WorldWideScience

Sample records for cusped mass density

  1. Do Transient Electrodynamic Processes Support Enhanced Neutral Mass Densities in Earth's Cusp-Region Thermosphere via Divergent Upward Winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, M.; Larsen, M. F.; Troyer, R.; Gillespie, D.; Kosch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite accelerometer measurements show that Earth's thermosphere contains two substantial and permanent regions of enhanced mass density that are located at around 400 km altitude near the footprints of the north and south geomagnetic cusps. The additional mass in these regions must be supported against gravity, which requires that similarly localized perturbations must occur in one or more of the other fields (beyond mass density) that appear in the momentum conservation equation for the thermospheric neutral fluid. However more than a decade after the density enhancements were first discovered, there are still no observations of any other corresponding perturbations to terms appearing directly in this equation that would indicate what is supporting the extra mass. To date, most candidate mechanisms involve high-altitude transient electrodynamic heating (at 250 km and above) that drives upwelling and associated horizontal divergence. Indeed, there are very few viable mechanisms that don't ultimately cause substantial localized neutral wind perturbations to occur near the density anomalies. Thus, we report here on a study to search for signatures of these localized perturbations in winds, using several data sources. These are the WATS instrument that flew aboard the DE-2 spacecraft, the C-REX-1 rocket flight through the CUSP in 2014, and two ground-based Fabry-Perot instruments that are located in Antarctica at latitudes that pass under the geomagnetic cusps - i.e. at McMurdo and South Pole stations. Using these data, we will present both climatological averages and also individual case studies to illustrate what localized signatures occur (if any) in the neutral wind fields near the cusp-region density anomalies.

  2. Density Variations in the Earth's Magnetospheric Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Niehof, J.; Collier, M. R.; Welling, D. T.; Sibeck, D. G.; Mozer, F. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Kuntz, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Seven years of measurements from the Polar spacecraft are surveyed to monitor the variations of plasma density within the magnetospheric cusps. The spacecraft's orbital precession from 1998 through 2005 allows for coverage of both the northern and southern cusps from low altitude out to the magnetopause. In the mid- and high- altitude cusps, plasma density scales well with the solar wind density (n(sub cusp)/n(sub sw) approximately 0.8). This trend is fairly steady for radial distances greater then 4 R(sub E). At low altitudes (r less than 4R(sub E)) the density increases with decreasing altitude and even exceeds the solar wind density due to contributions from the ionosphere. The density of high charge state oxygen (O(greater +2) also displays a positive trend with solar wind density within the cusp. A multifluid simulation with the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme MHD model was run to monitor the relative contributions of the ionosphere and solar wind plasma within the cusp. The simulation provides similar results to the statistical measurements from Polar and confirms the presence of ionospheric plasma at low altitudes.

  3. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps II Spherically Symmetric Anisotropic Cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2010-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we study density cusps that may contain central black holes. The actual co-eval self-similar growth would not distinguish between the central object and the surroundings. Methods. To study the environment of a growing black hole we seek descriptions of steady 'cusps' that may contain a black hole and that retain at least a memory of self-similarity. We refer to the environment in brief as the 'bulge' and on smaller scales, the 'halo'. Results. We find simple descriptions of the simulations of collisionless matter by comparing predicted densities, velocity dispersions and distribution functions with the simulations. In some cases central point masses may be included by iteration. We emphasize that the co-eval self-similar growth allows an explanation of the black hole bulge mass correlation between approximately similar collisionless systems. Conclusions. We have derived our results from first principles assuming adiabatic self-similarity and either self-similar virialisation or normal stea...

  4. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps I Radial Orbit Cusps and Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we study density cusps made from radial orbits that may contain central black holes. The actual co-eval self-similar growth would not distinguish between the central object and the surroundings. Methods. To study the environment of an existing black hole we seek distribution functions that may contain a black hole and that retain at least a memory of self-similarity. We refer to the environment in brief as the 'bulge' or sometimes the 'halo'. This depends on whether the black hole is a true singularity dominating its halo or rather a core mass concentration that dominates a larger bulge. The hierarchy might extend to include galactic bulge and halo. Results.We find simple descriptions of simulated collisionless matter in the process of examining the presence of central masses. The Fridmann & Polyachenko distribution function describes co-eval growth of a bulge and black hole that might explain the observed mass correlation. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles assum...

  5. A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Bauer, Franz E.; Berkowitz, Michael E.; Hong, Jaesub; Hord, Benjamin J.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of a ‘density cusp’—a localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics. The best place to detect such a cusp is in the Galactic Centre, where the nearest supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, resides. As many as 20,000 black holes are predicted to settle into the central parsec of the Galaxy as a result of dynamical friction; however, so far no density cusp of black holes has been detected. Low-mass X-ray binary systems that contain a stellar-mass black hole are natural tracers of isolated black holes. Here we report observations of a dozen quiescent X-ray binaries in a density cusp within one parsec of Sagittarius A*. The lower-energy emission spectra that we observed in these binaries is distinct from the higher-energy spectra associated with the population of accreting white dwarfs that dominates the central eight parsecs of the Galaxy. The properties of these X-ray binaries, in particular their spatial distribution and luminosity function, suggest the existence of hundreds of binary systems in the central parsec of the Galaxy and many more isolated black holes. We cannot rule out a contribution to the observed emission from a population (of up to about one-half the number of X-ray binaries) of rotationally powered, millisecond pulsars. The spatial distribution of the binary systems is a relic of their formation history, either in the stellar disk around Sagittarius A* (ref. 7) or through in-fall from globular clusters, and constrains the number density of sources in the modelling of gravitational waves from massive stellar remnants, such as neutron stars and black holes.

  6. High-Latitude Neutral Mass Density Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Huang, Y.; Su, Y.-J.; Huang, T.; Sutton, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have reported that thermospheric effects due to solar wind driving can be observed poleward of auroral latitudes. In these papers, the measured neutral mass density perturbations appear as narrow, localized maxima in the cusp and polar cap. They conclude that Joule heating below the spacecraft is the cause of the mass density increases, which are sometimes associated with local field-aligned current structures, but not always. In this paper we investigate neutral mass densities measured by accelerometers on the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft from launch until years 2010 (CHAMP) and 2012 (GRACE), approximately 10 years of observations from each satellite. We extract local maxima in neutral mass densities over the background using a smoothing window with size of one quarter of the orbit. The maxima have been analyzed for each year and also for the duration of each set of satellite observations. We show where they occur, under what solar wind conditions, and their relation to magnetic activity. The region with the highest frequency of occurrence coincides approximately with the cusp and mantle, with little direct evidence of an auroral zone source. Our conclusions agree with the "hot polar cap" observations that have been reported and studied in the past.

  7. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps III From Black Hole to Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we continue our study of density cusps that may contain central black holes. Methods. We recall our attempts to use distribution functions with a memory of self-similar relaxation, but mostly they apply only in restricted regions of the global system. We are forced to consider related distribution functions that are steady but not self-similar. Results. One remarkably simple distribution function that has a filled loss cone describes a bulge that transits from a near black hole domain to an outer 'zero flux' regime where$\\rho\\propto r^{-7/4}$. The transition passes from an initial inverse square profile through a region having a 1/r density profile. The structure is likely to be developed at an early stage in the growth of a galaxy. A central black hole is shown to grow exponentially in this background with an e-folding time of a few million years. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles, using only the angular momentum integral in spherical symmetry. The initial relaxatio...

  8. Studies on density dependence of charge separation in a direct energy converter using slanted Cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Yoshiro; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke

    2012-01-01

    In an advanced fusion, fusion-produced charged particles must be separated from each other for efficient energy conversion to electricity. The CuspDEC performs this function of separation and direct energy conversion. Analysis of working characteristics of CuspDEC on plasma density is an important subject. This paper summarizes and discusses experimental and theoretical works for high density plasma by using a small scale experimental device employing a slanted cusp magnetic field. When the incident plasma is low-density, good separation of the charged particles can be accomplished and this is explained by the theory based on a single particle motion. In high density plasma, however, this theory cannot be always applied due to space charge effects. In the experiment, as gradient of the field line increases, separation capability of the charged particles becomes higher. As plasma density becomes higher, however, separation capability becomes lower. This can be qualitatively explained by using calculations of the modified Störmer potential including space charge potential. (author)

  9. Magnetic Cusp and Electric Nested- or Single-Well Configurations for High Density Antihydrogen and Fusion Nonneutral Plasma Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.A. Ordonez

    1999-01-01

    Malmberg-Penning traps have had limited uses for applications that require high density nonneutral plasma confinement. For such traps, the density is severely limited because a magnetic field is used to provide a radially inward force to balance both self-electric and centrifugal radially outward forces. A possible way to confine higher density nonneutral plasmas is to use a magnetic cusp configuration. An annular nonneutral plasma would be confined in the radial magnetic field of a magnetic cusp such that radial confinement is provided by an externally produced electric potential well while axial confinement is provided by the magnetic field. In addition, a radial electric potential profile having a nested-well configuration can be used to simultaneously confine two oppositely signed plasma species (e.g., positrons and antiprotons) that overlap. In the work reported, various aspects of using magnetic cusp configurations and electric nested-well configurations are considered. Plasma confinement with these configurations may be useful for obtaining fast antihydrogen recombination and trapping rates and for achieving practical fusion power production

  10. Magnetic cusp and electric nested- or single-well configurations for high density antihydrogen and fusion nonneutral plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Malmberg-Penning traps have had limited uses for applications that require high density nonneutral plasma confinement. For such traps, the density is severely limited because a magnetic field is used to provide a radially inward force to balance both self-electric and centrifugal radially outward forces. A possible way to confine higher density nonneutral plasmas is to use a magnetic cusp configuration. An annular nonneutral plasma would be confined in the radial magnetic field of a magnetic cusp such that radial confinement is provided by an externally produced electric potential well while axial confinement is provided by the magnetic field. In addition, a radial electric potential profile having a nested-well configuration can be used to simultaneously confine two oppositely signed plasma species (e.g., positrons and antiprotons) that overlap. In the work reported, various aspects of using magnetic cusp configurations and electric nested-well configurations are considered. Plasma confinement with these configurations may be useful for obtaining fast antihydrogen recombination and trapping rates and for achieving practical fusion power production

  11. Dynamics of Triaxial Elliptical Galaxies with Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Tema

    1997-06-01

    The gravitational potentials, orbital properties, and self-consistent equilibria of triaxial stellar systems with central density cusps are examined. Observations of the nuclei of early-type galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) suggest that their surface brightness profiles fall into two categories: the 'cores' and the 'power laws.' We show that this dichotomy results from an optical illusion associated with projection onto the plane of the sky. Galaxies of both types have deprojected density profiles that are well-described as power-laws at small radii, with slopes 0≤γ 0.8. Regular box orbits, which depend for their existence on the stability of the long-axis orbit, do not exist in these models. The next-lowest resonance, the 2: 1 banana family, is present whenever the long-axis orbit is unstable. However the banana orbits have a very restricted range of shapes and are thicker than the model isodensity surfaces when c/a/ ~self-consistent models of triaxial galaxies with Dehnen's (1993) density law. We consider central density cusps defined by γ = 1 (weak cusp) and γ = 2 (strong cusp). These values are representative of the nuclear density profiles of bright ('core') and faint ('power-law') galaxies as observed with HST. Both mass models have short-to-long axis ratios of 1:2 and are maximally triaxial. We compute libraries of ~7000 orbits in each of the models and map them as a function of energy. A large fraction of the orbits in both model potentials are stochastic, which diffuse relatively quickly through their allowed phase-space in the strong-cusp potential (~103 dynamical times) and more slowly in the weak-cusp potential (104 dynamical times or longer). Attempts to construct self-consistent solutions using just the regular orbits failed for both mass models. Quasi-equilibrium solutions that include the stochastic orbits exist for both models; however, real galaxies constructed in this way would evolve near the center due to the continued

  12. The impact of realistic models of mass segregation on the event rate of extreme-mass ratio inspirals and cusp re-growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Preto, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    One of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for LISA is the inspiral of compact objects on to a massive black hole (MBH), commonly referred to as an 'extreme-mass ratio inspiral' (EMRI). The small object, typically a stellar black hole, emits significant amounts of GW along each orbit in the detector bandwidth. The slowly, adiabatic inspiral of these sources will allow us to map spacetime around MBHs in detail, as well as to test our current conception of gravitation in the strong regime. The event rate of this kind of source has been addressed many times in the literature and the numbers reported fluctuate by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, recent observations of the Galactic centre revealed a dearth of giant stars inside the inner parsec relative to the numbers theoretically expected for a fully relaxed stellar cusp. The possibility of unrelaxed nuclei (or, equivalently, with no or only a very shallow cusp, or core) adds substantial uncertainty to the estimates. Having this timely question in mind, we run a significant number of direct-summation N-body simulations with up to half a million particles to calibrate a much faster orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck code. We show that, under quite generic initial conditions, the time required for the growth of a relaxed, mass segregated stellar cusp is shorter than a Hubble time for MBHs with M• boosting the EMRI rates by a factor of ~10 in comparison to what would result from a 7/4-Bahcall and Wolf cusp resulting in ~250 events per Gyr per Milky Way type galaxy. Such an intrinsic rate should translate roughly into ~102-7 × 102 sbh's (EMRIs detected by LISA over a mission lifetime of 2 or 5 years, respectively), depending on the detailed assumptions regarding LISA detection capabilities.

  13. Sharpening m{sub T2} cusps. The mass determination of semi-invisibly decaying particles from a resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, Lucian A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Kom, Chun-Hay [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Sakurai, Kazuki [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group; Tonini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We revisit mass determination techniques for the minimum symmetric event topology, namely X pair production followed by X{yields}lN, where X and N are unknown particles with the masses to be measured, and N is an invisible particle. We consider separate scenarios, with different initial constraints on the invisible particle momenta, and present a systematic method to identify the kinematically allowed mass regions in the (m{sub N},m{sub X}) plane. These allowed regions exhibit a cusp structure at the true mass point, which is equivalent to the one observed in the m{sub T2} endpoints in certain cases. By considering the boundary of the allowed mass region we systematically define kinematical variables which can be used in measuring the unknown masses, and find a new expression for the m{sub T2} variable as well as its inverse. We explicitly apply our method to the case that X is pair produced from a resonance, and as a case study, we consider the process pp {yields} A {yields} {chi}{sup +}{sub 1}{chi}{sup -}{sub 1}, followed by {chi}{sup {+-}}{sub 1} {yields} l{nu}, in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and show that our method provides a precise measurement of the chargino and sneutrino masses, m{sub X} and m{sub N}, at 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb{sup -1} luminosity.

  14. The CuSPED Mission: CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jason N.; Keesee, Amy M.; Christian, John A.; Gu, Yu; Scime, Earl; Komjathy, Attila; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Pollock, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density (CuSPED) is a 3U CubeSat mission concept that has been developed in response to the NASA Heliophysics program's decadal science goal of the determining of the dynamics and coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs. The mission was formulated through a collaboration between West Virginia University, Georgia Tech, NASA GSFC and NASA JPL, and features a 3U CubeSat that hosts both a miniaturized space capable Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver for topside atmospheric sounding, along with a Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS) for the purpose of in situ electron precipitation measurements. These two complimentary measurement techniques will provide data for the purpose of constraining ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling models and will also enable studies of the local plasma environment and spacecraft charging; a phenomenon which is known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of low-energy, charged species from instruments aboard spacecraft traversing the ionosphere. This paper will provide an overview of the concept including its science motivation and implementation.

  15. The impact of realistic models of mass segregation on the event rate of extreme-mass ratio inspirals and cusp re-growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Preto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for LISA is the inspiral of compact objects on to a massive black hole (MBH), commonly referred to as an 'extreme-mass ratio inspiral' (EMRI). The small object, typically a stellar black hole, emits significant amounts of GW along each orbit in the detector bandwidth. The slowly, adiabatic inspiral of these sources will allow us to map spacetime around MBHs in detail, as well as to test our current conception of gravitation in the strong regime. The event rate of this kind of source has been addressed many times in the literature and the numbers reported fluctuate by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, recent observations of the Galactic centre revealed a dearth of giant stars inside the inner parsec relative to the numbers theoretically expected for a fully relaxed stellar cusp. The possibility of unrelaxed nuclei (or, equivalently, with no or only a very shallow cusp, or core) adds substantial uncertainty to the estimates. Having this timely question in mind, we run a significant number of direct-summation N-body simulations with up to half a million particles to calibrate a much faster orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck code. We show that, under quite generic initial conditions, the time required for the growth of a relaxed, mass segregated stellar cusp is shorter than a Hubble time for MBHs with M . ∼ 6 M o-dot (i.e. nuclei in the range of LISA). We then investigate the regime of strong mass segregation (SMS) for models with two different stellar mass components. Given the most recent stellar mass normalization for the inner parsec of the Galactic centre, SMS has the significant impact of boosting the EMRI rates by a factor of ∼10 in comparison to what would result from a 7/4-Bahcall and Wolf cusp resulting in ∼250 events per Gyr per Milky Way type galaxy. Such an intrinsic rate should translate roughly into ∼10 2 -7 x 10 2 sbh's (EMRIs detected by LISA over a mission lifetime of 2 or 5

  16. The Role of Neutral Atmospheric Dynamics in Cusp Density - 2nd Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    density enhancement at the CHAMP altitude of 400 km. Then Clemmons et al. (2008) presented observations from Distribution A: Approved for public release...250 km. This appeared to contradict the CHAMP observations, so Clemmons et al. proposed that heating occurred at an altitude above Streak, caused by...temperatures less than 1000 K. The ion temperatures can be related to the speed of the plasma as shown by St Maurice and Hanson (1982) using the assumption

  17. Cusps in K->3{pi} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, G. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Gasser, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Rusetsky, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: rusetsky@itkp.uni-bonn.de

    2006-07-06

    pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K->3{pi} decays. As has recently been pointed out by Cabibbo and Isidori, an accurate measurement of the cusp may allow one to pin down the S-wave {pi}{pi} scattering lengths to high precision. Here, we present and illustrate an effective field theory framework that allows one to determine the structure of this cusp in a straightforward manner. The strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically.

  18. Cusps in K->3π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, G.; Gasser, J.; Kubis, B.; Rusetsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    The pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K->3π decays. As has recently been pointed out by Cabibbo and Isidori, an accurate measurement of the cusp may allow one to pin down the S-wave ππ scattering lengths to high precision. Here, we present and illustrate an effective field theory framework that allows one to determine the structure of this cusp in a straightforward manner. The strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically

  19. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle

  20. EVOLUTION OF DARK MATTER PHASE-SPACE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN EQUAL-MASS HALO MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Ileana M.; Kazanzidis, Stelios; Valluri, Monica; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We use dissipationless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the true coarse-grained phase-space density distribution f(x, v) in equal-mass mergers between dark matter (DM) halos. The halo models are constructed with various asymptotic power-law indices ρ ∝ r -γ ranging from steep cusps to core-like profiles and we employ the phase-space density estimator 'EnBid' developed by Sharma and Steinmetz to compute f(x, v). The adopted force resolution allows robust phase-space density profile estimates in the inner ∼1% of the virial radii of the simulated systems. We confirm that merger events result in a decrease of the coarse-grained phase-space density in accordance with expectations from Mixing Theorems for collisionless systems. We demonstrate that binary mergers between identical DM halos produce remnants that retain excellent memories of the inner slopes and overall shapes of the phase-space density distribution of their progenitors. The robustness of the phase-space density profiles holds for a range of orbital energies, and a variety of encounter configurations including sequences of several consecutive merger events, designed to mimic hierarchical merging, and collisions occurring at different cosmological epochs. If the progenitor halos are constructed with appreciably different asymptotic power-law indices, we find that the inner slope and overall shape of the phase-space density distribution of the remnant are substantially closer to that of the initial system with the steepest central density cusp. These results explicitly demonstrate that mixing is incomplete in equal-mass mergers between DM halos, as it does not erase memory of the progenitor properties. Our results also confirm the recent analytical predictions of Dehnen regarding the preservation of merging self-gravitating central density cusps.

  1. Cusp effects in meson decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubis B.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in the π0 π0 invariant mass distribution of K+ → π0 π0 π+ decays. As originally pointed out by Cabibbo, an accurate measurement of the cusp may allow one to pin down the S-wave pion–pion scattering lengths to high precision. We present the non-relativistic effective field theory framework that permits to determine the structure of this cusp in a straightforward manner, including the effects of radiative corrections. Applications of the same formalism to other decay channels, in particular η and η′ decays, are also discussed.

  2. The relationship of thermospheric density anomaly with electron temperature, small-scale FAC, and ion up-flow in the cusp region, as observed by CHAMP and DMSP satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kervalishvili

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present in a statistical study a comparison of thermospheric mass density enhancements (ρrel with electron temperature (Te, small-scale field-aligned currents (SSFACs, and vertical ion velocity (Vz at high latitudes around noon magnetic local time (MLT. Satellite data from CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program sampling the Northern Hemisphere during the years 2002–2005 are used. In a first step we investigate the distribution of the measured quantities in a magnetic latitude (MLat versus MLT frame. All considered variables exhibit prominent peak amplitudes in the cusp region. A superposed epoch analysis was performed to examine causal relationship between the quantities. The occurrence of a thermospheric relative mass density anomaly, ρrel >1.2, in the cusp region is defining an event. The location of the density peak is taken as a reference latitude (Δ MLat = 0°. Interestingly, all the considered quantities, SSFACs, Te, and Vz are co-located with the density anomaly. The amplitudes of the peaks exhibit different characters of seasonal variation. The average relative density enhancement of the more prominent density peaks considered in this study amounts to 1.33 during all seasons. As expected, SSFACs are largest in summer with average amplitudes equal to 2.56 μA m−2, decaying to 2.00 μA m−2 in winter. The event related enhancements of Te and Vz are both largest in winter (Δ Te =730 K, Vz =136 m s−1 and smallest in summer (Δ Te = 377 K, Vz = 57 m s−1. Based on the similarity of the seasonal behaviour we suggest a close relationship between these two quantities. A correlation analysis supports a linear relation with a high coefficient greater than or equal to 0.93, irrespective of season. Our preferred explanation is that dayside reconnection fuels Joule heating of the thermosphere causing air upwelling and at the same time heating of the electron gas that pulls up ions

  3. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  4. Procedure of non-contacting local mass density and mass density distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, M.; Winkler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been aimed at a procedure of non-contacting local mass density and/or mass density distribution measurements i.e. without the interfering influence of sensors or probes. It can be applied to installations, apparatuses and pipings of chemical engineering, to tank constructions and transportation on extreme temperature and/or pressure conditions and aggressive media influences respectively. The procedure has utilized an ionizing quantum radiation whereby its unknown weakening and scattering is compensated by a suitable combination of scattering and transmission counter rate measurements in such a way that the local mass densities and the mass density distribution respectively are determinable

  5. and density-dependent quark mass model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since a fair proportion of such dense proto stars are likely to be ... the temperature- and density-dependent quark mass (TDDQM) model which we had em- ployed in .... instead of Tc ~170 MeV which is a favoured value for the ud matter [26].

  6. Cusp-core problem and strong gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Chen Daming

    2009-01-01

    Cosmological numerical simulations of galaxy formation have led to the cuspy density profile of a pure cold dark matter halo toward the center, which is in sharp contradiction with the observations of the rotation curves of cold dark matter-dominated dwarf and low surface brightness disk galaxies, with the latter tending to favor mass profiles with a flat central core. Many efforts have been devoted to resolving this cusp-core problem in recent years, among them, baryon-cold dark matter interactions are considered to be the main physical mechanisms erasing the cold dark matter (CDM) cusp into a flat core in the centers of all CDM halos. Clearly, baryon-cold dark matter interactions are not customized only for CDM-dominated disk galaxies, but for all types, including giant ellipticals. We first fit the most recent high resolution observations of rotation curves with the Burkert profile, then use the constrained core size-halo mass relation to calculate the lensing frequency, and compare the predicted results with strong lensing observations. Unfortunately, it turns out that the core size constrained from rotation curves of disk galaxies cannot be extrapolated to giant ellipticals. We conclude that, in the standard cosmological paradigm, baryon-cold dark matter interactions are not universal mechanisms for galaxy formation, and therefore, they cannot be true solutions to the cusp-core problem.

  7. Preliminary experiments with a cusp-field ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; O'Hagan, J.B.

    1980-12-01

    Preliminary experiments with a cusp field ion source have been completed. Measurements were made of the total ion current and mass and energy distributions as a function of source operating conditions and cusp field geometry. These experiments have indicated that a cusp field source may be used in the Sandia Neutron Generator for Cancer Therapy and may permit the incorporation of a simplified unpumped accelerator design. Suggestions for future work are briefly outlined

  8. THE CUSP/CORE PROBLEM AND THE SECONDARY INFALL MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Popolo, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the cusp/core problem using a secondary infall model that takes into account the effect of ordered and random angular momentum, dynamical friction, and baryons adiabatic contraction (AC). The model is applied to structures on galactic scales (normal and dwarfs spiral galaxies) and on clusters of galaxies scales. Our analysis suggest that angular momentum and dynamical friction are able, on galactic scales, to overcome the competing effect of AC eliminating the cusp. The slope of density profile of inner halos flattens with decreasing halo mass and the profile is well approximated by a Burkert's profile. In order to obtain the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, starting from the profiles obtained from our model, the magnitude of angular momentum and dynamical friction must be reduced with respect to the values predicted by the model itself. The rotation curves of four lower sideband galaxies from Gentile et al. are compared to the rotation curves obtained by the model in the present paper obtaining a good fit to the observational data. The time evolution of the density profile of a galaxy of 10 8 -10 9 M sun shows that after a transient steepening, due to the AC, the density profile flattens to α ≅ 0. On cluster scales we observe a similar evolution of the dark matter (DM) density profile but in this case the density profile slope flattens to α ≅ 0.6 for a cluster of ≅10 14 M sun . The total mass profile, differently from that of DM, shows a central cusp well fitted by an NFW model.

  9. Under the sword of Damocles: plausible regeneration of dark matter cusps at the smallest galactic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Chervin F. P.; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    We study the evolution of the dark matter (DM) halo profiles of dwarf galaxies driven by the accretion of DM substructures through controlled N-body experiments. Our initial conditions assume that early supernova feedback erases the primordial DM cusps of haloes with z = 0 masses of 109 - 1010 M⊙. The orbits and masses of the infalling substructures are borrowed from the Aquarius cosmological simulations. Our experiments show that a fraction of haloes that undergo 1:3 down to 1:30 mergers are susceptible to reform a DM cusp by z ≈ 0. Cusp regrowth is driven by the accretion of DM substructures that are dense enough to reach the central regions of the main halo before being tidally disrupted. The infall of substructures on the mean of the reported mass-concentration relation and a mass ratio above 1:6 systematically leads to cusp regrowth. Substructures with 1:6-1:8, and 1:8-1:30 only reform DM cusps if their densities are 1σ and 2σ above the mean, respectively. The merging time-scales of these dense, low-mass substructures is relatively long (5 - 11 Gyr), which may pose a time-scale problem for the longevity of DM cores in dwarfs galaxies and possibly explain the existence of dense dwarfs-like Draco. These results suggest that within cold dark matter a non-negligible level of scatter in the mass profiles of galactic haloes acted on by feedback is to be expected given the stochastic mass accretion histories of low-mass haloes and the diverse star formation histories observed in the Local Group dwarfs.

  10. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2012-10-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cluster observations of two separated cusp populations: double cusp or motion of the cusp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.-Philippe; Berchem, Jean; Trattner, Karlheinz; Pitout, Frederic; Richard, Robert; Taylor, Matt; Soucek, Jan; Grison, Benjamin; Laakso, Harri; Masson, Arnaud; Dunlop, Malcolm; Dandouras, Iannis; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Daly, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Modelling plasma entry in the polar cusp has been successful in reproducing ion dispersions observed in the cusp at low and mid-altitudes. The use of a realistic convection pattern allowed Wing et al. (2001) to predict double cusp signatures that were subsequently observed by the DMSP spacecraft. In this paper, we present a cusp crossing where two cusp populations are observed, separated by a gap around 1° ILAT wide. Cluster 1 (C1) and Cluster 2 (C2) observed these two cusp populations with a time delay of three minutes and about 15 and 42 minutes later, Cluster 4 (C4) and Cluster 3 (C3) observed, respectively, a single cusp population. A peculiarity of this event is the fact that the second cusp population seen on C1 and C2 was observed at the same time as the first cusp population on C4. This would tend to suggest that the two cusp populations were spatial features similar to the double cusp. Due to the nested crossing of C1 and C2 through the gap between the two cusp encounters, C2 being first to leave the cusp and last to re-enter it, these observations cannot be explained by two stable cusps with a gap of precipitation in between. On the other hand these observations are in agreement with a motion of the cusp first dawnward and then back duskward due to the effect of the IMF-By component.

  12. Double cusp encounter by Cluster: double cusp or motion of the cusp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Soucek, J.; Grison, B.; Laakso, H.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M.; Dandouras, I.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A.; Daly, P.

    2013-04-01

    Modelling plasma entry in the polar cusp has been successful in reproducing ion dispersions observed in the cusp at low and mid-altitudes. The use of a realistic convection pattern, when the IMF-By is large and stable, allowed Wing et al. (2001) to predict double cusp signatures that were subsequently observed by the DMSP spacecraft. In this paper we present a cusp crossing where two cusp populations are observed, separated by a gap around 1° Invariant Latitude (ILAT) wide. Cluster 1 (C1) and Cluster 2 (C2) observed these two cusp populations with a time delay of 3 min, and about 15 and 42 min later Cluster 4 (C4) and Cluster 3 (C3) observed, respectively, a single cusp population. A peculiarity of this event is the fact that the second cusp population seen on C1 and C2 was observed at the same time as the first cusp population on C4. This would tend to suggest that the two cusp populations had spatial features similar to the double cusp. Due to the nested crossing of C1 and C2 through the gap between the two cusp populations, C2 being first to leave the cusp and last to re-enter it, these observations are difficult to be explained by two distinct cusps with a gap in between. However, since we observe the cusp in a narrow area of local time post-noon, a second cusp may have been present in the pre-noon sector but could not be observed. On the other hand, these observations are in agreement with a motion of the cusp first dawnward and then back duskward due to the effect of the IMF-By component.

  13. Double cusp encounter by Cluster: double cusp or motion of the cusp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Escoubet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modelling plasma entry in the polar cusp has been successful in reproducing ion dispersions observed in the cusp at low and mid-altitudes. The use of a realistic convection pattern, when the IMF-By is large and stable, allowed Wing et al. (2001 to predict double cusp signatures that were subsequently observed by the DMSP spacecraft. In this paper we present a cusp crossing where two cusp populations are observed, separated by a gap around 1° Invariant Latitude (ILAT wide. Cluster 1 (C1 and Cluster 2 (C2 observed these two cusp populations with a time delay of 3 min, and about 15 and 42 min later Cluster 4 (C4 and Cluster 3 (C3 observed, respectively, a single cusp population. A peculiarity of this event is the fact that the second cusp population seen on C1 and C2 was observed at the same time as the first cusp population on C4. This would tend to suggest that the two cusp populations had spatial features similar to the double cusp. Due to the nested crossing of C1 and C2 through the gap between the two cusp populations, C2 being first to leave the cusp and last to re-enter it, these observations are difficult to be explained by two distinct cusps with a gap in between. However, since we observe the cusp in a narrow area of local time post-noon, a second cusp may have been present in the pre-noon sector but could not be observed. On the other hand, these observations are in agreement with a motion of the cusp first dawnward and then back duskward due to the effect of the IMF-By component.

  14. The dynamic cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Woch, J.; Friis-Christensen, E.

    1992-01-01

    A unique alignment of the Viking satellite with respect to a network of magnetometers in Greenland has provided the opportunity to study the relationship of pulsations and plasma characteristics in the dayside cusp. The presence of Pc 1 bursts, Pc 4-5 pulsations, and a tailward traveling twin vortex pattern of ionospheric convection suggests that the magnetosphere may have been temporarily compressed. Magnetic field data acquired at synchrotrons altitude from GOES 5 and on the ground from Huancayo support this suggestion. Plasma with ion dispersion characteristics associated with a cusp during southward IMF was detected by Viking over a 3.5 degree range of latitude. The presence of standing Alfven waves and ring current ions suggest that this cusplike plasma was observed on closed geomagnetic field lines. As Viking moved further poleward, it detected a different region of plasma with characteristics associated with a cusp during northward IMF. The presence of plasma on closed field lines with southward IMF ion dispersion characteristics can be explained with a poleward moving plasma source. The authors suggest that the magnetosphere, during a northward IMF, is temporarily compressed by a solar wind pressure enhancement that produces the Pc 1 bursts, Pc 4-5 pulsations, and ionospheric vortices. As the magnetosphere recovers to its precompressed shape, the source of cusp plasma will move poleward until it reaches an equilibrium position for northward IMF. The Viking satellite, following in the wake of this source, will detect plasma with southward IMF characteristics until it reaches the latitude of the actual northward IMF cusp

  15. High-Latitude Neutral Density Structures Investigated by Utilizing Multi-Instrument Satellite Data and NRLMSISE-00 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates various types of neutral density features developed in the cusp region during magnetically active and quiet times. Multi-instrument Challenging Minisatellite Payload data provide neutral density, electron temperature, neutral wind speed, and small-scale field-aligned current (SS-FAC) values. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment neutral density data are also employed. During active times, cusp densities or density spikes appeared with their underlying flow channels (FCs) and enhanced SS-FACs implying upwelling, fueled by Joule heating, within/above FCs. Both the moderate nightside cusp enhancements under disturbed conditions and the minor dayside cusp enhancements under quiet conditions developed without any underlying FC and enhanced SS-FACs implying the role of particle precipitation in their development. Observations demonstrate the relations of FCs, density spikes, and upwelling-related divergent flows and their connections to the underlying (1) dayside magnetopause reconnection depositing magnetospheric energy into the high-latitude region and (2) Joule heating-driven disturbance dynamo effects. Results provide observational evidence that the moderate nightside cusp enhancements and the minor dayside cusp enhancements detected developed due to direct heating by weak particle precipitation. Chemical compositions related to the dayside density spike and low cusp densities are modeled by Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended 2000. Modeled composition outputs for the dayside density spike's plasma environment depict some characteristic upwelling signatures. Oppositely, in the case of low dayside cusp densities, composition outputs show opposite characteristics due to the absence of upwelling.

  16. Fireballs Masses and Densities: Hypotheses and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria

    Techniques of determining the masses of meteor bodies have long been discussed in the literature dedicated to meteor studies. Unfortunately the development of methods for evaluating meteors and fireballs parameters from observational data requires much attention since the available literature, including handbooks (e.g., C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, Athlone, London, 1973), contains discrepancies that are of a basic character rather than due to experimental uncertainties. A comprehensive survey and analysis deserve a separate publication. Thus, we will cite here some literary sources. The mass of a fireball is conventionally determined using a photometric formula, by integrating the brightness along the entire luminous segment of the trajectory. The mass can also be estimated using the altitude and rate of fireball deceleration in the atmosphere. The discrepancy of the estimates obtained using these two techniques is usually diminished by selecting "appropriate" values of the fireball density. However, this leads to obviously underestimated values of 0.25 g/cm3 for this density. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, it was proposed to consider a swarm of similar-size fragments instead of a single meteoroid. In this case, it is the photometric-to-dynamic mass ratio that determines the number of such fragments. In the present report, the mass is calculated using the data of actual observations, by selecting the parameters describing deceleration and ablation of fireballs along the luminous segment of the trajectory. New model is based on the best fitting of the observational data by an analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. In doing so, the author tried to take into account all of the peculiarities of the events noted in the literature, as well as the newest results of numerical experiments on the 3D aerodynamics of bodies of complicated shapes. The proximity of results obtained using different dynamic methods implies that observational

  17. The Polar Cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is often called the ''earth's window to outer space.'' Through various electrodynamic coupling processes, as well as direct transfer of particles, many of the geophysical effects displayed are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in deep space. The high latitude ionosphere also exerts a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the Earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric processes and a focusing on the ionosphere. In the Polar Cusps, the solar wind plasma also has direct access to the upper atmosphere

  18. ECC cusp analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregliasco, R.G. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)); Garibotti, C.R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)); Barrachina, R. (Centro Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina))

    1994-03-01

    We measured the ionization double differential cross section for the H[sup +][yields]He 100 keV collision at the proximities of the ECC cusp and all around 0 . We propose an angular function expansion and a procedure for data analysis. We demonstrate that, in this way, the difficulties and shortcomings presented in the standard data processing are overcome. In our experimental results we distinguish the presence of characteristic shapes for the ionization depending on whether the module of the electron velocity is greater or smaller than the projectile velocity. (orig.)

  19. Cusps in KL→3π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissegger, M.; Fuhrer, A.; Gasser, J.; Kubis, B.; Rusetsky, A.

    2008-01-01

    The pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K→3π decays, the strength of which is related to the ππ S-wave scattering lengths. We apply an effective field theory framework developed earlier to evaluate the amplitudes for K L →3π decays in a systematic manner, where the strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically. The amplitudes for the decay η→3π are also given

  20. Bayesian modeling of the mass and density of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Mathias, Donovan

    2017-10-01

    Mass and density are two of the fundamental properties of any object. In the case of near earth asteroids, knowledge about the mass of an asteroid is essential for estimating the risk due to (potential) impact and planning possible mitigation options. The density of an asteroid can illuminate the structure of the asteroid. A low density can be indicative of a rubble pile structure whereas a higher density can imply a monolith and/or higher metal content. The damage resulting from an impact of an asteroid with Earth depends on its interior structure in addition to its total mass, and as a result, density is a key parameter to understanding the risk of asteroid impact. Unfortunately, measuring the mass and density of asteroids is challenging and often results in measurements with large uncertainties. In the absence of mass / density measurements for a specific object, understanding the range and distribution of likely values can facilitate probabilistic assessments of structure and impact risk. Hierarchical Bayesian models have recently been developed to investigate the mass - radius relationship of exoplanets (Wolfgang, Rogers & Ford 2016) and to probabilistically forecast the mass of bodies large enough to establish hydrostatic equilibrium over a range of 9 orders of magnitude in mass (from planemos to main sequence stars; Chen & Kipping 2017). Here, we extend this approach to investigate the mass and densities of asteroids. Several candidate Bayesian models are presented, and their performance is assessed relative to a synthetic asteroid population. In addition, a preliminary Bayesian model for probablistically forecasting masses and densities of asteroids is presented. The forecasting model is conditioned on existing asteroid data and includes observational errors, hyper-parameter uncertainties and intrinsic scatter.

  1. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a a V = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a a S = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L∼95 MeV and K sym ∼25 MeV

  2. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is to obtain a unified description of nuclear shell, pairing and deformation effects for both ground state masses and level densities, and to find a new set of parameter systematics for both the mass and the level density formulas on the basis of a model for new single-particle state densities. In this model, an analytical expression is adopted for the anisotropic harmonic oscillator spectra, but the shell-pairing correlation are introduced in a new way. (author)

  3. Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V C

    1993-06-01

    Dynamical evidence accumulated over the past 20 years has convinced astronomers that luminous matter in a spiral galaxy constitutes no more than 10% of the mass of a galaxy. An additional 90% is inferred by its gravitational effect on luminous material. Here I review recent observations concerning the distribution of luminous and nonluminous matter in the Milky Way, in galaxies, and in galaxy clusters. Observations of neutral hydrogen disks, some extending in radius several times the optical disk, confirm that a massive dark halo is a major component of virtually every spiral. A recent surprise has been the discovery that stellar and gas motions in ellipticals are enormously complex. To date, only for a few spheroidal galaxies do the velocities extend far enough to probe the outer mass distribution. But the diverse kinematics of inner cores, peripheral to deducing the overall mass distribution, offer additional evidence that ellipticals have acquired gas-rich systems after initial formation. Dynamical results are consistent with a low-density universe, in which the required dark matter could be baryonic. On smallest scales of galaxies [10 kiloparsec (kpc); Ho = 50 km.sec-1.megaparsec-1] the luminous matter constitutes only 1% of the closure density. On scales greater than binary galaxies (i.e., >/=100 kpc) all systems indicate a density approximately 10% of the closure density, a density consistent with the low baryon density in the universe. If large-scale motions in the universe require a higher mass density, these motions would constitute the first dynamical evidence for nonbaryonic matter in a universe of higher density.

  4. Anisotropic mass density by two-dimensional acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-02-15

    We show that specially designed two-dimensional arrangements of full elastic cylinders embedded in a nonviscous fluid or gas define (in the homogenization limit) a new class of acoustic metamaterials characterized by a dynamical effective mass density that is anisotropic. Here, analytic expressions for the dynamical mass density and the effective sound velocity tensors are derived in the long wavelength limit. Both show an explicit dependence on the lattice filling fraction, the elastic properties of cylinders relative to the background, their positions in the unit cell, and their multiple scattering interactions. Several examples of these metamaterials are reported and discussed.

  5. Mass terms in effective theories of high density quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.

    2002-04-01

    We study the structure of mass terms in the effective theory for quasiparticles in QCD at high baryon density. To next-to-leading order in the 1/pF expansion we find two types of mass terms: chirality conserving two-fermion operators and chirality violating four-fermion operators. In the effective chiral theory for Goldstone modes in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase the former terms correspond to effective chemical potentials, while the latter lead to Lorentz invariant mass terms. We compute the masses of Goldstone bosons in the CFL phase, confirming earlier results by Son and Stephanov as well as Bedaque and Schäfer. We show that to leading order in the coupling constant g there is no antiparticle gap contribution to the mass of Goldstone modes, and that our results are independent of the choice of gauge.

  6. Systematics of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hisashi [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The phenomenological models of the nuclear mass and level density are close related to each other, the nuclear ground and excited state properties are described by using the parameter systematics on the mass and level density formulas. The main aim of this work is to provide in an analytical framework the improved energy dependent shell, pairing and deformation corrections generalized to the collective enhancement factors, which offer a systematic prescription over a great number of nuclear reaction cross sections. The new formulas are shown to be in close agreement with not only the empirical nuclear mass data but the measured slow neutron resonance spacings, and experimental systematics observed in the excitation energy dependent properties. (author)

  7. Apex Dips of Experimental Flux Ropes: Helix or Cusp?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Haw, Magnus A.; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Li, Hui [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop B227, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Shengtai, E-mail: pwongwai@caltech.edu, E-mail: mhaw@caltech.edu [Mathematical Modeling and Analysis, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop B284, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We present a new theory for the presence of apex dips in certain experimental flux ropes. Previously such dips were thought to be projections of a helical loop axis generated by the kink instability. However, new evidence from experiments and simulations suggest that the feature is a 2D cusp rather than a 3D helix. The proposed mechanism for cusp formation is a density pileup region generated by nonlinear interaction of neutral gas cones emitted from fast-gas nozzles. The results indicate that density perturbations can result in large distortions of an erupting flux rope, even in the absence of significant pressure or gravitational forces. The density pileup at the apex also suppresses the m = 1 kink mode by acting as a stationary node. Consequently, more accurate density profiles should be considered when attempting to model the stability and shape of solar and astrophysical flux ropes.

  8. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.B.; Guanzon, M.L.V.V.; Balderas, J.A.J.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).The design used is cross-sectional study. The study include 23 females and 22 males, with 3 to 4 subjects for each age range of 5. The methods used was bone mass density measurements on the lumbar spine and the femur using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DPXI lunar) were taken. The values were also age-matched and matched with that of a young adult based on programmed Caucasian norm provided by Lunar Co. The values were then scattered against age for each sex. Ten (10) cc of blood was also extracted from the patients, with 5 cc of blood separated for future studies. Patients were also interviewed as to their lifestyle, diet, use of contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement treatment, using a Filipino version of the revised questionnaire on the WHO Study on osteoporosis. The mean bone mass density at the L21.4 level for females was 1.12±0.11 g/cm 2 and 0,91±0.11 g/cm 2 at the femur. The highest BMD in both the lumbar spine femoral neck measurements among females was achieved between the ages 30-35 years of age with the lowest BMD occurring between 15-20 yrs. old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Bone mass density among a sample Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L2L4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone

  9. Double cusp encounter by Cluster: double cusp or motion of the cusp?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Escoubet, C. P.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Souček, Jan; Grison, Benjamin; Laakso, H.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M.; Dandouras, I.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A.; Daly, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2013), s. 713-723 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P848 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Magnetospheric physics * Magnetopause * cusp * boundary layers Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2013 http://www.ann-geophys.net/31/713/2013/

  10. Source of the dayside cusp aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S B; Frey, H U; Angelopoulos, V

    2016-08-01

    Monochromatic all-sky imagers at South Pole and other Antarctic stations of the Automatic Geophysical Observatory chain recorded the aurora in the region where the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites crossed the dayside magnetopause. In several cases the magnetic field lines threading the satellites when mapped to the atmosphere were inside the imagers' field of view. From the THEMIS magnetic field and the plasma density measurements, we were able to locate the position of the magnetopause crossings and map it to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko-96 field model. Field line mapping is reasonably accurate on the dayside subsolar region where the field is strong, almost dipolar even though compressed. From these coordinated observations, we were able to prove that the dayside cusp aurora of high 630 nm brightness is on open field lines, and it is therefore direct precipitation from the magnetosheath. The cusp aurora contained significant highly structured N 2 + 427.8 nm emission. The THEMIS measurements of the magnetosheath particle energy and density taken just outside the magnetopause compared to the intensity of the structured N 2 + 427.8 nm emissions showed that the precipitating magnetosheath particles had to be accelerated. The most likely electron acceleration mechanism is by dispersive Alfvén waves propagating along the field line. Wave-accelerated suprathermal electrons were seen by FAST and DMSP. The 427.8 nm wavelength channel also shows the presence of a lower latitude hard-electron precipitation zone originating inside the magnetosphere.

  11. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, Mary Anne V.; Gacutan-Liwag, Aretha Ann C.; Balderas, Jubilia Araceli J.; Guanzon, Ma. Vicenta Luz; Guzman, Angel de

    2002-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and to correlate factors such as age, height, weight, body mass index, total caloric, protein and calcium intake to bone mass density. Design: Cross sectional study Setting: Philippine General Hospital and St Luke's Medical Center, tertiary government and private owned hospitals, respectively. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-eight 228) healthy randomly chosen subjects from amongst hospital companion, aged 15-52 years old, distributed at 25 subjects per group of five per sex. Methods: Bone mass density measurements were done on lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPXL). Ten (10) cc of blood was extracted on one hundred fourteen (114) patients; 5 cc of which was used for biochemical studies while the rest of the sample was stored for fixture studies. One hundred fourteen (114) patients were then interviewed using the Filipino version of the WHO questionnaire for the Study of Osteoporosis, and their nutritional intake was assessed using a previous day food recall. Results: At present, there are a total of 228 patients recruited. The mean weight and height were 57-43±11.17 kg and 158.16±8.44 cm, respectively, and the mean BMI was 22.99±4.11. The mean daily calcium intake was 501.17±357.79 gms/day (n=64). The mean BMD at the L2-L4 spine for females was 1.14±0.15 gm/cm 2 and 1.12±0.21 gm/cm 2 for the males. The highest BMD was 1.23±0.20 gm/cm 2 in the 35-39 year old age group for the females and 1.26±0.31 gm/cm 2 in the 30-34 age group for the males. The mean femoral neck BMD was 0.91±0.12 gm/cm 2 for the females and 1.00±0.13 gm/cm 2 for the males. The highest femoral neck BMD was 0.931±0.12 gm/cm 2 in the 20-24 females and 1.03±0.18 gm/cm 2 in the 20-24 age group for the males. Calcium intake and weight was significantly correlated in the lumbar spine. Height and sex was correlated with both

  12. Cluster Observations of Particle Injections in the Exterior Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Lavraud, B.; Pitout, F.; Soucek, J.; Richard, R. L.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process takes place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s with the density of order 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft had an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions, which leads to energy dispersions, we obtain distances of the ion sources between 14 and 20 RE from the spacecraft. Using Tsyganenko model, we find that these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. The first injection by C3 is seen at approximately the same time as the 2nd injection on C1 but their sources at the magnetopause were separated by more than 7 RE. This would imply that two distinct sources were active at the same time on the dusk flank of the magnetosphere. In addition, a flow reversal was observed at the magnetopause on C4 which would be an indication that reconnection is taking place near the exterior cusp.

  13. Cluster Observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R. L.; Taylor, M. G.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    The cusps are the places where the Earth's magnetic field lines, connected to the inner side of the magnetopause, converge. It is therefore the place where signatures of processes occurring near the subsolar point, in the tail lobes, as well as near the dawn and dusk flanks are observed. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the side (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. We will investigate the origin of the injections forming the dispersions and if these can be explained by the reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Earth's magnetic field.

  14. ULF Narrowband Emissions Analysis in the Terrestrial Polar Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Pisa, D.

    2013-05-01

    Polar cusps are known to be a key region for transfer of mass and momentum between the adjacent magnetosheath and the magnetosphere. The 4 spacecraft of the Cluster ESA mission crossed the polar cusps in their most distant part to the Earth in the early years of the mission (2000-2004) because of their highly eccentric orbit. The ULF wave activity in the cusp region has been linked with the magnetosheath plasma penetration since HEOS observations (D'Angelo et al., 1974). Wave and particle interaction play an important role in this colisionless plasma. The observed wave activity certainly results from both distant and local generation mechanisms. From Cluster case studies we propose to focus on one aspect for each of this place of generation. Concerning the distant generation, the possibility of a wave generation at the magnetopause itself is investigated. For this purpose we compare the propagation of the emissions on each side of the magnetopasue, i.e. in the cusp and in the magnetosheath. Concerning the local generation, the presence of locally generated waves above the local proton gyrofrequency that display a left hand polarization has been reported in Polar and Cluster studies (Le et al., 2001; Nykyri et al., 2003 ). The Doppler shift was not large enough to explain the observed frequency. We propose here to combine various techniques (k-filtering analysis, WHAMP simulations) to achieve a precise wave vector estimation and to explain these observations. References: D'Angelo, N., A. Bahnsen, and H. Rosenbauer (1974), Wave and particle measurements at the polar cusp, J. Geophys. Res., 79( 22), 3129-3134, doi:10.1029/JA079i022p03129. Le, G., X. Blanco-Cano, C. T. Russell, X.-W. Zhou, F. Mozer, K. J. Trattner, S. A. Fuselier, and B. J. Anderson (2001), Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the high-altitude cusp: Polar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 106(A9), 19067-19079, doi:10.1029/2000JA900163. Nykyri, K., P. J. Cargill, E. A. Lucek, T. S. Horbury, A. Balogh

  15. UV Observations of Atomic Oxygen in the Cusp Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B.; Lessard, M.; Dymond, K.; Kenward, D. R.; Lynch, K. A.; Clemmons, J. H.; Hecht, J. H.; Hysell, D. L.; Crowley, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling (RENU) 2 launched into the dayside cusp on 13 December, 2015. The sounding rocket payload carried a comprehensive suite of particle, field, and remote sensing instruments to characterize the thermosphere in a region where pockets of enhanced neutral density have been detected [Lühr et al, 2004]. An ultraviolet photomultiplier tube (UV PMT) was oriented to look along the magnetic field line and remotely detect neutral atomic oxygen (OI) above the payload. The UV PMT measured a clear enhancement as the payload descended through a poleward moving auroral form, an indicator of structure in both altitude and latitude. Context for the UV PMT measurement is provided by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Imager (SSULI) instrument on the Defense Meteorological Space Program (DMSP) satellite, which also measured OI as it passed through the cusp. UV tomography of SSULI observations produces a two-dimensional cross-section of volumetric emission rates in the high-latitude thermosphere prior to the RENU 2 flight. The volume emission rate may then be inverted to produce a profile of neutral density in the thermosphere. A similar technique is used to interpret the UV PMT measurement and determine structure in the thermosphere as RENU 2 descended through the cusp.

