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Sample records for curve technique relating

  1. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fermat's Technique of Finding Areas under Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps next time teachers head towards the fundamental theorem of calculus in their classroom, they may wish to consider Fermat's technique of finding expressions for areas under curves, beautifully outlined in Boyer's History of Mathematics. Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) developed some important results in the journey toward the discovery of the…

  3. Learning curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, Jussi K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on actuarial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  4. Effects of Pathologic Stage on the Learning Curve for Radical Prostatectomy: Evidence That Recurrence in Organ-Confined Cancer Is Largely Related to Inadequate Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Gonen, Mithat; Cronin, Angel M.; Eastham, James A.; Schrag, Deborah; Klein, Eric A.; Reuther, Alwyn M.; Kattan, Michael W.; Pontes, J. Edson; Scardino, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. We sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by pathologic stage. Methods The study included 7765 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable regression models of survival time were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, with adjustment for PSA, stage, and grade. Analyses were conducted separately for patients with organ-confined and locally advanced disease. Results Five-year recurrence-free probability for patients with organ-confined disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons. Conversely, the learning curve for patients with locally advanced disease reached a plateau at approximately 70%, suggesting that about a third of these patients cannot be cured by surgery alone. Conclusions Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with organ-confined disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggest that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. PMID:18207316

  5. On ``minimally curved spacetimes'' in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    1997-01-01

    We consider a spacetime corresponding to uniform relativistic potential analogus to Newtonian potential as an example of ``minimally curved spacetime''. We also consider a radially symmetric analogue of the Rindler spacetime of uniform proper acceleration relative to infinity.

  6. Fourier techniques for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves. Pt. 6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1980-01-01

    This is a continuation of a previous paper which appeared in this journal (Demircan, 1980b) and aims at ascertaining some other relations between the integral transforms of the light curves of eclipsing binary systems. The appropriate use of these relations should facilitate the numerical computations for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves by different Fourier techniques. (orig.)

  7. Machine Learning Techniques for Stellar Light Curve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinners, Trisha A.; Tat, Kevin; Thorp, Rachel

    2018-07-01

    We apply machine learning techniques in an attempt to predict and classify stellar properties from noisy and sparse time-series data. We preprocessed over 94 GB of Kepler light curves from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to classify according to 10 distinct physical properties using both representation learning and feature engineering approaches. Studies using machine learning in the field have been primarily done on simulated data, making our study one of the first to use real light-curve data for machine learning approaches. We tuned our data using previous work with simulated data as a template and achieved mixed results between the two approaches. Representation learning using a long short-term memory recurrent neural network produced no successful predictions, but our work with feature engineering was successful for both classification and regression. In particular, we were able to achieve values for stellar density, stellar radius, and effective temperature with low error (∼2%–4%) and good accuracy (∼75%) for classifying the number of transits for a given star. The results show promise for improvement for both approaches upon using larger data sets with a larger minority class. This work has the potential to provide a foundation for future tools and techniques to aid in the analysis of astrophysical data.

  8. Momentum-subtraction renormalization techniques in curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-10-01

    Momentum-subtraction techniques, specifically BPHZ and Zimmermann's Normal Product algorithm, are introduced as useful tools in the study of quantum field theories in the presence of background fields. In a model of a self-interacting massive scalar field, conformally coupled to a general asymptotically-flat curved space-time with a trivial topology, momentum-subtractions are shown to respect invariance under general coordinate transformations. As an illustration, general expressions for the trace anomalies are derived, and checked by explicit evaluation of the purely gravitational contributions in the free field theory limit. Furthermore, the trace of the renormalized energy-momentum tensor is shown to vanish at the Gell-Mann Low eigenvalue as it should.

  9. Momentum-subtraction renormalization techniques in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Momentum-subtraction techniques, specifically BPHZ and Zimmermann's Normal Product algorithm, are introduced as useful tools in the study of quantum field theories in the presence of background fields. In a model of a self-interacting massive scalar field, conformally coupled to a general asymptotically-flat curved space-time with a trivial topology, momentum-subtractions are shown to respect invariance under general coordinate transformations. As an illustration, general expressions for the trace anomalies are derived, and checked by explicit evaluation of the purely gravitational contributions in the free field theory limit. Furthermore, the trace of the renormalized energy-momentum tensor is shown to vanish at the Gell-Mann Low eigenvalue as it should

  10. Learning-curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on acturial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year.

  11. Learning curve estimation techniques for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on actuarial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  12. Learning-curve estimation techniques for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical techniques are developed to estimate the progress made by the nuclear industry in learning to prevent accidents. Learning curves are derived for accident occurrence rates based on acturial data, predictions are made for the future, and compact analytical equations are obtained for the statistical accuracies of the estimates. Both maximum likelihood estimation and the method of moments are applied to obtain parameters for the learning models, and results are compared to each other and to earlier graphical and analytical results. An effective statistical test is also derived to assess the significance of trends. The models used associate learning directly to accidents, to the number of plants and to the cumulative number of operating years. Using as a data base nine core damage accidents in electricity-producing plants, it is estimated that the probability of a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year

  13. Guidelines for using the Delphi Technique to develop habitat suitability index curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (SI) curves are one method of presenting species habitat suitability criteria. The curves are often used with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and are necessary components of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) (Armour et al. 1984). Bovee (1986) described three categories of SI curves or habitat suitability criteria based on the procedures and data used to develop the criteria. Category I curves are based on professional judgment, with 1ittle or no empirical data. Both Category II (utilization criteria) and Category III (preference criteria) curves have as their source data collected at locations where target species are observed or collected. Having Category II and Category III curves for all species of concern would be ideal. In reality, no SI curves are available for many species, and SI curves that require intensive field sampling often cannot be developed under prevailing constraints on time and costs. One alternative under these circumstances is the development and interim use of SI curves based on expert opinion. The Delphi technique (Pill 1971; Delbecq et al. 1975; Linstone and Turoff 1975) is one method used for combining the knowledge and opinions of a group of experts. The purpose of this report is to describe how the Delphi technique may be used to develop expert-opinion-based SI curves.

  14. Reflection curves—new computation and rendering techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Eugen Ulmet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflection curves on surfaces are important tools for free-form surface interrogation. They are essential for industrial 3D CAD/CAM systems and for rendering purposes. In this note, new approaches regarding the computation and rendering of reflection curves on surfaces are introduced. These approaches are designed to take the advantage of the graphics libraries of recent releases of commercial systems such as the OpenInventor toolkit (developed by Silicon Graphics or Matlab (developed by The Math Works. A new relation between reflection curves and contour curves is derived; this theoretical result is used for a straightforward Matlab implementation of reflection curves. A new type of reflection curves is also generated using the OpenInventor texture and environment mapping implementations. This allows the computation, rendering, and animation of reflection curves at interactive rates, which makes it particularly useful for industrial applications.

  15. Radioimmunoassay and other related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1993-04-01

    The article reviews principles, requirements and reliability criteria of radioimmunoassay (RIA). Since basic reactions involved in RIA and related techniques are derived from reactions which take place in the immune system (IS) of humans and animals, the IS and the way it works will be described. In addition to RIA which involves the use of isotopes as tracers (labels), other non-radioisotopic and recent immunoassay techniques i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) will be dealt with. Some important and related terms will be defined and explained. (author). 59 refs., 4 figs

  16. Multilayer Strip Dipole Antenna Using Stacking Technique and Its Application for Curved Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinsak Saetiaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of multilayer strip dipole antenna by stacking a flexible copper-clad laminate utilized for curved surface on the cylindrical objects. The designed antenna will reduce the effects of curving based on relative lengths that are changed in each stacking flexible copper-clad laminate layer. Curving is different from each layer of the antenna, so the resonance frequency that resulted from an extended antenna provides better frequency response stability compared to modern antenna when it is curved or attached to cylindrical objects. The frequency of multilayer antenna is designed at 920 MHz for UHF RFID applications.

  17. Measurement of activated rCBF by the 133Xe inhalation technique: a comparison of total versus partial curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli, D.A.; Katholi, C.R.; Hazelrig, J.B.; Falgout, J.C.; Hannay, H.J.; Wilson, E.M.; Wills, E.L.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An initial assessment of the differential sensitivity of total versus partial curve analysis in estimating task related focal changes in cortical blood flow measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique was accomplished by comparing the patterns during the performance of two sensorimotor tasks by normal subjects. The validity of these patterns was evaluated by comparing them to the activation patterns expected from activation studies with the intra-arterial technique and the patterns expected from neuropsychological research literature. Subjects were 10 young adult nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. They were administered two tasks having identical sensory and cognitive components but different response requirements (oral versus manual). The regional activation patterns produced by the tasks varied with the method of curve analysis. The activation produced by the two tasks was very similar to that predicted from the research literature only for total curve analysis. To the extent that the predictions are correct, these data suggest that the 133 Xe inhalation technique is more sensitive to regional flow changes when flow parameters are estimated from the total head curve. The utility of the total head curve analysis will be strengthened if similar sensitivity is demonstrated in future studies assessing normal subjects and patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders

  18. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with bimanual technique: learning curve for an experienced cataract surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Gian Maria; Verdina, Tommaso; De Maria, Michele; Fornasari, Elisa; Volpini, Elisa; Campi, Luca

    2017-11-29

    To describe the intraoperative complications and the learning curve of microincision cataract surgery assisted by femtosecond laser (FLACS) with bimanual technique performed by an experienced surgeon. It is a prospective, observational, comparative case series. A total of 120 eyes which underwent bimanual FLACS by the same experienced surgeon during his first experience were included in the study; we considered the first 60 cases as Group A and the second 60 cases as Group B. In both groups, only nuclear sclerosis of grade 2 or 3 was included; an intraocular lens was implanted through a 1.4-mm incision. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), central corneal thickness and endothelial cell loss (ECL) were evaluated before and at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Intraoperative parameters, and intra- and post-operative complications were recorded. In Group A, we had femtosecond laser-related minor complications in 11 cases (18.3%) and post-operative complications in 2 cases (3.3%); in Group B, we recorded 2 cases (3.3%) of femtosecond laser-related minor complications with no post-operative complications. Mean effective phaco time (EPT) was 5.32 ± 3.68 s in Group A and 4.34 ± 2.39 s in Group B with a significant difference (p = 0.046). We recorded a significant mean BCVA improvement at 3 months in both groups (p  0.05). Finally, we found significant ECL in both groups with a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.042). FLACS with bimanual technique and low-energy LDV Z8 is associated with a necessary initial learning curve. After the first adjustments in the surgical technique, this technology seems to be safe and effective with rapid visual recovery and it helps surgeons to standardize the crucial steps of cataract surgery.

