank.

  18. Customer loyalty of retail firm - Billa

    OpenAIRE

    Dančevská, Ráchel

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis results from marketing, which includes customer loyalty and consumer typology. Then the thesis is concerned with a marketing research and a proper creation of a questionnaire for this research. The practical part of the thesis introduces the retail company Billa and presents the results from field research, which was focused on finding of customer loyalty of the Billa's customers.

  19. Employee Identification and their Perceived Customer Satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Employees perceived high customer service delivery while customers reported satisfaction in accommodation but dissatisfaction in the restaurant services. ... since it is strongly related to the quality of service and customer satisfaction.

  20. Administrative jurisdiction of customs of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    DOROSH M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The author describes the customs authorities as subjects of administrative jurisdiction, serving a variety of executive power. The customs authorities of Ukraine in nature play an important role in the law enforcement activities of the state. There is a constant struggle against customs violations.