  16. Preliminary results in double cusp tandem mirror MM-4U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Linzhou; Tian Zhongyu; Feng Xiaozhen

    1990-10-01

    MM-4U device and preliminary experimental results are presented. Main results are as follows: The plasma has been produced by means of the injection of strong electron current; the axial profile of the plasma potential and the plasma electron density have been obtained respectively, they had a simular form; the plasma potential in the centre of the east cusp, the west cusp and the simple mirror; V e = -180V, V w = -164V, V m -1.8V; the electron density: n e = 1.7 x 10 11 cm -3 , n w = 4.7 x 10 10 cm -3 , n m = 7.5 x 10 7 cm -3 ; the electron temperature: T e = (19.9 ± 1.6) eV, T w = (20.7 ± 1.7) eV; the plasma pressure at 8 cm on the right of the west cusp centre is about 6.76 Pa, β ≅ 1.7 x 10 -3 . The plasma instability has been observed in the simple mirror, its vibration frequency was 7∼9.2 kHz. The results are discussed. The next new task of the physical experiment are proposed

  17. Dayside merging and cusp geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.

    1979-01-01

    Geometrical considerations are presented to show that dayside magnetic merging when constrained to act only where the fields are antiparallel results in lines of merging that converge at the polar cusps. An important consequence of this geometry is that no accelerated flows are predicted across the dayside magnetopause. Acceleration owing to merging acts in opposition to the magnetosheath flow at the merging point and produces the variably directed, slower-than-magnetosheath flows observed in the entry layer. Another consequence of the merging geometry is that much of the time closed field lines constitute the subsolar region of the magnetopause. The manner in which the polar cap convection patterns predicted by the proposed geometry change as the interplanetary field is rotated through 360 0 provides a unifying description of how the observed single circular vortex and the crescent-shaped double vortex patterns mutually evolve under the influence of a single operating principle

  18. Studies on the effect of radio frequency field in a cusp-type charge separation device for direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabe, Masaki; Izawa, Hiroaki; Takeno, Hiromasa; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    In D- 3 He fusion power generation, an application of direct energy conversion is expected in which separation of charged particles is necessary. A cusp-type direct energy converter (CuspDEC) was proposed as a charge separation device, but its performance was degraded for a high density plasma. The goal of the present study is to establish an additional method to assist charge separation by using a nonlinear effect of a radio frequency (rf) electric field. Following to the previous study, we experimentally examine the effect of an rf field to electron motion in a CuspDEC device. Two ring electrodes were newly installed in a CuspDEC simulator and the current flowing into the electron collector located in the line cusp region was measured on an rf field application. The significant variation in the current was found, and an improvement of the charge separation can be expected by using the phenomenon appropriately. (author)

  19. Evaluating the risk of osteoporosis through bone mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, S.A.; Khaliq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, characterized by loss of bone mass density. Osteoporosis affects more than 30 percent of post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is often associated with restricted body movement, pain and joint deformities. Early identification and early intervention can help in reducing these complications. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the burden of Osteoporosis in Urban setting of Sindh among women of different age groups and to access the effect of different protective measures that can reduce the risk of Osteoporosis. Method: In this study, 500 women's of 3 major cities of Sindh were approached by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Women bearing age 20 years or more were included. Women who fall under inclusion criteria were screened for BMD (Bone mineral density) test and were classified as Healthy, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic based on their T-score. The association of different protective measures and risk of osteoporosis was assessed by prevalence relative risk (PRR). Result: The result of this study indicate that the burden of Osteoporosis is very high among the women of Sindh, only 17.4 percent (84) women were found to have normal BMD score. The life style of majority of women was sedentary. The PRR calculated for Exposure to sunlight, regular exercise, and use of nutritional supplement was 12.5, 5.19 and 2.72 folds respectively. Conclusion: The results of study reveal that exposure to sunlight, regular physical exercise and use of nutritional supplements found to be effective in reducing the risk of osteoporosis among women of all age group. Health education and promotion toward osteoporosis prevention can significantly contribute in reducing the morbidity of osteoporosis. (author)

  20. Evaluating The Risk Of Osteoporosis Through Bone Mass Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sayeeda Amber; Khaliq, Asif; Mahmood, Ashar

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disorder, characterized by loss of bone mass density. Osteoporosis affects more than 30% of post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is often associated with restricted body movement, pain and joint deformities. Early identification and early intervention can help in reducing these complications. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the burden of Osteoporosis in Urban setting of Sindh among women of different age groups and to access the effect of different protective measures that can reduce the risk of Osteoporosis. In this study, 500 women's of 3 major cities of Sindh were approached by non-probability convenience sampling technique. Women bearing age 20 years or more were included. Women who fall under inclusion criteria were screened for BMD (Bone mineral density) test and were classified as Healthy, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic based on their T-score. The association of different protective measures and risk of osteoporosis was assessed by prevalence relative risk (PRR). The result of this study indicate that the burden of Osteoporosis is very high among the women of Sindh, only 17.4% (84) women were found to have normal BMD score. The life style of majority of women was sedentary. The PRR calculated for Exposure to sunlight, regular exercise, and use of nutritional supplement was 12.5, 5.19 and 2.72 folds respectively. The results of study reveal that exposure to sunlight, regular physical exercise and use of nutritional supplements found to be effective in reducing the risk of osteoporosis among women of all age group. Health education and promotion toward osteoporosis prevention can significantly contribute in reducing the morbidity of osteoporosis.

  1. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  2. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  3. The mass spectral density in quantitative time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Ranjeet S.; Ebeling, Dan; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2001-03-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) is being increasingly used for the study of polymers, for example to obtain the distribution of molecular masses for polymer samples. Serious efforts have also been underway to use TOF-MS for DNA sequencing. In TOF-MS the data is obtained in the form of a time-series that represents the distribution in arrival times of ions of various m/z ratios. This time-series data is then converted to a "mass-spectrum" via a coordinate transformation from the arrival time (t) to the corresponding mass-to-charge ratio (m/z = const. t^2). In this transformation, it is important to keep in mind that spectra are distributions, or densities of weight +1, and thus do not transform as functions. To obtain the mass-spectral density, it is necessary to include a multiplicative factor of √m/z. Common commercial instruments do not take this factor into account. Dropping this factor has no effect on qualitative analysis (detection) or local quantitative measurements, since S/N or signal-to-baseline ratios are unaffected for peaks with small dispersions. However, there are serious consequences for general quantitative analyses. In DNA sequencing applications, loss of signal intensity is in part attributed to multiple charging; however, since the √m/z factor is not taken into account, this conclusion is based on an overestimate (by a factor of √z) of the relative amount of the multiply charged species. In the study of polymers, the normalized dispersion is underestimated by approximately (M_w/Mn -1)/2. In terms of M_w/Mn itself, for example, a M_w/M_n=1.5 calculated without the √m factor corresponds in fact to a M_w/M_n=1.88.

  4. Design study of electrostatically plugged cusp fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    This study concentrates on the following aspects of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor that will be different from other fusion reactor designs: the coil geometry and structural supports, high voltage electrodes, plasma parameters, power balance, and operating cycle. Assuming the electron density distribution in the anodes to have a characteristic width of two electron Larmor radii, which is consistent with present experimental results, the theory predicts that a device with a magnetic field strength, B = 8 T sustained solely by electron beam injection at 300 kV will have a power gain ratio, Q, of about 5. A toroidal multipole cusp configuration with six cusps was selected for the present design, based on a study of the ratio of plasma volume to coil volume. Coil forces are sustained by cryogenic trusses between like coils, fiberglass compression columns, and room temperature hoops. Radiation collimators in front of the high voltage electrodes greatly reduce the radiation impinging on the cathodes, helping to avoid breakdown and to prolong insulator life. The operating cycle consists of a startup period of about 20 s, followed by a fusion burn period lasting about 200 s (limited by impurity buildup) and a 20-s flushing period

  5. Peak bone mineral density, lean body mass and fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; de Ridder, Maria A. J.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; van Slobbe, Ingrid; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Background: During childhood and adolescence, bone mass and lean body mass (LBM) increase till a plateau is reached. In this longitudinal and cross-sectional study, the age of reaching the plateau was evaluated for lumbar spine and total body bone mass measurements and lean body mass. The

  6. Detailed study of nuclear charge and mass densities. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdichevsky, D.; Mosel, U.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental densities are analyzed and compared in detail, in particular in the surface region. For this purpose nuclear size parameters are discussed and new sets of surface parameters are proposed. It is shown that the densities are very close to the error function in the external part of the surface and can be characterized there by two new parameters. For very large r the densities show an exponential behaviour which is analyzed in terms of single-particle density distributions. Furthermore, the effects of the asymmetry, spin-orbit and Coulomb forces on the density distributions are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Radial distributions of surface mass density and mass-to-luminosity ratio in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2018-03-01

    We present radial profiles of the surface mass density (SMD) in spiral galaxies directly calculated using rotation curves of two approximations of flat-disk (SMD-F) and spherical mass distribution (SMD-S). The SMDs are combined with surface brightness using photometric data to derive radial variations of the mass-to-luminosity ratio (ML). It is found that the ML generally has a central peak or a plateau, and decreases to a local minimum at R ˜ 0.1-0.2 h, where R is the radius and h is the scale radius of optical disk. The ML, then, increases rapidly until ˜0.5 h, and is followed by gradual rise till ˜2 h, remaining at around ˜2 [M_{⊙} L^{-1}_{⊙}] in the w1 band (infrared λ3.4 μm) and ˜ 10 [M_⊙ L_⊙ ^{-1}] in the r band (λ6200-7500 Å). Beyond this radius, the ML increases steeply with approaching the observed edges at R ˜ 5 h, attaining to as high values as ˜20 in w1 and ˜ 10^2 [M_⊙ L_⊙ ^{-1}] in the r band, which are indicative of dominant dark matter. The general properties of the ML distributions will be useful for constraining cosmological formation models of spiral galaxies.

  8. A cosmological model with compact space sections and low mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A general relativistic cosmological model is presented, which has closed space sections and mass density below a critical density similar to that of Friedmann's models. The model may predict double images of cosmic sources. (Author) [pt

  9. Cluster survey of the high-altitude cusp properties: a three-year statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The global characteristics of the high-altitude cusp and its surrounding regions are investigated using a three-year statistical survey based on data obtained by the Cluster spacecraft. The analysis involves an elaborate orbit-sampling methodology that uses a model field and takes into account the actual solar wind conditions and level of geomagnetic activity. The spatial distribution of the magnetic field and various plasma parameters in the vicinity of the low magnetic field exterior cusp are determined and it is found that: 1 The magnetic field distribution shows the presence of an intermediate region between the magnetosheath and the magnetosphere: the exterior cusp, 2 This region is characterized by the presence of dense plasma of magnetosheath origin; a comparison with the Tsyganenko (1996 magnetic field model shows that it is diamagnetic in nature, 3 The spatial distributions show that three distinct boundaries with the lobes, the dayside plasma sheet and the magnetosheath surround the exterior cusp, 4 The external boundary with the magnetosheath has a sharp bulk velocity gradient, as well as a density decrease and temperature increase as one goes from the magnetosheath to the exterior cusp, 5 While the two inner boundaries form a funnel, the external boundary shows no clear indentation, 6 The plasma and magnetic pressure distributions suggest that the exterior cusp is in equilibrium with its surroundings in a statistical sense, and 7 A preliminary analysis of the bulk flow distributions suggests that the exterior cusp is stagnant under northward IMF conditions but convective under southward IMF conditions.

  10. The ASACUSA CUSP: an antihydrogen experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, N., E-mail: kuroda@phys.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Ulmer, S. [RIKEN, Ulmer Initiative Research Unit (Japan); Murtagh, D. J.; Gorp, S. Van [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Nagata, Y. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Diermaier, M. [Boltzmangasse 3, Stefan Meyer Institut für Subatomare Physik (Austria); Federmann, S. [CERN (Switzerland); Leali, M. [Università di Brescia & Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l’Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Malbrunot, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Mascagna, V. [Università di Brescia & Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l’Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Massiczek, O. [Boltzmangasse 3, Stefan Meyer Institut für Subatomare Physik (Austria); Michishio, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Mizutani, T. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Mohri, A. [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Nagahama, H.; Ohtsuka, M. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Radics, B. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter (Japan); Sauerzopf, C.; Suzuki, K. [Boltzmangasse 3, Stefan Meyer Institut für Subatomare Physik (Austria); and others

    2015-11-15

    In order to test CPT symmetry between antihydrogen and its counterpart hydrogen, the ASACUSA collaboration plans to perform high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen atom in-flight. We have developed an apparatus (“cusp trap”) which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and multiple ring electrodes. For the preparation of slow antiprotons and positrons, Penning-Malmberg type traps were utilized. The spectrometer line was positioned downstream of the cusp trap. At the end of the beamline, an antihydrogen beam detector was located, which comprises an inorganic Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) single-crystal scintillator housed in a vacuum duct and surrounding plastic scintillators. A significant fraction of antihydrogen atoms flowing out the cusp trap were detected.

  11. Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

  12. Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...

  13. Weak annihilation cusp inside the dark matter spike about a black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Stuart L; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-15

    We reinvestigate the effect of annihilations on the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) in a spherical density spike around a massive black hole. We first construct a very simple, pedagogic, analytic model for an isotropic phase space distribution function that accounts for annihilation and reproduces the "weak cusp" found by Vasiliev for DM deep within the spike and away from its boundaries. The DM density in the cusp varies as r -1/2 for s -wave annihilation, where r is the distance from the central black hole, and is not a flat "plateau" profile. We then extend this model by incorporating a loss cone that accounts for the capture of DM particles by the hole. The loss cone is implemented by a boundary condition that removes capture orbits, resulting in an anisotropic distribution function. Finally, we evolve an initial spike distribution function by integrating the Boltzmann equation to show how the weak cusp grows and its density decreases with time. We treat two cases, one for s -wave and the other for p -wave DM annihilation, adopting parameters characteristic of the Milky Way nuclear core and typical WIMP models for DM. The cusp density profile for p -wave annihilation is weaker, varying like ~ r -0.34 , but is still not a flat plateau.

  14. EISCAT observations of plasma patches at sub-auroral cusp latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of 3 patches of high-density (1012 m−3 cold plasma on a horizontal scale-size of 300–700 km was observed near magnetic noon by the EISCAT VHF radar above Svalbard on 17 December 2001. The patches followed a trajectory towards the cusp inflow region. The combination of radar and all-sky observations demonstrates that the patches must have been segmented equatorward of the cusp/cleft auroral display, and hence their properties had not yet been influenced by cusp particle showers and electrodynamics on open flux tubes. The last patch in the sequence was intersected by radio tomography observations, and was found to be located adjacent to a broader region of the same high electron density further south. The patches occurred under moderately active conditions (Kp=3 and the total electron content (TEC of the high-density plasma was 45 TEC units. The train of patches appeared as a segmentation of the tongue of ionization. The sequence of patches occurred in association with a sequence of flow bursts in the dusk cell return flow. It is proposed that reconnection driven pulsed convection is able to create sub-auroral patches in the region where high density mid-latitude plasma is diverted poleward toward the cusp. It is the downward Birkeland current sheet located at the equatorward boundary of the flow disturbance that represents the actual cutting mechanism.

  15. EISCAT observations of plasma patches at sub-auroral cusp latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of 3 patches of high-density (1012 m−3 cold plasma on a horizontal scale-size of 300–700 km was observed near magnetic noon by the EISCAT VHF radar above Svalbard on 17 December 2001. The patches followed a trajectory towards the cusp inflow region. The combination of radar and all-sky observations demonstrates that the patches must have been segmented equatorward of the cusp/cleft auroral display, and hence their properties had not yet been influenced by cusp particle showers and electrodynamics on open flux tubes. The last patch in the sequence was intersected by radio tomography observations, and was found to be located adjacent to a broader region of the same high electron density further south. The patches occurred under moderately active conditions (Kp=3 and the total electron content (TEC of the high-density plasma was 45 TEC units. The train of patches appeared as a segmentation of the tongue of ionization. The sequence of patches occurred in association with a sequence of flow bursts in the dusk cell return flow. It is proposed that reconnection driven pulsed convection is able to create sub-auroral patches in the region where high density mid-latitude plasma is diverted poleward toward the cusp. It is the downward Birkeland current sheet located at the equatorward boundary of the flow disturbance that represents the actual cutting mechanism.

  16. Studies of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the cusp ionosphere using sounding rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, Alexander A.; Spicher, Andres; Ilyasov, Askar A.; Miloch, Wojciech J.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.

    2018-04-01

    Microprocesses associated with plasma inhomogeneities are studied on the basis of data from the Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI-3) sounding rocket. The ICI-3 rocket is devoted to investigating a reverse flow event in the cusp F region ionosphere. By numerical stability analysis, it is demonstrated that inhomogeneous-energy-density-driven (IEDD) instability can be a mechanism for the excitation of small-scale plasma inhomogeneities. The Local Intermittency Measure (LIM) method also applied the rocket data to analyze irregular structures of the electric field during rocket flight in the cusp. A qualitative agreement between high values of the growth rates of the IEDD instability and the regions with enhanced LIM is observed. This suggests that IEDD instability is connected to turbulent non-Gaussian processes.

  17. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  18. Turbulence in a cusp Q device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans; Petersen, P. I.

    1974-01-01

    Spectral measurements are reported of plasma turbulence in the Cs plasma of a Q device, modified to a magnetic cusp geometry. The excitation mechanism for the fluctuations appears to be the centrifugal instability discussed by Chen. A transition from an f−5 to an f−3 power spectrum is observed...

  19. The Magnetospheric Cusps Structure and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Theodore A

    2005-01-01

    This collection of papers will address the question "What is the Magnetospheric Cusp?" and what is its role in the coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere as well as its role in the processes of particle transport and energization within the magnetosphere. The cusps have traditionally been described as narrow funnel-shaped regions that provide a focus of the Chapman-Ferraro currents that flow on the magnetopause, a boundary between the cavity dominated by the geomagnetic field (i.e., the magnetosphere) and the external region of the interplanetary medium. Measurements from a number of recent satellite programs have shown that the cusp is not confined to a narrow region near local noon but appears to encompass a large portion of the dayside high-latitude magnetosphere and it appears that the cusp is a major source region for the production of energetic charged particles for the magnetosphere. Audience: This book will be of interest to space science research organizations in governments and industries, ...

  20. ANALYSIS OF TRANSONIC FLOW PAST CUSPED AIRFOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Stodůlka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transonic flow past two cusped airfoils is numerically solved and achieved results are analyzed by means of flow behavior and oblique shocks formation.Regions around sharp trailing edges are studied in detail and parameters of shock waves are solved and compared using classical shock polar approach and verified by reduction parameters for symmetric configurations.

  1. GAMA/G10-COSMOS/3D-HST: the 0 history, stellar-mass, and dust-mass densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Davies, Luke J.; Lagos, Claudia; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Vinsen, Kevin; Wright, Angus H.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bourne, Nathan; Brough, Sarah; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Cluver, Michelle; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve A.; Gomez, Haley; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Loveday, Jon; Liske, Jochen; Maddox, Steve J.; Phillipps, Steven; Pimbblet, Kevin; Rowlands, Kate; Sansom, Anne E.; Taylor, Edward; Wang, Lingyu; Wilkins, Stephen M.

    2018-04-01

    We use the energy-balance code MAGPHYS to determine stellar and dust masses, and dust corrected star formation rates for over 200 000 GAMA galaxies, 170 000 G10-COSMOS galaxies, and 200 000 3D-HST galaxies. Our values agree well with previously reported measurements and constitute a representative and homogeneous data set spanning a broad range in stellar-mass (108-1012 M⊙), dust-mass (106-109 M⊙), and star formation rates (0.01-100 M⊙yr-1), and over a broad redshift range (0.0 history (CSFH), the stellar-mass density (SMD), and the dust-mass density (DMD) over a 12 Gyr timeline. The data mostly agree with previous estimates, where they exist, and provide a quasi-homogeneous data set using consistent mass and star formation estimators with consistent underlying assumptions over the full time range. As a consequence our formal errors are significantly reduced when compared to the historic literature. Integrating our CSFH we precisely reproduce the SMD with an interstellar medium replenishment factor of 0.50 ± 0.07, consistent with our choice of Chabrier initial mass function plus some modest amount of stripped stellar mass. Exploring the cosmic dust density evolution, we find a gradual increase in dust density with lookback time. We build a simple phenomenological model from the CSFH to account for the dust-mass evolution, and infer two key conclusions: (1) For every unit of stellar mass which is formed 0.0065-0.004 units of dust mass is also formed. (2) Over the history of the Universe approximately 90-95 per cent of all dust formed has been destroyed and/or ejected.

  2. Effective mass of omega meson and NNω interaction at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, S.; Su, R.; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of the thermofield dynamical theory, the effective mass of omega meson is calculated by summing the bubble diagrams. It is found that the formula for the effective mass of the ρ meson can also be used to describe the ω meson in the low density region, but the parameter n and the critical temperature T c depend on the density. The temperature and density dependence of one omega exchage potential of nucleon-nucleon interaction are given. The conjecture of Brown and Rho about the effective masses of mesons is discussed

  3. Color-flavor locked strange quark matter in a mass density-dependent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuede; Wen Xinjian

    2007-01-01

    Properties of color-flavor locked (CFL) strange quark matter have been studied in a mass-density-dependent model, and compared with the results in the conventional bag model. In both models, the CFL phase is more stable than the normal nuclear matter for reasonable parameters. However, the lower density behavior of the sound velocity in this model is completely opposite to that in the bag model, which makes the maximum mass of CFL quark stars in the mass-density-dependent model larger than that in the bag model. (authors)

  4. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  5. The polar cusp from a particle point of view: A statistical study based on Viking data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, B.; Thelin, B.; Lundin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present results from the particle measurements made on board the Viking satellite. For the period of interest the Viking orbits covered at high latitudes the whole dayside sector. Data from the Viking V-3 particle experiment acquired during the Polar Region Outer Magnetospheric International Study period have been used to study the extension of the cusp and cleft in magnetic local time and invariant latitude, and furthermore, their dependence on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters. The study is limited to the MLT range from 0900 to 1500 and to invariant latitudes (ILAT) from 74 degree to 82 degree. This region is divided into bins of size. The authors concentrated on the region where magnetosheath solar wind plasma penetrates more directly into the magnetosphere and is measured at Viking altitudes. This region is called the cusp proper, to be distinguished from a broader region denoted the cleft, where more energetic particles are observed. Statistically, they find the cusp proper to extend from invariant latitudes of 75 degree to 82 degree and magnetic local times from 0930 to 1400 MLT. The width in ILAT is found to be on average ∼2 degree and in MLT ∼2 hours. It is shown that a clear correlation exists between the densities in the cusp proper calculated from the Viking V-3 experiment in the cusp proper and those in the solar wind calculated from IMP 8 measurements. It is also shown that the position of the cusp proper in MLT depends on the sense of the By component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By), giving a well-defined displacement of the region of maximum occurrence toward earlier MLTs for IMF By 0

  6. Tooth cusp sharpness as a dietary correlate in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth cusp RoC and diet, and that folivores have sharper teeth than frugivores, and further test the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size. Eight measures of tooth cusp RoC (two RoCs per cusp) were taken from 53 M(2) s from four species and subspecies of frugivorous apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and two subspecies of folivorous apes (Gorilla beringei beringei, and Gorilla beringei graueri). Phylogenetically corrected ANOVAs were run on the full dataset and several subsets of the full dataset, revealing that, when buccolingual RoCs are taken into account, tooth cusp RoCs can successfully differentiate folivores and frugivores. PCAs revealed that folivores consistently had duller teeth than frugivores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant positive correlation exists between tooth cusp size and tooth cusp RoC. The author hypothesizes differences in tooth cusp RoC are correlated with wear rates, where, per vertical unit of wear, duller cusps will have a longer length of exposed enamel ridge than sharper cusps. More data need to be gathered to determine if the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size holds true when small primates are considered. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Correlations of both the densities and the masses of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nagornaya, V S

    2002-01-01

    The correlation of densities, masses and scales of galaxies have been researched. The results can be interpreted basing on the hypothesis of rotation origin of galaxies during the proto-clusters collapse epoch. (author)

  8. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse

  9. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... Strengthening exercises, together with walking and aerobic exercises ... effects of exercises on bone mass, the exercises putting load on the ...... activity, body weight and composition, and muscular strength on bone density in ...

  10. Deformation of the Galactic Centre stellar cusp due to the gravity of a growing gas disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karamveer; Sridhar, S.

    2018-06-01

    The nuclear star cluster surrounding the massive black hole at the Galactic Centre consists of young and old stars, with most of the stellar mass in an extended, cuspy distribution of old stars. The compact cluster of young stars was probably born in situ in a massive accretion disc around the black hole. We investigate the effect of the growing gravity of the disc on the orbits of the old stars, using an integrable model of the deformation of a spherical star cluster with anisotropic velocity dispersions. A formula for the perturbed phase-space distribution function is derived using linear theory, and new density and surface density profiles are computed. The cusp undergoes a spheroidal deformation with the flattening increasing strongly at smaller distances from the black hole; the intrinsic axis ratio ˜0.8 at ˜0.15 pc. Stellar orbits are deformed such that they spend more time near the disc plane and sample the dense inner parts of the disc; this could result in enhanced stripping of the envelopes of red giant stars. Linear theory accounts only for orbits whose apsides circulate. The non-linear theory of adiabatic capture into resonance is needed to understand orbits whose apsides librate. The mechanism is a generic dynamical process, and it may be common in galactic nuclei.

  11. A surface structural model for ferrihydrite I: Sites related to primary charge, molar mass, and mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2009-08-01

    A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite (Fh) has been developed. The surface structure and composition of Fh nanoparticles are described in relation to ion binding and surface charge development. The site densities of the various reactive surface groups, the molar mass, the mass density, the specific surface area, and the particle size are quantified. As derived theoretically, molecular mass and mass density of nanoparticles will depend on the types of surface groups and the corresponding site densities and will vary with particle size and surface area because of a relatively large contribution of the surface groups in comparison to the mineral core of nanoparticles. The nano-sized (˜2.6 nm) particles of freshly prepared 2-line Fh as a whole have an increased molar mass of M ˜ 101 ± 2 g/mol Fe, a reduced mass density of ˜3.5 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, both relatively to the mineral core. The specific surface area is ˜650 m 2/g. Six-line Fh (5-6 nm) has a molar mass of M ˜ 94 ± 2 g/mol, a mass density of ˜3.9 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, and a surface area of ˜280 ± 30 m 2/g. Data analysis shows that the mineral core of Fh has an average chemical composition very close to FeOOH with M ˜ 89 g/mol. The mineral core has a mass density around ˜4.15 ± 0.1 g/cm 3, which is between that of feroxyhyte, goethite, and lepidocrocite. These results can be used to constrain structural models for Fh. Singly-coordinated surface groups dominate the surface of ferrihydrite (˜6.0 ± 0.5 nm -2). These groups can be present in two structural configurations. In pairs, the groups either form the edge of a single Fe-octahedron (˜2.5 nm -2) or are present at a single corner (˜3.5 nm -2) of two adjacent Fe octahedra. These configurations can form bidentate surface complexes by edge- and double-corner sharing, respectively, and may therefore respond differently to the binding of ions such as uranyl, carbonate, arsenite, phosphate, and others. The relatively low PZC of

  12. Value of radio density determined by enhanced computed tomography for the differential diagnosis of lung masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Min

    2011-01-01

    Lung masses are often difficult to differentiate when their clinical symptoms and shapes or densities on computed tomography images are similar. However, with different pathological contents, they may appear differently on plain and enhanced computed tomography. Objectives: To determine the value of enhanced computed tomography for the differential diagnosis of lung masses based on the differences in radio density with and without enhancement. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six patients with lung cancer, 36 with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 with inflammatory lung pseudo tumors diagnosed by computed tomography and confirmed by pathology in our hospital were selected. The mean ±SD radio densities of lung masses in the three groups of patients were calculated based on the results of plain and enhanced computed tomography. Results: There were no significant differences in the radio densities of the masses detected by plain computed tomography among patients with inflammatory lung pseudo tumors, tuberculosis and lung cancer (P> 0.05). However, there were significant differences (P< 0.01)between all the groups in terms of radio densities of masses detected by enhanced computed tomography. Conclusions: The radio densities of lung masses detected by enhanced computed tomography could potentially be used to differentiate between lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis and inflammatory lung pseudo tumors.

  13. Resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Theory Group, DESY Hamburg,Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  14. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-06-15

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  15. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  16. Multi-point observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp with Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.-Philippe; Grison, Benjamin; Berchem, Jean; Trattner, Kralheinz; Pitout, Frederic; Richard, Robert; Taylor, Matt; Soucek, Jan; Laakso, Harri; Masson, Arnaud; Dunlop, Malcolm; Dandouras, Iannis; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Daly, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The exterior cusp is the most external region of the polar magnetosphere in direct contact with the plasma and the magnetic field from the solar wind. Unlike the rest of the magnetopause surface, the exterior cusp is a singular region with small and turbulent magnetic field and where large entry of plasma from solar origin takes place. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions in the dispersions, we obtain an altitude of the sources of these ions between 14 and 20 RE. Using Tsyganenko model, these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. In addition, before entering the cusp, the magnetopause crossing was characterized by a large shear in By and bipolar plasma flows, suggesting that reconnection was taking place near the exterior cusp. We will discuss the extent of the reconnection line along the flank of the magnetopause based on these observations.

  17. Cost estimate for electrostatically plugged cusp reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor was presented in (UCRL-52142(1976)). The capital costs of the various components of this reactor are estimated and totaled for two different blanket configurations: one having an energy multiplication factor M = 1.2, and the other having M = 1.68. The unoptimized direct capital costs for these cases are found to be about 1400 and 950 $/kWe, respectively

  18. Particle loss from magnetic cusp field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, C.; Kawamura, T.; Obayashi, H.

    1974-12-01

    The motion of charged particles in an axially symmetric magnetic field of cusp configuration is studied by means of numerical calculations. A particular attention is paid to a non-adiabatic zone. The computer results are compared with a simplified loss cone model and it is shown that there is a critical value of non-adiabaticity parameter which defines an effective size of the non-adiabatic zone. (auth.)

  19. Electrostatic Plugging of Multidipole Cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    8217, -) V0 100 I-’ 60 00 0> :oc 0 \\0H U 0 0- 0- -L 0 0- P4 A- 602- 179 MASS SPECTROMETER CIRCUIT CHME P OGA- SWOT Figue 1. Shemaic f eteralXly...2R. L. Hirsch, J. Appl . Phys. 38, 4522 (1967). 3N. Hershkowitz K. N. Leung, and T. Romesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 5. 277 (1975 1. 4A. Kitsunezaki, M...R. T. Carpenter, submitted to J. Appl . Phys. 1OD. Rapp and P. Englander-Golden, J. Chem. Phys. 3, 1464 (1965). "A. Lang and N. Hershkowitz, J. Appl

  20. Signatures of the high-altitude polar cusp and dayside auroral regions as seen by the Viking electric field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Erlandson, R.E.; Potemra, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric field and satellite potential observations along 42 Viking orbits in the high-altitude (2R E ) polar cusp and dayside auroral region have been examined. Within the cusp the plasma density usually reaches a maximum, and it is typically very homogeneous, in contrast to the irregular and lower density in the cleft and dayside auroral regions. The maxima in the plasma density are sometimes anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength, indicating a diamagnetic effect. The entire cusp and dayside auroral regions are characterized by irregular and burstlike electric fields, comprising field reversals on various scales (up to 3 min or 500 km), the larger scales, however, being rare in the cusp. Another common feature in these regions is the high correlation between mutually orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields, both for large-scale variations across spatial structures and for wave and pulsations in the ULF frequency range. The electric field signatures in the cusp (in the 1100-1300 MLT sector) are, however, characteristically different from the cleft and oval field signatures in that the electric field is usually less intense and less structured and not correlated with the substorm activity level

  1. Low pressure hugoniot cusp in polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, S. A.; Bloomquist, D. D.

    1982-04-01

    It has previously been shown that polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) exhibits a cusp in the shock Hugoniot at about 2.0 GPa which corresponds with the beginning of shock-induced polarization and the beginning of an exothermic reaction measured in thermocouple and resistivity gauge temperature studies. We now report results we have recently obtained from an ongoing study which indicate that other polymers have similar behavior at about the same pressure. Quartz gauge impact experiments have been performed using polypyro-ellitimide (Vespel) and polysulfone impactors to obtain Hugoniot information and the stress history at the impact plane. In the case of Vespel a slight Hugoniot cusp was observed at about 1.8 GPa which coincides with the start of shock-induced polarization. Polysulfone does not appear to have a cusp but does show stress relaxation at the impact plane beginning at about 1.8 GPa, again coinciding with the start of shock-induced polarization. It has been suggested earlier that the abnormal behavior in PMMA is the result of a shock-induced chemical reaction. This new information suggests that a stress of about 2 GPa is a threshold for shock-induced chemical reaction in several polymers.

  2. The maximal-density mass function for primordial black hole dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Benjamin V.; Profumo, Stefano; Yant, Jackson

    2018-04-01

    The advent of gravitational wave astronomy has rekindled interest in primordial black holes (PBH) as a dark matter candidate. As there are many different observational probes of the PBH density across different masses, constraints on PBH models are dependent on the functional form of the PBH mass function. This complicates general statements about the mass functions allowed by current data, and, in particular, about the maximum total density of PBH. Numerical studies suggest that some forms of extended mass functions face tighter constraints than monochromatic mass functions, but they do not preclude the existence of a functional form for which constraints are relaxed. We use analytical arguments to show that the mass function which maximizes the fraction of the matter density in PBH subject to all constraints is a finite linear combination of monochromatic mass functions. We explicitly compute the maximum fraction of dark matter in PBH for different combinations of current constraints, allowing for total freedom of the mass function. Our framework elucidates the dependence of the maximum PBH density on the form of observational constraints, and we discuss the implications of current and future constraints for the viability of the PBH dark matter paradigm.

  3. Measuring and engineering the atomic mass density wave of a Gaussian mass-polariton pulse in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that only the energy of the field propagates inside the medium. Consequently, they neglect the transport of mass density by the medium atoms. We have recently presented foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a nondispersive medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces [Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017)]. In particular, we have shown that the mass is transferred by an atomic mass density wave (MDW), which gives rise to mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, i.e., covariant coupled states of the field and matter having a nonzero rest mass. Another key observation of the mass-polariton theory of light is that, in common semiconductors, most of the momentum of light is transferred by moving atoms, e.g., 92% in the case of silicon. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media and consider experimental measurement of the mass transferred by the MDW atoms when an intense light pulse propagates in a silicon fiber. In particular, we consider optimal intensity and time dependence of a Gaussian pulse and account for the breakdown threshold irradiance of the material. The optical shock wave property of the MDW, which propagates with the velocity of light instead of the velocity of sound, prompts for engineering of novel device concepts like very high frequency mechanical oscillators not limited by the acoustic cutoff frequency.

  4. Tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitude: CHAMP and GRACE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By using the accelerometer measurements from CHAMP and GRACE satellites, the tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitudes have been analyzed in this study. The results show that the mass density and zonal wind at southern midlatitudes are dominated by a longitudinal wave-1 pattern. The most prominent tidal components in mass density and zonal wind are the diurnal tides D0 and DW2 and the semidiurnal tides SW1 and SW3. This is consistent with the tidal signatures in the F region electron density at midlatitudes as reported by Xiong and Lühr (2014. These same tidal components are observed both in the thermospheric and ionospheric quantities, supporting a mechanism that the non-migrating tides in the upper atmosphere are excited in situ by ion–neutral interactions at midlatitudes, consistent with the modeling results of Jones Jr. et al. (2013. We regard the thermospheric dynamics as the main driver for the electron density tidal structures. An example is the in-phase variation of D0 between electron density and mass density in both hemispheres. Further research including coupled atmospheric models is probably needed for explaining the similarities and differences between thermospheric and ionospheric tidal signals at midlatitudes.

  5. Transport of transient solar wind particles in Earth's cusps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Teste, A.; Wilber, M.; Lin, N.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Reme, H.; Fu, S. Y.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    An important problem in space physics still not understood well is how the solar wind enters the Earth's magnetosphere. Evidence is presented that transient solar wind particles produced by solar disturbances can appear in the Earth's mid-altitude (∼5 R E geocentric) cusps with densities nearly equal to those in the magnetosheath. That these are magnetosheath particles is established by showing they have the same ''flattop'' electron distributions as magnetosheath electrons behind the bow shock. The transient ions are moving parallel to the magnetic field (B) toward Earth and often coexist with ionospheric particles that are flowing out. The accompanying waves include electromagnetic and broadband electrostatic noise emissions and Bernstein mode waves. Phase-space distributions show a mixture of hot and cold electrons and multiple ion species including field-aligned ionospheric O + beams

  6. A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Drewing, Knut

    2018-01-01

    When judging the heaviness of two objects with equal mass, people perceive the smaller and denser of the two as being heavier. Despite the large number of theories, covering bottom-up and top-down approaches, none of them can fully account for all aspects of this size-weight illusion and thus for human heaviness perception. Here we propose a new maximum-likelihood estimation model which describes the illusion as the weighted average of two heaviness estimates with correlated noise: One estimate derived from the object’s mass, and the other from the object’s density, with estimates’ weights based on their relative reliabilities. While information about mass can directly be perceived, information about density will in some cases first have to be derived from mass and volume. However, according to our model at the crucial perceptual level, heaviness judgments will be biased by the objects’ density, not by its size. In two magnitude estimation experiments, we tested model predictions for the visual and the haptic size-weight illusion. Participants lifted objects which varied in mass and density. We additionally varied the reliability of the density estimate by varying the quality of either visual (Experiment 1) or haptic (Experiment 2) volume information. As predicted, with increasing quality of volume information, heaviness judgments were increasingly biased towards the object’s density: Objects of the same density were perceived as more similar and big objects were perceived as increasingly lighter than small (denser) objects of the same mass. This perceived difference increased with an increasing difference in density. In an additional two-alternative forced choice heaviness experiment, we replicated that the illusion strength increased with the quality of volume information (Experiment 3). Overall, the results highly corroborate our model, which seems promising as a starting point for a unifying framework for the size-weight illusion and human heaviness

  7. A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Drewing, Knut

    2018-01-01

    When judging the heaviness of two objects with equal mass, people perceive the smaller and denser of the two as being heavier. Despite the large number of theories, covering bottom-up and top-down approaches, none of them can fully account for all aspects of this size-weight illusion and thus for human heaviness perception. Here we propose a new maximum-likelihood estimation model which describes the illusion as the weighted average of two heaviness estimates with correlated noise: One estimate derived from the object's mass, and the other from the object's density, with estimates' weights based on their relative reliabilities. While information about mass can directly be perceived, information about density will in some cases first have to be derived from mass and volume. However, according to our model at the crucial perceptual level, heaviness judgments will be biased by the objects' density, not by its size. In two magnitude estimation experiments, we tested model predictions for the visual and the haptic size-weight illusion. Participants lifted objects which varied in mass and density. We additionally varied the reliability of the density estimate by varying the quality of either visual (Experiment 1) or haptic (Experiment 2) volume information. As predicted, with increasing quality of volume information, heaviness judgments were increasingly biased towards the object's density: Objects of the same density were perceived as more similar and big objects were perceived as increasingly lighter than small (denser) objects of the same mass. This perceived difference increased with an increasing difference in density. In an additional two-alternative forced choice heaviness experiment, we replicated that the illusion strength increased with the quality of volume information (Experiment 3). Overall, the results highly corroborate our model, which seems promising as a starting point for a unifying framework for the size-weight illusion and human heaviness perception.

  8. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE MASS AND DENSITY STRUCTURE OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, N.; Fuller, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    How and when the mass distribution of stars in the Galaxy is set is one of the main issues of modern astronomy. Here, we present a statistical study of mass and density distributions of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and fragments within them. These regions are pristine molecular gas structures and progenitors of stars and so provide insights into the initial conditions of star formation. This study makes use of an IRDC catalog, the largest sample of IRDC column density maps to date, containing a total of ∼11,000 IRDCs with column densities exceeding N H 2 = 1x10 22 cm -2 and over 50,000 single-peaked IRDC fragments. The large number of objects constitutes an important strength of this study, allowing a detailed analysis of the completeness of the sample and so statistically robust conclusions. Using a statistical approach to assigning distances to clouds, the mass and density distributions of the clouds and the fragments within them are constructed. The mass distributions show a steepening of the slope when switching from IRDCs to fragments, in agreement with previous results of similar structures. IRDCs and fragments are divided into unbound/bound objects by assuming Larson's relation and calculating their virial parameter. IRDCs are mostly gravitationally bound, while a significant fraction of the fragments are not. The density distribution of gravitationally unbound fragments shows a steep characteristic slope such as ΔN/Δlog(n) ∝ n -4.0±0.5 , rather independent of the range of fragment mass. However, the incompleteness limit at a number density of ∼10 3 cm -3 does not allow us to exclude a potential lognormal density distribution. In contrast, gravitationally bound fragments show a characteristic density peak at n ≅ 10 4 cm -3 but the shape of the density distributions changes with the range of fragment masses. An explanation for this could be the differential dynamical evolution of the fragment density with respect to their mass as more massive

  9. Transfer coefficients in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on forced convection in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident is presented. Transfer coefficients were obtained by using the analogy between heat and mass tranfer, with the naphtalene sublimation technique. The experiment consisted in forcing air past a four-cusp naphthalene moulded duct. Mass transfer coefficients were determined in nondimensional form as Sherwood number. Experimental curves correlating the Sherwood number with a nondimensional length, x + , were obtained for Reynolds number varying from 891 to 30.374. This range covers typical flow rates that are expected to exist in a degraded nuclear reactor core. (Author) [pt

  10. Relativistic mean-field approximation with density-dependent screening meson masses in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Baoxi; Lu, Xiaofu; Shen, Pengnian; Zhao, Enguang

    2003-01-01

    The Debye screening masses of the σ, ω and neutral ρ mesons and the photon are calculated in the relativistic mean-field approximation. As the density of the nucleon increases, all the screening masses of mesons increase. A different result with Brown–Rho scaling is shown, which implies a reduction in the mass of all the mesons in the nuclear matter, except the pion. Replacing the masses of the mesons with their corresponding screening masses in the Walecka-1 model, five saturation properties of the nuclear matter are fixed reasonably, and then a density-dependent relativistic mean-field model is proposed without introducing the nonlinear self-coupling terms of mesons. (author)

  11. Low density lesion in solid mass on CT: Pathologic change and housfield number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Lim, Joo Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ko, Young Tae; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic changes and housfield unit of the low density lesion in solid mass on CT. Pathologically proved solid mass was evaluated in regard to the shape and margin of the low density in the mass on the CT scans of 23 patient. The CT number of the low density lesion was correlated with the pathologic changes. Pathologic changes of the low density lesions were; necrosis (n=17), hemorrhage (n=13), cyst (n=4), myxoid degeneration (n=2), hyaline degeneration (n=1), fibrosis (n=1), and mixed cellularity (n=1). In 14 cases, more than 2 pathologic changes were seen. In 11 cases, necrosis was associated with hemorrhage. The CT number ranged from 11.5 to 44.9 Housfield unit(HU) (mean, 25.2 HU). The average CT number was 26.9 HU in hemorrhage and necrosis, 17.2 HU in cystic change, 20.9 HU in myxoid degeneration, 35.7 HU in hyaline de generation, 22.3 HU in fibrosis, and 21.4 HU in mixed cellularity. The hemorrhage and necrosis in 17 cases showed irregular margin, amorphous shape, and showed centrifugal distribution. The cystic change in 4 cases showed well defined margin, round shape, and peripheral location in solid mass. The low density lesions in solid mass on CT represented variable pathologic changes; necrosis, hemorrhage, cyst, myxoid degeneration, hyaline degeneration, fibrosis, and mixed cellularity. Pathologic changes would not be differentiated on the basis of CT number

  12. Low bone mass density is associated with hemolysis in brazilian patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baldanzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether kidney disease and hemolysis are associated with bone mass density in a population of adult Brazilian patients with sickle cell disease. INTRODUCTION: Bone involvement is a frequent clinical manifestation of sickle cell disease, and it has multiple causes; however, there are few consistent clinical associations between bone involvement and sickle cell disease. METHODS: Patients over 20 years of age with sickle cell disease who were regularly followed at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of Campinas, Brazil, were sorted into three groups, including those with normal bone mass density, those with osteopenia, and those with osteoporosis, according to the World Health Organization criteria. The clinical data of the patients were compared using statistical analyses. RESULTS: In total, 65 patients were included in this study: 12 (18.5% with normal bone mass density, 37 (57% with osteopenia and 16 (24.5% with osteoporosis. Overall, 53 patients (81.5% had bone mass densities below normal standards. Osteopenia and osteoporosis patients had increased lactate dehydrogenase levels and reticulocyte counts compared to patients with normal bone mass density (p<0.05. Osteoporosis patients also had decreased hemoglobin levels (p<0.05. Hemolysis was significantly increased in patients with osteoporosis compared with patients with osteopenia, as indicated by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels and reticulocyte counts as well as decreased hemoglobin levels. Osteoporosis patients were older, with lower glomerular filtration rates than patients with osteopenia. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to gender, body mass index, serum creatinine levels, estimated creatinine clearance, or microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of reduced bone mass density that was associated with hemolysis was found in this population, as indicated by the high lactate dehydrogenase levels, increased

  13. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    Miniature ring-cusp ion thrusters provide a unique blend of high efficiencies and millinewton level thrust for future spacecraft. These thrusters are attractive as a primary propulsion for small satellites that require a high delta V, and as a secondary propulsion for larger spacecraft that require precision formation flying, disturbance rejection, or attitude control. To ensure desirable performance throughout the life of such missions, an advancement in the understanding of the plasma structure and behavior of miniature ring-cusp discharges is required. A research model was fabricated to provide a simplified experimental test bed for the analysis of the plasma discharge chamber of a miniature ion thruster. The plasma source allowed for spatially resolved measurements with a Langmuir probe along a meridian plane. Probe measurements yielded plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential data. The magnetic field strength was varied along with the discharge current to determine the plasma behavior under various conditions. The structure of the plasma properties were found to be independent of the discharge power under the proper scaling. It was concluded that weaker magnetic fields can improve the overall performance for ion thruster operation. To further analyze the experimental measurements, a framework was developed based on the magnetic field. A flux aligned coordinate system was developed to decouple the perpendicular and parallel plasma motion with respect to the magnetic field. This was done using the stream function and magnetic scalar potential. Magnetic formulae provided intuition on the field profiles dependence on magnet dimensions. The flux aligned coordinate system showed that the plasma was isopycnic along constant stream function values. This was used to develop an empirical relation suitable for estimating the spatial behavior and to determine the plasma volume and loss areas. The plasma geometry estimates were applied to a control volume

  14. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John; Oliver, Rachel A.; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 μm and a mass density of 1.6 g cm −3 . This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ∼22 kΩ), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors

  15. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  16. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  17. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.

  18. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  19. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  20. A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device (MPD) with variable magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A. D.; Sharma, M.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Ganesh, R.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2018-04-01

    A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device consisting of electromagnets with core material has been constructed with a capability to experimentally control the relative volume fractions of magnetized to unmagnetized plasma volume as well as accurate control on the gradient length scales of mean density and temperature profiles. Argon plasma has been produced using a hot tungsten cathode over a wide range of pressures 5 × 10-5 -1 × 10-3 mbar, achieving plasma densities ranging from 109 to 1011 cm-3 and the electron temperature in the range 1-8 eV. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured along the non-cusp region (in between two consecutive magnets) show a finite region with uniform and quiescent plasma, where the magnetic field is very low such that the ions are unmagnetized. Beyond that region, both plasma species are magnetized and the profiles show gradients both in temperature and density. The electrostatic fluctuation measured using a Langmuir probe radially along the non-cusp region shows less than 1% (δIisat/Iisat physics parameter space relevant to both laboratory multi-scale plasmas and astrophysical plasmas.

  1. Plasma volume methodology: Evans blue, hemoglobin-hematocrit, and mass density transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring absolute levels and changes in plasma volume are presented along with derivations of pertinent equations. Reduction in variability of the Evans blue dye dilution technique using chromatographic column purification suggests that the day-to-day variability in the plasma volume in humans is less than + or - 20 m1. Mass density determination using the mechanical-oscillator technique provides a method for measuring vascular fluid shifts continuously for assessing the density of the filtrate, and for quantifying movements of protein across microvascular walls. Equations for the calculation of volume and density of shifted fluid are presented.

  2. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cusps in K{sub L}{yields}3{pi} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissegger, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Fuhrer, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)], E-mail: afuhrer@itp.unibe.ch; Gasser, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Kubis, B.; Rusetsky, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2008-01-24

    The pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K{yields}3{pi} decays, the strength of which is related to the {pi}{pi} S-wave scattering lengths. We apply an effective field theory framework developed earlier to evaluate the amplitudes for K{sub L}{yields}3{pi} decays in a systematic manner, where the strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically. The amplitudes for the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi} are also given.