  19. Local gray level S-curve transformation - A generalized contrast enhancement technique for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhamal, Akash; Talbar, Sanjay; Gajre, Suhas; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Kumar, Dileep

    2017-04-01

    Most medical images suffer from inadequate contrast and brightness, which leads to blurred or weak edges (low contrast) between adjacent tissues resulting in poor segmentation and errors in classification of tissues. Thus, contrast enhancement to improve visual information is extremely important in the development of computational approaches for obtaining quantitative measurements from medical images. In this research, a contrast enhancement algorithm that applies gray-level S-curve transformation technique locally in medical images obtained from various modalities is investigated. The S-curve transformation is an extended gray level transformation technique that results into a curve similar to a sigmoid function through a pixel to pixel transformation. This curve essentially increases the difference between minimum and maximum gray values and the image gradient, locally thereby, strengthening edges between adjacent tissues. The performance of the proposed technique is determined by measuring several parameters namely, edge content (improvement in image gradient), enhancement measure (degree of contrast enhancement), absolute mean brightness error (luminance distortion caused by the enhancement), and feature similarity index measure (preservation of the original image features). Based on medical image datasets comprising 1937 images from various modalities such as ultrasound, mammograms, fluorescent images, fundus, X-ray radiographs and MR images, it is found that the local gray-level S-curve transformation outperforms existing techniques in terms of improved contrast and brightness, resulting in clear and strong edges between adjacent tissues. The proposed technique can be used as a preprocessing tool for effective segmentation and classification of tissue structures in medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of scintillation decay curves by a single photon counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tsutomu

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus suitable for the measurement of spectroscopic scintillation decay curves has been developed by combination of a single photon counting technique and a delayed coincidence method. The time resolution of the apparatus is improved up to 1.16 nsec (FWHM), which is obtained from the resolution function of the system for very weak Cherenkov light flashes. Systematic measurement of scintillation decay curves is made for liquid and crystal scintillators including PPO-toluene, PBD-xylene, PPO-POPOP-toluene, anthracene and stilbene. (auth.)

  1. Novel hybrid (magnet plus curve grasper) technique during transumbilical cholecystectomy: initial experience of a promising approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Carolina; Bignon, Horacion; Bellia, Gaston; Buela, Enrique; Rabinovich, Fernando; Albertal, Mariano; Martinez Ferro, Marcelo

    2013-10-01

    The use of magnets in transumbilical cholecystectomy (TUC) improves triangulation and achieves an optimal critical view. Nonetheless, the tendency of the magnets to collide hinders the process. In order to simplify the surgical technique, we developed a hybrid model with a single magnet and a curved grasper. All TUCs performed with a hybrid strategy in our pediatric population between September 2009 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Of 260 surgical procedures in which at least one magnet was used, 87 were TUCs. Of those, 62 were hybrid: 33 in adults and 29 in pediatric patients. The technique combines a magnet and a curved grasper. Through a transumbilical incision, we placed a 12-mm trocar and another flexible 5-mm trocar. The laparoscope with the working channel used the 12-mm trocar. The magnetic grasper was introduced to the abdominal cavity using the working channel to provide cephalic retraction of the gallbladder fundus. Across the flexible trocar, the assistant manipulated the curved grasper to mobilize the infundibulum. The surgeon operated through the working channel of the laparoscope. In this pediatric population, the mean age was 14 years (range, 4-17 years), and mean weight was 50 kg (range, 18-90 kg); 65% were girls. Mean operative time was 62 minutes. All procedures achieved a critical view of safety with no instrumental collision. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The hospital stay was 1.4±0.6 days, and the median follow-up was 201 days. A hybrid technique, combining magnets and a curved grasper, simplifies transumbilical surgery. It seems feasible and safe for TUC and potentially reproducible.

  2. Spotted star light curve numerical modeling technique and its application to HII 1883 surface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    We developed a code for imaging the surfaces of spotted stars by a set of circular spots with a uniform temperature distribution. The flux from the spotted surface is computed by partitioning the spots into elementary areas. The code takes into account the passing of spots behind the visible stellar limb, limb darkening, and overlapping of spots. Modeling of light curves includes the use of recent results of the theory of stellar atmospheres needed to take into account the temperature dependence of flux intensity and limb darkening coefficients. The search for spot parameters is based on the analysis of several light curves obtained in different photometric bands. We test our technique by applying it to HII 1883.

  3. Introducer Curving Technique for the Prevention of Tilting of Transfemoral Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Liang; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia Jie; Huang, De Sheng

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the introducer curving technique is useful in decreasing the degree of tilting of transfemoral Tulip filters. The study sample group consisted of 108 patients with deep vein thrombosis who were enrolled and planned to undergo thrombolysis, and who accepted transfemoral Tulip filter insertion procedure. The patients were randomly divided into Group C and Group T. The introducer curving technique was Adopted in Group T. The post-implantation filter tilting angle (ACF) was measured in an anteroposterior projection. The retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was measured via tangential cavogram during retrieval. The overall average ACF was 5.8 ± 4.14 degrees. In Group C, the average ACF was 7.1 ± 4.52 degrees. In Group T, the average ACF was 4.4 ± 3.20 degrees. The groups displayed a statistically significant difference (t = 3.573, p = 0.001) in ACF. Additionally, the difference of ACF between the left and right approaches turned out to be statistically significant (7.1 ± 4.59 vs. 5.1 ± 3.82, t = 2.301, p = 0.023). The proportion of severe tilt (ACF ≥ 10 degree) in Group T was significantly lower than that in Group C (9.3% vs. 24.1%, X 2 = 4.267, p = 0.039). Between the groups, the difference in the rate of the retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was also statistically significant (2.9% vs. 24.2%, X 2 = 5.030, p = 0.025). The introducer curving technique appears to minimize the incidence and extent of transfemoral Tulip filter tilting.

  4. Introducer Curving Technique for the Prevention of Tilting of Transfemoral Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liang; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia Jie [The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Huang, De Sheng [College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether the introducer curving technique is useful in decreasing the degree of tilting of transfemoral Tulip filters. The study sample group consisted of 108 patients with deep vein thrombosis who were enrolled and planned to undergo thrombolysis, and who accepted transfemoral Tulip filter insertion procedure. The patients were randomly divided into Group C and Group T. The introducer curving technique was Adopted in Group T. The post-implantation filter tilting angle (ACF) was measured in an anteroposterior projection. The retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was measured via tangential cavogram during retrieval. The overall average ACF was 5.8 {+-} 4.14 degrees. In Group C, the average ACF was 7.1 {+-} 4.52 degrees. In Group T, the average ACF was 4.4 {+-} 3.20 degrees. The groups displayed a statistically significant difference (t = 3.573, p = 0.001) in ACF. Additionally, the difference of ACF between the left and right approaches turned out to be statistically significant (7.1 {+-} 4.59 vs. 5.1 {+-} 3.82, t = 2.301, p = 0.023). The proportion of severe tilt (ACF {>=} 10 degree) in Group T was significantly lower than that in Group C (9.3% vs. 24.1%, X{sup 2} = 4.267, p = 0.039). Between the groups, the difference in the rate of the retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was also statistically significant (2.9% vs. 24.2%, X{sup 2} = 5.030, p = 0.025). The introducer curving technique appears to minimize the incidence and extent of transfemoral Tulip filter tilting.

  5. Numerical Integration Techniques for Curved-Element Discretizations of Molecule–Solvent Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.; Willis, David J.; Lippow, Shaun M.; Tidor, Bruce; White, Jacob K.

    2012-01-01

    Surface formulations of biophysical modeling problems offer attractive theoretical and computational properties. Numerical simulations based on these formulations usually begin with discretization of the surface under consideration; often, the surface is curved, possessing complicated structure and possibly singularities. Numerical simulations commonly are based on approximate, rather than exact, discretizations of these surfaces. To assess the strength of the dependence of simulation accuracy on the fidelity of surface representation, we have developed methods to model several important surface formulations using exact surface discretizations. Following and refining Zauhar’s work (J. Comp.-Aid. Mol. Des. 9:149-159, 1995), we define two classes of curved elements that can exactly discretize the van der Waals, solvent-accessible, and solvent-excluded (molecular) surfaces. We then present numerical integration techniques that can accurately evaluate nonsingular and singular integrals over these curved surfaces. After validating the exactness of the surface discretizations and demonstrating the correctness of the presented integration methods, we present a set of calculations that compare the accuracy of approximate, planar-triangle-based discretizations and exact, curved-element-based simulations of surface-generalized-Born (sGB), surface-continuum van der Waals (scvdW), and boundary-element method (BEM) electrostatics problems. Results demonstrate that continuum electrostatic calculations with BEM using curved elements, piecewise-constant basis functions, and centroid collocation are nearly ten times more accurate than planartriangle BEM for basis sets of comparable size. The sGB and scvdW calculations give exceptional accuracy even for the coarsest obtainable discretized surfaces. The extra accuracy is attributed to the exact representation of the solute–solvent interface; in contrast, commonly used planar-triangle discretizations can only offer improved

  6. New digital demodulator with matched filters and curve segmentation techniques for BFSK demodulation: Analytical description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Torres Gómez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article relates in general to digital demodulation of Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK. The objective of the present research is to obtain a new processing method for demodulating BFSK-signals in order to reduce hardware complexity in comparison with other methods reported. The solution proposed here makes use of the matched filter theory and curve segmentation algorithms. This paper describes the integration and configuration of a Sampler Correlator and curve segmentation blocks in order to obtain a digital receiver for a proper demodulation of the received signal. The proposed solution is shown to strongly reduce hardware complexity. In this part a presentation of the proposed solution regarding the analytical expressions is addressed. The paper covers in detail the elements needed for properly configuring the system. In a second part it is presented the implementation of the system for FPGA technology and the simulation results in order to validate the overall performance.