  4. Role of multiple cusps in tooth fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    The role of multiple cusps in the biomechanics of human molar tooth fracture is analysed. A model with four cusps at the bite surface replaces the single dome structure used in previous simulations. Extended finite element modelling, with provision to embed longitudinal cracks into the enamel walls, enables full analysis of crack propagation from initial extension to final failure. The cracks propagate longitudinally around the enamel side walls from starter cracks placed either at the top surface (radial cracks) or from the tooth base (margin cracks). A feature of the crack evolution is its stability, meaning that extension occurs steadily with increasing applied force. Predictions from the model are validated by comparison with experimental data from earlier publications, in which crack development was followed in situ during occlusal loading of extracted human molars. The results show substantial increase in critical forces to produce longitudinal fractures with number of cuspal contacts, indicating a capacity for an individual tooth to spread the load during mastication. It is argued that explicit critical force equations derived in previous studies remain valid, at the least as a means for comparing the capacity for teeth of different dimensions to sustain high bite forces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Observations of the cusp region under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of the cusp region using the EISCAT Svalbard Radars (ESR and the Cluster spacecraft. We focus in this paper on 2 February 2001, over the time period from 07:30 UT to 12:00 UT when the oblique ESR antenna pointing northward at a low elevation recorded latitudinal motions of the cusp region in response to the IMF. Meanwhile, the Cluster satellites were flying over the EISCAT Svalbard Radar field-of-view around local magnetic noon. The spacecraft first flew near ESR, northeast of Svalbard and then passed over the field-of-view of the antenna at about 11:30 UT. From 08:00 UT to 09:00 UT, the IMF remains primarily southward yet several variations in the Z-component are seen to move the cusp. Around 09:00 UT, an abrupt northward turning of the IMF moves the cusp region to higher latitudes. As a result, the Cluster satellites ended up in the northernmost boundary of the high-altitude cusp region where the CIS instrument recorded highly structured plasma due to ion injections in the lobe of the magnetosphere. After 09:00 UT, the IMF remains northward for more than two hours. Over this period, the ESR records sunward plasma flow in the cusp region due to lobe reconnection, while Cluster spacecraft remain in the high-altitude cusp.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection Ionosphere (polar ionosphere

  6. Studies on the Effect of Radio Frequency Field in a Cusp-Type Charge Separation Device for Direct Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    HAMABE, Masaki; IZAWA, Hiroaki; TAKENO, Hiromasa; NAKAMOTO, Satoshi; ICHIMURA, Kazuya; NAKASHIMA, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    In D-3He fusion power generation, an application of direct energy conversion is expected in which separation of charged particles is necessary. A cusp-type direct energy converter (CuspDEC) was proposed as a charge separation device, but its performance was degraded for a high density plasma. The goal of the present study is to establish an additional method to assist charge separation by using a nonlinear effect of a radio frequency (rf) electric field. Following to the previous study, we ex...

  7. Modelling of interactions between variable mass and density solid particles and swirling gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardach-Święcicka, I; Kardaś, D; Pozorski, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the solid particles - gas interactions. For this purpose, numerical modelling was carried out by means of a commercial code for simulations of two-phase dispersed flows with the in-house models accounting for mass and density change of solid phase. In the studied case the particles are treated as spherical moving grains carried by a swirling stream of hot gases. Due to the heat and mass transfer between gas and solid phase, the particles are losing their mass and they are changing their volume. Numerical simulations were performed for turbulent regime, using two methods for turbulence modelling: RANS and LES.

  8. A statistical survey of heat input parameters into the cusp thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J. I.; Skjaeveland, A.; Carlson, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on three winters of observational data, we present those ionosphere parameters deemed most critical to realistic space weather ionosphere and thermosphere representation and prediction, in regions impacted by variability in the cusp. The CHAMP spacecraft revealed large variability in cusp thermosphere densities, measuring frequent satellite drag enhancements, up to doublings. The community recognizes a clear need for more realistic representation of plasma flows and electron densities near the cusp. Existing average-value models produce order of magnitude errors in these parameters, resulting in large under estimations of predicted drag. We fill this knowledge gap with statistics-based specification of these key parameters over their range of observed values. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) tracks plasma flow Vi , electron density Ne, and electron, ion temperatures Te, Ti , with consecutive 2-3 minute windshield-wipe scans of 1000x500 km areas. This allows mapping the maximum Ti of a large area within or near the cusp with high temporal resolution. In magnetic field-aligned mode the radar can measure high-resolution profiles of these plasma parameters. By deriving statistics for Ne and Ti , we enable derivation of thermosphere heating deposition under background and frictional-drag-dominated magnetic reconnection conditions. We separate our Ne and Ti profiles into quiescent and enhanced states, which are not closely correlated due to the spatial structure of the reconnection foot point. Use of our data-based parameter inputs can make order of magnitude corrections to input data driving thermosphere models, enabling removal of previous two fold drag errors.

  9. Talon′s cusp: Report of four unusual cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulunoglu O

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Talon cusp is a developmental dental anomaly thought to arise as a result of evagination on the surface of a tooth crown before calcification has occurred. The etiology remains unknown. The incidence is 0.04-10%. Any tooth may have a talon cusp but most of the cases involve maxillary lateral incisors, with some instances of bilateral involvement. The anomaly has been reported to be rare in the mandible. This article reports four cases of talon cusp. The first and the second cases describe bilateral involvement of talon cusp on palatal surfaces of maxillary primary centrals; in the third case talon tubercle occurs on palatal surfaces of both maxillary permanent lateral incisors and the maxillary left central incisor and in the last case a talon cusp in the lingual surface of mandibular permanent lateral incisor.

  10. Mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) with Nf=8 using the spectral density method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suorsa, Joni M.; Leino, Viljami; Rantaharju, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    SU(2) with Nf=8 is believed to have an infrared conformal fixed point. We use the spectral density method to evaluate the coupling constant dependence of the mass anomalous dimension for massless HEX smeared, clover improved Wilson fermions with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions....

  11. Mass density of the Earth from a Gravito-Electro-Magnetic 5D vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Musmarra, Juan Ignacio; Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the mass density of the Earth using a Gravito-Electro-Magnetic theory on an extended 5D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric, in which we define the vacuum. Our results are in very good agreement with that of the Dziewonski-Anderson model.

  12. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12, wrestling 8, Judo ...

  13. Effects of size on mass density and its influence on mechanical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 30 November 2015; accepted 10 March 2016 ... diameter of 4 nm, the mass density values of zirconia nanoparticles are 3.898, 3.626 and 3.488 g· cm ... Botan Jawdat Abdullah et al ..... [3] Christensen A and Carter E A 1998 Phys.

  14. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  15. Real-time viscosity and mass density sensors requiring microliter sample volume based on nanomechanical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Benjamin A; Duempelmann, Luc; Renggli, Kasper; Lang, Hans Peter; Gerber, Christoph; Bruns, Nico; Braun, Thomas

    2013-09-17

    A microcantilever based method for fluid viscosity and mass density measurements with high temporal resolution and microliter sample consumption is presented. Nanomechanical cantilever vibration is driven by photothermal excitation and detected by an optical beam deflection system using two laser beams of different wavelengths. The theoretical framework relating cantilever response to the viscosity and mass density of the surrounding fluid was extended to consider higher flexural modes vibrating at high Reynolds numbers. The performance of the developed sensor and extended theory was validated over a viscosity range of 1-20 mPa·s and a corresponding mass density range of 998-1176 kg/m(3) using reference fluids. Separating sample plugs from the carrier fluid by a two-phase configuration in combination with a microfluidic flow cell, allowed samples of 5 μL to be sequentially measured under continuous flow, opening the method to fast and reliable screening applications. To demonstrate the study of dynamic processes, the viscosity and mass density changes occurring during the free radical polymerization of acrylamide were monitored and compared to published data. Shear-thinning was observed in the viscosity data at higher flexural modes, which vibrate at elevated frequencies. Rheokinetic models allowed the monomer-to-polymer conversion to be tracked in spite of the shear-thinning behavior, and could be applied to study the kinetics of unknown processes.

  16. Allometric scaling of population variance with mean body size is predicted from Taylor's law and density-mass allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Xu, Meng; Schuster, William S F

    2012-09-25

    Two widely tested empirical patterns in ecology are combined here to predict how the variation of population density relates to the average body size of organisms. Taylor's law (TL) asserts that the variance of the population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean population density. Density-mass allometry (DMA) asserts that the mean population density of a set of populations is a power-law function of the mean individual body mass. Combined, DMA and TL predict that the variance of the population density is a power-law function of mean individual body mass. We call this relationship "variance-mass allometry" (VMA). We confirmed the theoretically predicted power-law form and the theoretically predicted parameters of VMA, using detailed data on individual oak trees (Quercus spp.) of Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, New York. These results connect the variability of population density to the mean body mass of individuals.

  17. Evidence for top-heavy stellar initial mass functions with increasing density and decreasing metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel; Dabringhausen, Jörg; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2012-05-01

    Residual-gas expulsion after cluster formation has recently been shown to leave an imprint in the low-mass present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) which allowed the estimation of birth conditions of some Galactic globular clusters (GCs) such as mass, radius and star formation efficiency. We show that in order to explain their characteristics (masses, radii, metallicity and PDMF) their stellar initial mass function (IMF) must have been top heavy. It is found that the IMF is required to become more top heavy the lower the cluster metallicity and the larger the pre-GC cloud-core density are. The deduced trends are in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectation. The results are consistent with estimates of the shape of the high-mass end of the IMF in the Arches cluster, Westerlund 1, R136 and NGC 3603, as well as with the IMF independently constrained for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The latter suggests that GCs and UCDs might have formed along the same channel or that UCDs formed via mergers of GCs. A Fundamental Plane is found which describes the variation of the IMF with density and metallicity of the pre-GC cloud cores. The implications for the evolution of galaxies and chemical enrichment over cosmological times are expected to be major.

  18. Mass density slope of elliptical galaxies from strong lensing and resolved stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, N.; Churazov, E.; Naab, T.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss constraints on the mass density distribution (parametrized as ρ ∝ r-γ) in early-type galaxies provided by strong lensing and stellar kinematics data. The constraints come from mass measurements at two `pinch' radii. One `pinch' radius r1 = 2.2REinst is defined such that the Einstein (i.e. aperture) mass can be converted into the spherical mass almost independently of the mass-model. Another `pinch' radius r2 = Ropt is chosen so that the dynamical mass, derived from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, is least sensitive to the anisotropy of stellar orbits. We verified the performance of this approach on a sample of simulated elliptical galaxies and on a sample of 15 SLACS lens galaxies at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, which have already been analysed in Barnabè et al. by the self-consistent joint lensing and kinematic code. For massive simulated galaxies, the density slope γ is recovered with an accuracy of ˜13 per cent, unless r1 and r2 happen to be close to each other. For SLACS galaxies, we found good overall agreement with the results of Barnabè et al. with a sample-averaged slope γ = 2.1 ± 0.05. Although the two-pinch-radii approach has larger statistical uncertainties, it is much simpler and uses only few arithmetic operations with directly observable quantities.

  19. UF6 Density and Mass Flow Measurements for Enrichment Plants using Acoustic Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Morris S.; Smith, Leon E.; Warren, Glen A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Moran, Traci L.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Longoni, Gianluca

    2017-09-01

    A key enabling capability for enrichment plant safeguards being considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is high-accuracy, noninvasive, unattended measurement of UF6 gas density and mass flow rate. Acoustic techniques are currently used to noninvasively monitor gas flow in industrial applications; however, the operating pressures at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are roughly two orders magnitude below the capabilities of commercial instrumentation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is refining acoustic techniques for estimating density and mass flow rate of UF6 gas in scenarios typical of GCEPs, with the goal of achieving 1% measurement accuracy. Proof-of-concept laboratory measurements using a surrogate gas for UF6 have demonstrated signatures sensitive to gas density at low operating pressures such as 10–50 Torr, which were observed over the background acoustic interference. Current efforts involve developing a test bed for conducting acoustic measurements on flowing SF6 gas at representative flow rates and pressures to ascertain the viability of conducting gas flow measurements under these conditions. Density and flow measurements will be conducted to support the evaluation. If successful, the approach could enable an unattended, noninvasive approach to measure mass flow in unit header pipes of GCEPs.

  20. Cusp-Shaped Elastic Creases and Furrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpitschka, S.; Eggers, J.; Pandey, A.; Snoeijer, J. H.

    2017-11-01

    The surfaces of growing biological tissues, swelling gels, and compressed rubbers do not remain smooth, but frequently exhibit highly localized inward folds. We reveal the morphology of this surface folding in a novel experimental setup, which permits us to deform the surface of a soft gel in a controlled fashion. The interface first forms a sharp furrow, whose tip size decreases rapidly with deformation. Above a critical deformation, the furrow bifurcates to an inward folded crease of vanishing tip size. We show experimentally and numerically that both creases and furrows exhibit a universal cusp shape, whose width scales like y3 /2 at a distance y from the tip. We provide a similarity theory that captures the singular profiles before and after the self-folding bifurcation, and derive the length of the fold from finite deformation elasticity.

  1. Determination of mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluch, Waldemar; Brzozowski, Ernest; Lysakowska, Magdalena; Sadura, Jolanta

    2011-11-01

    Mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal were determined. Mass density was obtained from the measured ratio of mass to volume of a cuboid. The dielectric constants were determined from the measured capacitances of an interdigital transducer (IDT) deposited on a Z-cut plate and from a parallel plate capacitor fabricated from this plate. The elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined by comparing the measured and calculated SAW velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients on the Z- and X-cut plates. The following new constants were obtained: mass density p = 5986 kg/m(3); relative dielectric constants (at constant strain S) ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 8.6 and ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 10.5, where ε(0) is a dielectric constant of free space; elastic constants (at constant electric field E) C(E)(11) = 349.7, C(E)(12) = 128.1, C(E)(13) = 129.4, C(E)(33) = 430.3, and C(E)(44) = 96.5 GPa; and piezoelectric constants e(33) = 0.84, e(31) = -0.47, and e(15) = -0.41 C/m(2).

  2. Method and apparatus for simultaneous determination of fluid mass flow rate, mean velocity and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flow rate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flow rate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flow rate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flow rate and density are determined from the required change in power input. The invention provides stable, rapid, and accurate measurements. It does not require bending of the fluid flow

  3. Determination of peak bone mass density and composition in low income urban residents of metro Manila using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this paper is a continuation of the first phase of the study, which is the determination of the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. However, it also aims to correlate sex, body mass index, nutritional factors, physical activity and lifestyle to peak bone mass and thus attempts to explain any discrepancies in peak bone mass density to that seen in other countries

  4. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad’s work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β. This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  5. Genetic integration of molar cusp size variation in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Christina; Bates, Elizabeth; Broughton, Elizabeth; Do, Nicholas T; Fletcher, Zachary; Mahaney, Michael C; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2010-06-01

    Many studies of primate diversity and evolution rely on dental morphology for insight into diet, behavior, and phylogenetic relationships. Consequently, variation in molar cusp size has increasingly become a phenotype of interest. In 2007 we published a quantitative genetic analysis of mandibular molar cusp size variation in baboons. Those results provided more questions than answers, as the pattern of genetic integration did not fit predictions from odontogenesis. To follow up, we expanded our study to include data from the maxillary molar cusps. Here we report on these later analyses, as well as inter-arch comparisons with the mandibular data. We analyzed variation in two-dimensional maxillary molar cusp size using data collected from a captive pedigreed breeding colony of baboons, Papio hamadryas, housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. These analyses show that variation in maxillary molar cusp size is heritable and sexually dimorphic. We also estimated additive genetic correlations between cusps on the same crown, homologous cusps along the tooth row, and maxillary and mandibular cusps. The pattern for maxillary molars yields genetic correlations of one between the paracone-metacone and protocone-hypocone. Bivariate analyses of cuspal homologues on adjacent teeth yield correlations that are high or not significantly different from one. Between dental arcades, the nonoccluding cusps consistently yield high genetic correlations, especially the metaconid-paracone and metaconid-metacone. This pattern of genetic correlation does not immediately accord with the pattern of development and/or calcification, however these results do follow predictions that can be made from the evolutionary history of the tribosphenic molar. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Traumatic interhemispheric subdural hematoma extending above the tentorium demonstrated as a low-density mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kunihiko; Takaki, Tadahiro; Fukushima, Takeo; Tomonaga, Masamichi

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a case of traumatic interhemispheric subdural hematoma extending above the right tentorium, which showed a low-density mass in the CT scan and which brought up a problem of differential diagnosis from subdural empyema because the patient had a long history of bilateral chronic otitis media. The 47-year-old man fell downstairs while drunk; this accident was followed by an increasing member of incidents of headache and vomiting, and he was admitted on the 15th day after the episode. Upon admission, his mental state was slightly dull; a neurologic examination revealed a mild choked disc and increased DTRs on the left. There was otorrhea and hearing difficulty on the left side, and his blood pressure was slightly elevated (170/110 mmHg). The laboratory data were negative except for an increased blood-sedimentation ratio (50/80 mm) and 1 + CRP. The precontrast CT scan demonstrated a lentiform low-density mass in the posterior part of the interhemispheric fissure extending above the right tentorium, with an unusual mass effect for the volume and a location of this mass. The postcontrast CT scan showed a marked enhancement of the falx and the tentorium around the mass. Furthermore, the pneumatization of the mastoid cells was markedly decreased. An operation was performed following the day of admission; when subdural hematoma was confirmed, it was evacuated and irrigated. The postoperative course was excellent, and the low-density mass had disappeared by the time of a follow-up CT scan 19 days after the operation. (J.P.N.)

  7. Solar and magnetospheric forcing of the low latitude thermospheric mass density as observed by CHAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Müller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dependence of the thermospheric mass density at equatorial latitudes on the influence of various drivers. This statistical study is based on CHAMP accelerometer measurements. Our aim is to delineate the influences of the different contributions. For the isolation of the effects we make use of a dedicated data selection procedure and/or removal of disturbing effects. In a first step all readings are normalised to an altitude of 400 km. For the investigation of the solar influences only magnetically quiet days (Ap≤15 are considered. The dependence on solar flux can well be described by a linear relation within the flux range F10.7=80–240. The slope is twice as steep on the day side as on the night side. The air density exhibits clear annual and semi-annual variations with maxima at the equinoxes and a pronounced minimum around June solstice. The thermosphere maintains during quiet days a day to night mass density ratio very close to 2, which is independent of solar flux level or season. The magnetospheric input causing thermospheric density enhancement can well be parameterised by the am activity index. The low latitude density responds with a delay to changes of the index by about 3 h on the dayside and 4–5 h on the night side. The magnetospheric forcing causes an additive contribution to the quiet-time density, which is linearly correlated with the am index. The slopes of density increases are the same on the day and night sides. We present quantitative expressions for all the dependences. Our results suggest that all the studied forcing terms can be treated as linear combinations of the respective contribution.

  8. Synthesis of antihydrogen atoms in a CUSP trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Naofumi; Enomoto, Yoshinori; Michishio, Koji; Kim, Chanhyoun; Higaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yugo; Kanai, Yasuyuki; Torii, Hiroyuki A.; Corradini, Maurizzio; Leali, Marco; Lodi-Rizzini, Evandro; Mascagna, Valerio; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola; Fujii, Koki; Ohtsuka, Miki; Tanaka, Kazuo; Imao, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. Recently, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. It is expected that synthesized antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are not focused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam. We report the recent results of antihydrogen atom synthesis and beam production developed with the CUSP trap.

  9. Synthesis of antihydrogen atoms in a CUSP trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Naofumi, E-mail: kuroda@phys.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Enomoto, Yoshinori [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Michishio, Koji [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Kim, Chanhyoun [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Higaki, Hiroyuki [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter (Japan); Nagata, Yugo; Kanai, Yasuyuki [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Torii, Hiroyuki A. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Corradini, Maurizzio; Leali, Marco; Lodi-Rizzini, Evandro; Mascagna, Valerio; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola [Universita di Brescia and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l' Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Fujii, Koki; Ohtsuka, Miki; Tanaka, Kazuo [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Imao, Hiroshi [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Nagashima, Yasuyuki [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuda, Yasuyuki [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); and others

    2012-05-15

    ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. Recently, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. It is expected that synthesized antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are not focused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam. We report the recent results of antihydrogen atom synthesis and beam production developed with the CUSP trap.

  10. Radiometric determinations of linear mass, resin levels and density of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.L.; Pintena, J.; Tanguy, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the principle, characteristics and performances of a gamma back-scattering gauge developed in cooperation between the CEA and SNPE. This instrument allows for on-line inspection of the linear mass and resin level of strips of composite materials whilst being produced. The industrial application involved boron, carbon and 'Kevlar' fibres. The performance of beta and gamma transmission gauges are also given for inspecting the density of panels and dense composite materials [fr

  11. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwankyung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98, Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sana, Hugues [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekeok' , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, MSO, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  12. Mass variation effect of teki grass (cyperus rotundus) composite against tensile strength and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq Yanhar, Muhammad; Haris Nasution, A.

    2018-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the tensile strength using ASTM D638 - 02a type IVB and density of teki grass (Cyperus rotundus) composite. The production process is carried out by mass variation of 2 gr, 3 gr, and 4 gr. Hand lay-up method with three repetitions is applied. Teki grass is chosen because it is easy to find and has some advantages biodegradable, harmless to health, available in large quantities, and cost-efficient. The test result showed the largest tensile strength is 21,61 MPa at 2-gram mass fiber. Fiber addition to 3 gram and 4-gram cause tensile strength decreases to 18,51 MPa and 11,65 MPa. It happens because the fibers are random and spread in all directions, so many fibers are undirectional with the tensile force. Beside that fibers addition made matrix volume reduced and a bond between fiber and matrix decreases, finally make fiber unable to hold the tensile force properly. It is recommended to use another type of ASTM D638 - 02a which has a larger narrow section like type I (13 mm) and type III (19mm) so specimens are not broken when removed from the mold, and there isn’t any decrease in tensile strength.Density test showed that fiber mass does not significantly affect the density.

  13. Polyquant CT: direct electron and mass density reconstruction from a single polyenergetic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jonathan H.; Perelli, Alessandro; Nailon, William H.; Davies, Mike E.

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying material mass and electron density from computed tomography (CT) reconstructions can be highly valuable in certain medical practices, such as radiation therapy planning. However, uniquely parameterising the x-ray attenuation in terms of mass or electron density is an ill-posed problem when a single polyenergetic source is used with a spectrally indiscriminate detector. Existing approaches to single source polyenergetic modelling often impose consistency with a physical model, such as water-bone or photoelectric-Compton decompositions, which will either require detailed prior segmentation or restrictive energy dependencies, and may require further calibration to the quantity of interest. In this work, we introduce a data centric approach to fitting the attenuation with piecewise-linear functions directly to mass or electron density, and present a segmentation-free statistical reconstruction algorithm for exploiting it, with the same order of complexity as other iterative methods. We show how this allows both higher accuracy in attenuation modelling, and demonstrate its superior quantitative imaging, with numerical chest and metal implant data, and validate it with real cone-beam CT measurements.

  14. Cusps in the center of galaxies: a real conflict with observations or a numerical artefact of cosmological simulations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baushev, A.N.; Valle, L. del; Campusano, L.E.; Escala, A.; Muñoz, R.R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Correo Central, Santiago (Chile); Palma, G.A., E-mail: baushev@gmail.com, E-mail: ldelvalleb@gmail.com, E-mail: luis@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: aescala@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal density profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by [1]. We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. The same streams should appear in cosmological N-body simulations, being strong enough to change the shape of the cusp or even to create it. Our analysis, based on the Hernquist model and the standard SPH code, strongly suggests that the UDPs generally found by the cosmological N-body simulations may be a consequence of numerical effects. A much better understanding of the N-body simulation convergency is necessary before a 'core-cusp problem' can properly be used to question the validity of the CDM model.

  15. Cusps in the center of galaxies: a real conflict with observations or a numerical artefact of cosmological simulations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baushev, A.N.; Valle, L. del; Campusano, L.E.; Escala, A.; Muñoz, R.R.; Palma, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal density profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by [1]. We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. The same streams should appear in cosmological N-body simulations, being strong enough to change the shape of the cusp or even to create it. Our analysis, based on the Hernquist model and the standard SPH code, strongly suggests that the UDPs generally found by the cosmological N-body simulations may be a consequence of numerical effects. A much better understanding of the N-body simulation convergency is necessary before a 'core-cusp problem' can properly be used to question the validity of the CDM model.

  16. HALO EXPANSION IN COSMOLOGICAL HYDRO SIMULATIONS: TOWARD A BARYONIC SOLUTION OF THE CUSP/CORE PROBLEM IN MASSIVE SPIRALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccio, A. V.; Stinson, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brook, C. B.; Gibson, B. K. [University of Central Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H. M. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Shen, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Quinn, T., E-mail: maccio@mpia.de, E-mail: stinson@mpia.de [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A clear prediction of the cold dark matter (CDM) model is the existence of cuspy dark matter halo density profiles on all mass scales. This is not in agreement with the observed rotation curves of spiral galaxies, challenging on small scales the otherwise successful CDM paradigm. In this work we employ high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study the effects of dissipative processes on the inner distribution of dark matter in Milky Way like objects (M Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }). Our simulations include supernova feedback, and the effects of the radiation pressure of massive stars before they explode as supernovae. The increased stellar feedback results in the expansion of the dark matter halo instead of contraction with respect to N-body simulations. Baryons are able to erase the dark matter cuspy distribution, creating a flat, cored, dark matter density profile in the central several kiloparsecs of a massive Milky-Way-like halo. The profile is well fit by a Burkert profile, with fitting parameters consistent with the observations. In addition, we obtain flat rotation curves as well as extended, exponential stellar disk profiles. While the stellar disk we obtain is still partially too thick to resemble the Milky Way thin disk, this pilot study shows that there is enough energy available in the baryonic component to alter the dark matter distribution even in massive disk galaxies, providing a possible solution to the long-standing problem of cusps versus cores.

  17. Confinement of a non cylindrical z discharge by a cusp geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.H.

    1968-03-01

    The plasma of a non-cylindrical z discharge is accumulated in the centre of a cusp geometry and then captured and confined by the rising cusp magnetic field. The cusp geometry is produced by two identical coaxial coils the currents of which are equal but in opposite directions. Stability and confinement properties of this zero minimum B geometry are recalled; in particular it is shown (the coils cross section being supposed punctual) that the magnetic well depth of the configuration without plasma is maximum for an optimum coils distance. Two modes of confinement are observed experimentally : - a collisional mode for which the plasma confinement is limited to 10 μsec (temperature 5 eV, density 7 x 10 16 cm -3 ) as a result of the gradual interpenetration of the plasma and of the magnetic field. - a collisionless mode (temperature 40 eV) where the radial leak thickness is of the order of the ion cyclotron radius. Plasma accumulation occurs even without confinement and is due to the non-cylindrical shape of the discharge chamber. The two-dimensional snow-plough model gives good account of the discharge dynamics. A comparison is made with plasma focus experiments: in particular experimental conditions (deuterium, pressure 1 torr,energy 3 kJ, current 100 kA) a 10 7 neutron yield is detected which appears to be connected with the unstable behavior of the discharge. (authors) [fr

  18. Enabling Ring-Cusp Ion Thruster Technology for NASA Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ESA is flying T6 Kaufman ion thrusters on the BepiColombo Mission to Mercury in 2018. They are planning to develop a longer life, higher performing, 30-cm ring-cusp...

  19. Evidence for storm-time ionospheric ion precipitation in the cusp with magnetosheath energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stenuit

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for a sporadic precipitation into the north polar cusp of ionospheric O+ and He+ ions accelerated up to the magnetosheath flow speed during a magnetic storm. This is deduced from data obtained on board the Interball-Auroral satellite showing that the energy/charge ratios of the H+, He++, He+ and O+ populations are similar to those of ion masses. These measurements pertain to a very disturbed magnetic period. A storm was in progress with a Dst reaching -149nT during the cusp measurements, while the AE index reached values higher than 1000nT. This result is discussed in terms of ion circulation from the magnetosphere to the magnetosheath and back to the magnetosphere. We suggest that the acceleration of O+ and He+ ions up to a magnetosheath-like velocity is directly linked to the large By component of the IMF.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath; storms and substorms

  20. The density compression ratio of shock fronts associated with coronal mass ejections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ryun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to extract the three-dimensional electron density profile and density compression ratio of shock fronts associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs observed in white light coronagraph images. We demonstrate the method with two examples of fast halo CMEs (∼2000 km s−1 observed on 2011 March 7 and 2014 February 25. Our method uses the ellipsoid model to derive the three-dimensional geometry and kinematics of the fronts. The density profiles of the sheaths are modeled with double-Gaussian functions with four free parameters, and the electrons are distributed within thin shells behind the front. The modeled densities are integrated along the lines of sight to be compared with the observed brightness in COR2-A, and a χ2 approach is used to obtain the optimal parameters for the Gaussian profiles. The upstream densities are obtained from both the inversion of the brightness in a pre-event image and an empirical model. Then the density ratio and Alfvénic Mach number are derived. We find that the density compression peaks around the CME nose, and decreases at larger position angles. The behavior is consistent with a driven shock at the nose and a freely propagating shock wave at the CME flanks. Interestingly, we find that the supercritical region extends over a large area of the shock and lasts longer (several tens of minutes than past reports. It follows that CME shocks are capable of accelerating energetic particles in the corona over extended spatial and temporal scales and are likely responsible for the wide longitudinal distribution of these particles in the inner heliosphere. Our results also demonstrate the power of multi-viewpoint coronagraphic observations and forward modeling in remotely deriving key shock properties in an otherwise inaccessible regime.

  1. Are dayside long-period pulsations related to the cusp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pilipenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ultra-low-frequency (ULF wave activity from a Svalbard/IMAGE fluxgate magnetometer latitudinal profile covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL and narrowband Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of return signal of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, augmented whenever possible by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of broadband dayside Pc5–6 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. The earlier claims of the dayside monochromatic Pc5 wave association with the open–closed boundary also seems doubtful. Transient currents producing broadband Pc5–6 probably originate at the low-latitude boundary layer/central plasma sheet (LLBL/CPS interface, though such identification with available DMSP data is not very precise. The occurrence of broadband Pc5–6 pulsations in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  2. Latitudinal variation of the polar cusp during a geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.

    1982-01-01

    Large amplitude latitudinal variation of the polar cusp position was observed during the intense geomagnetic storm of 15--16 February 1980. The observation of the polar cusp, identified as the region of intense but extremely soft electron precipitation, was made by two nearly noon-midnight orbit DMSP satellites over both northern and southern hemispheres. The latitudinal shift of the polar cusp is observed to be related to the intensity variation of the ring current indicated by the hourly Dst values. The polar cusp region moved from its normal location at approx.76 0 gm lat down to approx.62 0 gm lat at the peak of this storm. This movement took about 5 hours and was detected over both hemispheres. A drastic variation in the width of the cusp region was also observed; it is very narrow (approx.1 0 ) during the equatorial shift and expands to > or approx. =5 0 during the poleward recovery. Variation of the polar cusp latitude with that of the Dst index was also seen during the period before the intense storm

  3. Influence of lean and fat mass on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytfeld, Joanna; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Gowin, Ewelina; Michalak, Michał; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Despite known positive association between body mass and bone mineral density (BMD), relative contribution of fat and lean tissue to BMD remains under debate. We aimed at investigating the effect of selected anthropometric parameters, including fat content and lean body mass (LBM) on BMD in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women with body mass index (BMI) > 20 kg/m(2). The study involved 92 never-treated women (mean age 69.5 ± 7.3). L1-L4 and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Absolute (kg) and relative (%) fat and LBM were assessed by means of electric bioimpedance method. We showed both FN and L1-L4 BMD were positively correlated with body mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and LBM (kg). Fat content correlated with FN BMD (r = 0.36, p obese. Obese women displayed the highest BMD. Both L1-L4 and FN BMD were higher in women with WC > 80 cm. In postmenopausal osteoporotic women with BMI > 20 kg/m(2) both fat and lean tissue might contribute to BMD. Positive association between body mass and BMD does not make obesity and osteoporosis mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DENSITY WAVES EXCITED BY LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. LINEAR REGIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Stone, James M.; Petrovich, Cristobal; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2011-01-01

    Density waves excited by planets embedded in protoplanetary disks play a central role in planetary migration and gap opening processes. We carry out two-dimensional shearing sheet simulations to study the linear regime of wave evolution with the grid-based code Athena and provide detailed comparisons with theoretical predictions. Low-mass planets (down to ∼0.03 M ⊕ at 1 AU) and high spatial resolution (256 grid points per scale height) are chosen to mitigate the effects of wave nonlinearity. To complement the existing numerical studies, we focus on the primary physical variables such as the spatial profile of the wave, torque density, and the angular momentum flux carried by the wave, instead of secondary quantities such as the planetary migration rate. Our results show percent level agreement with theory in both physical and Fourier spaces. New phenomena such as the change of the toque density sign far from the planet are discovered and discussed. Also, we explore the effect of the numerical algorithms and find that a high order of accuracy, high resolution, and an accurate planetary potential are crucial to achieve good agreement with the theory. We find that the use of a too large time step without properly resolving the dynamical timescale around the planet produces incorrect results and may lead to spurious gap opening. Global simulations of planet migration and gap opening violating this requirement may be affected by spurious effects resulting in, e.g., the incorrect planetary migration rate and gap opening mass.

  5. Statistical Study in the mid-altitude cusp region: wave and particle data comparison using a normalized cusp crossing duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Pitout, F.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Dandouras, I.; Lucek, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the mid altitude cusp region the DC magnetic field presents a diamagnetic cavity due to intense ion earthward flux coming from the magnetosheath. A strong ultra low frequency (ULF) magnetic activity is also commonly observed in this region. Most of the mid altitude cusp statistical studies have focused on the location of the cusp and its dependence and response to solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, dipole tilt angle parameters. In our study we use the database build by Pitout et al. (2006) in order to study the link of wave power in the ULF range (0.35-10Hz) measured by STAFF SC instrument with the ion plasma properties as measured by CIS (and CODIF) instrument as well as the diamagnetic cavity in the mid-altitude cusp region with FGM data. To compare the different crossings we don`t use the cusp position and dynamics but we use a normalized cusp crossing duration that permits to easily average the properties over a large number of crossings. As usual in the cusp, it is particularly relevant to sort the crossings by the corresponding interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation in order to analyse the results. In particular we try to find out what is the most relevant parameter to link the strong wave activity with. The global statistic confirms previous single case observations that have noticed a simultaneity between ion injections and wave activity enhancements. We will also present results concerning other ion parameters and the diamagnetic cavity observed in the mid altitude cusp region.

  6. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Johnson

    Full Text Available Dietary energy density (DED does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609 variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants.We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609 variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51, suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity.This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  7. Description of odd-mass nuclei by multi-reference energy density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we are interested in the treatment of odd-mass atomic nuclei in energy density functional (EDF) models. More precisely, the goal of this thesis is to develop and to apply to odd-mass nuclei, the theoretical extensions of the EDF method that are: first, the projection technique, and secondly the configuration mixing by the generator coordinate method (GCM). These two extensions are part of the so-called multi-reference energy density functional (MR-EDF) formalism and allow one to take into account, within an EDF context, the 'beyond-mean-field' correlations between the nucleons forming the nucleus. Until now, the MR-EDF formalism has been applied, in its fully-fledged version, only to the calculation of even-even nuclei. In this thesis, we want to demonstrate the applicability of such a model also for the description of odd-mass nuclei. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the theoretical formalism of the EDF models, giving particular attention to the treatment of symmetries within our approach. In the second part of the manuscript, we apply our model to the nucleus 25 Mg and investigate different aspects of the method (e.g. numerical accuracy, convergence of the configuration mixing, comparison to known experimental data). The results obtained in this work are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of our approach for theoretical nuclear structure calculations. (author)

  8. ON THE SIZE AND COMOVING MASS DENSITY EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wel, Arjen; Bell, Eric F.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Gallazzi, Anna; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple, empirically motivated model that simultaneously predicts the evolution of the mean size and the comoving mass density of massive (>10 11 M sun ) early-type galaxies from z = 2 to the present. First, we demonstrate that some size evolution of the population can be expected simply due to the continuous emergence of early-type galaxies. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data reveal that in the present-day universe more compact early-type galaxies with a given dynamical mass have older stellar populations. This implies that with increasing look-back time, the more extended galaxies will be more and more absent from the population. In contrast, at a given stellar velocity dispersion, SDSS data show that there is no relation between size and age, which implies that the velocity dispersion can be used to estimate the epoch at which galaxies stopped forming stars, turning into early-type galaxies. Based on this, we define an empirically motivated, redshift-dependent velocity dispersion threshold above which galaxies do not form stars at a significant rate, which we associate with the transformation into early-type galaxies. Applying this 'formation' criterion to a large sample of nearby early-type galaxies, we predict the redshift evolution in the size distribution and the comoving mass density. The resulting evolution in the mean size is roughly half of the observed evolution. Then we include a prescription for the merger histories of galaxies between the 'formation' redshift and the present, based on cosmological simulations of the assembly of dark matter halos. Such mergers after the transformation into an early-type galaxy are presumably dissipationless ('dry'), where the increase in size is expected to be approximately proportional to the increase in mass. This model successfully reproduces the observed evolution since z ∼ 2 in the mean size and in the comoving mass density of early-type galaxies with mass M > 10 11 M sun . We conclude that

  9. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  10. Evaluation of the effect of reactant gases mass flow rates on power density in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, E. E.; Taymaz, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this study it was experimentally investigated the effect of mass flow rates of reactant gases which is one of the most important operational parameters of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell on power density. The channel type is serpentine and single PEM fuel cell has an active area of 25 cm2. Design-Expert 8.0 (trial version) was used with four variables to investigate the effect of variables on the response using. Cell temperature, hydrogen mass flow rate, oxygen mass flow rate and humidification temperature were selected as independent variables. In addition, the power density was used as response to determine the combined effects of these variables. It was kept constant cell and humidification temperatures while changing mass flow rates of reactant gases. From the results an increase occurred in power density with increasing the hydrogen flow rates. But oxygen flow rate does not have a significant effect on power density within determined mass flow rates.

  11. THE NUMBER DENSITY AND MASS DENSITY OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Franx, M.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Quadri, R. F.; Williams, R.; Rudnick, G.

    2011-01-01

    We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of ∼27, 000 galaxies with K 3 x 10 10 M sun increases by a factor of ∼10 from z ∼ 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of ∼2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >10 11 M sun , due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies (∼10 10.5 M sun ), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.

  12. Masses of the Goldstone modes in the CFL phase of QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, C; Manuel, Cristina; Tytgat, Michel H. G.

    2000-01-01

    We construct the U_L(3) x U_R(3) effective lagrangian which encodes the dynamics of the low energy pseudoscalar excitations in the Color-Flavor-Locking superconducting phase of QCD at finite quark density. We include the effects of instanton-induced interactions and study the mass pattern of the pseudoscalar mesons. A tentative comparison with the analytical estimate for the gap suggests that some of these low energy momentum modes are not stable for moderate values of the quark chemical potential.

  13. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2011-09-02

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.

  14. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: a case study utilizing Viking, DMSP-F7, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Watermann

    Full Text Available Coincident multi-instrument magnetospheric and ionospheric observations have made it possible to determine the position of the ionospheric footprint of the magnetospheric cusp and to monitor its evolution over time. The data used include charged particle and magnetic field measurements from the Earth-orbiting Viking and DMSP-F7 satellites, electric field measurements from Viking, interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from IMP-8, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionospheric plasma density, temperature, and convection. Viking detected cusp precipitation poleward of 75.5° invariant latitude. The ionospheric response to the observed electron precipitation was simulated using an auroral model. It predicts enhanced plasma density and elevated electron temperature in the upper E- and F-regions. Sondrestrom radar observations are in agreement with the predictions. The radar detected a cusp signature on each of five consecutive antenna elevation scans covering 1.2 h local time. The cusp appeared to be about 2° invariant latitude wide, and its ionospheric footprint shifted equatorward by nearly 2° during this time, possibly influenced by an overall decrease in the IMF Bz component. The radar plasma drift data and the Viking magnetic and electric field data suggest that the cusp was associated with a continuous, rather than a patchy, merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field.

  15. Refitting density dependent relativistic model parameters including Center-of-Mass corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, Sidney S.; Marinelli, Jose R.; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Relativistic mean field models have become a standard approach for precise nuclear structure calculations. After the seminal work of Serot and Walecka, which introduced a model Lagrangian density where the nucleons interact through the exchange of scalar and vector mesons, several models were obtained through its generalization, including other meson degrees of freedom, non-linear meson interactions, meson-meson interactions, etc. More recently density dependent coupling constants were incorporated into the Walecka-like models, which are then extensively used. In particular, for these models a connection with the density functional theory can be established. Due to the inherent difficulties presented by field theoretical models, only the mean field approximation is used for the solution of these models. In order to calculate finite nuclei properties in the mean field approximation, a reference set has to be fixed and therefore the translational symmetry is violated. It is well known that in such case spurious effects due to the center-of-mass (COM) motion are present, which are more pronounced for light nuclei. In a previous work we have proposed a technique based on the Pierls-Yoccoz projection operator applied to the mean-field relativistic solution, in order to project out spurious COM contributions. In this work we obtain a new fitting for the density dependent parameters of a density dependent hadronic model, taking into account the COM corrections. Our fitting is obtained taking into account the charge radii and binding energies for He 4 , O 16 , Ca 40 , Ca 48 , Ni 56 , Ni 68 , Sn 100 , Sn 132 and Pb 208 . We show that the nuclear observables calculated using our fit are of a quality comparable to others that can be found in the literature, with the advantage that now a translational invariant many-body wave function is at our disposal. (author)

  16. The effect of change in body mass index on volumetric measures of mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vicki; Reeves, Katherine W.; Sturgeon, Susan R.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Shepherd, John; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Malkov, Serghei; Sprague, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how changes in body mass index (BMI) relate to changes in mammographic density is necessary to evaluate adjustment for BMI gain/loss in studies of change in density and breast cancer risk. Increase in BMI has been associated with a decrease in percent density, but the effect on change in absolute dense area or volume is unclear. Methods We examined the association between change in BMI and change in volumetric breast density among 24,556 women in the San Francisco Mammography Registry from 2007-2013. Height and weight were self-reported at the time of mammography. Breast density was assessed using single x-ray absorptiometry measurements. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between BMI and dense volume (DV), non-dense volume (NDV) and percent dense volume (PDV) were assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, risk factors, and reproductive history. Results In cross-sectional analysis, BMI was positively associated with DV (β=2.95 cm3, 95% CI 2.69, 3.21) and inversely associated with PDV (β=-2.03%, 95% CI -2.09, -1.98). In contrast, increasing BMI was longitudinally associated with a decrease in both DV (β=-1.01 cm3, 95% CI -1.59, -0.42) and PDV (β=-1.17%, 95% CI -1.31, -1.04). These findings were consistent for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Conclusion Our findings support an inverse association between change in BMI and change in PDV. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing DV requires confirmation. Impact Longitudinal studies of PDV and breast cancer risk, or those using PDV as an indicator of breast cancer risk, should evaluate adjustment for change in BMI. PMID:26315554

  17. Peak bone mass density among residents of metro Manila: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.; Guanzon, L.V.; Guzman, A.M. de; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1998-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Philippine General Hospital, a university based tertiary care hospital, and St. Luke's Medical Center, a private tertiary care center. Subjects: Forty five (45) healthy subjects aged 15-50 years old, all current residents of Metro Manila, were randomly chosen from among hospital companions were included in the study. There were 23 females and 22 males, with 3 to 4 subjects for each age range of 5. Methods: Bone mass density measurements on the lumbar spine and the femur using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DPXL Lunar) were taken. The values were also age-matched and matched with that of a young adult based on programmed Caucasian norm provided by Lunar Co. The values were then scattered against age for each sex. Ten (10) cc of blood was also extracted from the patients, with the 5 cc of blood separated for future studies. Parathormone assay and biochemistry examinations were also done. Patents were also interviewed as to their lifestyle, diet, use of contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement treatment, using a Filipino version of the revised questionnaire on the WHO Study on Osteoporosis. Dietary content was estimated using a previous day food recall. Results: The mean weight and height for females were 59.48±16.34 kg and 153.52±5.09 cm respectively, and for males, 58.14±10.06 kg and 162.52±6.75 cm respectively. The mean bone mass density at the L 2 L 4 level for females was 1.12±0.11 g/cm 2 and 0.91±0.11 g/cm 2 at the femur. The highest BMD in both the lumbar spine femoral neck measurements among females was achieved among those aged 30-35 years of age with the lowest BMD occurring between 15-19 and 45-50 years of age in the lumbar spine among female subjects. The highest BMD at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck among males was achieved between the ages 30-35 years of age with the lowest IND

  18. Experimental investigation of the effects of variable expanding channel on the performance of a low-power cusped field thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to a special magnetic field structure, the multi-cusped field thruster shows advantages of low wall erosion, low noise and high thrust density over a wide range of thrust. In this paper, expanding discharge channels are employed to make up for deficiencies on the range of thrust and plume divergence, which often emerges in conventional straight cylindrical channels. Three thruster geometries are fabricated with different expanding-angle channels, and a group of experiments are carried out to find out their influence on the performance and discharge characteristics of the thruster. A retarding potential analyzer and a Faraday probe are employed to analyze the structures of the plume in these three models. The results show that when the thrusters operate at low mass flow rate, the gradually-expanding channels exhibit lower propellant utilization and lower overall performance by amounts not exceeding 44.8% in ionization rate and 19.5% in anode efficiency, respectively. But the weakening of magnetic field intensity near the exit of expanding channels leads to an extended thrust throttling ability, a smaller plume divergence angle, and a relatively larger stable operating space without mode converting and the consequent performance degradation.

  19. [Density of beta-adrenergic receptors and left ventricular mass in patients with primary essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zyśko, D; Spring, A

    2000-08-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the more important risk factors for sudden death. There are multiple factors for development of LVH in patients with hypertension. Sympathetic nervous system may play a key role causing afterload increase and neurohumoral mechanisms activation. The aim of the study was to determine beta-adrenergic receptors density and its relations to left ventricular mass in hypertensive subjects. The study was carried out in 63 patients (23 women and 40 men), mean age 43.3 +/- 11.6 yrs with primary hypertension: stage I--42 pts and stage II--21 pts. The control group consisted of 26 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We evaluated the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using 125I-cyanopindolol radioligand labeling method. Left ventricular dimensions were assessed by echocardiography (Hewlett-Packard 77010 CF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and LVMI was significantly higher in hypertension group 156.7 +/- 12.5 vs. 119.8 +/- 8.8 mmHg, p < 0.0001, 95.9/5.5 vs. 78.8 +/- 6.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001, 126.5 +/- 41.9 vs. 93.1 +/- 19.9 g/m2, p < 0.001 respectively. Beta-adrenergic receptors density was 40.7 +/- 29.9 fmol/ml in the hypertensive vs. 37.2 +/- 17.8 fmol/ml in control group (p = NS). There was no correlation between beta-adrenergic receptors density and LVMI. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between LVMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.44, p < 0.05; r = 0.60, p < 0.01 respectively). 1. Beta-adrenergic receptors density was unchanged in patients with hypertension and did not correlate with LVMI. 2. A high positive correlation between blood pressure values and LVMI, but only in stage II hypertension was revealed.

  20. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  1. Methodology and resources for the evaluation of the construction of knowledge about the concept of density and specific mass

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Inácio de Oliveira; Nádia Vilela Pereira; Cláudio Boghi; Juliano Schimiguel; Dorlivete Moreira Shitsuka

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The teaching of physics concepts involves the construction of knowledge in the students' minds. The aim of this article is to present a case report of teaching density and specific mass concepts in high school technical education classes. The study analyzes the results of the construction of methodology and development of a product so that teachers of Physics can give their students the construction of the concept of density of objects and the specific mass of the substances and per...

  2. A New Approach to Determine the Density of Liquids and Solids without Measuring Mass and Volume: Introducing the "Solidensimeter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktas, Halit; Sahin, Mehmet; Eslek, Sinan; Kiriktas, Irem

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to design a mechanism with which the density of any solid or liquid can be determined without measuring its mass and volume in order to help students comprehend the concept of density more easily. The "solidensimeter" comprises of two scaled and nested glass containers (graduated cylinder or beaker) and sufficient water.…

  3. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yongfeng [American Physical Society, San Diego, CA (United States); Xiao, Weike, E-mail: yongfeng.wu@maine.edu [Department of Astronautics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 345, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China)

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5σ) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  4. Cusp singularities in f(R) gravity: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Comparing with cosmological parameters, it seems that it would be difficult to see super-Planckian effects by astrophysical experiments. On the other hand, at once there exists a cusp singularity, it can be a mechanism to realize a horizon scale curvature singularity that can be interpreted by a firewall

  5. Cluster observations of ion dispersion discontinuities in the polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Berchem, J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R. L.; Trattner, K. J.; Grison, B.; Taylor, M. G.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2009-12-01

    The reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the Earth’s magnetic field is taking place at the magnetopause on magnetic field lines threading through the polar cusp. When the IMF is southward, reconnection occurs near the subsolar point, which is magnetically connected to the equatorward boundary of the polar cusp. Subsequently the ions injected through the reconnection point precipitate in the cusp and are dispersed poleward. If reconnection is continuous and operates at constant rate, the ion dispersion is smooth and continuous. On the other hand if the reconnection rate varies, we expect interruption in the dispersion forming energy steps or staircase. Similarly, multiple entries near the magnetopause could also produce steps at low or mid-altitude when a spacecraft is crossing subsequently the field lines originating from these multiple sources. In addition, motion of the magnetopause induced by solar wind pressure changes or erosion due to reconnection can also induce a motion of the polar cusp and a disruption of the ions dispersion observed by a spacecraft. Cluster with four spacecraft following each other in the mid-altitude cusp can be used to distinguish between these “temporal” and “spatial” effects. We will present a cusp crossing with two spacecraft, separated by around two minutes. The two spacecraft observed a very similar dispersion with a step in energy in its centre and two other dispersions poleward. We will show that the steps could be temporal (assuming that the time between two reconnection bursts corresponds to the time delay between the two spacecraft) but it would be a fortuitous coincidence. On the other hand the steps and the two poleward dispersions could be explained by spatial effects if we take into account the motion of the open-closed boundary between the two spacecraft crossings.

  6. Rip Currents, Mega-Cusps, and Eroding Dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Submitted to Marine Geology 1 November 2006 Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Mont...