  7. Evaluation of J-R curve testing of nuclear piping materials using the direct current potential drop technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, E.M.; Kirk, M.T.; Hays, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    A method is described for developing J-R curves for nuclear piping materials using the DC Potential Drop (DCPD) technique. Experimental calibration curves were developed for both three point bend and compact specimen geometries using ASTM A106 steel, a type 304 stainless steel and a high strength aluminum alloy. These curves were fit with a power law expression over the range of crack extension encountered during J-R curve tests (0.6 a/W to 0.8 a/W). The calibration curves were insensitive to both material and sidegrooving and depended solely on specimen geometry and lead attachment points. Crack initiation in J-R curve tests using DCPD was determined by a deviation from a linear region on a plot of COD vs. DCPD. The validity of this criterion for ASTM A106 steel was determined by a series of multispecimen tests that bracketed the initiation region. A statistical differential slope procedure for determination of the crack initiation point is presented and discussed. J-R curve tests were performed on ASTM A106 steel and type 304 stainless steel using both the elastic compliance and DCPD techniques to assess R-curve comparability. J-R curves determined using the two approaches were found to be in good agreement for ASTM A106 steel. The applicability of the DCPD technique to type 304 stainless steel and high rate loading of ferromagnetic materials is discussed. 15 refs., 33 figs

  8. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Luglio

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon.

  9. Optimum conditions for the determination of ionization potentials, appearance potentials and fine structure in ionization efficiency curves using edd technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Ezzat T.; El-Kholy, S.B.; Zahran, Nagwa F.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum conditions for determining ionization potentials as well as fine structure in electron impact ionization efficiency curves are studied using energy distribution difference technique. Applying these conditions to Ar + , Kr + , CO + 2 and N + from N 2 , very good agreement is obtained when compared with results determined by other techniques including UV spectroscopy. The merits and limitation of the technique are also discussed

  10. Fluid flow profile in a packed bead column using residence time curves and radiotracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana Paula F. de; Gonçalves, Eduardo Ramos; Brandão, Luis Eduardo B.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: anacamiqui@gmail.com, E-mail: egoncalves@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Filling columns are extremely important in the chemical industry and are used for purification, separation and treatment processes of gas or liquid mixtures. The objective of this work is to study the hydrodynamics of the fluid for a characterization of aqueous phase flow patterns in the filling column, associating with the methodology of the Curves of Residence Time Distribution (RTD) to analyze and associate theoretical models that put as conditions column operating. RTD can be obtained by using the pulse-stimulus response technique which is characterized by the instantaneous injection of a radiotracer into the system input. In this work, 68Ga was used as radiotracer. Five shielded and collimated NaI (Tl) 1 x 1″ scintillator detectors were suitably positioned to record the movement of the radiotracer's path in the conveying line and filling column. Making possible the analysis of the RTD curve in the regions of interest. With the data generated by the NaI (Tl) detectors with the passage of the radiotracer in the transport line and inside the column, it was possible to evaluate the flow profile of the aqueous phase and to identify operational failures, such as internal conduit and the existence of a retention zone in the inside the column. Theoretical models were used for different flow flows: the piston flow and perfect mixing. (author)

  11. Fluid flow profile in a packed bead column using residence time curves and radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana Paula F. de; Gonçalves, Eduardo Ramos; Brandão, Luis Eduardo B.; Salgado, Cesar M.

    2017-01-01

    Filling columns are extremely important in the chemical industry and are used for purification, separation and treatment processes of gas or liquid mixtures. The objective of this work is to study the hydrodynamics of the fluid for a characterization of aqueous phase flow patterns in the filling column, associating with the methodology of the Curves of Residence Time Distribution (RTD) to analyze and associate theoretical models that put as conditions column operating. RTD can be obtained by using the pulse-stimulus response technique which is characterized by the instantaneous injection of a radiotracer into the system input. In this work, 68Ga was used as radiotracer. Five shielded and collimated NaI (Tl) 1 x 1″ scintillator detectors were suitably positioned to record the movement of the radiotracer's path in the conveying line and filling column. Making possible the analysis of the RTD curve in the regions of interest. With the data generated by the NaI (Tl) detectors with the passage of the radiotracer in the transport line and inside the column, it was possible to evaluate the flow profile of the aqueous phase and to identify operational failures, such as internal conduit and the existence of a retention zone in the inside the column. Theoretical models were used for different flow flows: the piston flow and perfect mixing. (author)

  12. A comparison of two different techniques for deriving the quiet day curve from SARINET riometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an upgrade of the technique for estimating the Quiet Day Curve (QDC as proposed by Tanaka et al. (2007 is suggested. To validate our approach, the QDC is estimated from data acquired by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS installed at the Southern Space Observatory (SSO/CRS/CCR/INPE – MCT, 29°4´ S, 53°8´ W, 480 m a.s.l., São Martinho da Serra – Brazil. The evaluation was performed by comparing the difference between the QDCs derived using our upgrade technique with the one proposed by Tanaka et al. (2007. The results are discussed in terms of the seasonal variability and the level of magnetic disturbance. Also, the cosmic noise absorption (CNA images for IRIS data operated at SSO was built using both the techniques aiming to check the implications of the changes in the methods of QDC determination on the CNA that resulted from it.

  13. Final Aperture Superposition Technique applied to fast calculation of electron output factors and depth dose curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddegon, B.A.; Villarreal-Barajas, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Final Aperture Superposition Technique (FAST) is described and applied to accurate, near instantaneous calculation of the relative output factor (ROF) and central axis percentage depth dose curve (PDD) for clinical electron beams used in radiotherapy. FAST is based on precalculation of dose at select points for the two extreme situations of a fully open final aperture and a final aperture with no opening (fully shielded). This technique is different than conventional superposition of dose deposition kernels: The precalculated dose is differential in position of the electron or photon at the downstream surface of the insert. The calculation for a particular aperture (x-ray jaws or MLC, insert in electron applicator) is done with superposition of the precalculated dose data, using the open field data over the open part of the aperture and the fully shielded data over the remainder. The calculation takes explicit account of all interactions in the shielded region of the aperture except the collimator effect: Particles that pass from the open part into the shielded part, or visa versa. For the clinical demonstration, FAST was compared to full Monte Carlo simulation of 10x10,2.5x2.5, and 2x8 cm 2 inserts. Dose was calculated to 0.5% precision in 0.4x0.4x0.2 cm 3 voxels, spaced at 0.2 cm depth intervals along the central axis, using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment head of a commercial linear accelerator for six different electron beams with energies of 6-21 MeV. Each simulation took several hours on a personal computer with a 1.7 Mhz processor. The calculation for the individual inserts, done with superposition, was completed in under a second on the same PC. Since simulations for the pre calculation are only performed once, higher precision and resolution can be obtained without increasing the calculation time for individual inserts. Fully shielded contributions were largest for small fields and high beam energy, at the surface, reaching a maximum

  14. Sector models—A toolkit for teaching general relativity: I. Curved spaces and spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, C; Kraus, U

    2014-01-01

    Teaching the general theory of relativity to high school or undergraduate students must be based on an approach that is conceptual rather than mathematical. In this paper we present such an approach that requires no more than elementary mathematics. The central idea of this introduction to general relativity is the use of so-called sector models. Sector models describe curved spaces the Regge calculus way by subdivision into blocks with euclidean geometry. This procedure is similar to the approximation of a curved surface by flat triangles. We outline a workshop for high school and undergraduate students that introduces the notion of curved space by means of sector models of black holes. We further describe the extension to sector models of curved spacetimes. The spacetime models are suitable for learners with a basic knowledge of special relativity. The teaching materials presented in this paper are available online for teaching purposes at www.spacetimetravel.org. (paper)

  15. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  16. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoi, Kota; Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi

    2016-01-01

    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  17. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  18. Assessing neural activity related to decision-making through flexible odds ratio curves and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L; Leboran, Victor; Molenberghs, Geert; Faes, Christel; Acuña, Carlos

    2011-06-30

    It is well established that neural activity is stochastically modulated over time. Therefore, direct comparisons across experimental conditions and determination of change points or maximum firing rates are not straightforward. This study sought to compare temporal firing probability curves that may vary across groups defined by different experimental conditions. Odds-ratio (OR) curves were used as a measure of comparison, and the main goal was to provide a global test to detect significant differences of such curves through the study of their derivatives. An algorithm is proposed that enables ORs based on generalized additive models, including factor-by-curve-type interactions to be flexibly estimated. Bootstrap methods were used to draw inferences from the derivatives curves, and binning techniques were applied to speed up computation in the estimation and testing processes. A simulation study was conducted to assess the validity of these bootstrap-based tests. This methodology was applied to study premotor ventral cortex neural activity associated with decision-making. The proposed statistical procedures proved very useful in revealing the neural activity correlates of decision-making in a visual discrimination task. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cellular imaging electron tomography and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging).  The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation.