  7. Multi-point observations of intermittency in the cusp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the statistical properties of magnetic field fluctuations measured by the four Cluster spacecraft in the cusp and close to the interface with the magnetospheric lobes, magnetopause and magnetosheath. At lower altitudes along the outbound orbit of 26 February 2001, the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by all four spacecraft are random and their Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs are Gaussian at all scales. The flatness parameter, F – related to the kurtosis of the time series, is equal to 3. At higher altitudes, in the cusp and its vicinity, closer to the interface with the magnetopause and magnetosheath, the PDFs from all Cluster satellites are non-Gaussian and show a clear intermittent behavior at scales smaller than τG≈ 61 s (or 170 km. The flatness parameter increases to values greater than 3 for scales smaller than τG. A Haar wavelet transform enables the identification of the "events" that produce sudden variations of the magnetic field and of the scales that have most of the power. The LIM parameter (i.e. normalized wavelet power indicates that events for scales below 65 s are non-uniformly distributed throughout the cusp passage. PDFs, flatness and wavelet analysis show that at coarse-grained scales larger than τG the intermittency is absent in the cusp. Fluctuations of the magnetic energy observed during the same orbit in the magnetosheath show PDFs that tend toward a Gaussian at scales smaller than τG found in the cusp. The flatness analysis confirms the decreasing of τG from cusp to magnetosheath. Our analysis reveals the turbulent cusp as a transition region from a non-intermittent turbulent state inside the magnetosphere to an intermittent turbulent state in the magnetosheath that has statistical properties resembling the solar wind turbulence. The observed turbulent fluctuations in the cusp suggests a phenomenon of nonlinear

  8. Maass Cusp Forms on Singly Punctured Two-Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddig, Abubaker Ahmed Mohamed; Shah, Nurisya Mohd; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2009-01-01

    Quantum mechanical systems on punctured surfaces modeled by hyperbolic spaces can play an interesting role in exploring quantum chaos and in studying behaviour of future quantum nano-devices. The case of singly-punctured two-torus, for example, has been well-studied in the literature particularly for its scattering states. However, the bound states on the punctured torus given by Maass cusp forms are lesser known. In this note, we report on the algorithm of numerically computing these functions and we present ten lower-lying eigenvalues for each odd and even Maass cusp forms.

  9. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Omidi, N.; Robertson, Ina; Sembay, S.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversy surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  10. The Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM) Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Sibeck, David G.; Porter, F. Scott; Burch, J.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, Thomas; Kuntz, Kip; Omidi, N.; Read, A.; Robertson, Ina; hide

    2010-01-01

    All of the solar wind energy that powers magnetospheric processes passes through the magnetosheath and magnetopause. Global images of the magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layers will resolve longstanding controversies surrounding fundamental phenomena that occur at the magnetopause and provide information needed to improve operational space weather models. Recent developments showing that soft X-rays (0.15-1 keV) result from high charge state solar wind ions undergoing charge exchange recombination through collisions with exospheric neutral atoms has led to the realization that soft X-ray imaging can provide global maps of the high-density shocked solar wind within the magnetosheath and cusps, regions lying between the lower density solar wind and magnetosphere. We discuss an instrument concept called the Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass (STORM), an X-ray imager suitable for simultaneously imaging the dayside magnetosheath, the magnetopause boundary layers, and the cusps.

  11. Mass density fluctuations in quantum and classical descriptions of liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galib, Mirza; Duignan, Timothy T.; Misteli, Yannick; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Hutter, Jürg; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2017-06-01

    First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe the properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density fluctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. We directly compare our revPBE results to the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) plus Grimme dispersion corrections (D2) and both the empirical fixed charged model (SPC/E) and many body interaction potential model (MB-pol) to further our understanding of how the computed properties herein depend on the form of the interaction potential.

  12. Earth-mass haloes and the emergence of NFW density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We simulate neutralino dark matter (χDM) haloes from their initial collapse, at ˜ earth mass, up to a few percent solar. Our results confirm that the density profiles of the first haloes are described by a ˜r-1.5 power law. As haloes grow in mass, their density profiles evolve significantly. In the central regions, they become shallower and reach on average ˜r-1, the asymptotic form of an NFW profile. Using non-cosmological controlled simulations, we observe that temporal variations in the gravitational potential caused by major mergers lead to a shallowing of the inner profile. This transformation is more significant for shallower initial profiles and for a higher number of merging systems. Depending on the merger details, the resulting profiles can be shallower or steeper than NFW in their inner regions. Interestingly, mergers have a much weaker effect when the profile is given by a broken power law with an inner slope of -1 (such as NFW or Hernquist profiles). This offers an explanation for the emergence of NFW-like profiles: after their initial collapse, r-1.5 χDM haloes suffer copious major mergers, which progressively shallows the profile. Once an NFW-like profile is established, subsequent merging does not change the profile anymore. This suggests that halo profiles are not universal but rather a combination of (1) the physics of the formation of the microhaloes and (2) their early merger history - both set by the properties of the dark matter particle - as well as (3) the resilience of NFW-like profiles to perturbations.

  13. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  14. Thermospheric mass density model error variance as a function of time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, J. T.; Sutton, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    In the increasingly crowded low-Earth orbit environment, accurate estimation of orbit prediction uncertainties is essential for collision avoidance. Poor characterization of such uncertainty can result in unnecessary and costly avoidance maneuvers (false positives) or disregard of a collision risk (false negatives). Atmospheric drag is a major source of orbit prediction uncertainty, and is particularly challenging to account for because it exerts a cumulative influence on orbital trajectories and is therefore not amenable to representation by a single uncertainty parameter. To address this challenge, we examine the variance of measured accelerometer-derived and orbit-derived mass densities with respect to predictions by thermospheric empirical models, using the data-minus-model variance as a proxy for model uncertainty. Our analysis focuses mainly on the power spectrum of the residuals, and we construct an empirical model of the variance as a function of time scale (from 1 hour to 10 years), altitude, and solar activity. We find that the power spectral density approximately follows a power-law process but with an enhancement near the 27-day solar rotation period. The residual variance increases monotonically with altitude between 250 and 550 km. There are two components to the variance dependence on solar activity: one component is 180 degrees out of phase (largest variance at solar minimum), and the other component lags 2 years behind solar maximum (largest variance in the descending phase of the solar cycle).

  15. THE STELLAR MASS DENSITY AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE AT z ∼ 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Valentino; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Illingworth, Garth; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B.

    2010-01-01

    We use a robust sample of 11 z ∼ 7 galaxies (z 850 dropouts) to estimate the stellar mass density (SMD) of the universe when it was only ∼750 Myr old. We combine the very deep optical to near-infrared photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and NICMOS cameras with mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) imaging available through the GOODS program. After carefully removing the flux from contaminating foreground sources, we have obtained reliable photometry in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm IRAC channels. The spectral shapes of these sources, including their rest-frame optical colors, strongly support their being at z ∼ 7 with a mean photometric redshift of (z) = 7.2 ± 0.5. We use Bruzual and Charlot synthetic stellar population models to constrain their stellar masses and star formation histories. We find stellar masses that range over (0.1-12) x 10 9 M sun and average ages from 20 Myr to 425 Myr with a mean of ∼300 Myr, suggesting that in some of these galaxies most of the stars were formed at z > 8 (and probably at z ∼> 10). The best fits to the observed SEDs are consistent with little or no dust extinction, in agreement with recent results at z ∼ 4-8. The star formation rates (SFRs) are in the range from 5 to 20 M sun yr -1 . From this sample, we measure an SMD of 6.6 +5.4 -3.3 x 10 5 M sun Mpc -3 to a limit of M UV,AB z=3 ). Combined with a fiducial lower limit for their ages (80 Myr), this implies a maximum SFR density of 0.008 M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 . This is well below the critical level needed to reionize the universe at z ∼ 8 using standard assumptions. However, this result is based on luminous sources (>L*) and does not include the dominant contribution of the fainter galaxies. Strikingly, we find that the specific SFR is constant from z ∼ 7 to z ∼ 2 but drops substantially at more recent times.

  16. First Solid Evidence for a Rocky Exoplanet - Mass and density of smallest exoplanet finally measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The longest set of HARPS measurements ever made has firmly established the nature of the smallest and fastest-orbiting exoplanet known, CoRoT-7b, revealing its mass as five times that of Earth's. Combined with CoRoT-7b's known radius, which is less than twice that of our terrestrial home, this tells us that the exoplanet's density is quite similar to the Earth's, suggesting a solid, rocky world. The extensive dataset also reveals the presence of another so-called super-Earth in this alien solar system. "This is science at its thrilling and amazing best," says Didier Queloz, leader of the team that made the observations. "We did everything we could to learn what the object discovered by the CoRoT satellite looks like and we found a unique system." In February 2009, the discovery by the CoRoT satellite [1] of a small exoplanet around a rather unremarkable star named TYC 4799-1733-1 was announced one year after its detection and after several months of painstaking measurements with many telescopes on the ground, including several from ESO. The star, now known as CoRoT-7, is located towards the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn) at a distance of about 500 light-years. Slightly smaller and cooler than our Sun, CoRoT-7 is also thought to be younger, with an age of about 1.5 billion years. Every 20.4 hours, the planet eclipses a small fraction of the light of the star for a little over one hour by one part in 3000 [2]. This planet, designated CoRoT-7b, is only 2.5 million kilometres away from its host star, or 23 times closer than Mercury is to the Sun. It has a radius that is about 80% greater than the Earth's. The initial set of measurements, however, could not provide the mass of the exoplanet. Such a result requires extremely precise measurements of the velocity of the star, which is pulled a tiny amount by the gravitational tug of the orbiting exoplanet. The problem with CoRoT-7b is that these tiny signals are blurred by stellar activity in the form of

  17. Elimination of cusps in dimension 4 and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380140217; Hayano, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    We study a class of homotopies between maps from 4-manifolds to surfaces which we call cusp merges. These homotopies naturally appear in the uniqueness problems for certain pictorial descriptions of 4-manifolds derived from maps to the 2-sphere (for example, broken Lefschetz fibrations, wrinkled

  18. Mandibular Facial Talon Cusp: A Rare Case Report | Prabhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talon cusp (TC) is a relatively uncommon developmental anomaly characterized by cusp‑like projections from the cemento‑enamel junction to a variable distance toward the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. It usually presents on palatal/lingual surface of the anterior teeth. Studies have revealed that it consists of enamel, ...

  19. Observations of an enhanced convection channel in the cusp ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnock, M.; Rodger, A.S.; Dudeney, J.R.; Baker, K.B.; Neweli, P.T.; Greenwald, R.A.; Greenspan, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Transient or patchy magnetic field line merging on the dayside magnetopause, giving rise to flux transfer events (FTEs), is thought to play a significant role in energizing high-latitude ionospheric convection during periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field. Several transient velocity patterns in the cusp ionosphere have been presented as candidate FTE signatures. Instrument limitations, combined with uncertainties about ionospheric signature of FTEs have yet to be presented. This paper describes combined observations by the PACE HF backscatter radar and the DMSP F9 polar-orbiting satellite of a transient velocity signature in the southern hemispheric cusp. The prevailing solar wind conditions suggest that it is the result of enhanced magnetic merging at the magnetopause. The satellite particle precipitation data associated with the transient are typically cusplike in nature. The presence of spatially discrete patches of accelerated ions at the equatorward edge of the cusp is consistent with the ion acceleration that could occur with merging. The combined radar line-of-sight velocity data and the satellite transverse plasma drift data are consistent with a channel of enhanced convection superposed on the ambient cusp plasma flow. This channel is at least 900 km in longitudinal extent but only 100 km wide. It is zonally aligned for most of its extent, except at the western limit where it rotates sharply poleward. Weak return flow is observed outside the channel. These observations are compared with and contrasted to similar events seen by the EISCAT radar and by optical instruments. 30 refs., 2 figs

  20. Supracristal ventricular septal defect with severe right coronary cusp prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.H.; Hanif, B.; Khan, G.; Hasan, K.

    2011-01-01

    The case of a 20 years old male, diagnosed as supracristal ventricular septal defect (VSD) for last 6 years is being presented. He came in emergency department with decompensated congestive cardiac failure. After initial stabilization, he underwent trans thoracic echocardiogram which showed large supracristal VSD, severely prolapsing right coronary cusp, severe aortic regurgitation and severe pulmonary hypertension. Right heart catheterization was performed which documented reversible pulmonary vascular resistance after high flow oxygen inhalation. He underwent VSD repair, right coronary cusp was excised and aortic valve was replaced by mechanical prosthesis. Post operative recovery was uneventful. He was discharged home in one week.The case of a 20 years old male, diagnosed as supracristal ventricular septal defect (VSD) for last 6 years is being presented. He came in emergency department with decompensated congestive cardiac failure. After initial stabilization, he underwent trans thoracic echocardiogram which showed large supracristal VSD, severely prolapsing right coronary cusp, severe aortic regurgitation and severe pulmonary hypertension. Right heart catheterization was performed which documented reversible pulmonary vascular resistance after high flow oxygen inhalation. He underwent VSD repair, right coronary cusp was excised and aortic valve was replaced by mechanical prosthesis. Post operative recovery was uneventful. He was discharged home in one week. (author)

  1. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas (Σ gas ), molecular gas (Σ H 2 ), neutral gas (Σ H I ), and star formation rate (Σ SFR ) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.4±0.2 , whereM 3rd is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation withΣ gas ,Σ H2 , orΣ SFR . For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.6±0.1 and M 3rd ∝Σ gas 0.5±0.2 ; there is no correlation with either Σ H 2 orΣ SFR . The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M 3rd ∝Σ gas 3.8±0.3 , M 3rd ∝Σ H 2 1.2±0.1 , and M 3rd ∝Σ SFR 0.9±0.1 . For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet traveled too far from their birth sites, the poor resolution of the radio data compared to the physical sizes of the clusters results in measuredΣ that are likely quite diluted compared to the actual densities relevant for the formation of the clusters.

  2. Acceleration of O+ from the cusp to the plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Klecker, B.; Dandouras, I.

    2015-02-01

    Heavy ions from the ionosphere that are accelerated in the cusp/cleft have been identified as a direct source for the hot plasma in the plasma sheet. However, the details of the acceleration and transport that transforms the originally cold ions into the hot plasma sheet population are not fully understood. The polar orbit of the Cluster satellites covers the main transport path of the O+ from the cusp to the plasma sheet, so Cluster is ideal for tracking its velocity changes. However, because the cusp outflow is dispersed according to its velocity as it is transported to the tail, due to the velocity filter effect, the observed changes in beam velocity over the Cluster orbit may simply be the result of the spacecraft accessing different spatial regions and not necessarily evidence of acceleration. Using the Cluster Ion Spectrometry/Composition Distribution Function instrument onboard Cluster, we compare the distribution function of streaming O+ in the tail lobes with the initial distribution function observed over the cusp and reveal that the observations of energetic streaming O+ in the lobes around -20 RE are predominantly due to the velocity filter effect during nonstorm times. During storm times, the cusp distribution is further accelerated. In the plasma sheet boundary layer, however, the average O+ distribution function is above the upper range of the outflow distributions at the same velocity during both storm and nonstorm times, indicating that acceleration has taken place. Some of the velocity increase is in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, indicating that the E × B velocity is enhanced. However, there is also an increase in the parallel direction, which could be due to nonadiabatic acceleration at the boundary or wave heating.

  3. The dependence of cusp ion signatures on the reconnection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Morley

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of structure in cusp ion dispersions is important for helping to understand the temporal and spatial structure of magnetopause reconnection. "Stepped" and "sawtooth" signatures have been shown to be caused by temporal variations in the reconnection rate under the same physical conditions for different satellite trajectories. The present paper shows that even for a single satellite path, a change in the amplitude of any reconnection pulses can alter the observed signature and even turn sawtooth into stepped forms and vice versa. On 20 August 1998, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP craft F-14 crossed the cusp just to the south of Longyearbyen, returning on the following orbit. The two passes by the DMSP F-14 satellites have very similar trajectories and the open-closed field line boundary (OCB crossings, as estimated from the SSJ/4 precipitating particle data and Polar UVI images, imply a similarly-shaped polar cap, yet the cusp ion dispersion signatures differ substantially. The cusp crossing at 08:54 UT displays a stepped ion dispersion previously considered to be typical of a meridional pass, whereas the crossing at 10:38 UT is a sawtooth form ion dispersion, previously considered typical of a satellite travelling longitudinally with respect to the OCB. It is shown that this change in dispersed ion signature is likely to be due to a change in the amplitude of the pulses in the reconnection rate, causing the stepped signature. Modelling of the low-energy ion cutoff under different conditions has reproduced the forms of signature observed.Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating, magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers

  4. Study of NΣ cusp in p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ with partial wave analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.; Muenzer, R.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L. [Excellenz Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Hauenstein, F. [FZ Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: Hades and FOPI Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the last years, an analysis of exclusive reaction of p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ has been carried out using Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis. In a combined analysis of data from Hades, Fopi, Disto and Cosy-TOF, an energy dependent production process is determined. This analysis has shown that a sufficient description of the p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ is quite challenging due to the presence of resonances N* and interference, which requires Partial Wave Analysis. A pronounced narrow structure is observed in its projection on the pΛ-invariant mass. This peak structure, which appears around the NΣ threshold, has a strongly asymmetric structure and is interpreted a NΣ cusp effect. In this talk, the results from a combined analysis will be shown, with a special focus on the NΣ cusp structure and a description using Flatte parametrization.

  5. Leaf density explains variation in leaf mass per area in rice between cultivars and nitrogen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongliang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xi; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Li, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is an important leaf trait; however, correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical features and photosynthesis have not been fully investigated, especially in cereal crops. The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate the correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical traits; and (b) to clarify the response of LMA to nitrogen supply and its effect on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the present study, 11 rice varieties were pot grown under sufficient nitrogen (SN) conditions, and four selected rice cultivars were grown under low nitrogen (LN) conditions. Leaf anatomical traits, gas exchange and leaf N content were measured. There was large variation in LMA across selected rice varieties. Regression analysis showed that the variation in LMA was more closely related to leaf density (LD) than to leaf thickness (LT). LMA was positively related to the percentage of mesophyll tissue area (%mesophyll), negatively related to the percentage of epidermis tissue area (%epidermis) and unrelated to the percentage of vascular tissue area (%vascular). The response of LMA to N supplementation was dependent on the variety and was also mainly determined by the response of LD to N. Compared with SN, photosynthesis was significantly decreased under LN, while PNUE was increased. The increase in PNUE was more critical in rice cultivars with a higher LMA under SN supply. Leaf density is the major cause of the variation in LMA across rice varieties and N treatments, and an increase in LMA under high N conditions would aggravate the decrease in PNUE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Differentiating mass from density: The effect of modeling and student dialogue in a sixth-grade classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deich, Martha L.

    The concept of density can be difficult to learn. In the middle grades, students characteristically conflate mass and density, and even after instruction many students do not distinguish them consistently (Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis, 1997). Few develop a conceptualization of density that accounts for the implications of changing mass, volume, temperature, and/or state. My work looks specifically at how students make sense of the relationship between mass and volume as they refine their understanding of density. The concept of density is challenging to teach. Traditional methods of teaching density in middle-school classrooms typically involve either the measurement of an object's mass and volume and the subsequent calculation of the ratio of the two quantities, or the observation of different materials in water to learn about their buoyancy. Unfortunately, as Carol Smith and her colleagues have documented (1985, 1992, 1997), these approaches leave many students stuck in their "commonsense frameworks" that merge mass and density into one concept. Teachers need better ways to teach density. Hence I designed an intervention to study the effects of some possibly more effective ways to teach density. I developed and taught a complex intervention (Brown, 1992) featuring student modeling, extensive student dialogue on data and data analyses, formative assessments, the substitution of hands-on inquiry for mathematical problem sets, and multiple thought experiments. The hallmarks of the intervention were modeling and student dialogue, and the research question I posed was: Does classroom practice that encourages modeling with open-ended discourse help students differentiate between the concepts of mass and density? I patterned my research on a Smith study of density instruction in eighth grade (Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis, 1997), which had a quasiexperimental research design that compared the results of teaching density differently in two classrooms. I

  7. BANYAN. IX. The Initial Mass Function and Planetary-mass Object Space Density of the TW HYA Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Donaldson, Jessica K.; Lépine, Sébastien; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Looper, Dagny; Boucher, Anne; Beletsky, Yuri; Camnasio, Sara; Brunette, Charles; Arboit, Geneviève

    2017-02-01

    A determination of the initial mass function (IMF) of the current, incomplete census of the 10 Myr-old TW Hya association (TWA) is presented. This census is built from a literature compilation supplemented with new spectra and 17 new radial velocities from ongoing membership surveys, as well as a reanalysis of Hipparcos data that confirmed HR 4334 (A2 Vn) as a member. Although the dominant uncertainty in the IMF remains census incompleteness, a detailed statistical treatment is carried out to make the IMF determination independent of binning while accounting for small number statistics. The currently known high-likelihood members are fitted by a log-normal distribution with a central mass of {0.21}-0.06+0.11 M ⊙ and a characteristic width of {0.8}-0.1+0.2 dex in the 12 M Jup-2 M ⊙ range, whereas a Salpeter power law with α ={2.2}-0.5+1.1 best describes the IMF slope in the 0.1-2 M ⊙ range. This characteristic width is higher than other young associations, which may be due to incompleteness in the current census of low-mass TWA stars. A tentative overpopulation of isolated planetary-mass members similar to 2MASS J11472421-2040204 and 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is identified: this indicates that there might be as many as {10}-5+13 similar members of TWA with hot-start model-dependent masses estimated at ˜5-7 M Jup, most of which would be too faint to be detected in 2MASS. Our new radial velocity measurements corroborate the membership of 2MASS J11472421-2040204, and secure TWA 28 (M8.5 γ), TWA 29 (M9.5 γ), and TWA 33 (M4.5 e) as members. The discovery of 2MASS J09553336-0208403, a young L7-type interloper unrelated to TWA, is also presented.

  8. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  9. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  10. Design and Fabrication of a Single Cusp Magnetic Field Type Hydrogen ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Hun

    1996-02-15

    A single-cusp type hydrogen ion source has been designed and fabricated. In order to increase the efficiency of the plasma production, a single-cusp type magnet circuit and an electrostatic reflector were installed. The Poission Group Code was used to predict the distribution of magnetic field in the plasma chamber. In order to design the accel.-decel. extraction part for forming the ion beam with low emmitance and high current density, EGUN code was used. The results of calculation show that the configuration of plasma electrode strongly affects the beam quality and the deceleration electrode only functions the repression of the electron stream. When the plasma-accel potential is -20kV and an accel.-decel. potential is 1kV, the calculated extraction current, normalized emittance and perveance are 20.6mA, 1.28x 10{sup -7} m {center_dot} rad and 7.87 x 10{sup -9}A {center_dot} V{sup -3/2}, respectively. This study on the improvement of beam quality and the achievement of high ion beam current will contribute to the analysis of fusion plasma and the research on the surface physics.

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Single Cusp Magnetic Field Type Hydrogen ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Hun

    1996-02-01

    A single-cusp type hydrogen ion source has been designed and fabricated. In order to increase the efficiency of the plasma production, a single-cusp type magnet circuit and an electrostatic reflector were installed. The Poission Group Code was used to predict the distribution of magnetic field in the plasma chamber. In order to design the accel.-decel. extraction part for forming the ion beam with low emmitance and high current density, EGUN code was used. The results of calculation show that the configuration of plasma electrode strongly affects the beam quality and the deceleration electrode only functions the repression of the electron stream. When the plasma-accel potential is -20kV and an accel.-decel. potential is 1kV, the calculated extraction current, normalized emittance and perveance are 20.6mA, 1.28x 10 -7 m · rad and 7.87 x 10 -9 A · V -3/2 , respectively. This study on the improvement of beam quality and the achievement of high ion beam current will contribute to the analysis of fusion plasma and the research on the surface physics

  12. Magnetosheath plasma precipitation in the polar cusp and its control by the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woch, J.; Lundin, R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetosheath particle precipitation in the polar cusp region is studied based on Viking hot plasma data obtained on meridional cusp crossings. Two distinctively different regions are commonly encountered on a typical pass. One region is characterized by high-density particle precipitation, with an ion population characterized by a convecting Maxwellian distribution. Typical magnetosheath parameters are inferred for the spectrum of the source population. The spectral shape of the ion population encountered in the second region suggests that here the magnetosheath ions have been energized by about 1 keV, corresponding to an ion velocity gain of about twice the magnetosheath Alfven velocity. The location of the region containing the accelerated plasma is dependent on the IMF B z component. For southward IMF the acceleration region is bounded by the ring current population on the equatorward side and by the unaccelerated magnetosheath plasma precipitation on the poleward side. For northward IMF the region is located at the poleward edge of the region with unaccelerated precipitation. The accelerated ion population is obviously transported duskward (dawnward) for a dawnward (duskward) directed IMF. These observations are interpreted as evidence for plasma acceleration due to magnetopause current sheet disruptions/merging of magnetospheric and interplanetary magnetic flux tubes

  13. A new approach to determine the density of liquids and solids without measuring mass and volume: introducing the solidensimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktaş, Halit; Şahin, Mehmet; Eslek, Sinan; Kiriktaş, İrem

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to design a mechanism with which the density of any solid or liquid can be determined without measuring its mass and volume in order to help students comprehend the concept of density more easily. The solidensimeter comprises of two scaled and nested glass containers (graduated cylinder or beaker) and sufficient water. In this method, the density measurement was made using the Archimedes’ principle stating that an object fully submerged in a liquid displaces the same amount of liquid as its volume, while an object partially submerged or floating displaces the same amount of liquid as its mass. Using this method, the density of any solids or liquids can be determined using a simple mathematical ratio. At the end of the process a mechanism that helps students to comprehend the density topic more easily was designed. The system is easy-to-design, uses low-cost equipment and enables one to determine the density of any solid or liquid without measuring its mass and volume.

  14. Dynamical and luminosity evolution of active galactic nuclei - Models with a mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.W.; Cohn, H.N.; Durisen, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A multimass energy-space Fokker-Planck code is used to follow the dynamical and luminosity evolution of an AGN model that consists of a dense stellar system surrounding a massive black hole. It is found that stellar evolution and tidal disruption are the predominant mass-loss mechanisms for low-density nuclei, whereas physical collisions dominate in high-density nuclei. For initial central densities greater than 10 million solar masses/cu pc the core of the stellar system contacts due to the removal of kinetic energy by collisions, whereas for densities less than this the core of the stellar system expands due to heating that results from the settling of a small population of stars into orbits tightly bound to the black hole. These mechanisms produce differing power-law slopes in the resulting stellar density cusp surrounding the black hole, -7/4 and -1/2 for low- and high-density nuclei, respectively. 60 refs

  15. A New Measurement of the Stellar Mass Density at z~5: Implications for the Sources of Cosmic Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D. P.; Bunker, A. J.; Ellis, R. S.; Eyles, L. P.; Lacy, M.

    2007-04-01

    We present a new measurement of the integrated stellar mass per comoving volume at redshift 5 determined via spectral energy fitting drawn from a sample of 214 photometrically selected galaxies with z'850LPmasses for various subsamples for which reliable and unconfused Spitzer IRAC detections are available. A spectroscopic sample of 14 of the most luminous sources with z=4.92 provides a firm lower limit to the stellar mass density of 1×106 Msolar Mpc-3. Several galaxies in this subsample have masses of order 1011 Msolar, implying that significant earlier activity occurred in massive systems. We then consider a larger sample whose photometric redshifts in the publicly available GOODS-MUSIC catalog lie in the range 4.4MUSIC photometric redshifts, we check the accuracy of their photometry and explore the possibility of contamination by low-z galaxies and low-mass stars. After excising probable stellar contaminants and using the z'850LP-J color to exclude any remaining foreground red galaxies, we conclude that 196 sources are likely to be at z~=5. The implied mass density from the unconfused IRAC fraction of this sample, scaled to the total available, is 6×106 Msolar Mpc-3. We discuss the uncertainties, as well as the likelihood that we have underestimated the true mass density. By including fainter and quiescent sources, the total integrated density could be as high as 1×107 Msolar Mpc-3. Even accounting for 25% cosmic variance within a single GOODS field, such a high mass density only 1.2 Gyr after the big bang has interesting consequences for the implied past average star formation during the period when cosmic reionization is now thought to have taken place. Using the currently available (but highly uncertain) rate of decline in the star formation history over 5mass at z~=5 if we admit significant dust extinction at early times or extend the luminosity function to very faint limits. An interesting consequence of the latter possibility is an abundant population

  16. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  17. Controlling of merging electric field and IMF magnitude on storm-time changes in thermospheric mass density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.L.; Ma, S.Y.; Liu, R.S.; Luehr, H.; Doornbos, E.

    2013-01-01

    The controls of merging electrical field, Em, and IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) magnitude, B, on the storm-time changes in upper thermospheric mass density are statistically investigated using GRACE accelerometer observations and the OMNI data of solar wind and IMF for 35 great storms during

  18. Performance of 12 DIR algorithms in low-contrast regions for mass and density conserving deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, U. J.; Supple, J. R.; Franich, R. D.; Taylor, M. L.; Smith, R.; Kron, T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a key tool for adaptive radiotherapy to account for inter- and intrafraction organ deformation. Of contemporary interest, the application to deformable dose accumulation requires accurate deformation even in low contrast regions where dose gradients may exist within near-uniform tissues. One expects high-contrast features to generally be deformed more accurately by DIR algorithms. The authors systematically assess the accuracy of 12 DIR algorithms and quantitatively examine, in particular, low-contrast regions, where accuracy has not previously been established.Methods: This work investigates DIR algorithms in three dimensions using deformable gel (DEFGEL) [U. J. Yeo, M. L. Taylor, L. Dunn, R. L. Smith, T. Kron, and R. D. Franich, “A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 39, 2203–2213 (2012)], for application to mass- and density-conserving deformations. CT images of DEFGEL phantoms with 16 fiducial markers (FMs) implanted were acquired in deformed and undeformed states for three different representative deformation geometries. Nonrigid image registration was performed using 12 common algorithms in the public domain. The optimum parameter setup was identified for each algorithm and each was tested for deformation accuracy in three scenarios: (I) original images of the DEFGEL with 16 FMs; (II) images with eight of the FMs mathematically erased; and (III) images with all FMs mathematically erased. The deformation vector fields obtained for scenarios II and III were then applied to the original images containing all 16 FMs. The locations of the FMs estimated by the algorithms were compared to actual locations determined by CT imaging. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed by evaluation of three-dimensional vectors between true marker locations and predicted marker locations.Results: The mean magnitude of 16 error vectors per sample ranged from 0.3 to 3.7, 1.0 to 6.3, and 1.3 to 7

  19. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of four years (2002–2005 of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin<−100 nT are chosen for a statistical study. In order to achieve a good correlation Em is preconditioned. Contrary to general opinion, Em has to be applied without saturation effect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  20. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Lühr, H.; Doornbos, E.; Ma, S.-Y.

    2010-09-01

    With the help of four years (2002-2005) of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmineffect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned color: #000;">Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 color: #000;">Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  1. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, Craig R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet - a study of ICESat data, surface density and firn compaction modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. S.; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Nielsen, K.

    2010-01-01

    ICESat has provided surface elevation measurements of the ice sheets since the launch in January 2003, resulting in a unique data set for monitoring the changes of the cryosphere. Here we present a novel method for determining the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet derived from ICESat...... in estimating the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. We find firn dynamics and surface densities to be important factors in deriving the mass loss from remote sensing altimetry. The volume change derived from ICESat data is corrected for firn compaction, vertical bedrock movement and an intercampaign...... boundary conditions. We find an annual mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet of 210 ± 21 Gt yr-1 in the period from October 2003 to March 2008. This result is in good agreement with other studies of the Greenland ice sheet mass balance, based on different remote sensing techniques....

  3. MEASUREMENT AND CORRELATION OF THE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR A LIQUID-LIQUID SYSTEM WITH HIGH DENSITY DIFFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixian Huang

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the mass transfer behavior of a liquid-liquid system with high density difference (∆ρ≈500 kg/m3, single drop experiments were performed by using the ternary chloroform-ethanol-water system. The mass transfer direction was from the dispersed phase to the continuous phase, while the aqueous phase was dispersed in chloroform to generate drops. The influences of drop diameter, initial solute concentration and temperature on the mass transfer were investigated. The effects of the drop diameter and initial solute concentration on interfacial instability of droplets hanging in the continuous phase were also observed. For the purpose of correlation, a mass transfer enhancement factor F was introduced and then correlated as a function of dimensionless variables. The modified correlation from the mass transfer coefficient model was found to fit well with the experimental values.

  4. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon

    2008-01-01

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8±6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8±7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1±6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0±9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1±2.7 kg/m 2 . 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged ≥50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged ≥40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  5. Effects of Density-Dependent Quark Mass on Phase Diagram of Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Considering the density dependence of quark mass, we investigate the phase transition between the (unpaired) strange quark matter and the color-flavor-locked matter, which are supposed to be two candidates for the ground state of strongly interacting matter. We find that if the current mass of strange quark ms is small, the strange quark matter remains stable unless the baryon density is very high. If ms is large, the phase transition from the strange quark matter to the color-flavor-locked matter in particular to its gapless phase is found to be different from the results predicted by previous works. A complicated phase diagram of three-flavor quark matter is presented, in which the color-flavor-locked phase region is suppressed for moderate densities.

  6. Shell Effect and Temperature Influence on Nuclear Level Density Parameter: the role of the effective mass interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queipo-Ruiz, J.; Guzman-Martinez, F.; Rodriguez-Hoyos, O.

    2011-01-01

    The level density parameter is a very important ingredient in statistic study of nuclear reaction, it has been studied to low energies excitation E < 2MeV where it values is approximately constant, experimental results to energies of excitation more than 2 MeV has been obtained of evaporation spectrum, to nuclei with A=160. In this work we present a calculation of densities level parameter, for a wide range of mass and temperature, taking in accounts the shell effects and the mass effective interaction. The result has been carried out within the semi classical approximation, for the single particle level densities. We results have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data available. (Author)

  7. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  8. Can a stochastic cusp catastrophe model explain stock market crashes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2009), s. 1824-1836 ISSN 0165-1889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic cusp catastrophe * Bifurcations * Singularity * Nonlinear dynamics * Stock market crash Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2009

  9. Rip currents, mega-cusps, and eroding dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200 m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40 m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence of waves owing to refraction over the Monterey Bay submarine canyon results in larger wave heights. The large alongshore gradient in wave height results in a concomitant alongshore gradient in morphodynamic scale. The strongly refracted waves and narrow bay aperture result in near normal wave incidence, resulting in well-developed, persistent rip currents along the entire shoreline. The alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline are found significantly correlated with the alongshore variations in rip spacing at 95% confidence. The alongshore variations of the volume of dune erosion are found significantly correlated with alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline at 95% confidence. Therefore, it is concluded the mega-cusps are associated with rip currents and that the location of dune erosion is associated with the embayment of the mega-cusp.

  10. Loss of lean body mass affects low bone mineral density in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from the TOMORROW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tadashi; Inui, Kentaro; Tada, Masahiro; Sugioka, Yuko; Mamoto, Kenji; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Koike, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the complications for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid cachexia, the loss of lean body mass, is another. However, the relationship between decreased lean body mass and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with RA has not been well studied. This study included 413 participants, comprising 208 patients with RA and 205 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Clinical data, BMD, bone metabolic markers (BMM) and body composition, such as lean body mass and percent fat, were collected. Risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with RA including the relationship BMD and body composition were analyzed. Patients with RA showed low BMD and high BMM compared with controls. Moreover, lean body mass was lower and percent fat was higher in patients with RA. Lean body mass correlated positively and percent fat negatively with BMD. Lean body mass was a positive and disease duration was a negative independent factor for BMD in multivariate statistical analysis. BMD and lean body mass were significantly lower in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Lean body mass correlated positively with BMD and decreased lean body mass and disease duration affected low BMD in patients with RA. [UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ , UMIN000003876].

  11. Mass-density compensation can improve the performance of a range of different detectors under non-equilibrium conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, T S A; Hill, M A; Winter, H C; Fenwick, J D

    2013-01-01

    Dosimeters often consist of several components whose mass densities differ substantially from water. These components cause small-field correction factors to vary significantly as lateral electronic equilibrium breaks down. Even amongst instruments designed for small-field dosimetry, inter-detector variation in the correction factors associated with very small (∼0.5 cm) fields can amount to tens of per cent. For a given dosimeter, small-field correction factors vary not only with field size but also with detector azimuthal angle and position within the field. Furthermore the accurate determination of these factors typically requires time-intensive Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, if achievable, ‘correction factor free’ small-field dosimetry would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates that a new generation of mass-density compensated detectors could take us towards this goal. Using a 6 MV beam model, it shows that ‘mass-density compensation’ can be utilized to improve the performance of a range of different detectors under small-field conditions. Non-sensitive material of appropriate mass-density is incorporated into detector designs in order to make the instruments behave as if consisting only of water. The dosimeter perturbative effects are then reduced to those associated with volume averaging. An even better solution—which modifies detectors to obtain profiles that look like those measured by a point-like water structure—is also considered. Provided that adequate sensitivity can be achieved for a small measurement volume, this study shows that it may be possible to use mass-density compensation (and Monte Carlo-driven design) to produce a solid-state dosimeter/ionization chamber with a near-perfect non-equilibrium response. (paper)

  12. Localized Models of Charged Particle Motion in Martian Crustal Magnetic Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Poppe, A. R.; Jarvinen, R.; Dong, Y.; Egan, H. L.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The induced magnetosphere of Mars is punctuated by localized but strong crustal magnetic fields that are observed to play host to a variety of phenomena typically associated with global magnetic fields, such as auroral processes and particle precipitation, field-aligned current systems, and ion outflow. Each of these phenomena occur on the night side, in small-scale magnetic `cusp' regions of vertically aligned field. Cusp regions are not yet capable of being spatially resolved in global scale models that include the ion kinetics necessary for simulating charged particle transport along cusps. Local models are therefore necessary if we are to understand how cusp processes operate at Mars. Here we present the first results of an effort to model the kinetic particle motion and electric fields in Martian cusps. We are adapting both a 1.5D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model for lunar magnetic cusps regions to the Martian case and a hybrid model framework (used previously for the global Martian plasma interaction and for lunar magnetic anomaly regions) to cusps in 2D. By comparing the models we can asses the importance of electron kinetics in particle transport along cusp field lines. In this first stage of our study we model a moderately strong nightside cusp, with incident hot hydrogen plasma from above, and cold planetary (oxygen) plasma entering the simulation from below. We report on the spatial and temporal distribution of plasma along cusp field lines for this initial case.

  13. On a new process for cusp irregularity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Carlson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two plasma instability mechanisms were thought until 2007 to dominate the formation of plasma irregularities in the F region high latitude and polar ionosphere; the gradient-drift driven instability, and the velocity-shear driven instability. The former mechanism was accepted as accounting for plasma structuring in polar cap patches, the latter for plasma structuring in polar cap sun aligned arcs. Recent work has established the need to replace this view of the past two decades with a new patch plasma structuring process (not a new mechanism, whereby shear-driven instabilities first rapidly structure the entering plasma, after which gradient drift instabilities build on these large "seed" irregularities. Correct modeling of cusp and early polar cap patch structuring will not be accomplished without allowing for this compound process. This compound process explains several previously unexplained characteristics of cusp and early polar cap patch irregularities. Here we introduce additional data, coincident in time and space, to extend that work to smaller irregularity scale sizes and relate it to the structured cusp current system.

  14. Sex assessment efficacy of permanent maxillary first molar cusp dimensions in Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achla Bharti Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human first maxillary molar provides clues about evolution and is functionally important. It has four main cusps, and each cusp has an independent growth pattern and different evolutionary background. Though less explored, the analysis based on measurement of each cusp appears to be more meaningful biologically than conventional measurements of the whole crown. Aim: This study aimed to demonstrate the extent of sexual dimorphism in permanent maxillary first molar cusp diameters and their potential utility in sex prediction among Indians using logistic regression analysis (LRA. Materials and Methods: The mesiodistal and buccolingual (BL crown diameters along with cusp dimensions and cusp indices of right maxillary first molar were measured in an Indian sample (149 males, 151 females; age range of 18–30 years. The possible sex dimorphism in these parameters was evaluated, and LRA was performed to ascertain their usefulness in sex prediction. Results: BL crown dimension and the hypocone (distolingual cusp showed the highest sexual dimorphism. The combination of metacone and hypocone, i.e., distal cusp diameters among cusp parameters showed the highest accuracy (61.3%. While, on combining all the crown and cusp diameters together the overall accuracy was raised (64.3%. Conclusion: This study supports the ontogeny hypothesis suggesting that early-forming mesial cusps demonstrate less sexual variation as compared to subsequently formed distal cusps in the maxillary molar. Though the sex identification accuracy for cusp diameters of the permanent maxillary first molar in Indians is relatively moderate (≈61%, it can be used as an adjunct for sexing of adult Indians in forensic contexts.

  15. Lean mass and fat mass predict bone mineral density in middle-aged individuals with noninsulin-requiring type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Kendall F; Dobrosielski, Devon A; Stewart, Kerry J; De Beur, Suzanne M Jan; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2011-05-01

    Despite high bone mineral density (BMD), persons with type 2 diabetes are at greater risk of fracture. The relationship between body composition and BMD in noninsulin-requiring diabetes is unclear. The aim was to examine how fat and lean mass independently affect the skeleton in this population. Subjects for this cross-sectional analysis were men (n = 78) and women (n = 56) aged 40-65 years (56 ± 6 years) with uncomplicated, noninsulin-requiring type 2 diabetes. Total body fat and lean mass, total body, hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging measured total abdominal, visceral and subcutaneous (SQ) fat. Subjects had normal all-site BMD and were obese to overweight (body mass index 29-41 kg/m(2)) with controlled diabetes (HbA1c women 6·6 ± 1·2%, men 6·7 ± 1·6%). Lean mass was positively associated with total body, hip, femoral neck and hip BMD in both sexes. Fat mass, abdominal total and SQ fat were associated with total body and hip BMD in women. In multivariate analyses adjusted for sex, lean mass significantly predicted total, hip and femoral neck BMD in men and women. In unadjusted models, lean mass continued to predict BMD at these sites in men; fat mass also predicted total body, femoral and hip BMD in women. In men and women with uncomplicated, noninsulin-requiring diabetes, lean mass significantly predicted BMD at the total body, hip and femoral neck. Further research is needed to determine whether acquisition or maintenance of lean mass in T2DM can prevent hip fracture in this at-risk population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Measurement of Young’s modulus and volumetric mass density/thickness of ultrathin films utilizing resonant based mass sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachiv, Ivo; Vokoun, David; Jeng, Y.-R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2014), "083102-1"-"083102-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/0800 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : functional films * mass sensor * resonant frequency Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/104/8/10.1063/1.4866417

  17. Symmetry energy, its density slope, and neutron-proton effective mass splitting at normal density extracted from global nucleon optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, it is shown that both the symmetry energy E sym (ρ) and its density slope L(ρ) at normal density ρ 0 are completely determined by the nucleon global optical potentials. The latter can be extracted directly from nucleon-nucleus scatterings, (p,n) charge-exchange reactions, and single-particle energy levels of bound states. Averaging all phenomenological isovector nucleon potentials constrained by world data available in the literature since 1969, the best estimates of E sym (ρ 0 )=31.3 MeV and L(ρ 0 )=52.7 MeV are simultaneously obtained. Moreover, the corresponding neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter of isospin asymmetry δ is estimated to be (m n * -m p * )/m=0.32δ.

  18. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994–1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993–1996 than during 1985–1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling

  19. Growth kinetics and growth mechanism of ultrahigh mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive Ti/Cu supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Yang, Junwei; Makaryan, Taron; Robertson, John

    2014-09-10

    We evaluate the growth kinetics and growth mechanism of ultrahigh mass density carbon nanotube forests. They are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition at 450 °C using a conductive Ti/Cu support and Co-Mo catalyst system. We find that Mo stabilizes Co particles preventing lift off during the initial growth stage, thus promoting the growth of ultrahigh mass density nanotube forests by the base growth mechanism. The morphology of the forest gradually changes with growth time, mostly because of a structural change of the catalyst particles. After 100 min growth, toward the bottom of the forest, the area density decreases from ∼ 3-6 × 10(11) cm(-2) to ∼ 5 × 10(10) cm(-2) and the mass density decreases from 1.6 to 0.38 g cm(-3). We also observe part of catalyst particles detached and embedded within nanotubes. The progressive detachment of catalyst particles results in the depletion of the catalyst metals on the substrate surfaces. This is one of the crucial reasons for growth termination and may apply to other catalyst systems where the same features are observed. Using the packed forest morphology, we demonstrate patterned forest growth with a pitch of ∼ 300 nm and a line width of ∼ 150 nm. This is one of the smallest patterning of the carbon nanotube forests to date.

  20. Associations of Bone Mineral Density with Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Dietary Patterns in Postmenopausal Chinese Women: A 2-Year Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Chen

    Full Text Available To assess factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women in a longitudinal study, and to examine the relative contribution of lean mass, fat mass, dietary patterns, and years since menopause to BMD.Two hundred and eighty-two postmenopausal women were randomly selected from Hongqi Community Health Center, in Harbin City, China. All participants were followed up from 2009 to 2011. Dietary data were collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD of the left hip, the lumbar spine, and the total body, and the body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and follow-up.Lean mass and fat mass were positively associated with BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body at both baseline and follow-up. The association between fat mass and BMD at the spine at baseline (P = 0.210 and at the spine (P = 0.116 and hip (P = 0.073 in the second year was not statistically significant when height was adjusted. Six dietary patterns were identified but only cereal grains-fruits pattern (P = 0.001 in the spine, P = 0.037 in hip and milk-root vegetables pattern (P = 0.010 in hip were associated with BMD of the spine and hip. The linear mixed model of follow-up data showed that lean mass, years since menopause, and age of menophania were the significant determinants of BMD of all sites. Moreover, lean mass was the best determinant of BMD (VIP = 1.936.Lean mass, years since menopause, age of menophania and dietary patterns are the important determinants of BMD of the spine, hip, and the total body. Lean mass is the best determinant of BMD.

  1. 3-D mesoscale MHD simulations of magnetospheric cusp-like configurations: cusp diamagnetic cavities and boundary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Adamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present results from mesoscale simulations of the magnetospheric cusp region for both strongly northward and strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Simulation results indicate an extended region of depressed magnetic field and strongly enhanced plasma β which exhibits a strong dependence on IMF orientation. These structures correspond to the Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities (CDC's. The typical features of these CDC's are generally well reproduced by the simulation. The inner boundaries between the CDC and the magnetosphere are gradual transitions which form a clear funnel shape, regardless of IMF orientation. The outer CDC/magnetosheath boundary exhibits a clear indentation in both the x-z and y-z planes for southward IMF, while it is only indented in the x-z plane for northward, with a convex geometry in the y-z plane. The outer boundary represents an Alfvénic transition, mostly consistent with a slow-shock, indicating that reconnection plays an important role in structuring the high-altitude cusp region.

  2. Orbital Instabilities in a Triaxial Cusp Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.; Butler, Suzanne C.; Druce, Jeffrey M.; Ketchum, Jacob A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper constructs an analytic form for a triaxial potential that describes the dynamics of a wide variety of astrophysical systems, including the inner portions of dark matter halos, the central regions of galactic bulges, and young embedded star clusters. Specifically, this potential results from a density profile of the form ρ(m)~m-1, where the radial coordinate is generalized to triaxial form so that m2=x2/a2+y2/b2+z2/c2. Using the resulting analytic form of the potential and the corresponding force laws, we construct orbit solutions and show that a robust orbit instability exists in these systems. For orbits initially confined to any of the three principal planes, the motion in the perpendicular direction can be unstable. We discuss the range of parameter space for which these orbits are unstable, find the growth rates and saturation levels of the instability, and develop a set of analytic model equations that elucidate the essential physics of the instability mechanism. This orbit instability has a large number of astrophysical implications and applications, including understanding the formation of dark matter halos, the structure of galactic bulges, the survival of tidal streams, and the early evolution of embedded star clusters.

  3. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  4. Gauge-invariant screening masses and static quark free energies in Nf=2 +1 QCD at nonzero baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Michele; Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Rucci, Andrea; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the extension of gauge-invariant electric and magnetic screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma to the case of a finite baryon density, defining them in terms of a matrix of Polyakov loop correlators. We present lattice results for Nf=2 +1 QCD with physical quark masses, obtained using the imaginary chemical potential approach, which indicate that the screening masses increase as a function of μB. A separate analysis is carried out for the theoretically interesting case μB/T =3 i π , where charge conjugation is not explicitly broken and the usual definition of the screening masses can be used for temperatures below the Roberge-Weiss transition. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the static quark free energy on the baryon chemical potential, showing that it is a decreasing function of μB, which displays a peculiar behavior as the pseudocritical transition temperature at μB=0 is approached.

  5. Mass flows and angular momentum density for px + ipy paired fermions in a harmonic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Michael; Anduaga, Inaki

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple two-dimensional model of a p x + ip y superfluid in which the mass flow that gives rise to the intrinsic angular momentum is easily calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes operator. We find that, at zero temperature and for constant director l, the mass flow closely follows the Ishikawa-Mermin-Muzikar formula j mass =1/2 curl/(ρhl/2)

  6. EMBEDDED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AROUND (SUB-)SOLAR STARS. II. DISK MASSES, SIZES, DENSITIES, TEMPERATURES, AND THE PLANET FORMATION PERSPECTIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.

    2011-01-01

    We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03-1.0 M sun mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M mean d,C0 = 0.12 M sun , M mdn d,C0 = 0.09 M sun and M mean d,CI = 0.18 M sun , M mdn d,CI = 0.15 M sun , respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2-3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M * = 0.05-0.1 M sun . Concurrently, disk radii start to grow beyond 100 AU, making gravitational fragmentation in the disk outer regions possible. Large disk masses, surface densities, and sizes suggest that giant planets may start forming as early as in the EPSF, either by means of core accretion (inner disk regions) or direct gravitational instability (outer disk regions), thus breaking a longstanding stereotype that the planet formation process begins in the Class II phase.

  7. Investigation of the energy-averaged double transition density of isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelik, M.L.; Shlomo, S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Tulupov, B.A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Urin, M.H., E-mail: urin@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The particle–hole dispersive optical model, developed recently, is applied to study properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei. The energy-averaged strength functions of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone in {sup 208}Pb are analyzed. In particular, we analyze the energy-averaged isoscalar monopole double transition density, the key quantity in the description of the hadron–nucleus inelastic scattering, and studied the validity of the factorization approximation using semi classical and microscopic one body transition densities, respectively, in calculating the cross sections for the excitation of isoscalar giant resonances by inelastic alpha scattering.

  8. Cluster observations of the high-latitude magnetopause and cusp: initial results from the CIS ion instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bosqued

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Launched on an elliptical high inclination orbit (apogee: 19.6 RE since January 2001 the Cluster satellites have been conducting the first detailed three-dimensional studies of the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere, including the exterior cusp, neighbouring boundary layers and magnetopause regions. Cluster satellites carry the CIS ion spectrometers that provide high-precision, 3D distributions of low-energy (<35 keV/e ions every 4 s. This paper presents the first two observations of the cusp and/or magnetopause behaviour made under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions. Flow directions, 3D distribution functions, density profiles and ion composition profiles are analyzed to demonstrate the high variability of high-latitude regions. In the first crossing analyzed (26 January 2001, dusk side, IMF-BZ < 0, multiple, isolated boundary layer, magnetopause and magnetosheath encounters clearly occurred on a quasi-steady basis for ~ 2 hours. CIS ion instruments show systematic accelerated flows in the current layer and adjacent boundary layers on the Earthward side of the magnetopause. Multi-point analysis of the magnetopause, combining magnetic and plasma data from the four Cluster spacecraft, demonstrates that oscillatory outward-inward motions occur with a normal speed of the order of ± 40 km/s; the thickness of the high-latitude current layer is evaluated to be of the order of 900–1000 km. Alfvénic accelerated flows and D-shaped distributions are convincing signatures of a magnetic reconnection occurring equatorward of the Cluster satellites. Moreover, the internal magnetic and plasma structure of a flux transfer event (FTE is analyzed in detail; its size along the magnetopause surface is ~ 12 000 km and it convects with a velocity of ~ 200 km/s. The second event analyzed (2 February 2001 corresponds to the first Cluster pass within the cusp when the IMF-BZ component was northward directed. The analysis of relevant CIS plasma

  9. Cluster observations of the high-latitude magnetopause and cusp: initial results from the CIS ion instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bosqued

    Full Text Available Launched on an elliptical high inclination orbit (apogee: 19.6 RE since January 2001 the Cluster satellites have been conducting the first detailed three-dimensional studies of the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere, including the exterior cusp, neighbouring boundary layers and magnetopause regions. Cluster satellites carry the CIS ion spectrometers that provide high-precision, 3D distributions of low-energy (<35 keV/e ions every 4 s. This paper presents the first two observations of the cusp and/or magnetopause behaviour made under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions. Flow directions, 3D distribution functions, density profiles and ion composition profiles are analyzed to demonstrate the high variability of high-latitude regions. In the first crossing analyzed (26 January 2001, dusk side, IMF-BZ < 0, multiple, isolated boundary layer, magnetopause and magnetosheath encounters clearly occurred on a quasi-steady basis for ~ 2 hours. CIS ion instruments show systematic accelerated flows in the current layer and adjacent boundary layers on the Earthward side of the magnetopause. Multi-point analysis of the magnetopause, combining magnetic and plasma data from the four Cluster spacecraft, demonstrates that oscillatory outward-inward motions occur with a normal speed of the order of ± 40 km/s; the thickness of the high-latitude current layer is evaluated to be of the order of 900–1000 km. Alfvénic accelerated flows and D-shaped distributions are convincing signatures of a magnetic reconnection occurring equatorward of the Cluster satellites. Moreover, the internal magnetic and plasma structure of a flux transfer event (FTE is analyzed in detail; its size along the magnetopause surface is ~ 12 000 km and it convects with a velocity of ~ 200 km/s. The second event analyzed (2 February 2001 corresponds to the first Cluster pass within the cusp when the IMF-BZ component was northward directed. The analysis of

  10. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, Anne; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Ponard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage

  11. Controlling of merging electric field and IMF magnitude on storm-time changes in thermospheric mass density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The controls of merging electrical field, Em, and IMF (interplanetary magnetic field magnitude, B, on the storm-time changes in upper thermospheric mass density are statistically investigated using GRACE accelerometer observations and the OMNI data of solar wind and IMF for 35 great storms during 2002–2006. It reveals the following: (1 The correlation coefficients between the air mass density changes and the parameters of Em and B are generally larger at lower latitudes than at higher latitudes, and larger in noon and midnight sectors than in dawn and dusk. (2 The most likely delay time (MLDT of mass density changes in respect to Em is about 1.5 h (4.5 h at high (low latitudes, having no distinct local time dependence, while it is 6 h at middle latitudes in all the local time sectors except for noon, which is longer than at low latitudes. A similar fact of longer delay time at mid-latitude is also seen for B. The MLDTs for B at various latitudes are all local time dependent distinctly with shorter delay time in noon/midnight sector and larger in dawn/dusk. Despite of widely spread of the delay time, IMF B exhibits still larger correlation coefficients with mass density changes among the interplanetary parameters. (3 The linear control factor of B on the density changes increases for large B, in contrast to somewhat saturation trend for larger Em. (4 The influence of B and Em on the mass densities shows different behavior for different types of storms. The influence intensity of Em is much stronger for CIR-driven than for CME-driven storm, while it is not so distinct for B. On the local time asymmetry of the influence, both Em and B have largest influence at noon sector for CME-driven storms, while an obviously larger intensification of the influence is found in dawn/dusk sector during CIR storms, especially for parameter Em.

  12. Modeling the effect of levothyroxine therapy on bone mass density in postmenopausal women: a different approach leads to new inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar Seyed

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis is a national health emergency. Osteoporosis quietly progresses without symptoms until late stage complications occur. Older patients are more commonly at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. The fracture risk increases when suppressive doses of levothyroxine are administered especially in postmenopausal women. The question is; "When should bone mass density be tested in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy?". Standard guidelines for the prevention of osteoporosis suggest that follow-up be done in 1 to 2 years. We were interested in predicting the level of bone mass density in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy with a novel approach. Methods The study used data from the literature on the influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on bone mass density. Four cubic polynomial equations were obtained by curve fitting for Ward's triangle, trochanter, spine and femoral neck. The behaviors of the models were investigated by statistical and mathematical analyses. Results There are four points of inflexion on the graphs of the first derivatives of the equations with respect to time at about 6, 5, 7 and 5 months. In other words, there is a maximum speed of bone loss around the 6th month after the start of suppressive L-thyroxine therapy in post-menopausal women. Conclusion It seems reasonable to check bone mass density at the 6th month of therapy. More research is needed to explain the cause and to confirm the clinical application of this phenomenon for osteoporosis, but such an approach can be used as a guide to future experimentation. The investigation of change over time may lead to more sophisticated decision making in a wide variety of clinical problems.

  13. Systematics of radiation widths and level density parameters in the mass number range region 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.M.; Grudzevich, O.T.; Plyaskin, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    We suggest a systematics of radiation width based on a reduced radiative capture strength function for the E1-transition, which eliminates fluctuations in the analysed quantity with neutron binding energy, nuclear level density and γ-quanta energy. A smooth dependence for the fitting parameter of the radiative strength function for E1-transitions in relation to the relative atomic mass of the nucleus is obtained. 10 refs, 2 figs

  14. Distinct sources of particles near the cusp and the dusk flank of the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Lavraud, B.; Pitout, F.; Soucek, J.; Richard, R. L.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M.; Dandouras, I. S.; Rème, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    At the magnetopause, the location of the magnetic reconnection sites depends on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the solar wind: on the dayside magnetosphere for an IMF southward, on the lobes for an IMF northward and on the flanks for an IMF in the East-West direction. Since most of observations of reconnection events have sampled a limited region of space simultaneously it is still not yet know if the reconnection line is extended over large regions of the magnetosphere or if is patchy and made of many reconnection lines. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side where we observe multiple sources of reconnection/injections. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s with the density of order 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft had an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions, which leads to energy dispersions, we obtain distances of the ion sources between 14 and 20 RE from the spacecraft. The slope of the ion energy dispersions confirmed these distances. Using Tsyganenko model, we find that these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. The first injection by C3 is seen at approximately the same time as the 2nd injection on C1 but their sources at the magnetopause were separated by more than 7 RE. This would imply that two distinct sources were active at the same time on the dusk flank of the magnetosphere. In addition, a flow reversal was observed at the magnetopause on C4 which would be an indication that reconnection is also taking place near the exterior cusp quasi-simultaneously. A

  15. EFFECT OF CENTRAL MASS CONCENTRATION ON THE FORMATION OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Parijat; Jiang, I.-G.; Ann, H. B.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to study the response of the central kiloparsec region of a gaseous disk to the imposition of nonaxisymmetric bar potentials. The model galaxies are composed of three axisymmetric components (halo, disk, and bulge) and a nonaxisymmetric bar. These components are assumed to be invariant in time in the frame corotating with the bar. The potential of spherical γ-models of Dehnen is adopted for the bulge component whose density varies as r -γ near the center and r -4 at larger radii and, hence, possesses a central density core for γ = 0 and cusps for γ>0. Since the central mass concentration of the model galaxies increases with the cusp parameter γ, we have examined here the effect of the central mass concentration by varying the cusp parameter γ on the mechanism responsible for the formation of the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies. Our simulations show that the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals are formed by hydrodynamic spiral shocks driven by the gravitational torque of the bar for the models with γ = 0 and 0.5. On the other hand, the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in the models with γ = 1 and 1.5 are explained by gas density waves. Thus, we conclude that the mechanism responsible for the formation of symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies changes from hydrodynamic shocks to gas density waves as the central mass concentration increases from γ = 0 to 1.5.

  16. Cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerz, Kelly E; Guastello, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    A cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking behavior was developed and tested with attitude toward alcohol consumption and peer influence as the two control parameters. Similar models were also developed for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Participants were 1,247 students who completed the Long Form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. The results were strongest for the binge drinking criterion (R(2) = .90), compared to a linear model (R(2) = .34) that is usually associated with the Theory of Planned Behavior or Theory of Reasoned Action. The results have numerous implications for the development of interventions and for future research.

  17. A cusp electron gun for millimeter wave gyrodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, C. R.; He, W.; Cross, A. W.; Li, F.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Zhang, L.; Ronald, K.; Robertson, C. W.; Whyte, C. G.; Young, A. R.

    2010-04-01

    The experimental results of a thermionic cusp electron gun, to drive millimeter and submillimeter wave harmonic gyrodevices, are reported in this paper. Using a "smooth" magnetic field reversal formed by two coils this gun generated an annular-shaped, axis-encircling electron beam with 1.5 A current, and an adjustable velocity ratio α of up to 1.56 at a beam voltage of 40 kV. The beam cross-sectional shape and transported beam current were measured by a witness plate technique and Faraday cup, respectively. These measured results were found to be in excellent agreement with the simulated results using the three-dimensional code MAGIC.

  18. Development of a pressure based vortex-shedding meter: measuring unsteady mass-flow in variable density gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C L; Winroth, M; Alfredsson, P H

    2016-01-01

    An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method. (paper)

  19. Experimental study of heat and mass transfer across a density interface; Etude experimentale des transferts de chaleur et de masse a travers une interface de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellouf, Y.

    2004-11-15

    This work is part of a major research program on stratified flows encountered in the storage tanks of liquid natural gas. The subject of this dissertation concerns more particularly the problem of heat and mass transfer across a density interface. These flows are complex by nature due to the combination of three parameters: density difference {delta}{rho} across the interface, turbulence intensity u' in the homogeneous layers and the diffusivity K of the stratifying components. To control the operational conditions of the liquid gas storage, it is crucial to have a universal physical model to estimate the fluxes across the interface and to predict the brutal mixing of homogeneous layers commonly called the 'roll-over' event. In this work heat and mass transfer across an interface is measured in the presence of turbulence generated by vertical oscillation of two grids. Turbulent velocity field is measured in a homogeneous environment by Particle Image velocimetry (PIV). It shows that the turbulence generated by the two grids is homogeneous and isotropic in the vertical plan. We have established, based on this measurements, an experimental decay law of the turbulence intensity as a function of the flow parameters and the distance from the grids. Stratifications have been followed in time by recording the vertical profiles of temperature and density. Measured heat and mass fluxes are presented as a function of the three flow parameters (u', {delta}{rho}, K) through the non-dimensional numbers: Richardson number Ri g({delta}{rho}/{rho}{sub 0})(l'/u'{sup 2}) and Peclet number Pe = u'l'/K. Measurements show that these two parameters have opposite effects on transfer phenomena. While thermal diffusivity favours the entrainment near the interface, the stratification effect limits this entrainment. This fact is explained by analysing the interface structure. A phenomenological model is then proposed which takes into account these

  20. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source regionKey words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  1. Dirac spectral density and mass anomalous dimension in 2+1 flavor QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Katsumasa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute the Dirac spectral density of QCD in a wide range of eigenvalues by using a stochastic method. We use 2+1 flavor lattice ensembles generated with Mobius domain-wall fermion at three lattice spacings (a = 0:083; 0:055; 0:044 fm to estimate the continuum limit. The discretization effect can be minimized by a generalization of the valence domain-wall fermion. The spectral density at relatively high eigenvalues can be matched with perturbation theory. We compare the lattice results with the perturbative expansion available to O(α4s.

  2. Plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the distant polar cusp near local noon: The entry layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sckopke, N.; Rosenbauer, H.; Hedgecock, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Heos 2 plasma and magnetic field measurements in the distant polar cusp region reveal the existence of a plasma layer on day side field lines just inside the magnetopause. Density and temperature in this layer are nearly the same as they are in the adjacent magnetosheath, but the flow lacks the order existing both in the magnetosheath and in the plasma mantle. Flow directions toward and away from the sun but, in general, parallel to the field lines have been found. The magnetopause (as defined by a sudden rotation of the magnetic field vector) mostly coincides with the transition to ordered magnetosheath flow. The inner boundary of the layer is located just within the outer boundary of the hot ring current plasma. In the region of overlap the hot electrons have the signature of trapped particles, though often at reduced intensity. The magnetic field is strongly fluctuating in magnitude, while its orientation is more stable, consistent with a connection to the earth, but is systematically distorted out of the meridian plane. The layer is thought to be a consequence of the entry of magnetosheath plasma, which does not appear to be unobstructed, as has been claimed in the concept of a magnetospheric cleft. The magnetopause has a cusplike indentation which is elongated in local time. The existence of field-aligned currents (total strength approx. =10 6 A) and their location of flow in the inner part of the entry layer (into the ionosphere before noon and out of it after noon) are inferred from the systematic bending of field lines. It is proposed that the dynamo of the related current system is provided by the transfer of perpendicular momentum resulting from the plasma entry into the layer. The essential features of the entry layer might be compatible with the model of plasma flow through the magnetopause of Levy et al. (1964) if a 'dam' effect caused by the cusp geometry were added

  3. On the Role of Dissolved Gases in the Atmosphere Retention of Low-mass Low-density Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachan, Yayaati; Stevenson, David J.

    2018-02-01

    Low-mass low-density planets discovered by Kepler in the super-Earth mass regime typically have large radii for their inferred masses, implying the presence of H2–He atmospheres. These planets are vulnerable to atmospheric mass loss due to heating by the parent star’s XUV flux. Models coupling atmospheric mass loss with thermal evolution predicted a bimodal distribution of planetary radii, which has gained observational support. However, a key component that has been ignored in previous studies is the dissolution of these gases into the molten core of rock and iron that constitute most of their mass. Such planets have high temperatures (>2000 K) and pressures (∼kbars) at the core-envelope boundary, ensuring a molten surface and a subsurface reservoir of hydrogen that can be 5–10 times larger than the atmosphere. This study bridges this gap by coupling the thermal evolution of the planet and the mass loss of the atmosphere with the thermodynamic equilibrium between the dissolved H2 and the atmospheric H2 (Henry’s law). Dissolution in the interior allows a planet to build a larger hydrogen repository during the planet formation stage. We show that the dissolved hydrogen outgasses to buffer atmospheric mass loss. The slow cooling of the planet also leads to outgassing because solubility decreases with decreasing temperature. Dissolution of hydrogen in the interior therefore increases the atmosphere retention ability of super-Earths. The study highlights the importance of including the temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility of gases in magma oceans and coupling outgassing to planetary evolution models.

  4. Effect of mass density on surface morphology of electrodeposited manganese oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2018-05-01

    This work focus on high surface area morphology of manganese oxide films which are currently required for electrochemical capacitor electrode to enhance their performance. Electrodeposition of manganese oxide films was carried out using Chronoamperometry for different deposition time ranging from 30 to 120 sec. Cronoamperomertic I-T integrated data have been used to analyze active mass of all electrodeposited films. Morphological study of the deposited films with different mass was carried out through scanning electron microscopy. Film deposited for 30 sec time show highest porous morphology than others. Manganese oxide films with high porosity are suitable for electrochemical capacitor electrode.

  5. Microscopic description of fission in odd-mass uranium and plutonium nuclei with the Gogny energy density functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R. [Kuwait University, Physics Department, Kuwait (Kuwait); Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Center for Computational Simulation, Boadilla del Monte (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The parametrization D1M of the Gogny energy density functional is used to study fission in the odd-mass Uranium and Plutonium isotopes with A = 233,.., 249 within the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) Equal Filling Approximation (EFA). Ground state quantum numbers and deformations, pairing energies, one-neutron separation energies, barrier heights and fission isomer excitation energies are given. Fission paths, collective masses and zero point rotational and vibrational quantum corrections are used to compute the systematic of the spontaneous fission half-lives t{sub SF}, the masses and charges of the fission fragments as well as their intrinsic shapes. Although there exits a strong variance of the predicted fission rates with respect to the details involved in their computation, it is shown that both the specialization energy and the pairing quenching effects, taken into account fully variationally within the HFB-EFA blocking scheme, lead to larger spontaneous fission half-lives in odd-mass U and Pu nuclei as compared with the corresponding even-even neighbors. It is shown that modifications of a few percent in the strengths of the neutron and proton pairing fields can have a significant impact on the collective masses leading to uncertainties of several orders of magnitude in the predicted t{sub SF} values. Alpha-decay lifetimes have also been computed using a parametrization of the Viola-Seaborg formula. (orig.)

  6. In vitro fracture resistance of fiber reinforced cusp-replacing composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Tezvergil, A.; Kuijs, R.H.; Lassila, L.V.; Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Vallittu, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the fracture resistance and failure mode of fiber reinforced composite (FRC) cusp-replacing restorations in premolars. METHODS: Forty-five extracted sound upper premolars were randomly divided into three groups. Identical MOD cavities with simulated buccal cusp fracture and

  7. A comparison of fatigue resistance of three materials for cusp-replacing adhesive restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijs, R.H.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the fatigue resistance and failure behaviour of cusp-replacing restorations in premolars using different types of adhesive restorative materials. METHODS: A class 2 cavity was prepared and the buccal cusp was removed in an extracted sound human upper premolar. By using a

  8. Enamel microstructure and microstrain in the fracture of human and pig molar cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowics, T E; Rensberger, J M; Herring, S W

    2004-08-01

    The role of microstructure in enamel strain and breakage was investigated in human molar cusps and those of the pig, Sus scrofa. Rosette strain gauges were affixed to cusp surfaces (buccal human M3, n=15, and lingual pig M1, n=13), and a compressive load was applied to individual cusps using an MTS materials testing machine. Load and strain data were recorded simultaneously until cusp fracture, and these data were used to estimate enamel stresses, principal strains, and stiffness. Fractured and polished enamel fragments were examined in multiple planes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human cusp enamel showed greater stiffness than pig enamel (P=0.02), and tensile stress at yield was higher (17.9 N/mm2 in humans versus 8.9 N/mm2 in pigs, P=0.06). SEM revealed enamel rod decussation in both human and pig enamel; however, only pig enamel showed a decussation plane between rod and inter-rod crystallites. Human inter-rod enamel was densely packed between rods, whereas in pig enamel, inter-rod enamel formed partitions between rows of enamel rods. Overall, human enamel structure enabled molar cusps to withstand horizontal tensile stress during both elastic and plastic phases of compressive loading. In contrast, pig cusp enamel was less resistant to horizontal tensile stresses, but appeared to fortify the enamel against crack propagation in multiple directions. These structural and biomechanical differences in cusp enamel are likely to reflect species-level differences in occlusal function.

  9. Average spatial distributions of energetic particles in the midaltitude cusp/cleft region observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremser, G.; Lundin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The cusp/cleft region provides an entrance for magnetosheath particles into the magnetosphere and a sink for magnetospheric particles. In addition, strong acceleration and/or scattering of particles takes place. The Swedish satellite Viking crossed this region at midaltitudes. Measurements from this spacecraft were used to determine the average spatial distributions of H + and He ++ ions in the energy/charge range 2 keV/e ≤ E/Q ≤ 60 keV/e and of electrons with 7 keV ≤ E ≤ 97 keV. The data supply information on the structure of the midaltitude cusp/cleft region, the particle sources, and dynamical processes. Four different parts can be distinguished: (1) The cusp extends from about 76 degree to 82 degree invariant latitude (INL) and from 0800 to 1400 MLT. It is characterized by the presence of magnetosheath origin particles and important electron acceleration signatures. (2) A smaller region inside the cusp (77 degree-82 degree INL, 1000-1330 MLT) contains magnetosheath origin ions without electron acceleration. This is regarded as the cusp proper connected to the exterior cusp. (3) Poleward of the cusp magnetosheath origin ions are still present, but no magnetosheath electrons. This region is related to the plasma mantle. (4) Another region without magnetosheath origin ions but with strong electron acceleration extends equatorward of the cusp and probably constitutes part of the cleft, likely to be connected to the low-altitude boundary layer

  10. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  11. Problems related to the determination of mass densities of evaporated reference deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagziria, H.; Pauwels, J.; Verdonk, J.; Van Gestel, J.; Eykens, R.; Gilliam, D. M.; Scott, R. D.; Byrne, J.; Dawber, P.

    1991-05-01

    The accurate characterization of the surface density (nuclei/cm 2) of thin isotopic deposits is of highest importance in certain experiments. If accuracies better than ± 0.5% are to be quoted, careful consideration of seemingly minor effects is necessary, as these effects may generate serious errors. The radial surface density distribution in the central region of the target disks, the thickness profile at the edges, and the evaluation of effective deposit diameters are discussed for the case of measurements and observations made during the preparation and characterization of 6LiF and 10B reference deposits, which were employed in a recent determination of the free neutron lifetime. Theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Problems related to the determination of mass densities of evaporated reference deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagziria, H.; Pauwels, J.; Verdonk, J.; Gestel, J. van; Eykens, R.; Gilliam, D.M.; Scott, R.D.; Byrne, J.; Dawber, P.

    1991-01-01

    The accurate characterization of the surface density (nuclei/cm 2 ) of thin isotopic deposits is of highest importance in certain experiments. If accuracies better than ±0.5% are to be quoted, careful consideration of seemingly minor effects is necessary, as these effects may generate serious errors. The radial surface density distribution in the central region of the target disks, the thickness profile at the edges, and the evaluation of effective deposit diameters are discussed for the case of measurements and observations made during the preparation and characterization of 6 LiF and 10 B reference deposits, which were employed in a recent determination of the free neutron lifetime. Theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. (orig.)

  13. Problems related to the determination of mass densities of evaporated reference deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagziria, H.; Pauwels, J.; Verdonk, J.; Gestel, J. van; Eykens, R. (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)); Gilliam, D.M. (National Inst. of Standards and Tech., Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Scott, R.D. (Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, Glasgow (UK)); Byrne, J.; Dawber, P. (School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (UK))

    1991-05-15

    The accurate characterization of the surface density (nuclei/cm{sup 2}) of thin isotopic deposits is of highest importance in certain experiments. If accuracies better than {+-}0.5% are to be quoted, careful consideration of seemingly minor effects is necessary, as these effects may generate serious errors. The radial surface density distribution in the central region of the target disks, the thickness profile at the edges, and the evaluation of effective deposit diameters are discussed for the case of measurements and observations made during the preparation and characterization of {sup 6}LiF and {sup 10}B reference deposits, which were employed in a recent determination of the free neutron lifetime. Theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. (orig.).

  14. Estimating the mass density in the thermosphere with the CYGNSS mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy-Virat, C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission, launched in December 2016, is a constellation of eight satellites orbiting the Earth at 510 km. Its goal is to improve our understanding of rapid hurricane wind intensification. Each CYGNSS satellite uses GPS signals that are reflected off of the ocean's surface to measure the wind. The GPS can also be used to specify the orbit of the satellites quite precisely. The motion of satellites in low Earth orbit are greatly influenced by the neutral density of the surrounding atmosphere through drag. Modeling the neutral density in the upper atmosphere is a major challenge as it involves a comprehensive understanding of the complex coupling between the thermosphere and the ionosphere, the magnetosphere, and the Sun. This is why thermospheric models (such as NRLMSIS, Jacchia-Bowman, HASDM, GITM, or TIEGCM) can only approximate it with a limited accuracy, which decreases during strong geomagnetic events. Because atmospheric drag directly depends on the thermospheric density, it can be estimated applying filtering methods to the trajectories of the CYGNSS observatories. The CYGNSS mission can provide unique results since the constellation of eight satellites enables multiple measurements of the same region at close intervals ( 10 minutes), which can be used to detect short time scale features. Moreover, the CYGNSS spacecraft can be pitched from a low to high drag attitude configuration, which can be used in the filtering methods to improve the accuracy of the atmospheric density estimation. The methodology and the results of this approach applied to the CYGNSS mission will be presented.

  15. Determination of peak bone mass density and composition in low-income urban residents of metro Manila using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.V.; Guanzon, L.V.V.; De Guzman, A.M.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1996-01-01

    Filipinos are predisposed to osteoporosis because of inadequate calcium in their diet early on in life, confounded by malnutrition, susceptibility to infectious diseases and their generally small body frame. And yet the problem of osteoporosis has not been properly addressed. The incidence of osteoporosis is not known since oftentimes it is established only once complications have set in. It is believed that osteoporosis poses a public health concern but its extent is not realized at present because of lack of local epidemiological data. This study aims to determine the bone mass density as a function of age among 210 screened and healthy volunteers coming from urban poor communities of Metro Manila over a 3-year period. A LUNAR DPX-L bone densitometry for dual X-ray photon absorptiometry will be used, with measurements taken on the spine and femur. It also aims to correlate factors such as nutritional intake, physical activity, lifestyle, sex and body mass index with that of bone mass density. Blood and urine samples will be obtained for biochemistry and hormonal radioimmunoassay examination. Statistical analysis will be done to com are differences within the group and to determine rate of bone loss as a function of age and sex. Plans for future research include the determination of trace element content in cortical bone and tooth samples from healthy living subjects. (author)

  16. Estimation of Engine Intake Air Mass Flow using a generic Speed-Density method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtíšek Michal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of real driving emissions (RDE from internal combustion engines under real-world operation using portable, onboard monitoring systems (PEMS is becoming an increasingly important tool aiding the assessment of the effects of new fuels and technologies on environment and human health. The knowledge of exhaust flow is one of the prerequisites for successful RDE measurement with PEMS. One of the simplest approaches for estimating the exhaust flow from virtually any engine is its computation from the intake air flow, which is calculated from measured engine rpm and intake manifold charge pressure and temperature using a generic speed-density algorithm, applicable to most contemporary four-cycle engines. In this work, a generic speed-density algorithm was compared against several reference methods on representative European production engines - a gasoline port-injected automobile engine, two turbocharged diesel automobile engines, and a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine. The overall results suggest that the uncertainty of the generic speed-density method is on the order of 10% throughout most of the engine operating range, but increasing to tens of percent where high-volume exhaust gas recirculation is used. For non-EGR engines, such uncertainty is acceptable for many simpler and screening measurements, and may be, where desired, reduced by engine-specific calibration.

  17. Measurement of the charged pion mass using a low-density target of light atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trassinelli M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the negatively charged pion mass based on the simultaneous spectroscopy of pionic nitrogen and muonic oxygen transitions using a gaseous target composed by a N2/O2 mixture at 1.4 bar. We present the experimental set-up and the methods for deriving the pion mass value from the spatial separation from the 5g − 4f πN transition line and the 5g − 4f μO transition line used as reference. Moreover, we discuss the importance to use dilute targets in order to minimize the influence of additional spectral lines from the presence of remaining electrons during the radiative emission. The occurrence of possible satellite lines is investigated via hypothesis testing methods using the Bayes factor.

  18. Methods for quantitative measurement of tooth wear using the area and volume of virtual model cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sulhee; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2018-04-01

    Clinicians must examine tooth wear to make a proper diagnosis. However, qualitative methods of measuring tooth wear have many disadvantages. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and evaluate quantitative parameters using the cusp area and volume of virtual dental models. The subjects of this study were the same virtual models that were used in our former study. The same age group classification and new tooth wear index (NTWI) scoring system were also reused. A virtual occlusal plane was generated with the highest cusp points and lowered vertically from 0.2 to 0.8 mm to create offset planes. The area and volume of each cusp was then measured and added together. In addition to the former analysis, the differential features of each cusp were analyzed. The scores of the new parameters differentiated the age and NTWI groups better than those analyzed in the former study. The Spearman ρ coefficients between the total area and the area of each cusp also showed higher scores at the levels of 0.6 mm (0.6A) and 0.8A. The mesiolingual cusp (MLC) showed a statistically significant difference ( P <0.01) from the other cusps in the paired t -test. Additionally, the MLC exhibited the highest percentage of change at 0.6A in some age and NTWI groups. Regarding the age groups, the MLC showed the highest score in groups 1 and 2. For the NTWI groups, the MLC was not significantly different in groups 3 and 4. These results support the proposal that the lingual cusp exhibits rapid wear because it serves as a functional cusp. Although this study has limitations due to its cross-sectional nature, it suggests better quantitative parameters and analytical tools for the characteristics of cusp wear.

  19. Identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density fraction by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walikonis, R S; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Our understanding of the organization of postsynaptic signaling systems at excitatory synapses has been aided by the identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction, a subcellular fraction enriched in structures with the morphology of PSDs. In this study, we have completed...... not previously known to be constituents of the PSD fraction and 24 that had previously been associated with the PSD by other methods. The newly identified proteins include the heavy chain of myosin-Va (dilute myosin), a motor protein thought to be involved in vesicle trafficking, and the mammalian homolog...

  20. Optical Quantification of Cellular Mass, Volume, and Density of Circulating Tumor Cells Identified in an Ovarian Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Velasco, Carmen Ruiz; Li, Julia; Kolatkar, Anand; Luttgen, Madelyn; Bethel, Kelly; Duggan, Bridgette; Kuhn, Peter; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of cancer patients with known metastatic disease across the major types of epithelial malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the concentration of CTCs in the blood is prognostic of overall survival in breast, prostate, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer. This study characterizes CTCs identified using the high-definition (HD)-CTC assay in an ovarian cancer patient with stage IIIC disease. We characterized the physical properties of 31 HD-CTCs and 50 normal leukocytes from a single blood draw taken just prior to the initial debulking surgery. We utilized a non-interferometric quantitative phase microscopy technique using brightfield imagery to measure cellular dry mass. Next we used a quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy technique to measure cellular volume. These techniques were combined to determine cellular dry mass density. We found that HD-CTCs were more massive than leukocytes: 33.6 ± 3.2 pg (HD-CTC) compared to 18.7 ± 0.6 pg (leukocytes), p < 0.001; had greater volumes: 518.3 ± 24.5 fL (HD-CTC) compared to 230.9 ± 78.5 fL (leukocyte), p < 0.001; and possessed a decreased dry mass density with respect to leukocytes: 0.065 ± 0.006 pg/fL (HD-CTC) compared to 0.085 ± 0.004 pg/fL (leukocyte), p < 0.006. Quantification of HD-CTC dry mass content and volume provide key insights into the fluid dynamics of cancer, and may provide the rationale for strategies to isolate, monitor or target CTCs based on their physical properties. The parameters reported here can also be incorporated into blood cell flow models to better understand metastasis.

  1. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  2. Determining the hierarchy of neutrino masses with high density magnetized detectors at the Beta Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Rigolin, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; De Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Terranova, F.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-kton iron detectors can be simultaneously exploited as far detectors for high energy Beta Beams and to determine the atmospheric ν μ flux in the multi-GeV range. These measurements can be combined in a highly non trivial manner to improve the sensitivity to the hierarchy of neutrino masses. Considering a Super-SPS based Beta Beam and a 40 kton far detector located ∼700 km from the source (CERN to Gran Sasso distance), we demonstrate that even with moderate detector granularities the sign of Δm 13 2 can be determined for θ 13 values greater than 4 deg.

  3. Cusp-Gun Sixth-Harmonic Slotted Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, R. C.; McDermott, D. B.; Hirata Luhmann, Y., Jr.; Gallagher, D. A.; Spencer, T. A.

    2000-10-01

    A high-harmonic slotted gyrotron has been constructed at UC Davis to be driven by a 70 kV, 3.5 A, axis-encircling electron beam from a Northrop Grumman Cusp gun. The 94 GHz, slotted sixth-harmonic gyrotron is predicted to generate 50 kW with an efficiency of 20%. Using the profile of the adiabatic field reversal from the UC Davis superconducting test-magnet, EGUN simulations predict that an axis-encircling electron beam will be generated with an axial velocity spread of Δ v_z/v_z=10% for the desired velocity ratio of α =v_z/v_z=1.5. The design will also be presented for an 8th-harmonic W-band gyrotron whose magnetic field can be supplied by a lightweight permanent magnet.

  4. Hot electron confinement in a microwave heated spindle cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelas, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The Plasma Research Laboratory at the University of Missouri-Columbia was established with awards from the McDonnel Douglas Foundation, ARMCO, Union Electric, Black and Vetch, Kansas City Power and Light, the National Science Foundation, and DOE. The Plasma Research Lab's major effort is the Missouri Magnetic Mirror (MMM or M 3 ) Project. The technical goals of MMM have been (1) Diagnostic Development, (2) Plasma Physics in the Cusp geometry, (3) plasma-wall interactions, (4) impurity effects in a steady-state plasma, and (5) Development of Diagnostics for use in harsh plasma processing environments. The other major goal of MMM has remained providing a facility for hands-on training in experimental plasma physics. The major experimental facility of MMM is the MMM Modified Experiment (M4X). Other research efforts in the Plasma Research Laboratory include small efforts in cold fusion, toroidal magnetic confinement, and inertial confinement and a potentially major effort in direct conversion of nuclear energy

  5. Coronary ostium occlusion by coronary cusp displacement in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Ebata, Ryota; Funabashi, Nobusada; Matsumiya, Goro; Saito, Yuko Kazato; Takechi, Fumie; Yonemori, Yoko; Nakatani, Yukio; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Williams syndrome is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome resulting from a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, and is characterized by distinctive facial features and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). This syndrome rarely presents unpredictable cardiac death, and yet, as illustrated in the present case, it is still not possible to predict it, even on close monitoring. We herein describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese girl with Williams syndrome, who had sudden cardiac collapse due to cardiac infarction after pharyngitis. Cardiac failure followed a critical course that did not respond to catecholamine support or heart rest with extracardiac mechanical support. Although marked coronary stenosis was not present, the left coronary cusp abnormally adhered to the aortic wall, which may synergistically cause coronary ostium occlusion with SVAS. Altered hemodynamic state, even that caused by the common cold, may lead to critical myocardial events in Williams syndrome with SVAS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Dual cusped protostylid: Case report and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protostylids are superstructures on maxillary or mandibular molars, which have rarely been reported in literature, and the significance of their presence has also been underestimated. The dental practitioners may easily misdiagnose a tooth, with such conical tubercles as malformed tooth. Interestingly, this is neither a malformation nor an anomaly but rather an important morphological trait of an individual. Once in a while, one may come across such a distinct morphological trait without being able to diagnose. To the authors' best knowledge, only one similar case has been reported previously, and the second such case internationally. Bearing all such facts in mind, the authors attempt to educate the readers towards the existence of such a trait so that it can be identified and studied in larger numbers. Hence, it is the authors' endeavor to report an unusual case of dual cusped maxillary protostylid along with its clinical significance.

  7. Distribution in magnetotail of O+ ions from Cusp/Cleft ionosphere: A possible substorm trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladis, J.B.; Francis, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    The transport of O + ions from the cusp/cleft ionosphere to the magnetotail during highly disturbed times was determined by computing the guiding-center trajectories of the ions to a distance of 6 R E from the ionosphere and the full-motion trajectories at later times. Case histories were tallied in six planes perpendicular to the X GSM axis, three planes perpendicular to the Y GSM axis, and in the center plane of the tail. At various times relatives to the enhancement of the convection electric field, the following ion properties were constructed from the case histories; number density, mean energy, energy and pitch angle distributions of the flux, and ion pressure components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. It was found that after about 1.7 hours the ion flux in the near-Earth magnetotail increased dramatically and the spectrum hardened, much as observed during periods just preceding substorms. This increase is attributed to (1) the increase in the O + outflux from the ionosphere, (2) the increased energization of the ions by the convection electric field, and (3) ion trapping, which generally occurs because the ion magnetic generally increase after the ions first cross the geomagnetotail center plane. Moreover, the parallel pressure of the ions exceeds the energy density of the magnetic field at X GSM E . On the basis of the expected alterations of the magnetic and electric fields in response to this O + pressure, a substorm trigger mechanism is suggested

  8. ON THE INCONSISTENCY BETWEEN COSMIC STELLAR MASS DENSITY AND STAR FORMATION RATE UP TO z ∼ 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Wang, F. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we test the discrepancy between the stellar mass density (SMD) and instantaneous star formation rate in the redshift range 0 < z < 8 using a large observational data sample. We first compile the measurements of SMDs up to z ∼ 8. Comparing the observed SMDs with the time-integral of instantaneous star formation history (SFH), we find that the observed SMDs are lower than that implied from the SFH at z < 4. We also use the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to derive the best-fitting SFH from the observed SMD data. At 0.5 < z < 6, the observed star formation rate densities are larger than the best-fitting one, especially at z ∼ 2 where they are larger by a factor of about two. However, at lower (z < 0.5) and higher redshifts (z > 6), the derived SFH is consistent with the observations. This is the first time that the discrepancy between the observed SMD and instantaneous star formation rate has been tested up to very high redshift z ≈ 8 using the MCMC method and a varying recycling factor. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, such as underestimation of SMD, initial mass function, and evolution of cosmic metallicity

  9. ON THE INCONSISTENCY BETWEEN COSMIC STELLAR MASS DENSITY AND STAR FORMATION RATE UP TO z ∼ 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.; Wang, F. Y., E-mail: fayinwang@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we test the discrepancy between the stellar mass density (SMD) and instantaneous star formation rate in the redshift range 0 < z < 8 using a large observational data sample. We first compile the measurements of SMDs up to z ∼ 8. Comparing the observed SMDs with the time-integral of instantaneous star formation history (SFH), we find that the observed SMDs are lower than that implied from the SFH at z < 4. We also use the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to derive the best-fitting SFH from the observed SMD data. At 0.5 < z < 6, the observed star formation rate densities are larger than the best-fitting one, especially at z ∼ 2 where they are larger by a factor of about two. However, at lower (z < 0.5) and higher redshifts (z > 6), the derived SFH is consistent with the observations. This is the first time that the discrepancy between the observed SMD and instantaneous star formation rate has been tested up to very high redshift z ≈ 8 using the MCMC method and a varying recycling factor. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, such as underestimation of SMD, initial mass function, and evolution of cosmic metallicity.

  10. THE H I MASS DENSITY IN GALACTIC HALOS, WINDS, AND COLD ACCRETION AS TRACED BY Mg II ABSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, Christopher W., E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    It is well established that Mg II absorption lines detected in background quasar spectra arise from gas structures associated with foreground galaxies. The degree to which galaxy evolution is driven by the gas cycling through halos is highly uncertain because their gas mass density is poorly constrained. Fitting the Mg II equivalent width (W) distribution with a Schechter function and applying the N(H I)-W correlation of Menard and Chelouche, we computed {Omega}(H I){sub MgII} {identical_to} {Omega}(H I){sub halo} = 1.41{sup +0.75}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4. We exclude damped Ly{alpha}'s (DLAs) from our calculations so that {Omega}(H I){sub halo} comprises accreting and/or outflowing halo gas not locked up in cold neutral clouds. We deduce that the cosmic H I gas mass density fraction in galactic halos traced by Mg II absorption is {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}(H I){sub DLA} {approx_equal} 15% and {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}{sub b} {approx_equal} 0.3%. Citing several lines of evidence, we propose that infall/accretion material is sampled by small W whereas outflow/winds are sampled by large W, and find that {Omega}(H I){sub infall} is consistent with {Omega}(H I){sub outflow} for bifurcation at W = 1.23{sup +0.15}{sub -0.28} Angstrom-Sign ; cold accretion would then comprise no more than {approx}7% of the total H I mass density. We discuss evidence that (1) the total H I mass cycling through halos remains fairly constant with cosmic time and that the accretion of H I gas sustains galaxy winds, and (2) evolution in the cosmic star formation rate depends primarily on the rate at which cool H I gas cycles through halos.

  11. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  12. Auroral and magnetic variations in the polar cusp and cleft. Signatures of magnetopause boundary layer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.

    1987-10-01

    By combining continous ground-based observations of polar cleft/cusp auroras and local magnetic variations with electromagnetic parameters obtained from satellites in polar orbit (low-altitude cleft/cusp) and in the magnetosheath/interplanetary space, different electrodynamic processes in the polar cleft/cusp have been investigated. One of the more controversial questions in this field is related to the observed shifts in latitude of cleft/cusp auroras and the relationships with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation, local magnetic disturbances (DP2 and DPY modes) and magnetospheric substorms. A new approach which may contribute to clarifying these complicated relationships, simultaneous groundbased observations of the midday and evening-midnight sectors of the auroral oval, is illustrated. A related topic is the spatial relationship between the cleft/cusp auroras and the ionospheric convection currents. A characteristic feature of the polar cusp and cleft regions during negative IMF B z is repeated occurrence of certain short-lived auroral structures moving in accordance with the local convection pattern. Satellite measurements of particle precipitation, magnetic field and ion drift components permit detailed investigations of the electrodynamics of these cusp/cleft structures. Information on electric field components, Birkeland currents, Poynting flux, height-integrated Pedersen conductivity and Joule heat dissipation rate has been derived. These observations are discussed in relation to existing models of temporal plasma injections from the magnetosheath

  13. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - all seasons, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL0_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  14. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density off central California - Oceanic season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Oc0_mass.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oc0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of 76 species...

  15. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - Davidson Current season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Da0_mass.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Da0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  16. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - Upwelling season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Up0_mass.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Up0_mass is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of 76 species...

  17. How Well do we Know Near-Surface Density When Determining Mass Balance by the Geodetic Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, M. H.; Matzi, E.

    2005-12-01

    From a data set of firn pits in the accumulation area of Hintereisferner in the years 1964 - 2002 the behavior of density and water equivalent was analyzed with a view to estimating the potential errors in the application of the geodetic method. Since annual specific balance ranged from 100 to 3300 mm w.e. the profiles were scaled to total depth. For the uppermost 10% of the annual deposit at a typical location the 1964-2002 mean density would be 350 kg/m-3 with a standard deviation of 110 kg/m-3; for the 10% layer at the base of the annual snowpack the respective figures are 510 +- 30 kg/m-3. The normalized long term means of an ensemble of 9 pits ranged from 310 to 380 kg/m-3 in the top layer and from 510 to 540 kg/m-3 in the bottom layer. When one outlier is removed the the range in the bottom layer reduces to 525 to 540 kg/m-3. This small local variance encourages the use of the geodetic method. The comparison of elevation models of 1969 and 1997 yields a mass change that agrees very well with the results of the glaciological method provided the volume change is converted to mass with a density of 900 kg/m-3. While this may be true for the entire glacier on long terms, it will fail for individual years in the accumulation area. Possible errors are calculated from the data set emphasizing the role of year to year changes of specific balance and accumulation area ratio.

  18. High Fidelity Multi-Objective Design Optimization of a Downscaled Cusped Field Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fahey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cusped Field Thruster (CFT concept has demonstrated significantly improved performance over the Hall Effect Thruster and the Gridded Ion Thruster; however, little is understood about the complexities of the interactions and interdependencies of the geometrical, magnetic and ion beam properties of the thruster. This study applies an advanced design methodology combining a modified power distribution calculation and evolutionary algorithms assisted by surrogate modeling to a multi-objective design optimization for the performance optimization and characterization of the CFT. Optimization is performed for maximization of performance defined by five design parameters (i.e., anode voltage, anode current, mass flow rate, and magnet radii, simultaneously aiming to maximize three objectives; that is, thrust, efficiency and specific impulse. Statistical methods based on global sensitivity analysis are employed to assess the optimization results in conjunction with surrogate models to identify key design factors with respect to the three design objectives and additional performance measures. The research indicates that the anode current and the Outer Magnet Radius have the greatest effect on the performance parameters. An optimal value for the anode current is determined, and a trend towards maximizing anode potential and mass flow rate is observed.

  19. Observation of the two-electron cusp in atomic collisions. Evidence for strong electron-electron correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, L.; Orban, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this report we present experimental data for a process when two electrons with velocity vectors equal to that of the projectile are emitted from collisions. By observing the two electron cusp the study of the threshold phenomenon for two-electron break-up is possible. It is a particularly interesting question whether the outgoing charged projectile can attract the two repulsing electrons so strongly that the two-electron cusp is formed. If it is so, a further question arises: Are the two electrons correlated in the final state as it is predicted by the Wannier theory? The experiments have been done at the 1 MeV VdG accelerator of ATOMKI using our TOF spectrometer. The first measurements clearly showed the formation of the two-electron cusp and signature of the electron correlation in 200 keV He 0 +He collisions. These promising results motivated us to carry out the experiment at 100 keV beam energy where the coincidence count rate is still reasonable but the energy resolution is better. For an acceptable data acquisition time we improved our data acquisition and data processing system for triple coincidence measurements. In Fig. 1a we present our measured relative fourfold differential cross section (FDCS) that shows strong electron correlation. For a comparison, in Fig. 1b we displayed the contour plot for uncorrelated electron pair emission. These latter data were synthesized artificially, generating the energies of the electron pairs from two independent double coincidence experiments. In both figures the distributions are characterized by two ridges. In Fig. 1b the ridges are perpendicular straight lines (E 1 = E 2 .13.6 eV). As a result of the correlation, the ridges in Fig. 1a are distorted in such a way that they have a joint straight-line section following the line E 1 + E 2 = 27.2 eV. This means that the electron pairs in the vicinity of the cusp maximum are emitted with a center of- mass velocity equal to that of

  20. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-08-01

    Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life.

  1. Turbulent mass flux closure modeling for variable density turbulence in the wake of an air-entraining transom stern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelli; Yue, Dick

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the development and a priori testing of closure models for the incompressible highly-variable density turbulent (IHVDT) flow in the near wake region of a transom stern. This complex, three-dimensional flow includes three regions with distinctly different flow behavior: (i) the convergent corner waves that originate from the body and collide on the ship center plane; (ii) the "rooster tail" that forms from the collision; and (iii) the diverging wave train. The characteristics of these regions involve violent free-surface flows and breaking waves with significant turbulent mass flux (TMF) at Atwood number At = (ρ2 -ρ1) / (ρ2 +ρ1) 1 for which there is little guidance in turbulence closure modeling for the momentum and scalar transport along the wake. Utilizing datasets from high-resolution simulations of the near wake of a canonical three-dimensional transom stern using conservative Volume-of-Fluid (cVOF), implicit Large Eddy Simulation (iLES), and Boundary Data Immersion Method (BDIM), we develop explicit algebraic turbulent mass flux closure models that incorporate the most relevant physical processes. Performance of these models in predicting the turbulent mass flux in all three regions of the wake will be presented. Office of Naval Research.

  2. Detection of mass regions in mammograms by bilateral analysis adapted to breast density using similarity indexes and convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira Diniz, João Otávio; Bandeira Diniz, Pedro Henrique; Azevedo Valente, Thales Levi; Corrêa Silva, Aristófanes; de Paiva, Anselmo Cardoso; Gattass, Marcelo

    2018-03-01

    The processing of medical image is an important tool to assist in minimizing the degree of uncertainty of the specialist, while providing specialists with an additional source of detect and diagnosis information. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects the female population around the world. It is also the most deadly type of cancer among women. It is the second most common type of cancer among all others. The most common examination to diagnose breast cancer early is mammography. In the last decades, computational techniques have been developed with the purpose of automatically detecting structures that maybe associated with tumors in mammography examination. This work presents a computational methodology to automatically detection of mass regions in mammography by using a convolutional neural network. The materials used in this work is the DDSM database. The method proposed consists of two phases: training phase and test phase. The training phase has 2 main steps: (1) create a model to classify breast tissue into dense and non-dense (2) create a model to classify regions of breast into mass and non-mass. The test phase has 7 step: (1) preprocessing; (2) registration; (3) segmentation; (4) first reduction of false positives; (5) preprocessing of regions segmented; (6) density tissue classification (7) second reduction of false positives where regions will be classified into mass and non-mass. The proposed method achieved 95.6% of accuracy in classify non-dense breasts tissue and 97,72% accuracy in classify dense breasts. To detect regions of mass in non-dense breast, the method achieved a sensitivity value of 91.5%, and specificity value of 90.7%, with 91% accuracy. To detect regions in dense breasts, our method achieved 90.4% of sensitivity and 96.4% of specificity, with accuracy of 94.8%. According to the results achieved by CNN, we demonstrate the feasibility of using convolutional neural networks on medical image processing techniques for

  3. Association between low lean mass and low bone mineral density in 653 women with hip fracture: does the definition of low lean mass matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Loss of both muscle and bone mass results in fragility fractures with increased risk of disability, poor quality of life, and death. Our aim was to assess the association between low appendicular lean mass (aLM) defined according to different criteria and low bone mineral density (BMD) in hip-fracture women. Six hundred fifty-three women admitted to our rehabilitation hospital underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 19.1 ± 4.1 (mean ± SD) days after hip-fracture occurrence. Low aLM was identified according to either Baumgartner's definition (aLM/height 2 less than two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group) or FNIH criteria: aLM definition, the association between low aLM/height 2 and low BMD was significant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 8.52 (p = 0.004), but it was erased by adjustments for age and fat mass. Using the FNIH definition the association between low aLM and low BMD was significant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 42.5 (p definition based on aLM/BMI ratio the association between low aLM/BMI ratio and low BMD was nonsignificant: χ 2 (1, n = 653) = 0.003 (p = 0.957). The association between low aLM and low BMD in women with hip fracture dramatically depends on the adopted definition of low aLM. FNIH threshold for aLM (<15.02 kg) emerges as a useful tool to capture women with damage of the muscle-bone unit.