  20. Influence of the curve density relative electron in dosimetry clinic in treatments stereo tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)

  1. Constrained principal component analysis and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Takane, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre

  2. Sprinting performance on the Woodway Curve 3.0 is related to muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Fukuda, David H; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Bohner, Jonathan D; LaMonica, Michael; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To determine if unilateral measures of muscle architecture in the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) were related to (and predictive of) sprinting speed and unilateral (and bilateral) force (FRC) and power (POW) during a 30 s maximal sprint on the Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorized treadmill. Twenty-eight healthy, physically active men (n = 14) and women (n = 14) (age = 22.9 ± 2.4 years; body mass = 77.1 ± 16.2 kg; height = 171.6 ± 11.2 cm; body-fa t = 19.4 ± 8.1%) completed one familiarization and one 30-s maximal sprint on the TM to obtain maximal sprinting speed, POW and FRC. Muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (ECHO) of the RF and VL in the dominant (DOM; determined by unilateral sprinting power) and non-dominant (ND) legs were measured via ultrasound. Pearson correlations indicated several significant (p architecture. Stepwise regression indicated that POW(DOM) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA and ECHO), while POW(ND) was predictive of ipsilateral RF (MT and CSA) and VL (CSA); sprinting power/force asymmetry was not predictive of architecture asymmetry. Sprinting time was best predicted by peak power and peak force, though muscle quality (ECHO) and the bilateral percent difference in VL (CSA) were strong architectural predictors. Muscle architecture is related to (and predictive of) TM sprinting performance, while unilateral POW is predictive of ipsilateral architecture. However, the extent to which architecture and other factors (i.e. neuromuscular control and sprinting technique) affect TM performance remains unknown.

  3. Relative level populations in S VI after beam-foil excitation, obtained from ANDC analyses of measured decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the relative population of the levels 3p, 3d, 4d, 5d, 4f, 5g, 6g, 6h, 7h, 7i, 8i and 8k in Na-like sulfur, S VI, after beam-foil excitation at an energy of 3 MeV. For the first time the ANDC technique has been used to obtain the relative efficiency calibration of the detection system at discrete points in the wavelength interval 400-5000 A, from the analyses of measured decay curves. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. The populations obtained with this new technique are compared to previous measurements in multiply ionized atoms. The preferential population of the 3p and 3d levels observed in other Na-like ions is now accurately established. For the higher lying levels an almost constant population is observed. (Auth.)

  4. Establishment of 60Co dose calibration curve using fluorescent in situ hybridization assay technique: Result of preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noriah Jamal; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Nelly Bo Nai Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at establishing an in-vitro 60 Co dose calibration curve using Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization assay technique for the Malaysian National Bio dosimetry Laboratory. Blood samples collected from a female healthy donor were irradiated with several doses of 60 Co radiation. Following culturing of lymphocytes, microscopic slides are prepared, denatured and hybridized. The frequencies of translocation are estimated in the metaphases. A calibration curve was then generated using a regression technique. It shows a good fit to a linear-quadratic model. The results of this study might be useful in estimating absorbed dose for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation retrospectively. This information may be useful as a guide for medical treatment for the assessment of possible health consequences. (author)

  5. Depth dose curves from 90Sr+90Y clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Oliveira, Mercia L.

    2009-01-01

    The 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta-ray sources widely used in brachytherapy applications were developed in the 1950's. Many of these sources, called clinical applicators, are still routinely used in several Brazilian radiotherapy clinics for the treatment of superficial lesions in the skin and eyes, although they are not commercialized anymore. These applicators have to be periodically calibrated, according to international recommendations, because these sources have to be very well specified in order to reach the traceability of calibration standards. In the case of beta-ray sources, the recommended quantity is the absorbed dose rate in water at a reference distance from the source. Moreover, there are other important quantities, as the depth dose curves and the source uniformity for beta-ray plaque sources. In this work, depth dose curves were obtained and studied of five dermatological applicators, using thin thermoluminescent dosimeters of CaSO 4 :Dy and phantoms of PMMA with different thicknesses (between 1.0 mm and 5.0 mm) positioned between each applicator and the TL pellets. The depth dose curves obtained presented the expected attenuation response in PMMA, and the results were compared with data obtained for a 90 Sr+ 90 Y standard source reported by the IAEA, and they were considered satisfactory. (author)

  6. The learning curve of the three-port two-instrument complete thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer—A feasible technique worthy of popularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Three-port complete thoracoscopic lobectomy with the two-instrument technique is feasible for lung cancer treatment. The length of the learning curve consisted of 28 cases. This TPTI technique should be popularized.

  7. Conference on Bootstrapping and Related Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Günter; Sendler, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 30 selected, refereed papers from an in- ternational conference on bootstrapping and related techni- ques held in Trier 1990. Thepurpose of the book is to in- form about recent research in the area of bootstrap, jack- knife and Monte Carlo Tests. Addressing the novice and the expert it covers as well theoretical as practical aspects of these statistical techniques. Potential users in different disciplines as biometry, epidemiology, computer science, economics and sociology but also theoretical researchers s- hould consult the book to be informed on the state of the art in this area.

  8. Exact Descriptions of General Relativity Derived from Newtonian Mechanics within Curved Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, David

    2015-04-01

    General relativity and Newtonian mechanics are shown to be exactly related when Newton's second law is written in a curved geometry by using the physical components of a vector as is defined in tensor calculus. By replacing length within the momentum's velocity by the vector metric in a curved geometry the second law can then be shown to be exactly identical to the geodesic equation of motion occurring in general relativity. When time's vector direction is constant, as similarly occurs in Newtonian mechanics, this equation can be reduced to a curved three-dimensional equation of motion that yields the the Schwarzschild equations of motion for an isolated particle. They can be used to describe gravitational behavior for any array of masses for which the Newtonian gravitational potential is known, and is shown to describe a mass particle's behavior in the gravitational field of a thin mass-rod. This use of Newton's laws allows relativistic behavior to be described in a physically comprehensible manner. D. Savickas, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 23 1430018, (2014).

  9. To the calculation technique and interpretation of atom radial distribution curves in ternary alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutchak, Ya.I.; Frenchko, V.S.; Voznyak, O.M.

    1975-01-01

    Certain models of the structure of three-component melts are considered: the ''quasi-eutectic'' one, the model of statistical distribution of atoms and the ''polystructural'' model. The analytical expressions are given for the area under the first maximum of the curve describing the radial distribution of atoms for certain versions of the ''polystructural'' model. On the example of In-Ga-Ga and Bi-Cd-Sn eutectic melts the possibility of estimating the nature of atomic ordering in three-component melts through checking the models under consideration has been demonstrated

  10. Characterization of KS-material by means of J-R-curves especially using the partial unloading technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, B.; Blauel, J.G.; Schmitt, W.

    1983-01-01

    Essential components of nuclear reactor systems are fabricated from materials of high thoughness to exclude brittle failure. With increasing load, a crack tip will blunt, a plastic zone will be formed, voids may nucleate and coalesce thus initiating stable crack extension when the crack driving parameter, e.g. J, exceeds the initiation value Jsub(i). Further stable crack growth will occur with further increasing J prior to complete failure of the structure. The specific material resistance against crack extension is characterized by J resistance curves Jsub(R)=J(Δa). ASTM provides a standard to determine the initiation toughness Jsub(Ic) from a Jsub(R)-curve [1] and a tentative standard for determining the Jsub(R)-curve by a single specimen test [2]. To generate a Jsub(R)-curve values for the crack driving parameter J and the corresponding stable crack growth Δa have to be measured. Besides the multiple specimen technique [1], the potential drop and especially the partial unloading compliance method [2] are used to measure stable crack growth. Some special problems and some results for pressure vessel steels are discussed in this paper. (orig./RW)

  11. Some special techniques related to XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lidun; Kang Litao; Shi Guoshun

    2001-01-01

    Some special techniques related to XAFS are simply introduced. Atomic XAFS is produced by the photoelectron scattering by the outer valance electrons of the absorption atoms, which can be used for studying the outer electron structure of the absorption atoms and the relationship between electron structure and the local structure. NEXAFS-STXM is an image technique by the combination of NEXAFS and STXM. The image is produced by the difference of the absorption of the different matters consisted by the same elements in the range of NEXAFS. In addition, NEXAFS-STXM can quantitatively map the organic and inorganic components of biological tissue. Photoacoustic XAFS is obtained by the measurements of the photoacoustic signal on the both sides of the absorption edge. The film thickness can be measured by the phase delay of the photoacoustic signal. DAFS technique is a complex of XAFS and XRD. The local structure of the atom with special site and appointed valence can be determined by DAFS. Furthermore, the XAFS can be complexed with X-ray Raman scattering, XRD, XPS and FTIR for structural studies, respectively

  12. General Relativity Exactly Described by Use of Newton's Laws within a Curved Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, David

    2014-03-01

    The connection between general relativity and Newtonian mechanics is shown to be much closer than generally recognized. When Newton's second law is written in a curved geometry by using the physical components of a vector as defined in tensor calculus, and by replacing distance within the momentum's velocity by the vector metric ds in a curved geometry, the second law can then be easily shown to be exactly identical to the geodesic equation of motion occurring in general relativity. By using a time whose vector direction is constant, as similarly occurs in Newtonian mechanics, this equation can be separated into two equations one of which is a curved three-dimensional equation of motion and the other is an equation for energy. For the gravitational field of an isolated particle, they yield the Schwarzschild equations. They can be used to describe gravitation for any array of masses for which the Newtonian gravitational potential is known, and is applied here to describe motion in the gravitational field of a thin mass-rod.

  13. Galaxy luminosity function and Tully-Fisher relation: reconciled through rotation-curve studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Salucci, Paolo; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    The relation between galaxy luminosity L and halo virial velocity v vir required to fit the galaxy luminosity function differs from the observed Tully-Fisher relation between L and disk speed v rot . Because of this, the problem of reproducing the galaxy luminosity function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously has plagued semianalytic models since their inception. Here we study the relation between v rot and v vir by fitting observational average rotation curves of disk galaxies binned in luminosity. We show that the v rot -v vir relation that we obtain in this way can fully account for this seeming inconsistency. Therefore, the reconciliation of the luminosity function with the Tully-Fisher relation rests on the complex dependence of v rot on v vir , which arises because the ratio of stellar mass to dark matter mass is a strong function of halo mass.