  4. Bone Mass Density and Risk of Breast Cancer and Survival in Older Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganry, O.; Baudoin, C.; Fardellone, P.; Peng, J.; Raverdy, N.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Older women with high bone mineral density (BMD) have an increased risk of breast cancer but it is not well known whether this association is associated with the stage of the tumor. The objective of the study is to determine if older women with high BMD are likely to develop a more aggressive form of breast cancer, as defined by mortality. Patients: We prospectively studied 1504 women who were 75 years of age or older at the entry in the study (range, 75-90 years), between 1992 and 1994. BMD was measured by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry at three skeletal sites (trochanter, Ward's triangle, femoral neck). The women were followed for a mean of 7 years for the occurrence of breast cancer. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to obtain estimates of the relative risk of breast cancer and relative risk of death according to the BMD. Main results: Forty-five incident breast cancer cases were identified. In multivariate analyses of the risk of breast cancer for women in the highest tertile of BMD was greater than for women in the lowest tertile. Indeed, the women with a trochanter BMD in the highest tertile were at 2.3-fold increased risk compared with women in the lowest tertile. The women with highest tertile BMD measured at the Ward's triangle and at the femoral neck were respectively at 2.2-and 3.3-fold increased risk compared with women at the lowest risk. The 7-year survival rates were markedly less favorable for women in the second and third tertile of the three skeletal sites compared with the lowest tertile. The risk of death was greater for women in the highest tertile of BMD than for women in the lowest tertile at every skeletal site. Conclusion: Elderly women with high BMD have an increased risk of breast cancer, especially advanced cancer, compared with women with low BMD

  5. Tunable system for production of mirror and cusp configurations using chassis of permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Alexander; Bushmelov, Maxim; Batishchev, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    Compact arrays of permanent magnets have shown promise as replacements for electromagnets in applications requiring magnetic cusps and mirrors. An adjustable system capable of suspending and translating a pair of light, nonmagnetic chassis carrying such sources of magnetic field has been designed and constructed. Using this device to align two cylindrical chassis, strong solenoid-like domains of field, as well as classic biconic cusp and magnetic mirror topologies, are generated. Employing a pair of ring-shaped chassis instead, the superposition of their naturally-emitted cusps is demonstrated to produce sextupolar and octupolar magnetic fields.

  6. Classical description of the electron capture to the continuum cusp formation in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illescas, Clara; Pons, B.; Riera, A.

    2002-01-01

    Classical calculations are used to describe the dynamics of the electron capture to the continuum (ECC) cusp formation in H + +He collisions. We illustrate the frontier character of the ECC electrons between capture and ionization, and confirm that it is a temporary capture, through projectile focusing, that is responsible for the ECC cusp. Furthermore, the cusp is not a divergence smoothed by the experiment, and is slightly shifted from the impact-velocity value because of the residual pull from the target after ionization. This shift is larger the smaller the nuclear velocity

  7. Determination of polar cusp position by low-energy particle measurements made aboard AUREOLE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V.A.; Jorjio, M.V.; Shuiskaya, F.K.; Crasnier, J.; Sauvaud, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    The Franco-Soviet experiment ARCAD, launched aboard the satellite AUREOLE December 27, 1971, has verified the existence of a particle penetration from the transition zone up to ionospheric altitudes across the polar cusp. The polar cusp is characterized by proton fluxes >10 7 particles/(cm 2 .s.sr.KeV) at 0.5KeV, with energy spectra similar to those in the transition zone. The position and form of the polar cusp are studied from measurements of protons in the range 0.4 to 30KeV during geomagnetically quiet periods (Kp [fr

  8. Experimental investigation of plasma sheaths in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengqi; Wei, Zi-an; Ma, J. X.

    2017-11-01

    Sheath structures near a metal plate in a magnetized plasma were experimentally investigated in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations. Plasma parameters and the sheath potential distributions were probed by a planar and an emissive probe, respectively. The measured sheath profiles in the mirror configuration show that the sheath thickness first decreases and then increases when the magnetic strength is raised. A magnetic flux-tube model was used to explain this result. In the cusp configuration, the measured sheath thickness decreases with the increase of the coil current creating the magnetic cusp. However, when normalized by the electron Debye length, the dependence of the sheath thickness on the coil current is reversed.

  9. On the Casimir scaling violation in the cusp anomalous dimension at small angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2017-10-01

    We compute the four-loop n f contribution proportional to the quartic Casimir of the QCD cusp anomalous dimension as an expansion for small cusp angle ϕ. This piece is gauge invariant, violates Casimir scaling, and first appears at four loops. It requires the evaluation of genuine non-planar four-loop Feynman integrals. We present results up to O({φ}^4) . One motivation for our calculation is to probe a recent conjecture on the all-order structure of the cusp anomalous dimension. As a byproduct we obtain the four-loop HQET wave function anomalous dimension for this color structure.

  10. Connection of the positive phase of ionospheric storms with the day-time cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, L.D.; Danilov, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the relation of ionospheric storms with the day-time cusp are considered. Experimental data on the velocity and direction of wind from the day-time cusp region, obtained for perturbed conditions on 30.12.1981, are analyzed. It is shown that perturbed wind from the cusp results in the increase of the value δf 0 F2 and under conditions before magnetic storm onset unambiguously causes positive ionosheric perturbation, and under conditions of a developed magnetic storm-either a positive perturbation or a decrease in the amplitude of negative perturbation

  11. Negative baryon density and the folding structure of the B = 3 skyrmion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D; Krusch, S

    2013-01-01

    The Skyrme model is a nonlinear field theory whose solitonic solutions, once quantized, describe atomic nuclei. The classical static soliton solutions, so-called skyrmions, have interesting symmetries and can only be calculated numerically. Mathematically, these skyrmions can be viewed as maps between two three-manifolds and, as such, their stable singularities can only be folds, cusps and swallowtails. Physically, the occurrence of singularities is related to negative baryon density. In this paper, we calculate the charge three skyrmion to a high resolution in order to examine its singularity structure in detail. Thereby, we explore regions of negative baryon density. We also discuss how the negative baryon density depends on the pion mass. (paper)

  12. Relationship of upflowing ion beams and conics around the dayside cusp/cleft region to the interplanetary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Miyake

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The dayside cusp/cleft region is known as a major source of upflowing ionospheric ions to the magnetosphere. Since the ions are supposed to be energized by an input of energy from the dayside magnetospheric boundary region, we examined the possible influence of the interplanetary conditions on dayside ion beams and conics observed by the polar-orbiting Exos-D (Akebono satellite. We found that both the solar wind velocity and density, as well as IMF By and Bz , affect the occurrence frequency of ion conics. The energy of ion conics also depends on the solar wind velocity, IMF By and Bz . The ion beams around the local noon are not significantly controlled by the interplanetary conditions. The results reveal that ion convection, as well as the energy source, is important to understand the production of dayside ion conics while that of ion beams basically reflects the intensity of local field-aligned currents.Key words. Ionosphere (particle acceleration – magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetosphere ionosphere interaction

  13. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addolorata Corrado

    Full Text Available A reduced bone mineral density (BMD is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc; nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content.

  14. LoCuSS: THE MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTERS AT z = 0.2 {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Umetsu, Keiichi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Smith, Graham P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Takada, Masahiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Futamase, Toshifumi, E-mail: okabe@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: gps@star.sr.bham.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of an approximately mass-selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.3, based on observations with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We develop a new method for selecting lensed background galaxies from which we estimate that our sample of red background galaxies suffers just 1% contamination. We detect the stacked tangential shear signal from the full sample of 50 clusters, based on this red sample of background galaxies, at a total signal-to-noise ratio of 32.7. The Navarro-Frenk-White model is an excellent fit to the data, yielding sub-10% statistical precision on mass and concentration: M{sub vir}=7.19{sup +0.53}{sub -0.50} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}, c{sub vir}=5.41{sup +0.49}{sub -0.45} (c{sub 200}=4.22{sup +0.40}{sub -0.36}). Tests of a range of possible systematic errors, including shear calibration and stacking-related issues, indicate that they are subdominant to the statistical errors. The concentration parameter obtained from stacking our approximately mass-selected cluster sample is broadly in line with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the uncertainty on our measurement is comparable with the differences between the different predictions in the literature. Overall, our results highlight the potential for stacked weak-lensing methods to probe the mean mass density profile of cluster-scale dark matter halos with upcoming surveys, including Hyper-Suprime-Cam, Dark Energy Survey, and KIDS.

  15. Relationships of storm-time changes in thermospheric mass density with solar wind/IMF parameters and ring current index of Sym-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunliang; Ma, S. Y.; Xiong, Chao; Luehr, Hermann

    The total air mass densities at about 500 km altitude are derived using super-STAR accelerom-eter measurements onboard GRACE satellites for 25 great magnetic storms with minimum Dst less than 100 nT during 2002 to 2006 years. Taking NRLMSISE-00 model-predicted densities without active ap index input as a reference baseline of quiet-time mass density, the storm-time changes in upper thermospheric mass densities are obtained by subtraction for all the storm events and sorted into different grids of latitude by local time sector. The relationships of the storm-time density changes with various interplanetary parameters and magnetospheric ring current index of Sym-H are statistically investigated. The parameters include Akasofu energy coupling function, the merging electric field Em, the magnitude of IMF component in the GSM y-z plane etc. as calculated from OMNI data at 1 AU. It is found that the storm-time changes in the upper thermospheric mass density have the best linear correlation with the Sym-H index in general, showing nearly zero time delay at low-latitudes and a little time ahead at high-latitudes for most cases. Unexpectedly, the magnitude of IMF component in the y-z plane, Byz, shows correlation with storm-time mass density changes better and closer than Akasofu function and even Em. And, the mass density changes lag behind Byz about 1-4 hours for most cases at low-latitudes. The correlations considered above are local time dependent, showing the lowest at dusk sectors. For the largest superstorm of November 2003, the changes in mass density are correlated very closely with Byz, Em, and Sym-H index, showing correlation coefficients averaged over all latitudes in noon sector as high as 0.93, 0.91 and 0.90 separately. The physical factors controlling the lag times between the mass density changes at mid-low-latitudes and the interplanetary parameter variations are also analyzed. The results in this study may pro-vide useful suggestions for establishing

  16. Boiling transition and the possibility of spontaneous nucleation under high subcooling and high mass flux density flow in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Hirata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling transition and inverted annular heat transfer for R-113 have been investigated experimentally in a horizontal tube of 1.2 X 10/sup -3/ meter inner diameter with heating length over inner diameter ratio of 50. Experiments cover a high mass flux density range, a high local subcooling range and a wide local pressure range. Heat transfer characteristics were obtained by using heat flux control steady-state apparatus. Film boiling treated here is limited to the case of inverted annular heat transfer with very thin vapor film, on the order of 10/sup -6/ meter. Moreover, film boiling region is always limited to a certain downstream part, since the system has a pressure gradient along the flow direction. Discussions are presented on the parametric trends of boiling heat transfer characteristic curves and characteristic points. The possible existence is suggested of a spontaneous nucleation control surface boiling phenomena. And boiling transition heat flux and inverted annular heat transfer were correlated

  17. Magnetic field structure influence on primary electron cusp losses for micro-scale discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankongkakul, Ben; Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental effort was used to examine the primary electron loss behavior for micro-scale (≲3 cm diameter) discharges. The experiment uses an electron flood gun source and an axially aligned arrangement of ring-cusps to guide the electrons to a downstream point cusp. Measurements of the electron current collected at the point cusp show an unexpectedly complex loss pattern with azimuthally periodic structures. Additionally, in contrast to conventional theory for cusp losses, the overall radii of the measured collection areas are over an order of magnitude larger than the electron gyroradius. Comparing these results to Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations and a simplified analytical analysis shows that azimuthal asymmetries of the magnetic field far upstream of the collection surface can substantially affect the electron loss structure and overall loss area

  18. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  19. Scattering Study of a Modified Cusp Potential in Conformable Fractional Formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Sang [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Zarrinkamar, Saber [Islamic Azad University, Garmsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Soroush [Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The fractional Schr¨odinger equation is considered with a cusp interaction. Exact analytical solutions are obtained and thereby the scattering states as well as transmission and reflection coefficients are determined.

  20. Accretion onto stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    I present work on the accretion onto stellar mass black holes in several scenarios. Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes are expected to form high density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. I build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the gas in the inner parsec of Sgr A* will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants. GRS 1915+105 is an LMXB, whose large orbital period implies a very large accretion disc and explains the extraordinary duration of its current outburst. I present smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disc. The models includes the thermo-viscous instability, irradiation from the central object and wind loss. I find that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 years and up to ˜ 100 years if the irradiation is playing a significant role in this system. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 years, making the duty cycle of GRS 1915+105 to be a few 0.1%. I present a simple analytical method to describe the observable behaviour of long period black hole LMXBs, similar to GRS 1915+105. Constructing two simple models for the surface density in the disc, outburst and quiescence times are calculated as a function of orbital period. LMXBs are an important constituent of the X-ray light function (XLF) of giant elliptical galaxies. I find that the duty cycle can vary considerably with orbital period, with implications for modelling the XLF.

  1. Direct measurements of 3d structure, chemistry and mass density during the induction period of C3s hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qinang; Aboustait, Mohammed; Kim, Taehwan; Ley, M. Tyler; Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Scherer, George; Hanan, Jay C.; Rose, Volker; Winarski, Robert; Gelb, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The reasons for the start and end of the induction period of cement hydration remain a topic of controversy. One long-standing hypothesis is that a thin metastable hydrate forming on the surface of cement grains significantly reduces the particle dissolution rate; the eventual disappearance of this layer re-establishes higher dissolution rates at the beginning of the acceleration period. However, the importance, or even the existence, of this metastable layer has been questioned because it cannot be directly detected in most experiments. In this work, a combined analysis using nano-tomography and nano-X-ray fluorescence makes the direct imaging of early hydration products possible. These novel X-ray imaging techniques provide quantitative measurements of 3D structure, chemical composition, and mass density of the hydration products during the induction period. This work does not observe a low density product on the surface of the particle, but does provide insights into the formation of etch pits and the subsequent hydration products that fill them.

  2. The influence of magnetic field on the cold neutral medium mass fraction and its alignment with density structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, M. A.; Gazol, A.

    2018-06-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the magnetic field's influence on the segregation of cold neutral medium (CNM) in the solar neighbourhood we analyse magnetohydrodynamic simulations that include the main physical characteristics of the local neutral atomic interstellar medium. The simulations have a continuous solenoidal Fourier forcing in a periodic box of 100 pc per side and an initial uniform magnetic field (B_0) with intensities ranging between ˜0.4 and ˜8 μG. Our main results are as follows. (i) The CNM mass fraction diminishes with the increase in magnetic field intensity. (ii) There is a preferred alignment between CNM structures and B in all our B0 range but the preference weakens as B0 increases. It is worth noticing that this preference is also present in two-dimensional projections making an extreme angle (0 or π / 2) with respect to B_0 and it is only lost for the strongest magnetic field when the angle of projection is perpendicular to B_0. (iii) The aforementioned results are prevalent despite the inclusion of self-gravity in our continuously forced simulations with a mean density similar to the average value of the solar neighbourhood. (iv) Given a fixed B0 and slightly higher mean densities, up to double, the effects of self-gravity are still not qualitatively significant.

  3. Effects of daily snack food intake on food reinforcement depend on body mass index and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erika N; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2010-02-01

    The reinforcing value of food plays a role in food consumption. We have shown previously that daily intake of a high-energy-density (HED) snack food decreases food reinforcement and food liking in nonobese women but increases food reinforcement and decreases food liking in obese women. These previous studies were conducted with the use of only HED snack foods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects generalize to low-energy-density (LED) foods. Participants (n = 53) had food reinforcement and food liking tested at baseline and then again after 2 wk of daily consumption of 60-g portions of an HED (n = 26) or an LED (n = 27) snack food. We observed a decrease in food reinforcement in women with a lower body mass index (BMI) and an increase in food reinforcement in women with a higher BMI after 14 d of consumption of an HED snack food. Food liking decreased in all women, regardless of BMI, after repeated consumption of HED foods. Conversely, all women, regardless of BMI, showed a decrease in food reinforcement after 14 d of LED snack food consumption. Women with a lower BMI who consumed LED snacks also showed a decrease in liking, but women with a higher BMI who consumed LED foods reported no change in liking. These findings suggest that changes in food reinforcement after daily snack food intake are influenced by both BMI and the energy density of the foods. In addition, changes in food reinforcement cannot be explained by changes in food liking.

  4. Impact of low skeletal muscle mass and density on short and long-term outcome after resection of stage I-III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Jeroen L A; Coebergh van den Braak, Robert R J; Lalmahomed, Zarina S; Vrijland, Wietske W; Dekker, Jan W T; Zimmerman, David D E; Vles, Wouter J; Coene, Peter-Paul L O; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2018-06-06

    Preoperative low skeletal muscle mass and density are associated with increased postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing curative colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. However, the long-term effects of low skeletal muscle mass and density remain uncertain. Patients with stage I-III CRC undergoing surgery, enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study, were included. Skeletal muscle mass and density were measured on CT. Patients with high and low skeletal muscle mass and density were compared regarding postoperative complications, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). In total, 816 patients (53.9% males, median age 70) were included; 50.4% had low skeletal muscle mass and 64.1% low density. The severe postoperative complication rate was significantly higher in patients with low versus high skeletal muscle and density (20.9% versus 13.6%, p = 0.006; 20.0% versus 11.8%, p = 0.003). Low skeletal muscle mass (OR 1.91, p = 0.018) and density (OR 1.87, p = 0.045) were independently associated with severe postoperative complications. Ninety-day mortality was higher in patients with low skeletal muscle mass and density compared with patients with high skeletal muscle mass and density (3.6% versus 1.7%, p = 0.091; 3.4% versus 1.0%, p = 0.038). No differences in DFS were observed. After adjustment for covariates such as age and comorbidity, univariate differences in OS and CSS diminished. Low skeletal muscle mass and density are associated with short-term, but not long-term, outcome in patients undergoing CRC surgery. These findings recommend putting more emphasis on preoperative management of patients at risk for surgical complications, but do not support benefit for long-term outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  5. The cusp effect in {eta}'{yields}{eta}{pi}{pi} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian; Schneider, Sebastian P. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Strong final-state interactions create a pronounced cusp in {eta}'{yields}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays. We adapt and generalize the non-relativistic effective field theory framework developed for the extraction of {pi}{pi} scattering lengths from K{yields}3{pi} decays to this case. The cusp effect is predicted to have an effect of more than 8% on the decay spectrum below the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} threshold. (orig.)

  6. The cusp effect in η'→ηππ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian; Schneider, Sebastian P.

    2009-01-01

    Strong final-state interactions create a pronounced cusp in η'→ηπ 0 π 0 decays. We adapt and generalize the non-relativistic effective field theory framework developed for the extraction of ππ scattering lengths from K→3π decays to this case. The cusp effect is predicted to have an effect of more than 8% on the decay spectrum below the π + π - threshold. (orig.)

  7. Transport coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow through a four-cusp channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Parise, J.A.R.; Souza Mendes, P.R. de.

    1986-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients for laminar and turbulent flow in a four-cusp channel were determined. A numerical solution was developed for laminar flow an and experimental study for turbulent flow was carried out. Systematic variations of the Reynolds number were done in the range 900-30000. The results show that the heat transfer coefficients for the four-cusp channel are much lower than the coefficients for the circular tube. (author) [pt

  8. Determination of Local Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Plasma at the PUPR Cusp-Mirror Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Prelas, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A novel diagnostic that allows measurement of the magnetic moment μ has been designed. The μ-Analyzer consists of a Directional Energy Analyzer and a Magnetic Hall Probe in the same detector miniature case. The Directional Energy Analyzer measures the ion temperature in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field. On the other side, the Hall Probe measures the magnetic field. The μ-Analyzer is a miniature analyzer to avoid plasma perturbation. This allows the measurement of the ion temperature and the local magnetic field at the same point at the same time, therefore μ, the first adiabatic invariant is found. From the above parameters, the local Larmor radius also will be calculated. From the analysis of the data simultaneously in time and space, the μ of the Local Plasma has been determined. This result is a very important quantity, among other properties that permit one to know the stability of the magnetic confinement device using the MHD Stability Criterium, and also very important in Space Plasma Research. In addition to the above, a direct measurement of the Larmor radius of each position is also possible. The experiments have been made in a Cusp/Mirror Plasma Machine where plasma parameters such as Density and Temperature are relatively easy to change in a very wide range

  9. Cusping, transport and variance of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaffan, Sean; Kawai, Reiichiro

    2017-06-01

    We study properties of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations through the lens of the probability density functions of anomalous diffusion processes. In particular, we examine solutions in terms of their cusping, travelling wave behaviours, and variance, within the framework of stochastic representations of generalized Fokker-Planck equations. We give our analysis in the cases of anomalous diffusion driven by the inverses of the stable, tempered stable and gamma subordinators, demonstrating the impact of changing the distribution of waiting times in the underlying anomalous diffusion model. We also analyse the cases where the underlying anomalous diffusion contains a Lévy jump component in the parent process, and when a diffusion process is time changed by an uninverted Lévy subordinator. On the whole, we present a combination of four criteria which serve as a theoretical basis for model selection, statistical inference and predictions for physical experiments on anomalously diffusing systems. We discuss possible applications in physical experiments, including, with reference to specific examples, the potential for model misclassification and how combinations of our four criteria may be used to overcome this issue.

  10. First-principles X-ray absorption dose calculation for time-dependent mass and optical density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Boris; Melo, Lis G A; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2018-05-01

    A dose integral of time-dependent X-ray absorption under conditions of variable photon energy and changing sample mass is derived from first principles starting with the Beer-Lambert (BL) absorption model. For a given photon energy the BL dose integral D(e, t) reduces to the product of an effective time integral T(t) and a dose rate R(e). Two approximations of the time-dependent optical density, i.e. exponential A(t) = c + aexp(-bt) for first-order kinetics and hyperbolic A(t) = c + a/(b + t) for second-order kinetics, were considered for BL dose evaluation. For both models three methods of evaluating the effective time integral are considered: analytical integration, approximation by a function, and calculation of the asymptotic behaviour at large times. Data for poly(methyl methacrylate) and perfluorosulfonic acid polymers measured by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy were used to test the BL dose calculation. It was found that a previous method to calculate time-dependent dose underestimates the dose in mass loss situations, depending on the applied exposure time. All these methods here show that the BL dose is proportional to the exposure time D(e, t) ≃ K(e)t.

  11. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  12. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored with condensable resin with and without cusp coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study evaluated the fracture resistance of weakened human premolars (MOD cavity preparation and pulp chamber roof removal restored with condensable resin composite with and without cusp coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty human maxillary premolars were divided into three groups: Group A (control, sound teeth; Group B, wide MOD cavities prepared and the pulp chamber roof removed and restored with resin composite without cusp coverage; Group C, same as Group B with 2.0 mm of buccal and palatal cusps reduced and restored with the same resin. The teeth were included in metal rings with self-curing acrylic resin, stored in water for 24 h and thereafter subjected to a compressive axial load in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The mean fracture resistance values ± standart deviation (kgf were: group A: 151.40 ± 55.32, group B: 60.54 ± 12.61, group C: 141.90 ± 30.82. Statistically significant differences were found only between Group B and the other groups (p<0.05. The condensable resin restoration of weakened human premolars with cusp coverage significantly increased the fracture resistance of the teeth as compared to teeth restored without cusp coverage. CONCLUSION: The results showed that cusp coverage with condensable resin might be a safe option for restoring weakened endodontically treated teeth.

  13. Transfer of Siegel cusp forms of degree 2

    CERN Document Server

    Pitale, Ameya; Schmidt, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Let \\pi be the automorphic representation of \\textrm{GSp}_4(\\mathbb{A}) generated by a full level cuspidal Siegel eigenform that is not a Saito-Kurokawa lift, and \\tau be an arbitrary cuspidal, automorphic representation of \\textrm{GL}_2(\\mathbb{A}). Using Furusawa's integral representation for \\textrm{GSp}_4\\times\\textrm{GL}_2 combined with a pullback formula involving the unitary group \\textrm{GU}(3,3), the authors prove that the L-functions L(s,\\pi\\times\\tau) are "nice". The converse theorem of Cogdell and Piatetski-Shapiro then implies that such representations \\pi have a functorial lifting to a cuspidal representation of \\textrm{GL}_4(\\mathbb{A}). Combined with the exterior-square lifting of Kim, this also leads to a functorial lifting of \\pi to a cuspidal representation of \\textrm{GL}_5(\\mathbb{A}). As an application, the authors obtain analytic properties of various L-functions related to full level Siegel cusp forms. They also obtain special value results for \\textrm{GSp}_4\\times\\textrm{GL}_1 and \\tex...

  14. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 1 A parametric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport patterns of non-thermal H + and O + field-aligned flows from the dayside cusp/cleft, associated with transverse heating by means of wave-particle interactions and in combination with the poleward motion due to the magnetospheric convection are investigated. This has been accomplished by developing a steady-state, two-dimensional, trajectory-based code. The ion heating is modelled by means of a Monte Carlo technique, via the process of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, with the electromagnetic left-hand circular polarized component of a broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence. The altitude dependence of ICR heating from 1000 km to 3 Earth radii (RE is modelled by a power law spectrum, with an index a, and a parameter w0 that is proportional to the spectral density at a referenced gyrofrequency. Because of the finite latitudinal extent of the cusp/cleft, the incorporation of the horizontal convection drift leads to a maximum residence time tD of the ions when being energized. A large set of simulations has been computed so as to study the transport patterns of the H + and O + bulk parameters as a function of tD , a, and w0. Residence time effects are significant in O + density patterns while negligible for H +. When comparing the results with analytical one-dimensional theories (Chang et al., 1986; Crew et al., 1990, we find that mean ion energies and pitch angles at the poleward edge of the heating region are slightly influenced by tD and may be used as a probe of ICR parameters ( a, w0. Conversely, poleward of the heating region, upward velocity and mean energy dispersive patterns depend mainly on tD (e.g. the magnitude of the convection drift with latitudinal profiles varying versus tD . In short, the main conclusion of the paper is that any triplet (tD , a, w0 leads to a unique transport-pattern feature of ion flows associated with a cusp/cleft ionospheric source. In a companion paper, by using high-altitude (1.5–3 RE

  15. On the cusp anomalous dimension in the ladder limit of N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the cusp anomalous dimension in the (leading) ladder limit of N=4 SYM and present new results for its higher-order perturbative expansion. We study two different limits with respect to the cusp angle ϕ. The first is the light-like regime where x=e{sup i} {sup ϕ}→0. This limit is characterised by a non-trivial expansion of the cusp anomaly as a sum of powers of log x, where the maximum exponent increases with the loop order. The coefficients of this expansion have remarkable transcendentality features and can be expressed by products of single zeta values. We show that the whole logarithmic expansion is fully captured by a solvable Woods-Saxon like one-dimensional potential. From the exact solution, we extract generating functions for the cusp anomaly as well as for the various specific transcendental structures appearing therein. The second limit that we discuss is the regime of small cusp angle. In this somewhat simpler case, we show how to organise the quantum mechanical perturbation theory in a novel efficient way by means of a suitable all-order Ansatz for the ground state of the associated Schrödinger problem. Our perturbative setup allows to systematically derive higher-order perturbative corrections in powers of the cusp angle as explicit non-perturbative functions of the effective coupling. This series approximation is compared with the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation to show that we can achieve very good accuracy over the whole range of coupling and cusp angle. Our results have been obtained by relatively simple techniques. Nevertheless, they provide several non-trivial tests useful to check the application of Quantum Spectral Curve methods to the ladder approximation at non zero ϕ, in the two limits we studied.

  16. Observations of beach cusp evolution using a stationary, shore-based lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Whitesides, E. T.; Brodie, K.; Spore, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although beach cusps are common features on beaches around the world, questions still remain regarding the range of conditions in which they form, the initial forcing conditions under which they form, and the erosive or accretionary nature of cusp events. While many prior studies have focused on the formation and morphology of beach cusps, many of these are limited in the spatial extent of observations, in their spatial or temporal resolution, or in the availability of accompanying hydrodynamic data. In this study, beach cusp formation and evolution is investigated using an automated lidar system that provides hourly three-dimensional scans of subaerial beach topography with high spatial resolution ([O(1 cm)]). The stationary lidar scanner is mounted on a 4-m tower located on the crest of a shore-backing dune on an Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, North Carolina. The device measures a 237°-framescan of the nearshore region over a 15 minute period each hour. Individual scans are coregistered to a baseline scan using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and then filtered to remove noise, dune vegetation, and water. To assess the accuracy of the coregistration algorithm, the 3-dimensional location of five permanent reflectors near the device are found for each scan and compared to their measured GPS location. Precisely coregistered scans allow for an assessment of elevation change across cuspate features in addition to traditional measurements of cusp wavelength. Beach cusp events are assessed over a three month period from September through November 2015. Wave and current data from a cross-shore array of sensors deployed continuously throughout the three month period as well as from two alongshore arrays of ADV sensors deployed from October 13 through November 1 are used to determine the forcing conditions under which the cusps formed and evolved. Funded by the USACE Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  17. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p<0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p<0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal circumference, and

  18. Fitness function and nonunique solutions in x-ray reflectivity curve fitting: crosserror between surface roughness and mass density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiilikainen, J; Bosund, V; Mattila, M; Hakkarainen, T; Sormunen, J; Lipsanen, H

    2007-01-01

    Nonunique solutions of the x-ray reflectivity (XRR) curve fitting problem were studied by modelling layer structures with neural networks and designing a fitness function to handle the nonidealities of measurements. Modelled atomic-layer-deposited aluminium oxide film structures were used in the simulations to calculate XRR curves based on Parratt's formalism. This approach reduced the dimensionality of the parameter space and allowed the use of fitness landscapes in the study of nonunique solutions. Fitness landscapes, where the height in a map represents the fitness value as a function of the process parameters, revealed tracks where the local fitness optima lie. The tracks were projected on the physical parameter space thus allowing the construction of the crosserror equation between weakly determined parameters, i.e. between the mass density and the surface roughness of a layer. The equation gives the minimum error for the other parameters which is a consequence of the nonuniqueness of the solution if noise is present. Furthermore, the existence of a possible unique solution in a certain parameter range was found to be dependent on the layer thickness and the signal-to-noise ratio

  19. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  20. First records of talon cusps on baboon maxillary incisors argue for standardizing terminology and prompt a hypothesis of their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Jason L; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2013-12-01

    Dental characters can provide vital clues for understanding intra- and intertaxonomic morphological variation and its underlying genetic and environmental components. However, the unambiguous identification of particular traits and their comparative study is often confounded by lack of consistent terminology in the relevant literature. This difficulty is exacerbated when the etiologies are not completely understood, as is the case with talon cusps. To date, research on talon cusps has focused on modern humans. In many instances, descriptions of talon cusps appear in clinical case studies focusing on their treatment and removal. What is lacking in those discussions, though, is a comparative framework, in which the occurrence of talon cusps in nonhuman primates, and possibly other mammals, is established and understood. Here, we report on a taloned upper central incisor of a wild baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) from South Africa. The anomalous incisor of this individual includes an exaggerated accessory cusp diagnosed as a Type II talon. Microcomputed tomographic and radiographic analyses show that the taloned cusp possesses enamel, dentin, and pulp. In addition, we identified an unclassifiable talon cusp on a central maxillary incisor of a baboon skull housed in the Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Museum collection. Our observations of talon cusps on baboon incisors demonstrate that, with regard to this phenomenon, systematic study of nonhuman primates is much needed, along with a consistent use of terminology in the anatomical and anthropological literature. Finally, we present a hypothesis of the formation of talon cusps on mammalian incisors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Review of Global Ocean Intermediate Water Masses: 1.Part A,the Neutral Density Surface (the 'McDougall Surface') as a Study Frame for Water-Mass Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu You

    2006-01-01

    This review article commences with a comprehensive historical review of the evolution and application of various density surfaces in atmospheric and oceanic studies.The background provides a basis for the birth of the neutral density idea.Attention is paid to the development of the neutral density surface concept from the nonlinearity of the equation of state of seawater.The definition and properties of neutral density surface are described in detail as developed from the equations of state of seawater and the buoyancy frequency when the squared buoyancy frequency N2 is zero, a neutral state of stability.In order to apply the neutral density surface to intermediate water-mass analysis, this review also describes in detail its practical oceanographic application.The mapping technique is focused for the first time on applying regularly gridded data in this review.It is reviewed how a backbone and ribs framework was designed to flesh out from a reference cast and first mapped the global neutral surfaces in the world's oceans.Several mapped neutral density surfaces are presented as examples for each world ocean.The water-mass property is analyzed in each ocean at mid-depth.The characteristics of neutral density surfaces are compared with those of potential density surfaces.

  2. Observations of EMIC Waves in the Exterior Cusp Region and in the Nearby Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Santolik, O.; Lavraud, B.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2014-12-01

    In the early years (2000-2004) of the mission, Cluster crossed the most distant part of the polar cusps. On 05/01/2002, Cluster enters the distant cusp region on the duskside of the southern hemisphere (inbound). The spacecraft are successively crossing the magnetopause between 19:50 UT (SC4) and 20:15 UT (SC3). The interplanetary conditions during the crossing were stable with a dominant negative By. The magnetometer (FGM) data indicates that the entry into the cusp takes place in a region where the magnetic field lines in the magnetosheath are anti-parallel with the field lines in the magnetosphere. Despite this clear picture, the global encounter is rather complex: one can notice partial magnetopause crossings, magnetic null points, and intense monochromatic waves on both sides of the magnetopause.We investigate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed in the cusp and in the nearby magnetosheath, just before the magnetopause crossing by the spacecraft. Left-handed monochromatic waves observed in the cusp display different duration and frequency (below and above the local proton gyrofrequency) on each spacecraft. Both the Poynting flux of these emissions and the simultaneously recorded ion flows propagate in the same direction - toward the Earth. The wavenumber are determined in two ways: considering the Doppler shift and from direct measurements of the refractive index. We analyze these wave parameters and the local plasma conditions to explain the wave generation process on each side of the magnetopause.

  3. Some low-altitude cusp dependencies on the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, P.T.; Meng, C.; Sibeck, D.G.; Lepping, R.

    1989-01-01

    Although it has become well established that the low-altitude polar cusp moves equatorward during intervals of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B z y negative (positive) in the northern (southern) hemisphere and postnoon for B y positive (negative) in the northern (southern) hemisphere. The B y induced shift is much more pronounced for southward than for northward B z , a result that appears to be consistent with elementary considerations from, for example, the antiparallel merging model. No interhemispherical latitudinal differences in cusp positions were found that could be attributed to the IMF B x component. As expected, the cusp latitudinal position correlated reasonably well (0.70) with B z when the IMF had a southward component; the previously much less investigated correlation for B z northward proved to be only 0.18, suggestive of a half-wave rectifier effect. The ratio of cusp ion number flux precipitation for B z southward to that for B z northward was 1.75±0.12. The statistical local time (full) width of the cusp proper was found to be 2.1 hours for B z northward and 2.8 hours for B z southward. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  4. Case studies of the storm time variation of the polar cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.

    1983-01-01

    The latitudinal variations of the polar cusp region were examined during three intense geomagnetic storms. The variations were compared with the intensity of storm time ring current inferred from the Dst index, with the magnitude of the north-south component B/sub z/ of the interplanetary magnetic field and with substorm activity. The common feature is that the rapid equatorward shift occurred during the increase of the ring current growth and during the southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation. The equatorwardmost latitude of the cusp was reached before the peak of the ring current intensity, by a few to several hours, coinciding with the occurrence of the largest magnitude of the southward interplanetary magnetic field component. However, details of the polar cusp latitudinal movement differ from storm to storm. During the three storms studied, the poleward recovery commenced at the peak magnitude of the negative IMF B/sub z/ component, but the recovery proceeded without a clear relation to variations of the interplanetary B/sub z/ component, to the ring current intensity, or to the substorm activity. The lowest cusp latitude observed was at approx.61.7 0 , and the magnitude of this shift seems to be related to the magnitudes of -B/sub z/. It is further observed that the approximate rates of the cusp macroscopic equatorward and poleward movements are about 3 0 and 1.5 0 per hour, respectively

  5. Field lin topology in the dayside cusp region inferred from low altitude particle observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeraas, F.

    1977-12-01

    Dayside low altitude satellite observations of the pitch angle and energy distribution of electrons and protons in the energy range 1 keV to 100 keV during quiet geomagnetic conditions reveal that at times there is a clear latitudinal separation between the precipitating low energy (keV) electrons and protons, with the protons precipitating poleward of the electrons. The high energy (100keV) proton precipitation overlaps both the low energy electron and proton precipitation. These observations are consistent with a model where magnetosheath particles stream in along the cusp field lines and are at the same time convected poleward by an electric field. Electrons with energies of a few keV move fast and give the ''ionospheric footprint'' of the distant cusp. The protons are partly convected poleward of the cusp and into the polar cap. Here the mirroring protons populate the plasma mantle. Equatorward of the cusp the pitch angle distribution of both electrons and protons with energies above a few keV have a pancake shaped distribution indicating closed geomagnetic field lines. The 1 keV electrons penetrate into this region of closed field line structure maintaining an isotropic pitch angle distribution. The intensity is, however, reduced with respect to what it was in the cusp region. It is suggested that these electrons, the lowest measured on the satellite, are associated with the entry layer.(Auth.)

  6. A Collaborative Learning Network Approach to Improvement: The CUSP Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sallie J; Lofthus, Jennifer; Sawyer, Melinda; Greer, Lee; Opett, Kristin; Reynolds, Catherine; Wyskiel, Rhonda; Peditto, Stephanie; Pronovost, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Collaborative improvement networks draw on the science of collaborative organizational learning and communities of practice to facilitate peer-to-peer learning, coaching, and local adaption. Although significant improvements in patient safety and quality have been achieved through collaborative methods, insight regarding how collaborative networks are used by members is needed. Improvement Strategy: The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) Learning Network is a multi-institutional collaborative network that is designed to facilitate peer-to-peer learning and coaching specifically related to CUSP. Member organizations implement all or part of the CUSP methodology to improve organizational safety culture, patient safety, and care quality. Qualitative case studies developed by participating members examine the impact of network participation across three levels of analysis (unit, hospital, health system). In addition, results of a satisfaction survey designed to evaluate member experiences were collected to inform network development. Common themes across case studies suggest that members found value in collaborative learning and sharing strategies across organizational boundaries related to a specific improvement strategy. The CUSP Learning Network is an example of network-based collaborative learning in action. Although this learning network focuses on a particular improvement methodology-CUSP-there is clear potential for member-driven learning networks to grow around other methods or topic areas. Such collaborative learning networks may offer a way to develop an infrastructure for longer-term support of improvement efforts and to more quickly diffuse creative sustainment strategies.

  7. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (pshoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  8. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  9. Normal-mode Magnetoseismology as a Virtual Instrument for the Plasma Mass Density in the Inner Magneotsphere: MMS Observations during Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, P. J.; Takahashi, K.; Denton, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the electric and magnetic field measurements on closed field lines can detect harmonic frequencies of field line resonance (FLR) and infer the plasma mass density distribution in the inner magnetosphere. This normal-mode magnetoseismology technique can act as a virtual instrument for spacecraft with a magnetometer and/or an electric field instrument, and it can convert the electromagnetic measurements to knowledge about the plasma mass, of which the dominant low-energy core is difficult to detect directly due to the spacecraft potential. The additional measurement of the upper hybrid frequency by the plasma wave instrument can well constrain the oxygen content in the plasma. In this study, we use field line resonance (FLR) frequencies observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites to estimate the plasma mass density during magnetic storms. At FLR frequencies, the phase difference between the azimuthal magnetic perturbation and the radial electric perturbation is approximately ±90°, which is consistent with the characteristic of standing waves. During the magnetic storm in October 2015, the FLR observations indicate a clear enhancement in the plasma mass density on the first day of the recovery phase, but the added plasma was quickly removed on the following day. We will compare with the FLR observations by other operating satellites such as the Van Allen Probes and GOES to examine the spatial variations of the plasma mass density in the magnetosphere. Also discussed are how the spacing in harmonic frequencies can infer the distribution of plasma mass density along the field line as well as its implications.

  10. Contributions of Caucasian-associated bone mass loci to the variation in bone mineral density in Vietnamese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Sing C; Tran, Bich; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is under strong genetic regulation, but it is not clear which genes are involved in the regulation, particularly in Asian populations. This study sought to determine the association between 29 genes discovered by Caucasian-based genome-wide association studies and BMD in a Vietnamese population. The study involved 564 Vietnamese men and women aged 18 years and over (average age: 47 years) who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City. BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, total hip and whole body was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR4500, Bedford, MA, USA). Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 29 genes were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The magnitude of association between SNPs and BMD was analyzed by the linear regression model. The Bayesian model average method was used to identify SNPs that are independently associated with BMD. The distribution of genotypes of all, but two, SNPs was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. After adjusting for age, gender and weight, 3 SNPs were associated with BMD: rs2016266 (SP7 gene), rs7543680 (ZBTB40 gene), and rs1373004 (MBL2/DKK1 gene). Among the three genetic variants, the SNP rs2016266 had the strongest association, with each minor allele being associated with ~0.02 g/cm(2) increase in BMD at the femoral neck and whole body. Each of these genetic variant explained about 0.2 to 1.1% variance of BMD. All other SNPs were not significantly associated with BMD. These results suggest that genetic variants in the SP7, ZBTB40 and MBL2/DKK1 genes are associated with BMD in the Vietnamese population, and that the effect of these genes on BMD is likely to be modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the energy shift the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, L.; Barrachina, R.O.

    2004-01-01

    The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions are generally thought to be a divergence. Recently Shah et al., however, claimed that 'the ECC cusp is indeed a cusp, and not a divergence smoothed by the experiment'. These authors measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20-keV protons with H 2 and He, and found that the peak was shifted to lower velocity than its expected position. We also carried out CTMC calculations (for the case of 20-keV protons on He) by which we demonstrated that the shift really exists but its value depends on the angular window of the electron detection. (K.A.)

  12. Antihydrogen atom formation in a CUSP trap towards spin polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, N., E-mail: kuroda@radphys4.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Enomoto, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Michishio, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Kim, C. H. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Higaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter (Japan); Nagata, Y.; Kanai, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Torii, H. A. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Corradini, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N. [Universita di Brescia and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l' Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Fujii, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, K. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Imao, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Nagashima, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Juhasz, B. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik (Austria); and others

    2012-12-15

    The ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. For this purpose, an efficient extraction of a spin polarized antihydrogen beam is essential. In 2010, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. The CUSP trap confines antiprotons and positrons simultaneously with its axially symmetric magnetic field to form antihydrogen atoms. It is expected that antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are defocused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam.

  13. Study of a new cusp field for an 18 GHz ECR ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H.; Nakagawa, T.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

    2007-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to generate new sufficient mirror cusp magnetic field (CMF) by using the coils of the existing room temperature traditional 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at RIKEN. The CMF configuration was chosen because it contains plasma superbly and no multipole magnet is needed to make the contained plasma quiescent with no magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instability and to make the system cost-effective. The least magnetic field, 13 kG is achieved at the interior wall of the plasma chamber including the point cusps (PC) on the central axis and the ring cusp (RC) on the mid-plane. The mirror ratio calculation and electron simulation were done in the computed CMF. It was found to contain the electrons for longer time than in traditional field. It is proposed that a powerful CMF ECRIS can be constructed, which is capable of producing intense highly charged ion (HCI) beam for light and heavy elements.

  14. Data on the impact of increasing the W amount on the mass density and compressive properties of Ni-W alloys processed by spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, T; Hocini, A; Lilensten, L; Faurie, D; Tingaud, D; Dirras, G

    2016-06-01

    Bulk Ni-W alloys having composite-like microstructures are processed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) route of Ni and W powder blends as reported in a recent study of Sadat et al. (2016) (DOI of original article: doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2015.10.083) [1]. The present dataset deals with determination of mass density and evaluation of room temperature compressive mechanical properties as function of the amount of W (%wt. basis). The presented data concern: (i) measurement of the mass of each investigated Ni-W alloy which is subsequently used to compute the mass density of the alloy and (ii) the raw (stress (MPa) and strain ([Formula: see text])) data, which can be subsequently used for stress/ strain plots.

  15. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements With Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; −13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ {sup 2} values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; −7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect

  16. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements with Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E.

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; -13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ 2 values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; -7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect techniques.

  17. First Cluster results of the magnetic field structure of the mid- and high-altitude cusps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecraft from the mid- and high-altitude cusp are presented. Cluster underwent two encounters with the mid-altitude cusp during its commissioning phase (24 August 2000. Evidence for field-aligned currents (FACs was seen in the data from all three operating spacecraft from northern and southern cusps. The extent of the FACs was of the order of 1 RE in the X-direction, and at least 300 km in the Y-direction. However, fine-scale field structures with scales of the order of the spacecraft separation (300 km were observed within the FACs. In the northern crossing, two of the spacecraft appeared to lie along the same magnetic field line, and observed very well matched signals. However, the third spacecraft showed evidence for structuring transverse to the field on scales of a few hundred km. A crossing of the high-altitude cusp from 13 February 2001 is presented. It is revealed to be a highly dynamic structure with the boundaries moving with velocities ranging from a few km/s to tens of km/s, and having structure on timescales ranging from less than one minute up to several minutes. The cusp proper is associated with the presence of a very disordered magnetic field, which is entirely different from the magnetosheath turbulence.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers – Space plasma physics (discontinuities

  18. Cusp anomalous dimension and rotating open strings in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola, R.; García, J. Antonio

    2018-03-01

    In the context of AdS/CFT we provide analytical support for the proposed duality between a Wilson loop with a cusp, the cusp anomalous dimension, and the meson model constructed from a rotating open string with high angular momentum. This duality was previously studied using numerical tools in [1]. Our result implies that the minimum of the profile function of the minimal area surface dual to the Wilson loop, is related to the inverse of the bulk penetration of the dual string that hangs from the quark-anti-quark pair (meson) in the gauge theory.

  19. IMF By-Related Cusp Currents Observed from the Ørsted Satellite and from Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz; Watermann, J.

    2001-01-01

    Orsted is the first satellite to conduct high-precision magnetometer observations from low-altitude noonmidnight orbits passing through the polar cusp regions. Field-aligned currents (FAC) derived from Orsted magnetic field measurements have been combined with ionospheric current patterns inferred...... statistical analysis defines for the noon region the variations in FAC latitude with IMF B-Z. Comparisons with the statistical cusp location indicate that the more equatorward region of IMF B-gamma-while the more B related FAC is located on field lines closing at the dayside poleward FAC are on "open" field...

  20. Cusp electron production in 75--300 keV He+ + Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plano, V.L.; Sarkadi, L.; Zavodszky, P.; Berenyi, D.; Palinkas, J.; Gulyas, L.; Takacs, E.; Toth, L.; Tanis, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Cusp-electron production has been investigated in collisions of 75--300 keV He + with Ar. The relative contributions from electron capture to the continuum (ECC), transfer ionization (TI), and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) to the total cusp electron production were measured. Over the energy range investigated, ECC was found to decrease from about 86% to 80%, TI decreased from about 12% to 1%, and ELC increased from about 2% to 20%. The present results are consistent with earlier work for He + and O q+ projectiles

  1. Axis-encircling electron beam generation using a smooth magnetic cusp for gyrodevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.; Whyte, C. G.; Rafferty, E. G.; Cross, A. W.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Ronald, K.; Young, A. R.; Robertson, C. W.; Speirs, D. C.; Rowlands, D. H.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of an annular-shaped axis-encircling electron beam using a smooth magnetic cusp was studied through numerical simulations and experiments for harmonic operation of a gyrodevice. Two magnetic coils were used to form a magnetic cusp located just downstream from the velvet cathode of an accelerator diode. An electron beam of current 34 A and voltage 130 kV with an adjustable velocity ratio α up to 1.2 was fully transported to the downstream uniform magnetic field region and used to drive a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier into saturation

  2. Are small-scale field-aligned currents and magneto sheath-like particle precipitation signatures of the same low-altitude cusp?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watermann, J.; Stauning, P.; Luhr, H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined some 75 observations from the low-altitude Earth orbiting DMSP, Orsted and CHAMP satellites which were taken in the region of the nominal cusp. Our objective was to determine whether the actually observed cusp locations as inferred from magnetosheath-like particle precipitation...... ("particle cusp") and intense small-scale magnetic field variations ("current cusp"), respectively, were identical and were consistent with the statistically expected latitude of the cusp derived from a huge number of charged particle spectrograms ("statistical cusp"). The geocentric coordinates...... of the satellites were converted into AACGM coordinates, and the geomagnetic latitude of the cusp boundaries (as indicated by precipitating particles and small-scale field-aligned currents) set in relation to the IMF-B-z dependent latitude of the equatorward boundary of the statistical cusp. We find...

  3. SU-E-T-470: Importance of HU-Mass Density Calibration Technique in Proton Pencil Beam Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penfold, S; Miller, A [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stoichiometric calibration of Hounsfield Units (HUs) for conversion to proton relative stopping powers (RStPs) is vital for accurate dose calculation in proton therapy. However proton dose distributions are not only dependent on RStP, but also on relative scattering power (RScP) of patient tissues. RScP is approximated from material density but a stoichiometric calibration of HU-density tables is commonly neglected. The purpose of this work was to quantify the difference in calculated dose of a commercial TPS when using HU-density tables based on tissue substitute materials and stoichiometric calibrated ICRU tissues. Methods: Two HU-density calibration tables were generated based on scans of the CIRS electron density phantom. The first table was based directly on measured HU and manufacturer quoted density of tissue substitute materials. The second was based on the same CT scan of the CIRS phantom followed by a stoichiometric calibration of ICRU44 tissue materials. The research version of Pinnacle{sup 3} proton therapy was used to compute dose in a patient CT data set utilizing both HU-density tables. Results: The two HU-density tables showed significant differences for bone tissues; the difference increasing with increasing HU. Differences in density calibration table translated to a difference in calculated RScP of −2.5% for ICRU skeletal muscle and 9.2% for ICRU femur. Dose-volume histogram analysis of a parallel opposed proton therapy prostate plan showed that the difference in calculated dose was negligible when using the two different HU-density calibration tables. Conclusion: The impact of HU-density calibration technique on proton therapy dose calculation was assessed. While differences were found in the calculated RScP of bony tissues, the difference in dose distribution for realistic treatment scenarios was found to be insignificant.

  4. Influence of cusps and intersections on the Wilson loop in ν-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is given about the influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson loop in ν-dimensional space. In particular, for the two-dimensional case, it is shown that there are no divergences. (Author) [pt

  5. Four point measurements of electrons using PEACE in the high-altitude cusp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Krauklis, I. C.; Owen, C.; Trávníček, Pavel; Dunlop, M. W.; Carter, P. J.; Coates, A. J.; Szita, S.; Watson, G.; Wilson, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, - (2001), s. 1567-1578 ISSN 0992-7689 Grant - others:European Space Agency - Prodex(XE) IMF CS/SFe/571/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetospheric physics * magnetopause * cusp and boundary layers Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2001

  6. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients were studied, and talon cusps presence was assessed. Statistical tests were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Statistical analysis relied primarily on descriptive statistics and crosstabs, with Chi-square analysis. Results: Results showed that talon cusps were observed in only 6.3% of patients. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth showing this feature (82.1% of all teeth. Conclusion: It can be concluded that talon cusps are an uncommon trait in these Portuguese population, and therefore, it is a feature that can be potentially very useful in forensic human identification, when antemortem dental records are available.