  14. Relative Deprivation and Relative Wealth Enhances Anti-Immigrant Sentiments: The V-Curve Re-Examined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Jetten

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that negative attitudes towards immigrants and support for anti-immigrant parties are observed both among those experiencing relative deprivation and those experiencing relative gratification (so called v-curve. Whereas the effect of relative deprivation is intuitive, the effect of relative gratification is more difficult to explain. Why would economic prosperity provoke negative attitudes towards immigrants? We first present correlational (Study 1 and experimental (Study 2 support for the v-curve. In Study 1, in a national Swiss referendum, a higher percentage anti-immigrant voting was found in cantons with relatively lower and relatively higher relative disposable income. In Study 2, in a hypothetical society, more opposition to 'newcomers' joining society was found among poor or above average wealth group members than among those in a moderate wealth group condition. In Study 3, we replicate this finding and also show that opposition to immigration is higher for all wealth groups when societal inequality is growing rather than declining. In a final study, we examine different forms of relative gratification and mediators of the relationship between relative gratification and opposition to immigration (i.e., identification, collective self-definition as competent and cold, and fear about future wealth. Only fear about future wealth mediates this relationship. We conclude that, paradoxically, relative gratification effects are partly due to the fear of future deprivation.

  15. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its

  16. Hurwitz numbers, moduli of curves, topological recursion, Givental's theory and their relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitz, L.

    2014-01-01

    The study of curves is an important area of research in algebraic geometry and mathematical physics. In my thesis I study so-called moduli spaces of curves; these are spaces that parametrize all curves with some specified properties. In particular, I study maps from curves to other spaces, recursive

  17. Introducer curving technique for the prevention of tilting of transfemoral Günther Tulip inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Huang, De-sheng; Shen, Jing; Tong, Jia-jie

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the introducer curving technique is useful in decreasing the degree of tilting of transfemoral Tulip filters. The study sample group consisted of 108 patients with deep vein thrombosis who were enrolled and planned to undergo thrombolysis, and who accepted transfemoral Tulip filter insertion procedure. The patients were randomly divided into Group C and Group T. The introducer curving technique was Adopted in Group T. The post-implantation filter tilting angle (ACF) was measured in an anteroposterior projection. The retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was measured via tangential cavogram during retrieval. The overall average ACF was 5.8 ± 4.14 degrees. In Group C, the average ACF was 7.1 ± 4.52 degrees. In Group T, the average ACF was 4.4 ± 3.20 degrees. The groups displayed a statistically significant difference (t = 3.573, p = 0.001) in ACF. Additionally, the difference of ACF between the left and right approaches turned out to be statistically significant (7.1 ± 4.59 vs. 5.1 ± 3.82, t = 2.301, p = 0.023). The proportion of severe tilt (ACF ≥ 10°) in Group T was significantly lower than that in Group C (9.3% vs. 24.1%, χ(2) = 4.267, p = 0.039). Between the groups, the difference in the rate of the retrieval hook adhering to the vascular wall was also statistically significant (2.9% vs. 24.2%, χ(2) = 5.030, p = 0.025). The introducer curving technique appears to minimize the incidence and extent of transfemoral Tulip filter tilting.

  18. A comparison of two centrifuge techniques for constructing vulnerability curves: insight into the 'open-vessel' artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Pengxian; Meng, Feng; Liu, Qing; An, Rui; Cai, Jing; Du, Guangyuan

    2018-03-30

    A vulnerability curve (VC) describes the extent of xylem cavitation resistance. Centrifuges have been used to generate VCs for decades via static- and flow-centrifuge methods. Recently, the validity of the centrifuge techniques has been questioned. Researchers have hypothesized that the centrifuge techniques might yield unreliable VCs due to the open-vessel artifact. However, other researchers reject this hypothesis. The focus of the dispute is centred on whether exponential VCs are more reliable when the static-centrifuge method is used than with the flow-centrifuge method. To further test the reliability of the centrifuge technique, two centrifuges were manufactured to simulate the static- and flow-centrifuge methods. VCs of three species with open vessels of known lengths were constructed using the two centrifuges. The results showed that both centrifuge techniques produced invalid VCs for Robinia because the water flow through stems under mild tension in centrifuges led to an increasing loss of water conductivity. Additionally, the injection of water in the flow-centrifuge exacerbated the loss of water conductivity. However, both centrifuge techniques yielded reliable VCs for Prunus, regardless of the presence of open vessels in the tested samples. We conclude that centrifuge techniques can be used in species with open vessels only when the centrifuge produces a VC that matches the bench-dehydration VC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting the most from your curves: Exploring and reporting data using informative graphical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Matsunaga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most psychological research employs tables to report descriptive and inferential statistics. Unfortunately, those tables often misrepresent critical information on the shape and variability of the data’s distribution. In addition, certain information such as the modality and score probability density is hard to report succinctly in tables and, indeed, not reported typically in published research. This paper discusses the importance of using graphical techniques not only to explore data but also to report it effectively. In so doing, the role of exploratory data analysis in detecting Type I and Type II errors is considered. A small data set resembling a Type II error is simulated to demonstrate this procedure, using a conventional parametric test. A potential analysis routine to explore data is also presented. The paper proposes that essential summary statistics and information about the shape and variability of data should be reported via graphical techniques.

  20. Use of supernovae light curves for testing the expansion hypothesis and other cosmological relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with a test of the expansion hypothesis based on the relation Δt/sub obs/ = (1 + V/sub r//c)Δt/sub int/ where Δt/sub int/ is the time lapse characterizing some phenomenon in a distant galaxy, Δt/sub obs/ is the observed time lapse and V/sub r/ is the symbolic velocity of recession. If the red shift is a Doppler effect, the observed time lapse should be lengthened by the same factor as the wave length of the light. Many authors have suggested type I supernovae for such a test because of their great luminosity and the uniformity of their light curves, but apparently the test has heretofore never actually been performed. Thirty-six light curves were gathered from the literature and one (SN1971i) was measured. All of the light curves were reduced to a common (m/sub pg/) photometric system. The comparison time lapse, Δt/sub c/, was taken to be the time required for the brightness to fall from 0.5 m below peak to 2.5 m below peak. The straight line regression of Δt/sub c/ on V/sub r/ gives a correlation coefficient significant at the 93 percent level, and the simple static Euclidean hypothesis is rejected at that level. The regression line also deviates from the prediction of the classical expansion hypothesis. Better agreement was obtained using the chronogeometric theory of I. E. Segal ( []972 Astron. and Astrophys. 18, 143), but the scatter in the present data makes it impossible to distinguish between these alternate hypotheses at the 95 percent confidence level. The question of how many additional light curves would be needed to give definite tests is addressed. It is shown that at the present rate of supernova discoveries, only a few more years would be required to obtain the necessary data if light curves are systematically measured for the more distant supernovae. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  1. Curve fitting and modeling with splines using statistical variable selection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The successful application of statistical variable selection techniques to fit splines is demonstrated. Major emphasis is given to knot selection, but order determination is also discussed. Two FORTRAN backward elimination programs, using the B-spline basis, were developed. The program for knot elimination is compared in detail with two other spline-fitting methods and several statistical software packages. An example is also given for the two-variable case using a tensor product basis, with a theoretical discussion of the difficulties of their use.

  2. Technique for improving the quality of images from digital cameras using ink-jet printers and smoothed RGB transfer curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Nitin; Grim, John F.; O'Hara, James E.

    1998-04-01

    The digital camera market is growing at an explosive rate. At the same time, the quality of photographs printed on ink- jet printers continues to improve. Most of the consumer cameras are designed with the monitor as the target output device and ont the printer. When a user is printing his images from a camera, he/she needs to optimize the camera and printer combination in order to maximize image quality. We describe the details of one such method for improving image quality using a AGFA digital camera and an ink jet printer combination. Using Adobe PhotoShop, we generated optimum red, green and blue transfer curves that match the scene content to the printers output capabilities. Application of these curves to the original digital image resulted in a print with more shadow detail, no loss of highlight detail, a smoother tone scale, and more saturated colors. The image also exhibited an improved tonal scale and visually more pleasing images than those captured and printed without any 'correction'. While we report the results for one camera-printer combination we tested this technique on numbers digital cameras and printer combinations and in each case produced a better looking image. We also discuss the problems we encountered in implementing this technique.