  7. Antihydrogen synthesis in a double-CUSP trap towards test of the CPT-symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radics, B., E-mail: balint.radics@cern.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics (Switzerland); Ishikawa, S.; Kuroda, N. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Murtagh, D. J.; Nagata, Y. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Tajima, M. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Gorp, S. Van [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Abo, Y. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Dupre, P. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Higashi, Y. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Kaga, C. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Leali, M.; Mascagna, V.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N. [Universita di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione (Italy); Breuker, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Higaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Kanai, Y. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Rizzini, E. Lodi [Universita di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione (Italy); Matsuda, Y. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); and others

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the ASACUSA-CUSP experiment at CERN is to produce a cold, polarised antihydrogen beam and perform a high precision measurement of the ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the antihydrogen atom and compare it with that of the hydrogen atom using the same spectroscopic beam line. Towards this goal a significant step was successfully accomplished: synthesised antihydrogen atoms have been produced in a CUSP magnetic configuration and detected at the end of our spectrometer beam line in 2012 [1]. During a long shut down at CERN the ASACUSA-CUSP experiment had been renewed by introducing a new double-CUSP magnetic configuration and a new semi-cylindrical tracking detector (AMT) [2], and by improving the transport feature of low energy antiproton beams. The new tracking detector monitors the antihydrogen synthesis during the mixing cycle of antiprotons and positrons. In this work the latest results and improvements of the antihydrogen synthesis will be presented including highlights from the last beam time.

  8. Spectral estimates for Dirichlet Laplacians and Schrodinger operators on geometrically nontrivial cusps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Barseghyan, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2013), s. 465-484 ISSN 1664-039X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Dirichlet Laplacian * cusp-shaped region * Lieb-Thirring inequalities * bending and twisting Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  9. Effects of cusped field thruster on the performance of drag-free control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, K.; Liu, H.; Jiang, W. J.; Sun, Q. Q.; Hu, P.; Yu, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    With increased measurement tasks of space science, more requirements for the spacecraft environment have been put forward. Those tasks (e.g. the measurement of Earth's steady state gravity field anomalies) lead to the desire for developing drag-free control. Higher requirements for the thruster performance are made due to the demand for the drag-free control system and real-time compensation for non-conservative forces. Those requirements for the propulsion system include wide continuous throttling ability, high resolution, rapid response, low noise and so on. As a promising candidate, the cusped field thruster has features such as the high working stability, the low erosion rate, a long lifetime and the simple structure, so that it is chosen as the thruster to be discussed in this paper. Firstly, the performance of a new cusped field thruster is tested and analyzed. Then a drag-free control scheme based on the cusped field thruster is designed to evaluate the performance of this thruster. Subsequently, the effects of the thrust resolution, transient response time and thrust uncertainty on the controller are calculated respectively. Finally, the performance of closed-loop system is analyzed, and the simulation results verify the feasibility of applying cusped field thruster to drag-free flight in the space science measurement tasks.

  10. A web-based tool for the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; King, Jay; Holzmueller, Christine G; Sawyer, Melinda; Bivens, Shauna; Michael, Michelle; Haig, Kathy; Paine, Lori; Moore, Dana; Miller, Marlene

    2006-03-01

    An organization's ability to change is driven by its culture, which in turn has a significant impact on safety. The six-step Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program (CUSP) is intended to improve local culture and safety. A Web-based project management tool for CUSP was developed and then pilot tested at two hospitals. HOW ECUSP WORKS: Once a patient safety concern is identified (step 3), a unit-level interdisciplinary safety committee determines issue criticality and starts up the projects (step 4), which are managed using project management tools within eCUSP (step 5). On a project's completion, the results are disseminated through a shared story (step 6). OSF St. Joseph's Medical Center-The Medical Birthing Center (Bloomington, Illinois), identified 11 safety issues, implemented 11 projects, and created 9 shared stories--including one for its Armband Project. The Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore) Medical Progressive Care (MPC4) Unit identified 5 safety issues and implemented 4 ongoing projects, including the intravenous (IV) Tubing Compliance Project. The eCUSP tool's success depends on an organizational commitment to creating a culture of safety.

  11. What makes a species common? No evidence of density-dependent recruitment or mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum after the 1983-1984 mass mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Don R; Edmunds, Peter J; Levitan, Keeha E

    2014-05-01

    A potential consequence of individuals compensating for density-dependent processes is that rare or infrequent events can produce profound and long-term shifts in species abundance. In 1983-1984 a mass mortality event reduced the numbers of the abundant sea urchin Diadema antillarum by 95-99% throughout the Caribbean and western Atlantic. Following this event, the abundance of macroalgae increased and the few surviving D. antillarum responded by increasing in body size and fecundity. These initial observations suggested that populations of D. antillarum could recover rapidly following release from food limitation. In contrast, published studies of field manipulations indicate that this species had traits making it resistant to density-dependent effects on offspring production and adult mortality; this evidence raises the possibility that density-independent processes might keep populations at a diminished level. Decadal-scale (1983-2011) monitoring of recruitment, mortality, population density and size structure of D. antillarum from St John, US Virgin Islands, indicates that population density has remained relatively stable and more than an order of magnitude lower than that before the mortality event of 1983-1984. We detected no evidence of density-dependent mortality or recruitment since this mortality event. In this location, model estimates of equilibrium population density, assuming density-independent processes and based on parameters generated over the first decade following the mortality event, accurately predict the low population density 20 years later (2011). We find no evidence to support the notion that this historically dominant species will rebound from this temporally brief, but spatially widespread, perturbation.

  12. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 2 Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider major ion energization mechanisms in the dayside cusp/cleft region. This includes transverse ion heating by ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, ion energization through structures of field-aligned electric potential drops, and transverse heating by lower hybrid (LH waves. First, we present and discuss three typical cusp/cleft crossings associated with one of the first two mechanisms mentioned above. Then, we develop a procedure for finding the altitude dependence of ICR heating for any data set in the high-altitude cusp/cleft under the absence of field-aligned potential drops. This has been accomplished using a large set of numerical simulations from a two-dimensional, steady-state, Monte Carlo, trajectory-based code, as discussed in detail in the first companion paper (Bouhram et al., 2003. The procedure is applied and tested successfully for the first two events, by using patterns of ion moments along the satellite track as constraints. Then, we present a statistical study that uses 25 cusp/cleft crossings associated with steady IMF conditions, where ICR heating is expected to occur alone. It is pointed out that the ICR heating increases gradually versus geocentric distance as s 3.3 ± 1.8 . The inferred values of the wave power and the spectral index associated with the component responsible for ICR heating are lower than those characterizing the broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence usually observed in the cusp/cleft. This strengthens the idea that more than one wave-mode is contained in the BBELF turbulence, and only a small fraction of the observed turbulence is responsible for ICR heating. Then, we study the occurrence versus magnetic local time (MLT of field-aligned potential drops. According to previous statistical studies, such structures are not common in the cusp and tend to be associated with the cleft region. We also discuss the effects of LH heating in the cusp on the observed ion distributions

  13. The Polar Cusp Observed by Cluster Under Constant Imf-Bz Southward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Berchem, J.; Pitout, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Richard, R. L.; Taylor, M. G.; Soucek, J.; Grison, B.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is influenced by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), specially at the magnetopause where both magnetic fields enter in direct contact and magnetic reconnection can be initiated. In the polar regions, the polar cusp that extends from the magnetopause down to the ionosphere is also directly influenced. The reconnection not only allow ions and electrons from the solar wind to enter the polar cusp but also give an impulse to the magnetic field lines threading the polar cusp through the reconnection electric field. A dispersion in energy of the ions is subsequently produced by the motion of field lines and the time-of-flight effect on down-going ions. If reconnection is continuous and operates at constant rate, the ion dispersion is smooth and continuous. On the other hand if the reconnection rate varies, we expect interruption in the dispersion forming energy steps or staircase. Similarly, multiple entries near the magnetopause could also produce steps at low or mid-altitude when a spacecraft is crossing subsequently the field lines originating from these multiple sources. Cluster with four spacecraft following each other in the mid-altitude cusp can be used to distinguish between these "temporal" and "spatial" effects. We will show two Cluster cusp crossings where the spacecraft were separated by a few minutes. The energy dispersions observed in the first crossing were the same during the few minutes that separated the spacecraft. In the second crossing, two ion dispersions were observed on the first spacecraft and only one of the following spacecraft, about 10 min later. The detailed analysis indicates that these steps result from spatial structures.

  14. Low and middle altitude cusp particle signatures for general magnetopause reconnection rate variations. 1: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, M.; Smith, M. F.

    1994-01-01

    We present predictions of the signatures of magnetosheath particle precipitation (in the regions classified as open low-latitude boundary layer, cusp, mantle and polar cap) for periods when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. These are made using the 'pulsating cusp' model of the effects of time-varying magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Predictions are made for both low-altitude satellites in the topside ionosphere and for midaltitude spacecraft in the magnetosphere. Low-altitude cusp signatures, which show a continuous ion dispersion signature, reveal 'quasi-steady reconnection' (one limit of the pulsating cusp model), which persists for a period of at least 10 min. We estimate that 'quasi-steady' in this context corresponds to fluctuations in the reconnection rate of a factor of 2 or less. The other limit of the pulsating cusp model explains the instantaneous jumps in the precipitating ion spectrum that have been observed at low altitudes. Such jumps are produced by isolated pulses of reconnection: that is, they are separated by intervals when the reconnection rate is zero. These also generate convecting patches on the magnetopause in which the field lines thread the boundary via a rotational discontinuity separated by more extensive regions of tangential discontinuity. Predictions of the corresponding ion precipitation signatures seen by midaltitude spacecraft are presented. We resolve the apparent contradiction between estimates of the width of the injection region from midaltitude data and the concept of continuous entry of solar wind plasma along open field lines. In addition, we reevaluate the use of pitch angle-energy dispersion to estimate the injection distance.

  15. Experimental analysis of upward vertical two-phase flow in four-cusp channels simulating the conditions of a typical nuclear reactor channel, degraded by a loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, A.C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present work deals with an experimental analysis of upward vertical two-phase flow in channels with circular and four-cusp cross-sections. The latter simulates the conditions of a typical nuclear reactor channel, degraded by a loss of coolant accident. Simultaneous flow of air and water has been employed to simulate adiabatic steam-water flow. The installation of air-water separators helped eliminate instabilities during pressure-drop measurements. The gamma ray attenuation was utilized for the void fraction determination. For the four-cusp geommetry, new criteria for two-phase flow regime transitions have been determined, as well as new correlatins for pressure drop and void fraction, as function of the Lockhart-Martinelli factor and vapour mass-fraction, respectively. (Author) [pt

  16. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  17. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 1 A parametric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    Full Text Available The transport patterns of non-thermal H + and O + field-aligned flows from the dayside cusp/cleft, associated with transverse heating by means of wave-particle interactions and in combination with the poleward motion due to the magnetospheric convection are investigated. This has been accomplished by developing a steady-state, two-dimensional, trajectory-based code. The ion heating is modelled by means of a Monte Carlo technique, via the process of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, with the electromagnetic left-hand circular polarized component of a broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence. The altitude dependence of ICR heating from 1000 km to 3 Earth radii (RE is modelled by a power law spectrum, with an index a, and a parameter w0 that is proportional to the spectral density at a referenced gyrofrequency. Because of the finite latitudinal extent of the cusp/cleft, the incorporation of the horizontal convection drift leads to a maximum residence time tD of the ions when being energized. A large set of simulations has been computed so as to study the transport patterns of the H + and O + bulk parameters as a function of tD , a, and w0. Residence time effects are significant in O + density patterns while negligible for H +. When comparing the results with analytical one-dimensional theories (Chang et al., 1986; Crew et al., 1990, we find that mean ion energies and pitch angles at the poleward edge of the heating region are slightly influenced by tD and may be used as a probe of ICR parameters ( a, w0. Conversely, poleward of the heating region, upward velocity and mean energy dispersive patterns depend mainly on tD (e.g. the magnitude of the convection drift with latitudinal profiles varying versus

  18. The association between vitamin D status and parameters for bone density and quality is modified by Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohl, E.; Jongh, de R.T.; Swart, K.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Velde, van der N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Velde, te S.J.; Lips, P.; Schoor, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these

  19. The Association Between Vitamin D Status and Parameters for Bone Density and Quality is Modified by Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohl, E.; de Jongh, R.T.; Swart, C.M.A.; Enneman, A.W.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; van Dijk, S.C.; van der Ham, A.C.; van der Zwaluw, N.L.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; van der Velde, N.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Lips, P.; van Schoor, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) and Quantitative Ultrasound measurements (QUS) has been inconsistent in previous studies, probably caused by moderating effects. This study explored (1) the association of vitamin D status with QUS and BMD, and (2) whether these

  20. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Lühr, H.; Doornbos, E.; Ma, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    With the help of four years (2002–2005) of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin

  1. Hydrogen concentration and mass density of diamondlike carbon films obtained by x-ray and neutron reflectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findeisen, E.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    1994-01-01

    Specular reflectivity of neutrons and x rays can be used to determine the scattering length density profile of a material perpendicular to its surface. We have applied these techniques to study amorphous, diamondlike, hydrocarbon films. By the combination of these two techniques we obtain not onl...

  2. Association between neighbourhood fast-food and full-service restaurant density and body mass index: a cross-sectional study of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Simon; Campbell, M Karen; Gilliland, Jason; Sarma, Sisira

    2014-05-07

    Frequent fast-food consumption is a well-known risk factor for obesity. This study sought to determine whether the availability of fast-food restaurants has an influence on body mass index (BMI). BMI and individual-level confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-08 Canadian Community Health Survey. Neighbourhood socio-demographic variables were acquired from the 2006 Canadian Census. The geographic locations of all restaurants in Canada were assembled from a validated business registry database. The density of fast-food, full-service and non-chain restaurants per 10,000 individuals was calculated for respondents' forward sortation area. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between restaurant density and BMI. Fast-food, full-service and non-chain restaurant density variables were statistically significantly associated with BMI. Fast-food density had a positive association whereas full-service and non-chain restaurant density had a negative association with BMI (additional 10 fast-food restaurants per capita corresponded to a weight increase of 1 kilogram; p<0.001). These associations were primarily found in Canada's major urban jurisdictions. This research was the first to investigate the influence of fast-food and full-service restaurant density on BMI using individual-level data from a nationally representative Canadian survey. The finding of a positive association between fast-food restaurant density and BMI suggests that interventions aiming to restrict the availability of fast-food restaurants in local neighbourhoods may be a useful obesity prevention strategy.

  3. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G.; Haras, G.; Mann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  4. Direct determination of IMF B-Y-related cusp current systems, using SuperDARN radar and multiple ground magnetometer data: A link to theory on cusp current origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amm, O.; Engebretson, M.J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    , respectively, with magnitudes of around 0.5 A/km(2). The geometry of the current system resembles a DPY current system [Friis-Christensen and Wilhjelm, 1975]. Using our results, we test alternative theories on cusp current origin that lead to different predictions of the relative location of the cusp current...... are caused by a rotational discontinuity of the magnetic field at the magnetopause. In contrast, the idea of Clauer and Banks [1986] that a mapping of the solar wind E-z component to the ionosphere is responsible for the cusp current system is not supported....... system with respect to the open-closed field line boundary. The location of this boundary is inferred from DMSP F10 satellite data. The center of our resulting current system is located clearly poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, thus favoring the idea of Lee et al. [1985] that the cusp FACs...

  5. Evaluation of Glass Density to Support the Estimation of Fissile Mass Loadings from Iron Concentrations in SB6 Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

    2010-12-15

    The Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) previously provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of the guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 glass based on the Fe concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that SRNL provide the necessary information to allow SRR to update the Excel spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes a bounding density for SB6-based glasses. Based on the measured density data of select SB6 variability study glasses, SRNL recommends that SRR utilize the 99/99 Upper Tolerance Limit (UTL) density value at 38% WL (2.823 g/cm{sup 3}) as a bounding density for SB6 glasses to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. That is, the 2.823 g/cm{sup 3} is recommended as a key (and fixed) input into the fissile concentration spreadsheet for SB6 processing. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB6. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample. The purpose of this technical report is to present the density measurements that were determined for the SB6 variability study glasses and to conduct a statistical evaluation of these measurements to provide a bounding density value that may be used as input to the Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheet to be employed by SRR to maintain the

  6. Polar observations of electron density distribution in the Earth’s magnetosphere. 2. Density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laakso

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Using spacecraft potential measurements of the Polar electric field experiment, we investigate electron density variations of key plasma regions within the magnetosphere, including the polar cap, cusp, trough, plasmapause, and auroral zone. The statistical results were presented in the first part of this study, and the present paper reports detailed structures revealed by individual satellite passes. The high-altitude (> 3 RE polar cap is generally one of the most tenuous regions in the magnetosphere, but surprisingly, the polar cap boundary does not appear as a steep density decline. At low altitudes (1 RE in summer, the polar densities are very high, several 100 cm-3 , and interestingly, the density peaks at the central polar cap. On the noonside of the polar cap, the cusp appears as a dense, 1–3° wide region. A typical cusp density above 4 RE distance is between several 10 cm-3 and a few 100 cm-3 . On some occasions the cusp is crossed multiple times in a single pass, simultaneously with the occurrence of IMF excursions, as the cusp can instantly shift its position under varying solar wind conditions, similar to the magnetopause. On the nightside, the auroral zone is not always detected as a simple density cavity. Cavities are observed but their locations, strengths, and sizes vary. Also, the electric field perturbations do not necessarily overlap with the cavities: there are cavities with no field disturbances, as well as electric field disturbances observed with no clear cavitation. In the inner magnetosphere, the density distributions clearly show that the plasmapause and trough densities are well correlated with geomagnetic activity. Data from individual orbits near noon and midnight demonstrate that at the beginning of geomagnetic disturbances, the retreat speed of the plasmapause can be one L-shell per hour, while during quiet intervals the plasmapause can expand anti-earthward at the same speed. For the trough region, it is found

  7. Variability in body mass and sexual dimorphism in Danish red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to population density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Sussie; Hansen, Mette Sif; Jensen, Birger

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, temporal variability in body size and sexual dimorphism is revealed in foxes Vulpes vulpes from the same geographical area at over time. The weights and lengths of 552 Danish foxes were documented during three different periods: 1965–1977, 2012–2014 and the winter of 2015...... of 2012–2014, no difference in body fat measured by rump fat thickness (RFT) was found between age groups and genders in contrast to 2015/2016, when RFT was significantly (p ...–1977 and compared to 2015/2016, compared to 2012–2014, when population density was high (the mean weight: 6.8 kg). However, no significant differences were found in the weight of females. Hence, sexual dimorphism ranged from 7.6 to 3.6 in adult foxes in low and high-density periods, respectively. During the winters...

  8. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  9. Maxillary and Mandibular First Premolars Showing Three-Cusp Pattern: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anatomy is the study of morphology of various teeth in human dentitions. The application of dental anatomy in clinical practice is important, and dentist should have a thorough knowledge regarding the morphology of the teeth. At times as a result of genetic variation, environmental factors, diet of an individual and race, variations in the morphology of the teeth can be observed. These variations have been extensively studied by the researcher in the field of anthropology to define a particular race. The most commonly observed changes include peg-shaped laterals, shovel-shaped incisors, and extra cusp on molar. Common variations documented with regard to maxillary and mandibular first premolars are the variation in the number of roots. But the variations with respect to crown morphology are few. We report a first documented unusual presentation of maxillary and mandibular first premolars with three-cusps pattern in a female patient.

  10. The polar cusp: Particle-, optical- and geomagnetic manifistations of solar wind - magnetosphere interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.

    1985-08-01

    In this study observations of particle precipitation, optical emissions and geomagnetic disturbances associated with the low-altitude polar cusp are presented. The main observational basis is photometer data from two stations on Svalbard (Spitsbergen), Norway. These data have been used to map the location and dynamics of polar cusp auroras. One event with coordinated observations of low-energy precipitation from satellite HILAT and optical observations from the ground is discussed. Simultaneous photometer observations of the midday (Svalbard) and midnight (Alaska) sectors of the auroral oval are also presented. Thus, dynamical auroral phenomena with different temporal and spatial scales are investigated in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field and magnetospheric substorms. Certain large- and small-scale dynamics of the aurora and the geomagnetic field are shown to be consistent with the quasi steady-state/large-scale and impulsive/small-scale modes of magnetic reconnection at the frontside magnetopause

  11. The surface microstructure of cusps and leaflets in rabbit and mouse heart valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure on the surfaces of animal heart valve cusps/leaflets. The results showed that though these surfaces appear smooth to the naked eye, they are actually comprised of a double hierarchical structure consisting of a cobblestone-like microstructure and nano-cilia along with mastoids with a directional arrangement. Such nanostructures could play a very important role in the hemocompatibility characteristics of heart valves. On this basis, the model of the microstructure was constructed and theoretical analysis was used to obtain optimal geometric parameters for the rough surface of artificial valve cusps/leaflets. This model may help improve reconstructive techniques and it may be beneficial in the design and fabrication of valve substitutes or partial substitutes. Namely, the model may help ameliorate heart valve replacement surgery.

  12. GAE detection for mass measurement for plasma density control. JET article 14 contract no 950104. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Ridder, G. de; Villard, L.

    1997-01-01

    In view of the interest in obtaining a direct mass measurement in JET D-T plasmas, ultimately for D/T ratio control, the CRPP has performed numerical simulation work to verify the underlying method. The work undertaken is described and the conclusions are presented. The use of the GAE in JET is concluded to be less interesting than initially hoped. The reasons are discussed. Such a method, however, provide useful additional information. (author) figs., tabs., 5 refs

  13. Magnetic field and electric currents in the vicinity of polar cusps as inferred from Polar and Cluster data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tsyganenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed statistical study of the magnetic structure of the dayside polar cusps is presented, based on multi-year sets of magnetometer data of Polar and Cluster spacecraft, taken in 1996–2006 and 2001–2007, respectively. Thanks to the dense data coverage in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the analysis spanned nearly the entire length of the cusps, from low altitudes to the cusp "throat" and the magnetosheath. Subsets of data falling inside the polar cusp "funnels" were selected with the help of TS05 and IGRF magnetic field models, taking into account the dipole tilt and the solar wind/IMF conditions. The selection funnels were shifted within ±10° of SM latitude around the model cusp location, and linear regression parameters were calculated for each sliding subset, further divided into 10 bins of distance in the range 2≤R≤12 RE, with the following results. (1 Diamagnetic depression, caused by the penetrated magnetosheath plasma, becomes first visible at R~4–5 RE, rapidly deepens with growing R, peaks at R~6–9 RE, and then partially subsides and widens in latitude at the cusp's outer end. (2 The depression peak is systematically shifted poleward (by ~2° of the footpoint latitude with respect to the model cusp field line, passing through the min{|B|} point at the magnetopause. (3 At all radial distances, clear and distinct peaks of the correlation between the local By and By(IMF and of the corresponding proportionality coefficient are observed. A remarkably regular variation of that coefficient with R quantitatively confirms the field-aligned geometry of the cusp currents associated with the IMF By, found in earlier observations.

  14. The impact on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped and cuspless teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid A. Arafa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped or cuspless teeth. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dental Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt, over a 12-month period from September 2013 to September 2014. Twenty patients were treated with immediate implant-supported overdentures: one group received overdentures with cusped teeth, and the other group receive...

  15. Implementing the Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program (CUSP) to Improve Patient Safety in an Academic Primary Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Samantha I; Maruthur, Nisa M; Luu, Ngoc-Phuong; Curreri, Kimberly; Grimes, Renee; Nigrin, Candace; Sateia, Heather F; Sawyer, Melinda D; Pronovost, Peter J; Clark, Jeanne M; Peairs, Kimberly S

    2017-11-01

    While there is growing awareness of the risk of harm in ambulatory health care, most patient safety efforts have focused on the inpatient setting. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) has been an integral part of highly successful safety efforts in inpatient settings. In 2014 CUSP was implemented in an academic primary care practice. As part of CUSP implementation, staff and clinicians underwent training on the science of safety and completed a two-question safety assessment survey to identify safety concerns in the practice. The concerns identified by team members were used to select two initial safety priorities. The impact of CUSP on safety climate and teamwork was assessed through a pre-post comparison of results on the validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Ninety-six percent of staff completed science of safety training as part of CUSP implementation, and 100% of staff completed the two-question safety assessment. The most frequently identified safety concerns were related to medications (n = 11, 28.2), diagnostic testing (n = 9, 25), and communication (n = 5, 14). The CUSP team initially prioritized communication and infection control, which led to standardization of work flows within the practice. Six months following CUSP implementation, large but nonstatistically significant increases were found for the percentage of survey respondents who reported knowledge of the proper channels for questions about patient safety, felt encouraged to report safety concerns, and believed that the work setting made it easy to learn from the errors of others. CUSP is a promising tool to improve safety climate and to identify and address safety concerns within ambulatory health care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  17. A Note On Signs Of Fourier Coefficients Of Two Cusp Forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    10

    Abstract. Kohnen and Sengupta showed that if two Hecke eigen cusp forms of weight k1 and k2 respectively with 1 < k1 < k2 over. Γ0(N ), have totally real algebraic Fourier coefficients {a(n)} and. {b(n)} respectively for n ≥ 1 with a(1) = 1 = b(1), then there exists an element σ of the absolute Galois group Gal(Q/Q) such.

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy on the ECR helium plasma in a cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Iwamae, A.; Fujimoto, T.; Uchida, M.; Maekawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Helium emission lines have been observed on the ECR plasma in a cusp field with the polarized components resolved. The polarization map is constructed for the 501.6 nm (2 1 S-3 1 P) line emission. Lines from n 1 P and n 1 D levels are strongly polarized and those from n 3 D levels are weakly polarized. As the helium pressure increases the polarization degree decreases. (author)

  19. Performance optimization of a cusp-field ion source and high-perveance extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.A.; Amstrong, D.D.; Schneider, D.

    1981-01-01

    The injector for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility must deliver a 110-mA dc beam of deuterons or H 2 + ions to the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator at 75-keV energy. Operational parameters of a hydrogen-fed cusp-field ion source and a high-perveance extractor have been evaluated on a test stand and on the recently completed first stage of the prototype injector

  20. Two Azimuthally Separated Regions of Cusp Ion Injection Observed via Energetic Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Taguchi, S.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imager on the IMAGE spacecraft can detect energetic neutral atoms produced by ion injection into the cusp through a charge exchange with the Earth's hydrogen exosphere. We examined the occurrence of the LENA cusp signal during positive IMF B(sub z) in terms of the arrival direction and the IMF clock angle theta(sub CA). Results of statistical analyses show that the occurrence frequency is high on the postnoon side when theta(sub CA) is between approximately 20 degrees and approximately 50 degrees. This is ascribed to ion injection caused by cusp reconnection typical of positive IMF B(sub z). Our results also show that there is another situation of high occurrence frequency, which can be identified with theta(sub CA) of approximately 30 degrees to approximately 80 degrees. When theta(sub CA) is relatively large (60 degrees - 80 degrees), occurrence frequencies are high at relatively low latitudes over a wide extent spanning both prenoon and postnoon sectors. This feature suggests that the ion injection is caused by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Its postnoon side boundary shifts toward the prenoon as theta(sub CA) decreases. When theta(sub CA) is less than approximately 50 degrees, the high occurrence frequency exists well inside the prenoon sector, which is azimuthally separated from the postnoon region ascribed to cusp reconnection. The prenoon region, which is thought due to ion injection caused by dayside reconnection, may explain the recent report that proton aurora brightening occurs in the unanticipated prenoon sector of the northern high-latitude ionosphere for IMF B(sub y) greater than 0 and B(sub z) greater than 0.

  1. Realizing stock market crashes: stochastic cusp catastrophe model of returns under time-varying volatility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kukačka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2015), s. 959-973 ISSN 1469-7688 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Stochastic cusp catastrophe model * Realized volatility * Bifurcations * Stock market crash Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.794, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434202.pdf

  2. Low momentum scattering of the Dirac particle with an asymmetric cusp potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Lozada-Cassou, M.; Antillon, A.

    2006-01-01

    We study the exact solutions of the bound and scattering states of the one-dimensional Dirac equation with an asymmetric cusp potential and derive the condition of the supercriticality for this quantum system. We find that the scattering properties are invariant under reflection of the potential's shape, and the supercritical value for the potential amplitude V 0 varies with the degree of the potential asymmetry. (orig.)

  3. Chorus observations by the Polar spacecraft near the mid-altitude cusp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menietti, J. D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Abaci, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2009), s. 1412-1418 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant - others:NSF(US) ATM-04-43531; NASA (US) NNG05GM52G.; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : chorus * mid-altitude cusp * Polar spacecraft Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2009

  4. His-Purkinje system-related incessant ventricular tachycardia arising from the left coronary cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Sato, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman who had His-Purkinje system-related incessant ventricular tachycardia with a narrow QRS configuration. The ventricular tachycardia was ablated successfully in the left coronary cusp where the earliest endocardial activation had been recorded. We hypothesize that a remnant of the subaortic conducting tissue was the source of the ventricular arrhythmias.

  5. Energy and cusp-conditions study for the He isoelectronic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S. E-mail: sotranto@uns.edu.ar; Gasaneo, G. E-mail: ggasaneo@criba.edu.ar; Garibotti, C.R

    2004-03-01

    We present variational wave functions for He-like atoms with nuclear charge Z=1,...,10. We propose modifications of some usual simple correlated wave functions to account for the integration factor required in the evaluation of atomic ionization and excitation amplitudes with distorted wave methods. We determine the parameters of the trial functions and the resulting energies. We introduce new procedures to test the cusp conditions at the singularities of the Coulomb field.

  6. Influence of different cusp coverage methods for the extension of ceramic inlays on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifka, Stephanie; Stangl, Martin; Wiesbauer, Sarah; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Federlin, Marianne

    2009-09-01

    No information is available to date about cusp design of thin (1.0 mm) non-functional cusps and its influence upon (1) marginal integrity of ceramic inlays (CI) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) and (2) crack formation of dental tissues. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of cusp coverage of thin non-functional cusps on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation. CI and PCC preparations were performed on extracted human molars. Non-functional cusps were adjusted to 1.0-mm wall thickness and 1.0-mm wall thickness with horizontal reduction of about 2.0 mm. Ceramic restorations (Vita Mark II, Cerec3 System) were adhesively luted with Excite/Variolink II. The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and central mechanical loading. Marginal integrity was assessed by evaluating dye penetration after thermal cycling and mechanical loading. Enamel cracks were documented under a reflective-light microscope. The data were statistically analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fishers exact test (alpha = 0.05) and the error rates method. PCC with horizontal reduction of non-functional cusps showed statistically significant less microleakage than PCC without such a cusp coverage. Preparation designs with horizontal reduction of non-functional cusps showed a tendency to less enamel crack formation than preparation designs without cusp coverage. Thin non-functional cusp walls of adhesively bonded restorations should be completely covered or reduced to avoid enamel cracks and marginal deficiency.

  7. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P bone turnover markers osteocalcin......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10...

  8. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ra...

  9. Study on the impact of the engineering energy gain and the FPC mass power density on the generation cost of fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Desuo; Wu Yican

    2004-01-01

    The impact of the engineering energy gain and the fusion-power-core (FPC) mass power density (MPD) on the generation cost of fusion power plant are analyzed based on the economic elasticity approach in this paper. From the functions describing the relationship of the generation cost with the engineering energy gain and the MPD, the elasticity coefficients of the generation cost with the engineering energy gain and the MPD have been derived respectively to analyze their sensitivity to the generation cost and the MPD to the generation cost decreases with increasing the engineering energy gain or the MPD. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Valence band structure and density of states effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained silicon based on k · p theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Qian-Wei; Liu Hong-Xia; Wang Shu-Long; Qin Shan-Shan; Wang Zhi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    After constructing a stress and strain model, the valence bands of in-plane biaxial tensile strained Si is calculated by k · p method. In the paper we calculate the accurate anisotropy valance bands and the splitting energy between light and heavy hole bands. The results show that the valance bands are highly distorted, and the anisotropy is more obvious. To obtain the density of states (DOS) effective mass, which is a very important parameter for device modeling, a DOS effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained Si is constructed based on the valance band calculation. This model can be directly used in the device model of metal—oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). It also a provides valuable reference for biaxial tensile strained silicon MOSFET design. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Manifolds with cusps of rank one spectral theory and L2-index theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner

    1987-01-01

    The manifolds investigated in this monograph are generalizations of (Mathematical Physics and Mathematics)-rank one locally symmetric spaces. In the first part of the book the author develops spectral theory for the differential Laplacian operator associated to the so-called generalized Dirac operators on manifolds with cusps of rank one. This includes the case of spinor Laplacians on (Mathematical Physics and Mathematics)-rank one locally symmetric spaces. The time-dependent approach to scattering theory is taken to derive the main results about the spectral resolution of these operators. The second part of the book deals with the derivation of an index formula for generalized Dirac operators on manifolds with cusps of rank one. This index formula is used to prove a conjecture of Hirzebruch concerning the relation of signature defects of cusps of Hilbert modular varieties and special values of L-series. This book is intended for readers working in the field of automorphic forms and analysis on non-compact Ri...

  13. Distinct ion population in the polar cusp: possible signature of transient reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoubet, C.P.; Smith, M.F.; Bosqued, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of ion energy dispersion are a common feature of the polar cusp. Normally these dispersions show a continuous decrease in energy. However, they occasionally show step-like features in the dispersion. On 15 October 1981 Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE2) crossed the polar cusp at 1015 MLT and observed three distinct ion populations as the spacecraft moved poleward. These three populations had peak-flux energy around 2.7 keV, 850 eV and 360 eV. The first step coincided with a rotation of the flow; the flow being directed westward on the equatorward edge, poleward in the center and eastward on the poleward edge. The second and third steps showed a flow directed principally poleward. Furthermore, the magnetic and electric perturbations in the first step are well fitted by an elongated FTE footprint model. These results suggest that three consecutive Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) have injected solar wind plasma into the ionosphere forming the polar cusp. The small latitudinal size of these FTE footprints (∼ 40 km) and their short recurrence rate (3 and 6 min) would be consistent with an intermittent reconnection taking place at the subsolar point on a short time scale

  14. Cusp/cleft region as observed by the Viking UV imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, G.P.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.; Woch, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report data taken by the Viking satellite at mid-altitudes (11,000-13,000 km) during northern hemispheric crossings of the cusp/cleft region. Particle signatures were used to divide the region into different categories. Data was looked at from the ultraviolet imager and particle diagnostics, when available. The authors discuss in detail two cases of crossing the cusp/cleft region, in order to look at the dynamics of a specific event, as opposed to other data analyses which have used large data sets to acquire good statistics, but which can thereby obscure dynamics of the actual events. Particle data were taken by the electron spectrometer ESP 1 and the ion spectrometer PISP 1/2. They looked at the spectral range 0.01 to 40 keV. The UV imager recorded 1 sec exposures of the auroral distribution once per minute. The data shows instantaneous observations of emissions, and does so for a narrow path swept by the satellite. Data indicate that the entire region is not a homogeneous region, but rather a very dynamic object. Conclusions include that the emissions observed are located at the footprint of the cleft region. The cusp region is located poleward of the region with continuous emission. The emission is observed to remain at a constant magnetic latitude during the period with IMF data, though B z swung 8nT during a 30 minute period

  15. Liver-derived IGF-I contributes to GH-dependent increases in lean mass and bone mineral density in mice with comparable levels of circulating GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Sarah M; Tran, Jennifer L; Sos, Brandon C; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Weiss, Ethan J

    2011-07-01

    The relative contributions of circulating and locally produced IGF-I in growth remain controversial. The majority of circulating IGF-I is produced by the liver, and numerous mouse models have been developed to study the endocrine actions of IGF-I. A common drawback to these models is that the elimination of circulating IGF-I disrupts a negative feedback pathway, resulting in unregulated GH secretion. We generated a mouse with near total abrogation of circulating IGF-I by disrupting the GH signaling mediator, Janus kinase (JAK)2, in hepatocytes. We then crossed these mice, termed JAK2L, to GH-deficient little mice (Lit). Compound mutant (Lit-JAK2L) and control (Lit-Con) mice were treated with equal amounts of GH such that the only difference between the two groups was hepatic GH signaling. Both groups gained weight in response to GH but there was a reduction in the final weight of GH-treated Lit-JAK2L vs. Lit-Con mice. Similarly, lean mass increased in both groups, but there was a reduction in the final lean mass of Lit-JAK2L vs. Lit-Con mice. There was an equivalent increase in skeletal length in response to GH in Lit-Con and Lit-JAK2L mice. There was an increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in both groups, but Lit-JAK2L had lower BMD than Lit-Con mice. In addition, GH-mediated increases in spleen and kidney mass were absent in Lit-JAK2L mice. Taken together, hepatic GH-dependent production of IGF-I had a significant and nonredundant role in GH-mediated acquisition of lean mass, BMD, spleen mass, and kidney mass; however, skeletal length was dependent upon or compensated for by locally produced IGF-I.

  16. On the energy shift of the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Sarkadi, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions is generally thought to be a divergence. The peak is centered at electron velocity that matches that of the projectile. Recently Illescas et al. [1] claimed, however, that 'the cusp is not a divergence smoothed by the experiment, and is slightly shifted from the impact-velocity value'. In a subsequent work Shah et al. [2] measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20- keV protons with H2 and He, and found that the peak was indeed shifted to a velocity below its expected position. Their classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations reproduced the observation well. In the present work we demonstrate by our CTMC calculations (made for the case of 20-keV protons on He) that the intensity, width and position of the ECC cusp do depend on the experimental conditions by which the electrons are detected (first of all, the acceptance angle of the electron spectrometer). We also present experimental data for this collision system. While the latter data are well reproduced by our CTMC calculations, neither the theoretical results, nor the experimental data of the present work support of the findings of Shah et al. [2]. At the same time, analyzing the problem in the framework of the general final-state interaction theory of cusp formation [3], we concluded that 'rigorously' speaking Shah et al. [2] are right when they state that the ECC cusp is not a divergence. The divergence is smeared out by the scattering of the projectile. However, this effect is negligibly small at the lowest energy that was considered in their paper, 10 keV. At this impact energy the projectile motion is smeared within an angular region Δθ th ∼ 0.06 deg, which is much smaller than the acceptance angle of the experiment, Δθ exp ∼ 1.5 deg

  17. A comparison of LBGs, DRGs, and BzK galaxies: their contribution to the stellar mass density in the GOODS-MUSIC sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Santini, P.

    2007-04-01

    Context: The classification scheme for high redshift galaxies is complex at the present time, with simple colour-selection criteria (i.e. EROs, IEROs, LBGs, DRGs, BzKs), resulting in ill-defined properties for the stellar mass and star formation rate of these distant galaxies. Aims: The goal of this work is to investigate the properties of different classes of high-z galaxies, focusing in particular on the stellar masses of LBGs, DRGs, and BzKs, in order to derive their contribution to the total mass budget of the distant Universe. Methods: We used the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, containing ~3000 Ks-selected (~10 000 z-selected) galaxies with multi-wavelength coverage extending from the U band to the Spitzer 8~μm band, with spectroscopic or accurate photometric redshifts. We selected samples of BM/BX/LBGs, DRGs, and BzK galaxies to discuss the overlap and the limitations of these criteria, which can be overridden by a selection criterion based on physical parameters. We then measured the stellar masses of these galaxies and computed the stellar mass density (SMD) for the different samples up to redshift ≃4. Results: We show that the BzK-PE criterion is not optimal for selecting early type galaxies at the faint end. On the other hand, BzK-SF is highly contaminated by passively evolving galaxies at red z-Ks colours. We find that LBGs and DRGs contribute almost equally to the global SMD at z≥ 2 and, in general, that star-forming galaxies form a substantial fraction of the universal SMD. Passively evolving galaxies show a strong negative density evolution from redshift 2 to 3, indicating that we are witnessing the epoch of mass assembly of such objects. Finally we have indications that by pushing the selection to deeper magnitudes, the contribution of less massive DRGs could overtake that of LBGs. Deeper surveys, like the HUDF, are required to confirm this suggestion.

  18. Seasonal effects in the ionosphere-thermosphere response to the precipitation and field-aligned current variations in the cusp region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    from DE-2 data for IMF By < 0 but for the Northern (winter Hemisphere there is a disagreement at high latitudes in the afternoon sector of the cusp region. At the same time, the model results for this sector agree with other DE-2 data and with the ground-based FPI data. All ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances in the second variant of the calculations are more intensive in the winter cusp region in comparison with the summer one and this seasonal difference is larger than in the first variant of the calculations, especially in the electron density and all temperature variations. The means that the seasonal effects in the cusp region are stronger in the thermospheric and ionospheric responses to the FAC variations than to the precipitation disturbances.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances.

  19. Stationary magnetospheric convection on November 24, 1981. 2. Small-scale structures in the dayside cusp/cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Galperin

    Full Text Available A case study of the dayside cusp/cleft region during an interval of stationary magnetospheric convection (SMC on November, 24, 1981 is presented, based on detailed measurements made by the AUREOL-3 satellite. Layered small-scale field-aligned current sheets, or loops, superimposed to a narrow V-shaped ion dispersion structure, were observed just equatorward from the region of the "cusp proper". The equatorward sheet was accompanied by a very intense and short (less than 1 s ion intensity spike at 100 eV. No major differences were noted of the characteristics of the LLBL, or "boundary cusp", and plasma mantle precipitation during this SMC period from those typical of the cusp/cleft region for similar IMF conditions. Simultaneous NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 measurements described in Despirak et al. were used to estimate the average extent of the "cusp proper" (defined by dispersed precipitating ions with the energy flux exceeding 10-3 erg cm-2 s-1 during the SMC period, as ~0.73° ILAT width, 2.6-3.4 h in MLT, and thus the recently merged magnetic flux, 0.54-0.70 × 107 Wb. This, together with the average drift velocity across the cusp at the convection throat, ~0.5 km s-1, allowed to evaluate the cusp merging contribution to the total cross-polar cap potential difference, ~33.8-43.8 kV. It amounts to a quite significant part of the total cross-polar cap potential difference evaluated from other data. A "shutter" scenario is suggested for the ion beam injection/penetration through the stagnant plasma region in the outer cusp to explain the pulsating nature of the particle injections in the low- and medium-altitude cusp region.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  20. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  1. A CROSS-MATCH OF 2MASS AND SDSS. II. PECULIAR L DWARFS, UNRESOLVED BINARIES, AND THE SPACE DENSITY OF T DWARF SECONDARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Looper, Dagny

    2011-01-01

    We present the completion of a program to cross-correlate the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 1 (SDSS DR1) and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog in search for extremely red L and T dwarfs. The program was initiated by Metchev and collaborators, who presented the findings on all newly identified T dwarfs in SDSS DR1 and estimated the space density of isolated T0-T8 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In the current work, we present most of the L dwarf discoveries. Our red-sensitive (z - J ≥ 2.75 mag) cross-match proves to be efficient in detecting peculiarly red L dwarfs, adding two new ones, including one of the reddest known L dwarfs. Our search also nets a new peculiarly blue L7 dwarf and, surprisingly, two M8 dwarfs. We further broaden our analysis to detect unresolved binary L or T dwarfs through spectral template fitting to all L and T dwarfs presented here and in the earlier work by Metchev and collaborators. We identify nine probable binaries, six of which are new and eight harbor likely T dwarf secondaries. We combine this result with current knowledge of the mass ratio distribution and frequency of substellar companions to estimate an overall space density of 0.005-0.05 pc -3 for individual T0-T8 dwarfs.

  2. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  3. Models of mass segregation at the Galactic Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Marc; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    We study the process of mass segregation through 2-body relaxation in galactic nuclei with a central massive black hole (MBH). This study has bearing on a variety of astrophysical questions, from the distribution of X-ray binaries at the Galactic centre, to tidal disruptions of main- sequence and giant stars, to inspirals of compact objects into the MBH, an important category of events for the future space borne gravitational wave interferometer LISA. In relatively small galactic nuclei, typical hosts of MBHs with masses in the range 10 4 - 10 7 M o-dot , the relaxation induces the formation of a steep density cusp around the MBH and strong mass segregation. Using a spherical stellar dynamical Monte-Carlo code, we simulate the long-term relaxational evolution of galactic nucleus models with a spectrum of stellar masses. Our focus is the concentration of stellar black holes to the immediate vicinity of the MBH. Special attention is given to models developed to match the conditions in the Milky Way nucleus

  4. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected warm water periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL1_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  5. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  6. Characterization of neutron leakage probability, k /SUB eff/ , and critical core surface mass density of small reactor assemblies through the Trombay criticality formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Rao, K.S.; Srinivasan, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Trombay criticality formula (TCF) has been derived by incorporating a number of well-known concepts of criticality physics to enable prediction of changes in critical size or k /SUB eff/ following alterations in geometrical and physical parameters of uniformly reflected small reactor assemblies characterized by large neutron leakage from the core. The variant parameters considered are size, shape, density and diluent concentration of the core, and density and thickness of the reflector. The effect of these changes (except core size) manifests, through sigma /SUB c/ the critical surface mass density of the ''corresponding critical core,'' that sigma, the massto-surface-area ratio of the core,'' is essentially a measure of the product /rho/ extended to nonspherical systems and plays a dominant role in the TCF. The functional dependence of k /SUB eff/ on sigma/sigma /SUB c/ , the system size relative to critical, is expressed in the TCF through two alternative representations, namely the modified Wigner rational form and, an exponential form, which is given

  7. Determination of the nuclear level densities and radiative strength function for 43 nuclei in the mass interval 28≤A≤200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, David; Jovancevic, Nikola; Sukhovoj, Anatoly M.; Mitsyna, Ludmila V.; Krmar, Miodrag; Cong, Vu D.; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Revay, Zsolt; Stieghorst, Christian; Dragic, Aleksandar

    2018-03-01

    The determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is one of the most important tasks in low-energy nuclear physics. Accurate experimental values of these parameters are critical for the study of the fundamental properties of nuclear structure. The step-like structure in the dependence of the level densities p on the excitation energy of nuclei Eex is observed in the two-step gamma cascade measurements for nuclei in the 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 mass region. This characteristic structure can be explained only if a co-existence of quasi-particles and phonons, as well as their interaction in a nucleus, are taken into account in the process of gamma-decay. Here we present a new improvement to the Dubna practical model for the determination of nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions. The new practical model guarantees a good description of the available intensities of the two step gamma cascades, comparable to the experimental data accuracy.

  8. Simulation of RF power and multi-cusp magnetic field requirement for H{sup −} ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Manish [Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Senecha, V.K., E-mail: kumarvsen@gmail.com [Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Kumar, Rajnish; Ghodke, Dharmraj V. [Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-12-01

    A computer simulation study for multi-cusp RF based H{sup −} ion source has been carried out using energy and particle balance equation for inductively coupled uniformly dense plasma considering sheath formation near the boundary wall of the plasma chamber for RF ion source used as high current injector for 1 Gev H{sup −} Linac project for SNS applications. The average reaction rates for different reactions responsible for H{sup −} ion production and destruction have been considered in the simulation model. The RF power requirement for the caesium free H{sup -} ion source for a maximum possible H{sup −} ion beam current has been derived by evaluating the required current and RF voltage fed to the coil antenna using transformer model for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Different parameters of RF based H{sup −} ion source like excited hydrogen molecular density, H{sup −} ion density, RF voltage and current of RF antenna have been calculated through simulations in the presence and absence of multicusp magnetic field to distinctly observe the effect of multicusp field. The RF power evaluated for different H{sup −} ion current values have been compared with the experimental reported results showing reasonably good agreement considering the fact that some RF power will be reflected from the plasma medium. The results obtained have helped in understanding the optimum field strength and field free regions suitable for volume emission based H{sup −} ion sources. The compact RF ion source exhibits nearly 6 times better efficiency compare to large diameter ion source.

  9. Dirac Particle for the Position Dependent Mass in the Generalized Asymmetric Woods-Saxon Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Alpdoğan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dirac equation with position dependent mass in the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential is solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The transmission and reflection coefficients are obtained by considering the one-dimensional electric current density for the Dirac particle and the equation describing the bound states is found by utilizing the continuity conditions of the obtained wave function. Also, by using the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential solutions, the scattering states are found out without making calculation for the Woods-Saxon, Hulthen, cusp potentials, and so forth, which are derived from the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential and the conditions describing transmission resonances and supercriticality are achieved. At the same time, the data obtained in this work are compared with the results achieved in earlier studies and are observed to be consistent.

  10. [Influence of preoperative bone mass density in periprosthetic bone remodeling after implantation of ABG-II prosthesis: A 10-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Ezquerra, A; Panisello Sebastiá, J J; Mateo Agudo, J

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative bone mass index has shown to be an important factor in peri-prosthetic bone remodelling in short follow-up studies. Bone density scans (DXA) were used to perform a 10-year follow-up study of 39 patients with a unilateral, uncemented hip replacement. Bone mass index measurements were made at 6 months, one year, 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years after surgery. Pearson coefficient was used to quantify correlations between preoperative bone mass density (BMD) and peri-prosthetic BMD in the 7 Gruen zones at 6 months, one year, 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years. Pre-operative BMD was a good predictor of peri-prosthetic BMD one year after surgery in zones 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 (Pearson index from 0.61 to 0.75). Three years after surgery it has good predictive power in zones 1, 4 and 5 (0.71-0.61), although in zones 3 and 7 low correlation was observed one year after surgery (0.51 and 0.57, respectively). At the end of the follow-up low correlation was observed in the 7 Gruen zones. Sex and BMI were found to not have a statistically significant influence on peri-prosthetic bone remodelling. Although preoperative BMD seems to be an important factor in peri-prosthetic remodelling one year after hip replacement, it loses its predictive power progressively, until not being a major factor in peri-prosthetic remodelling ten years after surgery. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of low bone mineral density and low body mass index in patients with non-celiac wheat-sensitivity: a prospective observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroccio, Antonio; Soresi, Maurizio; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Sciumè, Carmelo; Iacono, Giuseppe; Geraci, Girolamo; Brusca, Ignazio; Seidita, Aurelio; Adragna, Floriana; Carta, Miriam; Mansueto, Pasquale

    2014-11-28

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or 'wheat sensitivity' (NCWS) is included in the spectrum of gluten-related disorders. No data are available on the prevalence of low bone mass density (BMD) in NCWS. Our study aims to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in NCWS patients and search for correlations with other clinical characteristics. This prospective observation study included 75 NCWS patients (63 women; median age 36 years) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms, 65 IBS and 50 celiac controls. Patients were recruited at two Internal Medicine Departments. Elimination diet and double-blind placebo controlled (DBPC) wheat challenge proved the NCWS diagnosis. All subjects underwent BMD assessment by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA), duodenal histology, HLA DQ typing, body mass index (BMI) evaluation and assessment for daily calcium intake. DBPC cow's milk proteins challenge showed that 30 of the 75 NCWS patients suffered from multiple food sensitivity. Osteopenia and osteoporosis frequency increased from IBS to NCWS and to celiac disease (CD) (P <0.0001). Thirty-five NCWS patients (46.6%) showed osteopenia or osteoporosis. Low BMD was related to low BMI and multiple food sensitivity. Values of daily dietary calcium intake in NCWS patients were significantly lower than in IBS controls. An elevated frequency of bone mass loss in NCWS patients was found; this was related to low BMI and was more frequent in patients with NCWS associated with other food sensitivity. A low daily intake of dietary calcium was observed in patients with NCWS.