  3. Glycation and secondary conformational changes of human serum albumin: study of the FTIR spectroscopic curve-fitting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was attempted to investigate both the glycation kinetics and protein secondary conformational changes of human serum albumin (HSA after the reaction with ribose. The browning and fluorescence determinations as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy with a curve-fitting technique were applied. Various concentrations of ribose were incubated over a 12-week period at 37 ± 0.5 oC under dark conditions. The results clearly shows that the glycation occurred in HSA-ribose reaction mixtures was markedly increased with the amount of ribose used and incubation time, leading to marked alterations of protein conformation of HSA after FTIR determination. In addition, the browning intensity of reaction solutions were colored from light to deep brown, as determined by optical observation. The increase in fluorescence intensity from HSA–ribose mixtures seemed to occur more quickly than browning, suggesting that the fluorescence products were produced earlier on in the process than compounds causing browning. Moreover, the predominant α-helical composition of HSA decreased with an increase in ribose concentration and incubation time, whereas total β-structure and random coil composition increased, as determined by curve-fitted FTIR microspectroscopy analysis. We also found that the peak intensity ratios at 1044 cm−1/1542 cm−1 markedly decreased prior to 4 weeks of incubation, then almost plateaued, implying that the consumption of ribose in the glycation reaction might have been accelerated over the first 4 weeks of incubation, and gradually decreased. This study first evidences that two unique IR peaks at 1710 cm−1 [carbonyl groups of irreversible products produced by the reaction and deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs] and 1621 cm−1 (aggregated HSA molecules were clearly observed from the curve-fitted FTIR spectra of HSA-ribose mixtures over the course of incubation time. This study

  4. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  5. Relation of intracellular cyclic AMP to the shape of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments with V79 cells growing in tissue culture indicate that the reproductive survival of cells following irradiation is influenced by the level of intracellular 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) at the time of irradiation. Cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP induced by treatments with drugs show a characteristic survival curve in which the extent of the shoulder is increased so that the survival after low doses is enhanced. The exponential slope or D 0 , however, is decreased so that at high doses the survival of cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP may be less than that of controls. Naturally occurring changes in radiosensitivity such as those observed as cells pass through the division cycle, may also be related to parallel changes in cyclic AMP concentration occurring during the cycle. Injection of mice with compounds producing elevated cyclic AMP prior to whole-body irradiation increases survival at seven days post-irradiation. The shape of the survival curve for intestinal stem cells in these mice differs from that of the control in having an increased extrapolation number; no change in D 0 is observed in this in vivo situation. (author)

  6. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  7. Accounting for Technological Change in Regulatory Impact Analyses: The Learning Curve Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Regulatory impact assessment is formally required by the U.S. and many other nations in order to help governments weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations, particularly as they compare to those of alternative actions and other government priorities. 1 One of the “best practices” of regulatory impact assessments, as established by the OECD, is to use estimates of costs that are grounded in economic theory. Economic theory indicates that changes in compliance costs should be expected over time as a result of factors related to technological innovation. But many U.S. regulatory impact assessments have traditionally employed a practice that is in conflict with this expectation: they take current estimates of the costs of complying with a proposed regulation and project that those costs will remain unchanged over the full time period that the regulation would be in effect.

  8. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  9. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery in learning curve: Role of implementation of a standardized technique and recovery protocol. A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglio, Gaetano; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Tarquini, Rachele; Giglio, Mariano Cesare; Sollazzo, Viviana; Esposito, Emanuela; Spadarella, Emanuela; Peltrini, Roberto; Liccardo, Filomena; Bucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the proven benefits, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still under utilized among surgeons. A steep learning is one of the causes of its limited adoption. Aim of the study is to determine the feasibility and morbidity rate after laparoscopic colorectal surgery in a single institution, “learning curve” experience, implementing a well standardized operative technique and recovery protocol. Methods The first 50 patients treated laparoscopically were included. All the procedures were performed by a trainee surgeon, supervised by a consultant surgeon, according to the principle of complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation or TME. Patients underwent a fast track recovery programme. Recovery parameters, short-term outcomes, morbidity and mortality have been assessed. Results Type of resections: 20 left side resections, 8 right side resections, 14 low anterior resection/TME, 5 total colectomy and IRA, 3 total panproctocolectomy and pouch. Mean operative time: 227 min; mean number of lymph-nodes: 18.7. Conversion rate: 8%. Mean time to flatus: 1.3 days; Mean time to solid stool: 2.3 days. Mean length of hospital stay: 7.2 days. Overall morbidity: 24%; major morbidity (Dindo–Clavien III): 4%. No anastomotic leak, no mortality, no 30-days readmission. Conclusion Proper laparoscopic colorectal surgery is safe and leads to excellent results in terms of recovery and short term outcomes, even in a learning curve setting. Key factors for better outcomes and shortening the learning curve seem to be the adoption of a standardized technique and training model along with the strict supervision of an expert colorectal surgeon. PMID:25859386

  10. 3D CT cerebral angiography technique using a 320-detector machine with a time–density curve and low contrast medium volume: Comparison with fixed time delay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Biswas, S.; Roughley, S.; Bhojak, M.; Niven, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe a cerebral computed tomography angiography (CTA) technique using a 320-detector CT machine and a small contrast medium volume (35 ml, 15 ml for test bolus). Also, to compare the quality of these images with that of the images acquired using a larger contrast medium volume (90 or 120 ml) and a fixed time delay (FTD) of 18 s using a 16-detector CT machine. Materials and methods: Cerebral CTA images were acquired using a 320-detector machine by synchronizing the scanning time with the time of peak enhancement as determined from the time–density curve (TDC) using a test bolus dose. The quality of CTA images acquired using this technique was compared with that obtained using a FTD of 18 s (by 16-detector CT), retrospectively. Average densities in four different intracranial arteries, overall opacification of arteries, and the degree of venous contamination were graded and compared. Results: Thirty-eight patients were scanned using the TDC technique and 40 patients using the FTD technique. The arterial densities achieved by the TDC technique were higher (significant for supraclinoid and basilar arteries, p < 0.05). The proportion of images deemed as having “good” arterial opacification was 95% for TDC and 90% for FTD. The degree of venous contamination was significantly higher in images produced by the FTD technique (p < 0.001%). Conclusion: Good diagnostic quality CTA images with significant reduction of venous contamination can be achieved with a low contrast medium dose using a 320-detector machine by coupling the time of data acquisition with the time of peak enhancement

  11. Mathematics in computed tomography and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical basis of computed tomography (CT) was formulated in 1917 by Radon. His theorem states that the 2-D function f(x,y) can be determined at all points from a complete set of its line integrals. Modern methods of image reconstruction include three approaches: algebraic reconstruction techniques with simultaneous iterative reconstruction or simultaneous algebraic reconstruction; convolution back projection; and the Fourier transform method. There is no one best approach. Because the experimental data do not strictly satisfy theoretical models, a number of effects have to be taken into account; in particular, the problems of beam geometry, finite beam dimensions and distribution, beam scattering, and the radiation source spectrum. Tomography with truncated data is of interest, employing mathematical approximations to compensate for the unmeasured projection data. Mathematical techniques in image processing and data analysis are also extensively used. 13 refs

  12. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy-Oil Transportation in Curved Pipes Using Core-Flow Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Conceição

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow of oil, gas and water occurs in the petroleum industry from the reservoir to the processing units. The occurrence of heavy oils in the world is increasing significantly and points to the need for greater investment in the reservoirs exploitation and, consequently, to the development of new technologies for the production and transport of this oil. Therefore, it is interesting improve techniques to ensure an increase in energy efficiency in the transport of this oil. The core-flow technique is one of the most advantageous methods of lifting and transporting of oil. The core-flow technique does not alter the oil viscosity, but change the flow pattern and thus, reducing friction during heavy oil transportation. This flow pattern is characterized by a fine water pellicle that is formed close to the inner wall of the pipe, aging as lubricant of the oil flowing in the core of the pipe. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study the isothermal flow of heavy oil in curved pipelines, employing the core-flow technique. A three-dimensional, transient and isothermal mathematical model that considers the mixture and k-e  turbulence models to address the gas-water-heavy oil three-phase flow in the pipe was applied for analysis. Simulations with different flow patterns of the involved phases (oil-gas-water have been done, in order to optimize the transport of heavy oils. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution of the involved phases are presented and analyzed. It was verified that the oil core lubricated by a fine water layer flowing in the pipe considerably decreases pressure drop.

  13. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA, during the summer of 1983. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology, methods and procedures with up-to-date-references. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 chapters in this manual

  14. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  15. Tully-Fisher relation, galactic rotation curves and dissipative mirror dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R., E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    If dark matter is dissipative then the distribution of dark matter within galactic halos can be governed by dissipation, heating and hydrostatic equilibrium. Previous work has shown that a specific model, in the framework of mirror dark matter, can explain several empirical galactic scaling relations. It is shown here that this dynamical halo model implies a quasi-isothermal dark matter density, ρ(r) ≅ ρ{sub 0}r{sub 0}{sup 2}/(r{sup 2}+r{sub 0}{sup 2}), where the core radius, r{sub 0}, scales with disk scale length, r{sub D}, via r{sub 0}/kpc ≈ 1.4(r{sub D}/kpc). Additionally, the product ρ{sub 0}r{sub 0} is roughly constant, i.e. independent of galaxy size (the constant is set by the parameters of the model). The derived dark matter density profile implies that the galactic rotation velocity satisfies the Tully-Fisher relation, L{sub B}∝v{sup 3}{sub max}, where v{sub max} is the maximal rotational velocity. Examples of rotation curves resulting from this dynamics are given.

  16. Effects of statistical quality, sampling rate and temporal filtering techniques on the extraction of functional parameters from the left ventricular time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignard, P.A.; Chan, W. (Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1984-09-01

    Several techniques for the processing of a series of curves derived from two left ventricular time-activity curves acquired at rest and during exercise with a nuclear stethoscope were evaluated. They were three and five point time smoothing. Fourier filtering preserving one to four harmonics (H), truncated curve Fourier filtering, and third degree polynomial curve fitting. Each filter's ability to recover, with fidelity, systolic and diastolic function parameters was evaluated under increasingly 'noisy' conditions and at several sampling rates. Third degree polynomial curve fittings and truncated Fourier filters exhibited very high sensitivity to noise. Three and five point time smoothing had moderate sensitivity to noise, but were highly affected by sampling rate. Fourier filtering preserving 2H or 3H produced the best compromise with high resilience to noise and independence of sampling rate as far as the recovery of these functional parameters is concerned.

  17. Effects of statistical quality, sampling rate and temporal filtering techniques on the extraction of functional parameters from the left ventricular time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignard, P.A.; Chan, W.

    1984-01-01

    Several techniques for the processing of a series of curves derived from two left ventricular time-activity curves acquired at rest and during exercise with a nuclear stethoscope were evaluated. They were three and five point time smoothing. Fourier filtering preserving one to four harmonics (H), truncated curve Fourier filtering, and third degree polynomial curve fitting. Each filter's ability to recover, with fidelity, systolic and diastolic function parameters was evaluated under increasingly 'noisy' conditions and at several sampling rates. Third degree polynomial curve fittings and truncated Fourier filters exhibited very high sensitivity to noise. Three and five point time smoothing had moderate sensitivity to noise, but were highly affected by sampling rate. Fourier filtering preserving 2H or 3H produced the best compromise with high resilience to noise and independence of sampling rate as far as the recovery of these functional parameters is concerned. (author)

  18. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  19. Integrable motion of curves in self-consistent potentials: Relation to spin systems and soliton equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Mamyrbekova, G.K.; Nugmanova, G.N.; Yesmakhanova, K.R. [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Lakshmanan, M., E-mail: lakshman@cnld.bdu.ac.in [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2014-06-13

    Motion of curves and surfaces in R{sup 3} lead to nonlinear evolution equations which are often integrable. They are also intimately connected to the dynamics of spin chains in the continuum limit and integrable soliton systems through geometric and gauge symmetric connections/equivalence. Here we point out the fact that a more general situation in which the curves evolve in the presence of additional self-consistent vector potentials can lead to interesting generalized spin systems with self-consistent potentials or soliton equations with self-consistent potentials. We obtain the general form of the evolution equations of underlying curves and report specific examples of generalized spin chains and soliton equations. These include principal chiral model and various Myrzakulov spin equations in (1+1) dimensions and their geometrically equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations, including Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch equations, all in the presence of self-consistent potential fields. The associated gauge equivalent Lax pairs are also presented to confirm their integrability. - Highlights: • Geometry of continuum spin chain with self-consistent potentials explored. • Mapping on moving space curves in R{sup 3} in the presence of potential fields carried out. • Equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations identified. • Integrability of identified nonlinear systems proved by deducing appropriate Lax pairs.

  20. Pusher curving technique for preventing tilt of femoral Geunther Tulip inferior vena cava filter: in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Liang; Shen Jing; Huang Desheng; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the adjustment of the pusher of GTF was useful to decrease the degree of tilting of the femoral Geunther Tulip filter (GTF) in an in vitro caval model. Methods: The caval model was constructed by placement of a 25 mm × 100 mm and two 10 mm × 200 mm Dacron graft inside a transparent bifurcate glass tube. The study consisted of two groups: left straight group (GLS) (n = 100) and left curved group (G LC ) (n=100). In the G LC , a 10° to 20° angle was curved on the introducer. The distance (D CH ) between the caval right wall and the hook was measured. The degree of tilting (DT) was classified into 5 grades and recorded. Before and after the GTF being released, the angle (A CM1,2 ) between the axis of IVC and the metal mount, the distance (D CM1 ) between the caval right wall and the metal mount, the angle (ACF) between the axis of IVC and the axis of the filter and the diameter of IVC (D IVC ) were measured. The data were analyzed with Chi-Square test, t test, rank sum. test and Pearson correlation test. Results: The degree of GTF tilting in each group revealed a divergent tendency. In group LC , the apex of the filter tended to be grade Ⅲ compared in group LS (χ 2 value 37.491, P LS and G LC were considered as statistical significance (16.60° vs. 3.05°, 20.60° vs. 3.50°, -3.90° vs. -0.40°, 2.98 mm vs. 10.40 mm, -10.95° vs. -0.485°, 13.17 mm vs. 10.06 mm, -1.70° vs. 0.70°, t or Z values -12.187, -12.188, -8.545, -51.834, -11.395, 9.562, -3.596, P CM1 and A CF , A CM1 - A CM2 and D CH1 - D CH2 in each group, respectively (r values 0.978, 0.344, 0.879, 0.627, P CH1 and A CF in each group, A CP and A CF in group LC (r values -0.974, -0.322, -0.702, P CM1 and A CF , A CM1 - A CM2 and D CH1 - D CH2 in each group, respectively (r values 0.978, 0.344, 0.879, 0.627, P CH1 and A CF in each group, A CP and A CF in group LC (r values -0.974, -0.322, -0.702, P<0.01). Conclusion: The technique of adjusting the orientation of filter

  1. Effect of Flow Direction on Relative Permeability Curves in Water/Gas Reservoir System: Implications in Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Rasheed Adebayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gravity on vertical flow and fluids saturation, especially when flow is against gravity, is not often a subject of interest to researchers. This is because of the notion that flow in subsurface formations is usually in horizontal direction and that vertical flow is impossible or marginal because of the impermeable shales or silts overlying them. The density difference between two fluids (usually oil and water flowing in the porous media is also normally negligible; hence gravity influence is neglected. Capillarity is also often avoided in relative permeability measurements in order to satisfy some flow equations. These notions have guided most laboratory core flooding experiments to be conducted in horizontal flow orientation, and the data obtained are as good as what the experiments tend to mimic. However, gravity effect plays a major role in gas liquid systems such as CO2 sequestration and some types of enhanced oil recovery techniques, particularly those involving gases, where large density difference exists between the fluid pair. In such cases, laboratory experiments conducted to derive relative permeability curves should take into consideration gravity effects and capillarity. Previous studies attribute directional dependence of relative permeability and residual saturations to rock anisotropy. It is shown in this study that rock permeability, residual saturation, and relative permeability depend on the interplay between gravity, capillarity, and viscous forces and also the direction of fluid flow even when the rock is isotropic. Rock samples representing different lithology and wide range of permeabilities were investigated through unsteady-state experiments covering drainage and imbibition in both vertical and horizontal flow directions. The experiments were performed at very low flow rates to capture capillarity. The results obtained showed that, for each homogeneous rock and for the same flow path along the core length

  2. Demonstration of relatively new electron dosimetry measurement techniques on the Mevatron 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.A.; Palta, J.R.; Hogstrom, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron dosimetry measurements at 7, 10, 12, 15, and 18 MeV was made on a Mevatron 80. Dosimetry measurements presented include percentage depth dose, dose in the buildup region, field size dependence of output, output at extended distances, lead transmission measurements, and isodose curves. These beam measurements are presented to document the electron beam characteristics of this linear accelerator. Three relatively new dosimetry techniques, which have not been standardly used in the past, are illustrated. One technique determines the depth dose of fields too small to measure. A second technique accurately converts depth dose measured in polystyrene to depth dose in water. A third technique calculates the output at extended distances

  3. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie-Ann; Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (S O2 ) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur-ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the S O2 in blood from patients with normal pH and S O2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (S pO2 ) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (S aO2 ) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable S pO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  4. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  5. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  6. Straight and Curved Path Walking Among Older Adults in Primary Care: Associations With Fall-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sarah A; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Kiely, Dan K; Goldstein, Richard; VanSwearingen, Jessie; Brach, Jennifer S; Bean, Jonathan F

    2016-08-01

    Most falls among community-dwelling older adults occur while walking. Simple walking tests that require little resources and can be interpreted quickly are advocated as useful screening tools for fall prone patients. To investigate 2 clinically feasible walking tests consisting of straight- and curved-path walking and examine their associations with history of previous falls and fall-related outcomes among community-living older adults. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study. Participants were recruited through primary care practices. Participants included 428 primary care patients ≥65 years of age at risk for mobility decline. Participants had a median age of 76.5 years, 67.8% were women, and 82.5% were white. Straight-path walking performance was measured as the time needed to walk a 4-meter straight path at usual pace from standstill using a stopwatch (timed to 0.1 second). Curved-path walking performance was timed while participants walked from standstill in a figure-of-8 pattern around two cones placed 5 feet apart. Multivariable negative binomial regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between straight-path walking or curved-path walking and self-reported history of number of falls. For fall-related injuries, and fall-related hospitalizations, logistic regression models were used. In the fully adjusted model, an increase of 1 second in straight path walking time was associated with 26% greater rate of falls (rate ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.45). An increase in curved-path walking time was associated with 8% greater rate of falls (rate ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.14). Neither walk test was associated with history of fall-related injuries or hospitalizations. Poor performance on straight- and curved-path walking performance was associated with a history of greater fall rates in the previous year but not with a history of fall-related injuries or

  7. Public Relations and Publicity: Tools and Techniques for Student Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Carol Jean

    Based on the idea that to be successful, a student organization must have a sound public relations and publicity program, this handbook considers techniques of internal communication that establish good public relations with various special groups: the student body, the administration, the faculty, and the staff. The handbook states that…

  8. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  9. Mastering data warehouse design relational and dimensional techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Imhoff, Claudia; Geiger, Jonathan G

    2003-01-01

    A cutting-edge response to Ralph Kimball''s challenge to the data warehouse community that answers some tough questions about the effectiveness of the relational approach to data warehousingWritten by one of the best-known exponents of the Bill Inmon approach to data warehousingAddresses head-on the tough issues raised by Kimball and explains how to choose the best modeling technique for solving common data warehouse design problemsWeighs the pros and cons of relational vs. dimensional modeling techniquesFocuses on tough modeling problems, including creating and maintaining keys and modeling c

  10. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  13. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  14. Review of decontamination techniques in relation to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Wakefield, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    A review is presented of decontamination procedures currently in use in relation to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. Contributions were invited from Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, USA and the UK and are appended. They present an overview of the techniques employed in each country and identify areas of future development. (author)

  15. Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in the management of mechanical low back pain. ... Pre- and post-treatment pain scores among the subjects were compared to determine if there was any significant difference in the severity of pain. The difference in the severity of pain perception before and ...

  16. Improving 3D spatial queries search: newfangled technique of space filling curves in 3D city modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, François; Suhaibah, A.

    2013-01-01

    , retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects......The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...... modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert’s curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz...