  12. A STEEP FAINT-END SLOPE OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 2-3: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GLOBAL STELLAR MASS DENSITY AND STAR FORMATION IN LOW-MASS HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    We use the deep ground-based optical photometry of the Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) Survey to derive robust measurements of the faint-end slope (α) of the UV luminosity function (LF) at redshifts 1.9 ≤ z ≤ 3.4. Our sample includes >2000 spectroscopic redshifts and ∼31000 LBGs in 31 spatially independent fields over a total area of 3261 arcmin 2 . These data allow us to select galaxies to 0.07L* and 0.10L* at z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 3, respectively. A maximum-likelihood analysis indicates steep values of α(z = 2) = -1.73 ± 0.07 and α(z = 3) = -1.73 ± 0.13. This result is robust to luminosity-dependent systematics in the Lyα equivalent width and reddening distributions, and is similar to the steep values advocated at z ∼> 4, and implies that ∼93% of the unobscured UV luminosity density at z ∼ 2-3 arises from sub-L* galaxies. With a realistic luminosity-dependent reddening distribution, faint to moderately luminous galaxies account for ∼>70% and ∼>25% of the bolometric luminosity density and present-day stellar mass density, respectively, when integrated over 1.9 ≤ z 2 contrasts with the shallower slope inferred locally, suggesting that the evolution in the faint-end slope may be dictated simply by the availability of low-mass halos capable of supporting star formation at z ∼< 2.

  13. Cusp and W peak analysis in electron capture to the continuum of bare H and He projectiles from hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, J.M.; Bissinger, G.

    1987-04-01

    The ECC cusp and W peak shapes for continuum electron capture by approx. = MeV/u H/sup +/ and He/sup 2 +/ from hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon gas molecules are analyzed with the general parametric expression of Meckbach, Nemirovsky and Garibotti (i) to look for trends in the coefficients of these parameters, (ii) as a way of generating computed cusp shapes to reduce statistical fluctuations in cusp difference spectra, and (iii) to provide information on the deconvoluted d/sup 2/sigma/d..nu.. dtheta values for cusp and W peaks in the hydrocarbon gases.

  14. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z d = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z s = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r -γ ' ), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ * = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff , γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M * ,R eff with the evolution of the R eff -M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work

  15. Constitutive mass balance relations between chemical composition, volume, density, porosity, and strain in metasomatic hydrochemical systems: Results on weathering and pedogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, George H.; Dietrich, William E.

    1987-03-01

    Relations characterizing the chemical, physical, and mechanical changes resulting from metasomatic hydrochemical processes are developed using mass balance models which formally link chemical composition to bulk density, mineral density, volumetric properties, porosity, and amount of deformation (strain). Rigorous analysis of aqueous solute transport effects is then made possible in a variety of porous media flow environments including chemical weathering, pedogenesis (soil formation), diagenesis, ore deposition and enrichment, and metamorphism. Application of these linear constitutive relations to chemical weathering profiles shows that immobile and locally mobile chemical elements, with masses conserved on the scale of soil profiles, can be accurately identified from analysis of appropriate data arrays and then used as natural geochemical tracers to infer the nature and extent of hydrochemical weathering processes and volume changes during pedogenesis. Assumptions commonly made in the past about the supposed immobility of certain elements, e.g., Ti and Zr, become unnecessary. Quantitative differentiation between the effects of residual and supergene fractionation is then easily made. These methods are applied to Ni-rich laterites developed by weathering of ultramafic rocks, showing that during ordinary residual enrichment, Ni is concentrated by as much as 4× protolith peridotite concentrations. This occurs simply by silicate mineral dissolution and removal of chemical elements other than Ni ( e.g., Mg) with a corresponding reduction in saprolite density and increase in bulk porosity without significant deformation. In contrast, laterites with mineable concentrations of Ni which are similarly undeformed (such as the Nickel Mountain Mine in Riddle, Oregon) have experienced, in addition to residual enrichment, strong supergene enrichment by fractionation of ore elements between a leached zone from which Ni is extracted and a complementary enriched zone positioned

  16. Relationship between body composition, body mass index and bone mineral density in a large population of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Bazzocchi, A; Celi, M; Lauro, D; Sorge, R; Tarantino, U; Guglielmi, G

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of factors modulating the behaviour of bone mass is crucial for preventing and treating osteoporotic disease; among these factors, body weight (BW) has been shown to be of primary importance in postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, the relative effects of body composition indices are still being debated. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat and lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of women. Moreover, this study represents a first important report on reference standard values for body composition in Italian women. Between 2005 and 2008, weight and height of 6,249 Italian women (aged 30-80 years) were measured and BMI was calculated; furthermore BMD, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Individuals were divided into five groups by decades (group 1, 30.0-39.9; group 2, 40.0-49.9; group 3, 50.0-59.9; group 4, 60.0-69.9; group 5, 70.0-79.9). Differences among decades for all variables were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni test by the SPSS programme. Mean BW was 66.8±12.1 kg, mean height 159.1±6.3 cm and mean BMI 26.4±4.7 kg/m(2). According to BW and BMI, there was an increase of obesity with age, especially in women older than 50 years (posteoporosis in the examined population was 43.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Our data show that obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis but did not decrease the risk for osteopenia. It is strongly recommended that a strong policy regarding prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis be commenced. An overall examination of our results suggests that both fat and lean body mass can influence bone mass and that their relative effect on bone could be modulated by their absolute amount and ratio to total BW.

  17. The Effect of Composite Thickness on the Stress Distribution Pattern of Restored Premolar Teeth with Cusp Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ziaee, Nargess; Mahdian, Mina; Tootiaee, Bahman; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Different thicknesses of restorative material can alter the stress distribution pattern in remaining tooth structure. The assumption is that a thicker composite restoration will induce a higher fracture resistance. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of composite thickness on stress distribution in a restored premolar with cusp reduction. A 3D solid model of a maxillary second premolar was prepared and meshed. MOD cavities were designed with different cusp reduction thicknesses (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5 mm). Cavities were restored with Valux Plus composite. They were loaded with 200 N force on the occlusal surface in the direction of the long axis. Von Mises stresses were evaluated with Abaqus software. Stress increased from occlusal to gingival and was maximum in the cervical region. The stressed area in the palatal cusp was more than that of the buccal cusp. Increasing the thickness of composite altered the shear stress to compressive stress in the occlusal area of the teeth. The model with 2.5 mm cusp reduction exhibited the most even stress distribution. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Molar cusp deformation evaluated by micro-CT and enamel crack formation to compare incremental and bulk-filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Rani Sales; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenço; Bicalho, Aline Arêdes; Ribeiro, Maria Tereza Hordones; Price, Richard Bengt; Soares, Carlos José

    2018-07-01

    To describe a method of measuring the molar cusp deformation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), the propagation of enamel cracks using transillumination, and the effects of hygroscopic expansion after incremental and bulk-filling resin composite restorations. Twenty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-occlusal-distal cavity preparations. They were restored with either a bulk-fill resin composite, X-tra fil (XTRA), or a conventional resin composite, Filtek Z100 (Z100). The resin composites were tested for post-gel shrinkage using a strain gauge method. Cusp deformation (CD) was evaluated using the images obtained using a micro-CT protocol and using a strain-gauge method. Enamel cracks were detected using transillumination. The post-gel shrinkage of Z100 was higher than XTRA (P cracks than XTRA (P = 0.012). Micro-CT was an effective method for evaluating the cusp deformation. Transillumination was effective for detecting enamel cracks. There were fewer negative effects of polymerization shrinkage in bulk-fill resin restorations using XTRA than for the conventional incremental filling technique using conventional composite resin Z100. Shrinkage and cusp deformation are directly related to the formation of enamel cracks. Cusp deformation and crack propagation may increase the risk of tooth fracture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycation and glycoxidation of low-density lipoproteins by glucose and low-molecular mass aldehydes. Formation of modified and oxidized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Heather M; Brown, Bronwyn E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    by the adduction of glucose or species derived from glucose, such as low-molecular mass aldehydes, to proteins. These reactions can be nonoxidative (glycation) or oxidative (glycoxidation) and result in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to a form that is recognized by the scavenger receptors...... with glucose. These processes are rapid and unaffected by low concentrations of copper ions. In contrast, lipid and protein oxidation are slow processes and occur to a limited extent in the absence of added copper ions. No evidence was obtained for the stimulation of lipid or protein oxidation by glucose...... or methylglyoxal in the presence of copper ions, whereas glycolaldehyde stimulated such reactions to a modest extent. These results suggest that the earliest significant events in this system are metal ion-independent glycation (modification) of the protein component of LDL, whilst oxidative events (glycoxidation...

  20. Effects of cervical low-frequency electrical stimulation with various waveforms and densities on body mass, liver and kidney function, and death rate in ischemic stroke rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghong Yang; Chengqi He; Lin Yang; Qiang Gao; Shasha Li; Jing He

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency electrical stimulation has resulted in favorable effects in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia. However, the safety of cervical low-frequency electrical stimulation remains unclear because of numerous nerves and blood vessels in the neck. In the present study, rats with ischemic stroke underwent low-frequency electrical stimulation, and systemic and local effects of electrical stimulation at different densities and waveforms were investigated. Electrical stimulation resulted in no significant effects on body mass, liver or kidney function, or mortality rate. In addition, no significant adverse reaction was observed, despite overly high intensity of low-frequency electrical stimulation, which induced laryngismus, results from the present study suggested that it is safe to stimulate the neck with a low-frequency electricity under certain intensities.

  1. Inadvertent puncture of the aortic noncoronary cusp during postoperative left atrial tachycardia ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aras, MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transseptal catheterization has become part of the interventional electrophysiologist׳s technical armamentarium since the development of left atrial catheter ablation and percutaneous technologies for treating mitral and aortic valve disease. Although frequently performed, the procedure׳s most feared complication is aortic root penetration. Focal atrial tachycardia has been described as the most common late sequela of surgical valve replacements. We present a complicated case involving the inadvertent delivery of an 8 French sheath across the noncoronary cusp during radiofrequency catheter ablation for left atrial tachycardia originating from the mitral annulus in a patient with prior mitral valve replacement.

  2. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  3. Flow with boiling in four-cusp channels simulating damaged core in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The study of subcooled nucleate flow boiling in non-circular channels is of great importance to engineering applications in particular to Nuclear Engineering. In the present work, an experimental apparatus, consisting basically of a refrigeration system, running on refrigerant-12, has been developed. Preliminary tests were made with a circular tube. The main objective has been to analyse subcooled flow boiling in four-cusp channels simulating the flow conditions in a PWR core degraded by accident. Correlations were developed for the forced convection film coefficient for both single-phase and subcooled flow boiling. The incipience of boiling in such geometry has also been studied. (author) [pt

  4. A Step Towards Systematic Studies of the Cusp in η → 3π0 Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsc, A.; Rusetsky, A.; Gullstroem, C.-O.

    2009-01-01

    A realistic estimate of the cusp effect in the η → 3π 0 decay is required for the forthcoming high precision experiments. An estimate for the size of this effect was given recently within the framework of non-relativistic effective field theory. Here we present the next step towards the systematic way of fixing the parameters of the effective non-relativistic Lagrangian and consistency tests of the existing data on η → π 0 π 0 π 0 and η → π + π - π 0 decays. (author)

  5. Accurate and simple wavefunctions for the helium isoelectronic sequence with correct cusp conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, K V [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, 8000 BahIa Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gasaneo, G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, 8000 BahIa Blanca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mitnik, D M [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C C 67, Suc. 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-10-14

    Simple and accurate wavefunctions for the He atom and He-like isoelectronic ions are presented. These functions-the product of hydrogenic one-electron solutions and a fully correlated part-satisfy all the coalescence cusp conditions at the Coulomb singularities. Functions with different numbers of parameters and different degrees of accuracy are discussed. Simple analytic expressions for the wavefunction and the energy, valid for a wide range of nuclear charges, are presented. The wavefunctions are tested, in the case of helium, through the calculations of various cross sections which probe different regions of the configuration space, mostly those close to the two-particle coalescence points.

  6. Coulomb scatter of diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap under microgravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru; D’yachkov, L. G.; Petrov, O. F.; Vasiliev, M. M., E-mail: mixxy@mail.ru; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Savin, S. F.; Serova, E. O. [Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, ul. Lenina 4A (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The effect of a dc electric field on strongly nonideal Coulomb systems consisting of a large number (~10{sup 4}) of charged diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap are carried out aboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) within the Coulomb Crystal experiment. Graphite particles of 100–400 μm in size are used in the experiments. Coulomb scatter of a dust cluster and the formation of threadlike chains of dust particles are observed experimentally. The processes observed are simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method.

  7. THE X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTION AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATE FOR THE SEYFERT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IC 4329a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the X-ray broadband power spectral density function (PSD) of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert IC 4329a, constructed from light curves obtained via Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring and an XMM-Newton observation. Modeling the 3-10 keV PSD using a broken power-law PSD shape, a break in power-law slope is significantly detected at a temporal frequency of 2.5 +2.5 -1.7 x 10 -6 Hz, which corresponds to a PSD break timescale T b of 4.6 +10.1 -2.3 days. Using the relation between T b , black hole mass M BH , and bolometric luminosity as quantified by McHardy and coworkers, we infer a black hole mass estimate of M BH = 1.3 +1.0 -0.3 x 10 8 M sun and an accretion rate relative to Eddington of 0.21 +0.06 -0.10 for this source. Our estimate of M BH is consistent with other estimates, including that derived by the relation between M BH and stellar velocity dispersion. We also present PSDs for the 10-20 and 20-40 keV bands; they lack sufficient temporal frequency coverage to reveal a significant break, but are consistent with the same PSD shape and break frequency as in the 3-10 keV band.

  8. HAT-P-12b: A LOW-DENSITY SUB-SATURN MASS PLANET TRANSITING A METAL-POOR K DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Pal, A.; Latham, D. W.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Kovacs, Gabor; Stefanik, R. P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-12b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V ∼ 12.8 K4 dwarf GSC 03033 - 00706, with a period P = 3.2130598 ± 0.0000021 d, transit epoch T c = 2454419.19556 ± 0.00020 (BJD), and transit duration 0.0974 ± 0.0006 d. The host star has a mass of 0.73 ± 0.02 M sun , radius of 0.70 +0.02 -0.01 R sun , effective temperature 4650 ± 60 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.29 ± 0.05. We find a slight correlation between the observed spectral line bisector spans and the radial velocity, so we consider, and rule out, various blend configurations including a blend with a background eclipsing binary, and hierarchical triple systems where the eclipsing body is a star or a planet. We conclude that a model consisting of a single star with a transiting planet best fits the observations, and show that a likely explanation for the apparent correlation is contamination from scattered moonlight. Based on this model, the planetary companion has a mass of 0.211 ± 0.012 M J and radius of 0.959 +0.029 -0.021 R J yielding a mean density of 0.295 ± 0.025 g cm -3 . Comparing these observations with recent theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-12b is consistent with a ∼1-4.5 Gyr, mildly irradiated, H/He-dominated planet with a core mass M C ∼ + . HAT-P-12b is thus the least massive H/He-dominated gas giant planet found to date. This record was previously held by Saturn.

  9. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  10. Smog chamber study on aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system: Changes of mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangwei; Chen, Linghong; Han, Ke; Lv, Biao; Bao, Kaiji; Wu, Xuecheng; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric soot aging process is always accompanied by secondary particle formation, which is a comprehensive environmental issue that deserves great attention. On one hand, aging of primary soot could change its own physicochemical properties; on the other hand, complex air pollution caused by pollutant emission from various sources (e.g., vehicle exhausts, coal-fired flue gases and biogenic VOCs emission) may contribute to secondary particle formation onto primary particle surface. In this study, aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in several smog chamber experiments. During the evolution of soot, several physical properties such as mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state were determined simultaneously by an integrated aerosol analytical system of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer-Condensation Particle Counter (DMA-APM-CPC) and Transmission Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (TEM/EDX) techniques. Here, based on the experimental results of soot aging under different gas-phase composition and relative humidity (RH), we firstly proposed possible aging pathways of soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system. A synergetic effect was speculated to exist between SO2 and isoprene on soot aging process, which led to more secondary particle formation. At the same time, TEM/EDX analysis showed that a competitive mechanism between H2SO4(g) and isoprene oxidation vapor may exist: H2SO4(g) firstly condensed onto fresh soot, then an acceleration of isoprene oxidation products formed onto H2SO4 pre-coated soot. In isoprene/SO2/NOx system, high RH conditions could contribute to soot aging and new particle formation. The changes of effective density and dynamic shape factor of soot also indicated that high RH conditions could accelerate soot aging process, and led chain-like soot into more spherical

  11. Density and magnetic field measurements in the Tormac IV-c plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coonrod, J.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Tormac is a concept for magnetically confining a high-β fusion plasma in a toroidal, stuffed line cusp. A Tormac plasma has two regions: an interior confined on the closed toroidal field lines of the stuffing field, and an exterior sheath on open, cusped field lines. The interior plasma gives the device a longer confinement time than a standard mirror, while the favorable curvature of the cusp fields allow the plasma to be stable at higher values of β (the ratio of the plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) than a totally closed configuration like Tokamak. This thesis describes the design, construction and operation of Tormac IV-c, and reports on the results, with emphasis on describing the behavior of the density compression and field penetration

  12. Optimal design of earth-moving machine elements with cusp catastrophe theory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitukhin, A. V.; Skobtsov, I. G.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design problem solution for the operator of an earth-moving machine with a roll-over protective structure (ROPS) in terms of the catastrophe theory. A brief description of the catastrophe theory is presented, the cusp catastrophe is considered, control parameters are viewed as Gaussian stochastic quantities in the first part of the paper. The statement of optimal design problem is given in the second part of the paper. It includes the choice of the objective function and independent design variables, establishment of system limits. The objective function is determined as mean total cost that includes initial cost and cost of failure according to the cusp catastrophe probability. Algorithm of random search method with an interval reduction subject to side and functional constraints is given in the last part of the paper. The way of optimal design problem solution can be applied to choose rational ROPS parameters, which will increase safety and reduce production and exploitation expenses.

  13. Automatic measurement of cusps in 2.5D dental images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mattias; Paulus, Dietrich W.; Niemann, Heinrich

    1996-01-01

    Automatic reconstruction of occlusal surfaces of teeth is an application which might become more and more urgent due to the toxicity of amalgam. Modern dental chairside equipment is currently restricted to the production of inlays. The automatic reconstruction of the occlusal surface is presently not possible. For manufacturing an occlusal surface it is required to extract features from which it is possible to reconstruct destroyed teeth. In this paper, we demonstrate how intact upper molars can be automatically extracted in dental range and intensity images. After normalization of the 3D location, the sizes of the cusps are detected and the distances between them are calculated. In the presented approach, the detection of the upper molar is based on a knowledge-based segmentation which includes anatomic knowledge. After the segmentation of the interesting tooth the central fossa is calculated. The normalization of the spatial location is archieved by aligning the detected fossa with a reference axis. After searching the cusp tips in the range image the image is resized. The methods have been successfully tested on 60 images. The results have been compared with the results of a dentist's evaluation on a sample of 20 images. The results will be further used for automatic production of tooth inlays.

  14. Origin of the turbulent spectra in the high-altitude cusp: Cluster spacecraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nykyri

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution magnetic field data from Cluster Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM and the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF instruments are used to study turbulent magnetic field fluctuations during the high-altitude cusp crossing on 17 March 2001. Despite the quiet solar wind conditions, the cusp was filled with magnetic field turbulence whose power correlates with the field-aligned ion plasma flux. The magnetic field wave spectra shows power law behavior with both double and single slopes with break in the spectra usually occurring in the vicinity of the local ion cyclotron frequency. Strong peaks in the wave power close to local ion cyclotron frequency were sometimes observed, with secondary peaks at higher harmonics indicative of resonant processes between protons and the waves. We show that the observed spectral break point may be caused partly by damping of obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén (KAW waves and partly by cyclotron damping of ion cyclotron waves.

  15. LS1 Report: A brand new set-up for ASACUSA-CUSP

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    ASACUSA is running for the first time with a totally new set-up. Three new vital instruments have been designed, produced and installed during LS1 in addition to several other major modifications. The collaboration is now ready to perform the first high-precision measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen – a study that aims at comparing the inner properties of matter and antimatter.   The ASACUSA set-up. The ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration comprises about 30 scientists from various institutes in Europe and Japan. Because of the Japanese contribution, the experiment is often known by its Japanese pronunciation, the experiment’s logo is in Japanese, and the logbook uses Japanese time! This year, for the first time, the experiment is running with a completely new set-up, which now includes a new superconducting double cusp magnet, a new tracking detector and a new final antihydrogen detector. “The magnet is the heart of the ASACUSA experiment,” expl...

  16. Cluster observations of bounday layer structure and a flux transfer event near the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fear

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available On the 25th January 2002 between 10:00 and 12:00 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern high-latitude cusp, the dayside magnetosphere and into the magnetosheath in a linear formation. In the magnetosphere the PEACE electron spectrometers on the four spacecraft all observed a series of transient bursts of magnetosheath-like plasma, but without bipolar magnetic signatures in the magnetopause normal component as might be expected if the plasma had been injected by transient reconnection (flux transfer events – FTEs. Reordering the data using the magnetopause transition parameter reveals that these plasma observations, the related variations in the magnetic field and the balance of magnetic and thermal gas pressures are consistent with transient entries into a stable high-latitude boundary layer structure. However, once some of the spacecraft entered the magnetosheath, FTE signatures were observed outside the magnetopause at the same time as some of the boundary layer entries occurred at the other spacecraft inside. Thus, (a the lack of a bipolar BN signature is inconsistent with the traditional picture of a magnetospheric FTE, and (b the cause of the observed entry of the spacecraft into the boundary layer (pressure pulse or passing magnetosheath FTE can only be determined by spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and bondary layers; Solar wind- magnetosphere interactions; Magnetosheath

  17. Cluster observations of bounday layer structure and a flux transfer event near the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fear

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available On the 25th January 2002 between 10:00 and 12:00 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern high-latitude cusp, the dayside magnetosphere and into the magnetosheath in a linear formation. In the magnetosphere the PEACE electron spectrometers on the four spacecraft all observed a series of transient bursts of magnetosheath-like plasma, but without bipolar magnetic signatures in the magnetopause normal component as might be expected if the plasma had been injected by transient reconnection (flux transfer events – FTEs. Reordering the data using the magnetopause transition parameter reveals that these plasma observations, the related variations in the magnetic field and the balance of magnetic and thermal gas pressures are consistent with transient entries into a stable high-latitude boundary layer structure. However, once some of the spacecraft entered the magnetosheath, FTE signatures were observed outside the magnetopause at the same time as some of the boundary layer entries occurred at the other spacecraft inside. Thus, (a the lack of a bipolar BN signature is inconsistent with the traditional picture of a magnetospheric FTE, and (b the cause of the observed entry of the spacecraft into the boundary layer (pressure pulse or passing magnetosheath FTE can only be determined by spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and bondary layers; Solar wind- magnetosphere interactions; Magnetosheath

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings are based upon introductory talks, research reports and discussions from the NATO Advanced Workshop on the "Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp", held at Lillehammer, Norway, 7-12 May, 1984. The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is called the "Earth's win­ dow to outer space". Through various electrodynamic coupling process­ es as well as through direct transfer of particles many geophysical effects displayed there are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in the deep space. The high latitude ionosphere will also exert a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled, acting as a momentum and energy source and sink, and a source of particles. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric pro­ cesses and a focusing on to the ionosphere. In the ...

  19. CUSP-SHAPED STRUCTURE OF A JET OBSERVED BY IRIS AND SDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuzong; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-01-01

    On 2014 August 29, the trigger and evolution of a cusp-shaped jet were captured in detail at 1330 Å by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph . At first, two neighboring mini-prominences arose in turn from the low solar atmosphere and collided with a loop-like system over them. The collisions between the loop-like system and the mini-prominences lead to the blowout, and then a cusp-shaped jet formed with a spire and an arch-base. In the spire, many brightening blobs originating from the junction between the spire and the arch-base moved upward in a rotating manner and then in a straight line in the late phase of the jet. In the arch-base, dark and bright material simultaneously tracked in a fan-like structure, and the majority of the material moved along the fan's threads. At the later phase of the jet's evolution, bidirectional flows emptied the arch-base, while downflows emptied the spire, thus making the jet entirely vanish. The extremely detailed observations in this study shed new light on how magnetic reconnection alters the inner topological structure of a jet and provides a beneficial complement for understanding current jet models.

  20. New solar cell and clean unit system platform (CUSP) for earth and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Enomoto, R.; Yasutake, M.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated InGaN-based multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier propagation solar cell (MOP3SC) in which sunlight propagates in a direction being orthogonal to that of photocarriers generated by the sunlight. Thanks to the orthogonality, in MOP3SC, absorption of the sunlight and collection of the photocarriers can be simultaneously and independently optimized with no trade-off. Furthermore, by exploiting the degree of freedom along the photon propagation and using multi-semiconductor stripes in which the incoming photons first encounter the widest gap semiconductor, and the narrowest at last, we can convert the whole solar spectrum into electricity resulting in the high conversion efficiency. For processing MOP3SC, we have developed Clean Unit System Platform (CUSP), which turns out to be able to serve as clean versatile environment having low power-consumption and high cost-performance. CUSP is suitable not only for processing devices, but also for cross-disciplinary fields, including medical/hygienic applications.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of an Atrial Tachycardia Emanating From the Non-coronary Aortic Cusp Guided by an Electroanatomic Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Bortone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on an atrial tachycardia (AT, emanating from the non-coronary (NC aortic cusp, ablated with the aid of an electro-anatomical navigation system. In this setting, the electrocardiographic, electrophysiologic (EP, anatomical, and ablative considerations are discussed.Although NC aortic cusp focal ATs are an uncommon EP finding, their ablation is effective and safe, especially from an atrio-ventricular (AV conductive point of view. This origin of AT must be invoked and systematically disclosed when a peri-AV nodal AT origin is suspected, in order to avoid a potentially harmful energy application at the vicinity of the AV conductive tissue.

  2. A Rare Bilateral Presentation of Multiple Dens Invaginatus, Shovel-Shaped Incisor and Talon Cusp With Mesiodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, S; Jain, M; Shubha, A B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a unique and unusual case of concomitant appearance of morphological dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region, along with its management in a patient with no systemic abnormality. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic features of talon cusp, dens invaginatus, shovel-shaped incisors and a supernumerary tooth occurring in a single patient, which is a rare presentation. All 4 permanent maxillary incisors had dens invaginatus, the permanent maxillary canines showed the presence of talon cusps, the permanent maxillary central incisors were shovel-shaped and an erupted mesiodens was also observed. Treatment included restorative, surgical and orthodontic approaches.

  3. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  4. Density profile of dark matter haloes and galaxies in the HORIZON-AGN simulation: the impact of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Devriendt, Julien; Bundy, Kevin; Silk, Joe; Pichon, Christophe; Kaviraj, Sugata; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Habouzit, Mélanie

    2017-12-01

    Using a suite of three large cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, HORIZON-AGN, HORIZON–NOAGN (no AGN feedback) and HORIZON-DM (no baryons), we investigate how a typical sub-grid model for AGN feedback affects the evolution of the inner density profiles of massive dark matter haloes and galaxies. Based on direct object-to-object comparisons, we find that the integrated inner mass and density slope differences between objects formed in these three simulations (hereafter, HAGN, HnoAGN and HDM) significantly evolve with time. More specifically, at high redshift (z ∼ 5), the mean central density profiles of HAGN and HnoAGN dark matter haloes tend to be much steeper than their HDM counterparts owing to the rapidly growing baryonic component and ensuing adiabatic contraction. By z ∼ 1.5, these mean halo density profiles in HAGN have flattened, pummelled by powerful AGN activity ('quasar mode'): the integrated inner mass difference gaps with HnoAGN haloes have widened, and those with HDM haloes have narrowed. Fast forward 9.5 billion years, down to z = 0, and the trend reverses: HAGN halo mean density profiles drift back to a more cusped shape as AGN feedback efficiency dwindles ('radio mode'), and the gaps in integrated central mass difference with HnoAGN and HDM close and broaden, respectively. On the galaxy side, the story differs noticeably. Averaged stellar profile central densities and inner slopes are monotonically reduced by AGN activity as a function of cosmic time, resulting in better agreement with local observations.

  5. TIDAL STIRRING OF SATELLITES WITH SHALLOW DENSITY PROFILES PREVENTS THEM FROM BEING TOO BIG TO FAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Mayer, Lucio [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Quinn, Thomas, E-mail: mihai@physik.uzh.ch [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    The “too big to fail” problem is revisited by studying the tidal evolution of populations of dwarf satellites with different density profiles. The high-resolution cosmological ΛCDM “ErisMod” set of simulations is used. These simulations can model both the stellar and dark matter components of the satellites, and their evolution under the action of the tides of a Milky Way (MW)-sized host halo at a force resolution better than 10 pc. The stronger tidal mass loss and re-shaping of the mass distribution induced in satellites with γ = 0.6 dark matter density distributions, as those resulting from the effect of feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxy formation, are sufficient to bring the circular velocity profiles in agreement with the kinematics of MW’s dSphs. In contrast, in simulations in which the satellites retain cusps at z = 0 there are several “massive failures” with circular velocities in excess of the observational constraints. Various sources of deviations in the conventionally adopted relation between the circular velocity at the half-light radius and the one-dimensional line of sight velocity dispersions are found. Such deviations are caused by the response of circular velocity profiles to tidal effects, which also varies depending on the initially assumed inner density profile and by the complexity of the stellar kinematics, which include residual rotation and anisotropy. In addition, tidal effects naturally induce large deviations in the stellar mass–halo mass relation for halo masses below 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}, preventing any reliable application of the abundance matching technique to dwarf galaxy satellites.

  6. Constraints on an annihilation signal from a core of constant dark matter density around the milky way center with H.E.S.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C-C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H-S

    2015-02-27

    An annihilation signal of dark matter is searched for from the central region of the Milky Way. Data acquired in dedicated on-off observations of the Galactic center region with H.E.S.S. are analyzed for this purpose. No significant signal is found in a total of ∼9  h of on-off observations. Upper limits on the velocity averaged cross section, ⟨σv⟩, for the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses in the range of ∼300  GeV to ∼10  TeV are derived. In contrast to previous constraints derived from observations of the Galactic center region, the constraints that are derived here apply also under the assumption of a central core of constant dark matter density around the center of the Galaxy. Values of ⟨σv⟩ that are larger than 3×10^{-24}  cm^{3}/s are excluded for dark matter particles with masses between ∼1 and ∼4  TeV at 95% C.L. if the radius of the central dark matter density core does not exceed 500 pc. This is the strongest constraint that is derived on ⟨σv⟩ for annihilating TeV mass dark matter without the assumption of a centrally cusped dark matter density distribution in the search region.

  7. Ionospheric cusp flows pulsed by solar wind Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs in the cusp foot-print have been observed by the SuperDARN radars with periods between a few minutes and several tens of minutes. PIFs are believed to be a consequence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF reconnection with the magnetospheric magnetic field on the dayside magnetopause, ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs. The quasiperiodic PIFs are correlated with Alfvénic fluctuations observed in the upstream solar wind. It is concluded that on these occasions, the FTEs were driven by Alfvén waves coupling to the day-side magnetosphere. Case studies are presented in which the dawn-dusk component of the Alfvén wave electric field modulates the reconnection rate as evidenced by the radar observations of the ionospheric cusp flows. The arrival of the IMF southward turning at the magnetopause is determined from multipoint solar wind magnetic field and/or plasma measurements, assuming plane phase fronts in solar wind. The cross-correlation lag between the solar wind data and ground magnetograms that were obtained near the cusp footprint exceeded the estimated spacecraft-to-magnetopause propagation time by up to several minutes. The difference can account for and/or exceeds the Alfvén propagation time between the magnetopause and ionosphere. For the case of short period ( < 13 min PIFs, the onset times of the flow transients appear to be further delayed by at most a few more minutes after the IMF southward turning arrived at the magnetopause. For the case of long period (30 – 40 min PIFs, the observed additional delays were 10–20 min. We interpret the excess delay in terms of an intrinsic time scale for reconnection (Russell et al., 1997 which can be explained by the surface-wave induced magnetic reconnection mechanism (Uberoi et al., 1999. Here, surface waves with wavelengths larger than the thickness of the neutral layer induce a tearing-mode instability whose rise time explains the

  8. Influence of occlusal contact area on cusp defection and stress distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna Karina Figueiredo; Xavier, Thaty Aparecida; Paes-Junior, Tarcisio José Arruda; Andreatta-Filho, Oswaldo Daniel; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal contact area for loading on the cuspal defection and stress distribution in a first premolar restored with a high elastic modulus restorative material. The Rhinoceros 4.0 software was used for modeling the three-dimensional geometries of dental and periodontal structures and the inlay restoration. Thus, two different models, intact and restored teeth with three occlusal contact areas, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 mm(2), on enamel at the occlusal surface of buccal and lingual cusps. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed with the program ANSYS (Workbench 13.0), which generated a mesh with tetrahedral elements with greater refinement in the regions of interest, and was constrained at the bases of cortical and trabecular bone in all axis and loaded with 100 N normal to each contact area. To analysis of maximum principal stress, the smaller occlusal contact area showed greater compressive stress in region of load application for both the intact and inlay restored tooth. However, tensile stresses at the occlusal isthmus were similar for all three tested occlusal contact areas (60 MPa). To displacement of the cusps was higher for teeth with inlay (0.46-0.48 mm). For intact teeth, the smaller contact area showed greater displacement (0.10 mm). For teeth with inlays, the displacement of the cusps were similar in all types of occlusal area. Cuspal displacement was higher in the restored tooth when compared to the intact tooth, but there were no significant variations even with changes in the occlusal contact area. RELEVANCE CLINICAL: Occlusal contacts have a great influence on the positioning of teeth being able to maintain the position and stability of the mandible. Axial loads would be able to generate more uniform stress at the root presenting a greater concentration of load application in the point and the occlusal surface. Thus, is necessary to analyze the relationship between these occlusal contacts as dental

  9. Cusp-latitude Pc3 spectra: band-limited and power-law components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Ponomarenko

    Full Text Available This work attempts to fill a gap in comparative studies of upstream-generated Pc3–4 waves and broad band ULF noise observed at cusp latitudes. We performed a statistical analysis of the spectral properties of three years of cusp-latitude ground magnetometer data, finding that the average daytime Pc3–4 spectra are characterized by two principal components: an upstream-related band-limited enhancement (‘signal’ and a power-law background (‘noise’ with S(f a  f -4 . Based on this information we developed an algorithm allowing for the deconvolution of these two components in the spectral domain. The frequency of the signal enhancement increases linearly with IMF magnitude as f [mHz] ~ 4.4 | BIMF | [nT], and its power maximizes around IMF cone angles qxB ~ 20 and 160° and at 10:30–11:00 MLT. Both spectral components exhibit similar semiannual variations with equinoctial maxima. The back-ground noise power grows with increasing southward Bz and remains nearly constant for northward Bz . Its diurnal variation resembles that of Pc5 field-line resonance power, with a maximum near 09:00 MLT. Both the band-limited signal and broad band noise components show power-law growth with solar wind velocity a V 5.71sw and a V 4.12sw, respectively. Thus, the effective signal-to-noise ratio increases with in-creasing Vsw. The observations suggest that the noise generation is associated with reconnection processes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind magnetosphere interactions

  10. The impact on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped and cuspless teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Arafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped or cuspless teeth. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dental Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt, over a 12-month period from September 2013 to September 2014. Twenty patients were treated with immediate implant-supported overdentures: one group received overdentures with cusped teeth, and the other group received overdentures with cuspless teeth. The rate of implant success was assessed clinically and radiographically at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The data were collected by a questionnaire, an observation checklist, and radiography. The data were then analyzed using computerized methods. Results: Overdentures with cusped teeth showed a significant improvement in the clinical criteria, including the absence of clinical implant mobility, pain, and bone resorption, while the clinical criteria for the absence of peri-implant radiolucency were insignificantly different between the 2 groups (p>0.05. There were no significant differences in the clinical evaluations for bone levels at the time of insertion or 3 months after insertions, while significant differences were found at 6, 9, and 12 months after insertion. Conclusion: Overdentures with cusped teeth supported by immediate implants were found superior regarding many clinical criteria than those cuspless counterparts.

  11. The impact on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped and cuspless teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped or cuspless teeth. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dental Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt, over a 12-month period from September 2013 to September 2014. Twenty patients were treated with immediate implant-supported overdentures: one group received overdentures with cusped teeth, and the other group received overdentures with cuspless teeth. The rate of implant success was assessed clinically and radiographically at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The data were collected by a questionnaire, an observation checklist, and radiography. The data were then analyzed using computerized methods.  Overdentures with cusped teeth showed a significant improvement in the clinical criteria, including the absence of clinical implant mobility, pain, and bone resorption, while the clinical criteria for the absence of peri-implant radiolucency were insignificantly different between the 2 groups (p more than 0.05). There were no significant differences in the clinical evaluations for bone levels at the time of insertion or 3 months after insertions, while significant differences were found at 6, 9, and 12 months after insertion. Overdentures with cusped teeth supported by immediate implants were found superior regarding many clinical criteria than those cuspless counterparts.

  12. Influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson loop in ν-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is given about the influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson Loop in ν-dimensional space. In particular, for the two-dimensional case, it is shown that there are no divergences. (Author) [pt

  13. Measurement of the mass attenuation coefficients and electron densities for BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor at different energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, U.; Baltaş, H.

    2007-03-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients for Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, Cu metals, Bi2O3, PbO, SrCO3, CaO, CuO compounds and solid-state forms of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductor were determined at 57.5, 65.2, 77.1, 87.3, 94.6, 122 and 136 keV energies. The samples were irradiated using a 57Co point source emitted 122 and 136 keV γ-ray energies. The X-ray energies were obtained using secondary targets such as Ta, Bi2O3 and (CH3COO)2UO22H2O. The γ- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 0.16 keV at 5.9 keV. The effect of absorption edges on electron density, effective atomic numbers and their variation with photon energy in composite superconductor samples was discussed. Obtained values were compared with theoretical values.

  14. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Abedi, Iraj; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93) and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87) for men with BMI osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  15. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  16. IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We study a brightening of the Lyman-a emission in the cusp which occurred in response to a short-lived south-ward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during a period of strongly enhanced solar wind plasma concentration. The cusp proton emission is detected using the SI-12 channel of the FUV imager on the IMAGE spacecraft. Analysis of the IMF observations recorded by the ACE and Wind spacecraft reveals that the assumption of a constant propagation lag from the upstream spacecraft to the Earth is not adequate for these high time-resolution studies. The variations of the southward IMF component observed by ACE and Wind allow for the calculation of the ACE-to-Earth lag as a function of time. Application of the derived propagation delays reveals that the intensity of the cusp emission varied systematically with the IMF clock angle, the relationship being particularly striking when the intensity is normalised to allow for the variation in the upstream solar wind proton concentration. The latitude of the cusp migrated equatorward while the lagged IMF pointed southward, confirming the lag calculation and indicating ongoing magnetopause reconnection. Dayside convection, as monitored by the SuperDARN network of radars, responded rapidly to the IMF changes but lagged behind the cusp proton emission response: this is shown to be as predicted by the model of flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992. We use the numerical cusp ion precipitation model of Lockwood and Davis (1996, along with modelled Lyman-a emission efficiency and the SI-12 instrument response, to investigate the effect of the sheath field clock angle on the acceleration of ions on crossing the dayside magnetopause. This modelling reveals that the emission commences on each reconnected field line 2–2.5 min after it is opened and peaks 3–5 min after it is opened. We discuss how comparison of the Lyman-a intensities with oxygen emissions observed simultaneously by the SI-13

  17. IMF control of cusp proton emission intensity and dayside convection: implications for component and anti-parallel reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available We study a brightening of the Lyman-a emission in the cusp which occurred in response to a short-lived south-ward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during a period of strongly enhanced solar wind plasma concentration. The cusp proton emission is detected using the SI-12 channel of the FUV imager on the IMAGE spacecraft. Analysis of the IMF observations recorded by the ACE and Wind spacecraft reveals that the assumption of a constant propagation lag from the upstream spacecraft to the Earth is not adequate for these high time-resolution studies. The variations of the southward IMF component observed by ACE and Wind allow for the calculation of the ACE-to-Earth lag as a function of time. Application of the derived propagation delays reveals that the intensity of the cusp emission varied systematically with the IMF clock angle, the relationship being particularly striking when the intensity is normalised to allow for the variation in the upstream solar wind proton concentration. The latitude of the cusp migrated equatorward while the lagged IMF pointed southward, confirming the lag calculation and indicating ongoing magnetopause reconnection. Dayside convection, as monitored by the SuperDARN network of radars, responded rapidly to the IMF changes but lagged behind the cusp proton emission response: this is shown to be as predicted by the model of flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992. We use the numerical cusp ion precipitation model of Lockwood and Davis (1996, along with modelled Lyman-a emission efficiency and the SI-12 instrument response, to investigate the effect of the sheath field clock angle on the acceleration of ions on crossing the dayside magnetopause. This modelling reveals that the emission commences on each reconnected field line 2–2.5 min after it is opened and peaks 3–5 min after it is opened. We discuss how comparison of the Lyman-

  18. Quantum Spectral Curve for a cusped Wilson line in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Nikolay [King’s College London, Department of Mathematics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); St. Petersburg INP,Gatchina, 188 300, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor [King’s College London, Department of Mathematics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-20

    We show that the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) formalism, initially formulated for the spectrum of anomalous dimensions of all local single trace operators in N=4 SYM, can be extended to the generalized cusp anomalous dimension for all values of the parameters. We find that the large spectral parameter asymptotics and some analyticity properties have to be modified, but the functional relations are unchanged. As a demonstration, we find an all-loop analytic expression for the first two nontrivial terms in the small |ϕ±θ| expansion. We also present nonperturbative numerical results at generic angles which match perfectly 4-loop perturbation theory and the classical string prediction. The reformulation of the problem in terms of the QSC opens the possibility to explore many open questions. We attach to this paper several Mathematica notebooks which should facilitate future studies.

  19. Quantum Spectral Curve for a cusped Wilson line in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) formalism, initially formulated for the spectrum of anomalous dimensions of all local single trace operators in N=4 SYM, can be extended to the generalized cusp anomalous dimension for all values of the parameters. We find that the large spectral parameter asymptotics and some analyticity properties have to be modified, but the functional relations are unchanged. As a demonstration, we find an all-loop analytic expression for the first two nontrivial terms in the small |ϕ±θ| expansion. We also present nonperturbative numerical results at generic angles which match perfectly 4-loop perturbation theory and the classical string prediction. The reformulation of the problem in terms of the QSC opens the possibility to explore many open questions. We attach to this paper several Mathematica notebooks which should facilitate future studies.

  20. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  1. Atypical presentation of bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors with unusual talon cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed eruption of maxillary permanent central incisors in a child poses a distressing esthetic quandary to parents, by virtue of its location in the dental architecture. Well-aligned anterior teeth add confidence to smile and have enhanced self-esteem, which is critical even in early life. Impaction of the maxillary central incisors compared to third molars or the canines is less reported; bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors related to impacted permanent maxillary central incisors are rare and one of the supplemental central incisors showing unusual talon is still infrequent. A case of impacted maxillary permanent central incisors related to supplemental maxillary central incisors, with one of them showing an unusual talon cusp, is presented.

  2. Ultra-low energy electrons from fast heavy-ion helium collisions: the `target Cusp`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, W. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Moshammer, R.; Kollmus, H.; Ullrich, J. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany); O`Rourke, F.S.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sarkadi, L. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete; Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). J.R. MacDonald Lab.; Olson, R.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1998-09-01

    Doubly differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dv {sub parallel} dv {sub perpendicular} {sub to} have been obtained by mapping the 3-dimensional velocity space of ultra-low and low-energy electrons (1.5 meV{<=} E{sub e}{<=}100 eV) emitted in singly ionizing 3.6 MeV/u Au{sup 53+} on helium collisions. A sharp ({Delta}E{sub e} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {sup FWHM} {<=} 22 meV) asymmetric peak centered at vertical stroke anti {nu} vertical stroke =0 is observed to emerge at ultra-low energies from the strongly forward shifted low-energy electron velocity distribution. The shape of this ``target cusp``, which is very sensitive on the details of the two-center potential, is in excellent accord with theoretical CTMC and CDW-EIS predictions. (orig.)

  3. Protection motivation theory and cigarette smoking among vocational high school students in China: a cusp catastrophe modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunan; Chen, Xinguang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is one of the greatest public health problems worldwide and the hazards of cigarette smoking to public health call for better recognition of cigarette smoking behaviors to guide evidence-based policy. Protection motivation theory (PMT) provides a conceptual framework to investigate tobacco use. Evidence from diverse sources implies that the dynamics of smoking behavior may be quantum in nature, consisting of an intuition and an analytical process, challenging the traditional linear continuous analytical approach. In this study, we used cusp catastrophe, a nonlinear analytical approach to test the dual-process hypothesis of cigarette smoking. Data were collected from a random sample of vocational high school students in China ( n = 528). The multivariate stochastic cusp modeling was used and executed with the Cusp Package in R. The PMT-based Threat Appraisal and Coping Appraisal were used as the two control variables and the frequency of cigarette smoking (daily, weekly, occasional, and never) in the past month was used as the outcome variable. Consistent with PMT, the Threat Appraisal (asymmetry, α 1 = 0.1987, p < 0.001) and Coping Appraisal (bifurcation, β 2 = 0.1760, p < 0.05) significantly predicted the smoking behavior after controlling for covariates. Furthermore, the cusp model performed better than the alternative linear and logistic regression models with regard to higher R 2 (0.82 for cusp, but 0.21 for linear and 0.25 for logistic) and smaller AIC and BIC. Study findings support the conclusion that cigarette smoking in adolescents is a quantum process and PMT is relevant to guide studies to understand smoking behavior for smoking prevention and cessation.

  4. Maintaining and sustaining the On the CUSP: stop BSI model in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Della M; Weeks, Kristina; Holzmueller, Christine G; Pronovost, Peter J; Pham, Julius Cuong

    2013-02-01

    Hawaii joined the On the CUSP: Stop BSI national effort in the United States in 2009 (CUSP stands for Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program). In the initial 18-month study evaluation, adult ICUs decreased central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates by 61%. The impact of a series of novel strategies/tools in reducing infections and sustaining the collaborative in ICUs and non-ICUs in Hawaii was assessed. This cohort collaborative consisted of 20 adult ICUs and 18 nonadult ICUs in 16 hospitals. Hawaii developed and implemented six tools between July 2010 and August 2011: a tool to investigate CLABSIs, a video to address cultural barriers, a standardized dressing change kit, a map of the cohort's journey, a 12-strategies leadership dashboard, and a geometric plot of consecutive infection-free days. The primary outcome measure was overall CLABSI rates (mean infections per 1,000 catheter-days). A comparison of baseline data from 28 ICUs with 12-quarter (36-month) postimplementation data indicated that the CLABSI rate decreased across the entire state: overall, 1.57 to 0.29 infections/1,000 catheter-days; adult ICUs, 1.49 to 0.25 infections/1,000 catheter-days; nonadult ICUs, 2.54 to 0.33 infections/1,000 catheter-days, non-ICUs (N= 14), 4.52 to 0.25 infections/1,000 catheter-days, and PICU/NICU (N = 4), 2.05 to 0.53 infections/1,000 catheter-days. Days between CLABSIs in the adult ICUs statewide increased from a median of 5 days in 2009 to 70 days in 2011. Hawaii successfully spread the program beyond adult ICUs and implemented a series of tools for maintenance and sustainment. Use of the tools shaped a culture around the continued belief that CLABSIs can be eradicated, and infections further reduced.

  5. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected cool water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL3_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL3_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of up to 76...

  6. Five-minute grid of the total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected neutral water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL2_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL2_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of up to 76...

  7. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 receptor gene are associated with bone mineral density and body mass index in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M; Nogués, X; Mellibovsky, L; Agueda, L; Jurado, S; Cáceres, E; Blanch, J; Carreras, R; Díez-Pérez, A; Grinberg, D; Balcells, S

    2007-11-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity are complex diseases with a strong genetic component. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body mass index (BMI) linkage studies identified a locus at 1q21-23, where the interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) gene is located. The IL6R and the gp130 receptors are the mediators of IL6 action. Serum levels of IL6 and sIL6R (the soluble form of IL6R) are higher in several diseases such as osteoporosis or obesity. Variants at IL6R have been associated with BMI and obesity. However, IL6R is an as-yet-unexplored osteoporosis candidate gene. In the present study we analysed two polymorphisms in the IL6R promoter, -1435 C/T (rs3887104) and -208 G/A (rs4845617), and the Asp358Ala polymorphism (rs8192284), in relation to both BMD and BMI in a cohort of 559 postmenopausal Spanish women. The promoter polymorphisms, -1435 C/T and -208 G/A were associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD (P=0.011 and P=0.025 respectively). The C-A and T-G promoter haplotypes were also associated with FN BMD. Additionally, the Asp358Ala variant was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=0.038). Finally, the -208 G/A polymorphism and the C-G and C-A haplotypes were associated with BMI and obesity, where GG was the risk genotype (P=0.033 for BMI; P=0.010 for obesity). These data suggest that variants in the IL6R gene are not only involved in the determination of BMI but also relevant for the determination of BMD. The IL6R gene may belong to the growing list of genes known to be involved in both phenotypes.

  8. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD. Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years.The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35, 60-69 (n = 123, 70-79 (n = 93, and 80-89 (n = 107 years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21, medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118, overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178, and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC, lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lumbar spine (L1-L4 BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2, LM index (LMI; LM/height2, FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2, percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM × 100% were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization.Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively. The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001 whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145. Although the absolute values of BMC and LM decline