  17. The relation between anxiety and BMI - is it all in our curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-30

    The relation between anxiety and excessive weight is unclear. The aims of the present study were three-fold: First, we examined the association between anxiety and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, we examined this association separately for female and male participants. Next, we examined both linear and non-linear associations between anxiety and BMI. The BMI was assessed of 92 patients (mean age: M=27.52; 57% females) suffering from anxiety disorders. Patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Both linear and non-linear correlations were computed for the sample as a whole and separately by gender. No gender differences were observed in anxiety scores or BMI. No linear correlation between anxiety scores and BMI was observed. In contrast, a non-linear correlation showed an inverted U-shaped association, with lower anxiety scores both for lower and very high BMI indices, and higher anxiety scores for medium to high BMI indices. Separate computations revealed no differences between males and females. The pattern of results suggests that the association between BMI and anxiety is complex and more accurately captured with non-linear correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of four different final irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal in curved root canals : a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP, manual dynamic agitation (MDA, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and needle irrigation (NI as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals.Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08-15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20 according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP (EndoVac; group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA; group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI; and group 4, needle irrigation (NI. Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification.Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05. Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique.ANP (EndoVac system can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals.

  19. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  20. 3D Analysis of D-RaCe and Self-Adjusting File in Removing Filling Materials from Curved Root Canals Instrumented and Filled with Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Simsek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of D-RaCe files and a self-adjusting file (SAF system in removing filling material from curved root canals instrumented and filled with different techniques by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT. The mesial roots of 20 extracted mandibular first molars were used. Root canals (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual were instrumented with SAF or Revo-S. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable techniques. The root fillings were first removed with D-RaCe (Step 1, followed by Step 2, in which a SAF system was used to remove the residual fillings in all groups. Micro-CT scans were used to measure the volume of residual filling after root canal filling, reinstrumentation with D-RaCe (Step 1, and reinstrumentation with SAF (Step 2. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There were no statistically significant differences between filling techniques in the canals instrumented with SAF (P=0.292 and Revo-S (P=0.306. The amount of remaining filling material was similar in all groups (P=0.363; all of the instrumentation techniques left filling residue inside the canals. However, the additional use of SAF was more effective than using D-RaCe alone.

  1. An introduction to radioimmunoassay and related techniques. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chard, T.

    1987-01-01

    This book is designed as an introductory text for the staff of clinical or research laboratories who conduct or intend to conduct radioimmunoassay and related immunoassay techniques, and will also be of great value to the clinicians who make use of such services. The emphasis is on general principles with practical illustrations rather than a detailed and encyclopaedic review of the literature. This 3rd revised edition places more emphasis on alternative labels (non-isotopic immunoassays), the use of labelled antibodies (immunometric assays), and the use of monoclonal antibodies. Both principles and practice are illustrated by diagrams and illustrations. (Auth.)

  2. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Halpern

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele.

  3. WHO activities in teaching radioimmunoassay and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.P.; Sufi, S.B.; Donaldson, A.; Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has recognized from its beginning that training is a key component of its activities, including its immunoassay standardization programme. Since the start of the Special Programme more than 250 scientists have received training in RIA and related procedures and 27 training courses have been held in various countries. Many of the courses have been held in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and these co-operative activities have established a core of scientific expertise worldwide which has contributed to the increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques in many countries. The increasing number of medical and non-medical applications of immunoassays and the special expertise required for some immunoassay methods create a continuing demand for training in RIA techniques. Both WHO and the IAEA have responded by organizing courses to 'train the trainers' and by supporting national and regional courses based on centrally provided material, as well as by commissioning the production of additional teaching documents and audio-visual aids in English and Spanish. It is envisaged that such materials, complete with centrally provided materials for practicals and other teaching aids, will be made available to national reagent programmes and will be used in the future as a well characterized, standardized core around which local organizers can construct training programmes geared to local needs and drawing upon local experience. (author)

  4. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  5. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  6. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  7. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  8. Disc electrophoresis and related techniques of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maurer, H. R

    1971-01-01

    ..., enzymes, antingens and radioactively labelled materials, and detailed treatments of micro disc electrophoresis, preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and many other techniques for special problems...

  9. The spectrum of a vertex model and related spin one chain sitting in a genus five curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    We derive the transfer matrix eigenvalues of a three-state vertex model whose weights are based on a R-matrix not of difference form with spectral parameters lying on a genus five curve. We have shown that the basic building blocks for both the transfer matrix eigenvalues and Bethe equations can be expressed in terms of meromorphic functions on an elliptic curve. We discuss the properties of an underlying spin one chain originated from a particular choice of the R-matrix second spectral parameter. We present numerical and analytical evidences that the respective low-energy excitations can be gapped or massless depending on the strength of the interaction coupling. In the massive phase we provide analytical and numerical evidences in favor of an exact expression for the lowest energy gap. We point out that the critical point separating these two distinct physical regimes coincides with the one in which the weights geometry degenerate into union of genus one curves.

  10. Graceful, harmonious and magic type labelings relations and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    López, Susana C

    2017-01-01

    Aimed toward upper undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, this book examines the foremost forms of graph labelings including magic, harmonious, and graceful labelings. An overview of basic graph theory concepts and notation is provided along with the origins of graph labeling. Common methods and techniques are presented introducing readers to links between graph labels. A variety of useful techniques are presented to analyze and understand properties of graph labelings. The classical results integrated with new techniques, complete proofs, numerous exercises, and a variety of open problems, will provide readers with a solid understanding of graph labelings.

  11. Relations between the development of school investment, self-confidence, and language achievement in elementary education: A multivariate latent growth curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, R.D.; Peetsma, T.T.D.; Roeleveld, J.

    2001-01-01

    Latent growth curve (LGC) analysis of longitudinal data for pupils' school investment, self confidence and language ability is presented. A multivariate model is tested that relates the three developmental processes to each other and to intelligence. All processes show significant differences

  12. Determination of endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhong, Qisheng; Mo, Canlong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Ting; Tan, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of endogenous lipid mediators in complex biological samples is a daunting challenge. In this study, a robust and direct endogenous quantitative method using background subtracting calibration curves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was first developed for the determination of endogenous lipid mediators in ischemic stroke rats. Absolute quantification without surrogate matrix could be achieved by using background subtracting calibration curves, which were corrected and verified from standard curves constructed on original matrix. The recoveries of this method were in the range of 50.3-98.3%, the precision with the relative standard deviation was less than 13.8%, and the accuracy with the relative error was within ± 15.0%. In addition, background subtracting calibration curves were further verified by validation factors ranging from 90.3 to 110.9%. This validated method has been successfully applied to the analysis of seven endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators in the brain tissues of ischemic stroke rats. The results indicated that prostaglandins as inflammatory factors and some lipid mediators with neuroprotective effects increased apparently (p endogenous compounds in the complex biological samples. Graphical abstract The analysis procedure of determining endogenous inflammation-related lipid mediators using BSCC by LC-MS/MS.

  13. Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen, Sündüs; McCaffrey, Adam; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal association between students' anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that…

  14. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  15. Tracer techniques for the study of host-parasite relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendgen, K.

    1975-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques have been used to study the interaction of many facultative and obligate parasites, including viruses. After feeding the host plant with labelled substrates, labelled material accumulates in the infected cells and seems to penetrate into structures of the parasite. After labelling the parasite, its influence on the host may be studied. We use this technique to study the interaction of host (bean) and parasite (bean rust) during the infection process. After infection with uredospores labelled with tritiated orotic acid, the radioactivity is retained almost completely within the young haustorium at 22 h after inoculation. This may indicate a very small influence of the parasite on its compatible host. In incompatible host-parasite combinations, the infection process proceeds in a different way. The use of autoradiographic techniques to compare combinations of varying compatibilities will be discussed. (author)

  16. The spectrum of a vertex model and related spin one chain sitting in a genus five curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Martins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We derive the transfer matrix eigenvalues of a three-state vertex model whose weights are based on a R-matrix not of difference form with spectral parameters lying on a genus five curve. We have shown that the basic building blocks for both the transfer matrix eigenvalues and Bethe equations can be expressed in terms of meromorphic functions on an elliptic curve. We discuss the properties of an underlying spin one chain originated from a particular choice of the R-matrix second spectral parameter. We present numerical and analytical evidences that the respective low-energy excitations can be gapped or massless depending on the strength of the interaction coupling. In the massive phase we provide analytical and numerical evidences in favor of an exact expression for the lowest energy gap. We point out that the critical point separating these two distinct physical regimes coincides with the one in which the weights geometry degenerate into union of genus one curves.

  17. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  18. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  19. Concerning the application of the nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin Garcia, Luis Felipe

    1997-01-01

    The present work intends to describe briefly, some of the nuclear and connected techniques of greater application in the conditions of developing countries, which are employed in the Center of Studies Applied to the Nuclear Development, and that can be of interest for the Latin-American countries. Within those techniques we have: radiobiology, that consists of the employment of ionizing radiations to induce mutations oriented to the improvement of the cultivations. It mentions the atmospheric contamination generated by the industry of the exposition to metals and toxic waste, and of mortiferous parasites that adapt quickly to the unhealthy environmental conditions. It also enumerates some advantages of the utilization of instruments based on radioisotopic fountains. (S. Grainger) [es

  20. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.; Palma, T.; Cortes-Toro, E.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies on bone densitometry measurements in healthy individuals have been performed in Chile. However due to the fact that different techniques and no uniform protocols have been used to select patients, the results obtained are not suitable as reference values for a normal chilean population. Therefore, foreign reference values are used. This study will select healthy normal individuals, typical urban chilean residents, and measure bone density using the DEXA technique. The selection will be made according to a well defined protocol. Serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone remodeling, will be measured in all subjects as a means-a assessing bone metabolism. Bone trace element composition will be measured in selected subjects. Samples will be obtained by biopsy or through normal surgical procedures and will be analyzed by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  1. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Stawski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C than in control lines (−20.2°C. Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under

  2. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T

    2017-01-01

    According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (T a ) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (T b ) during exposure to high T a . To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and T b of selected and control voles at T a from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the T b of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the T b of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured T a of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (-28.6°C) than in control lines (-20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally

  3. Studies of osteoporosis in Shanghai, China, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongpeng

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the osteoporosis model of New Zealand rabbits in order to study the functions of inorganic elements for women patients with osteoporosis. The thirty cases of iliac crest are collected and determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The results show that the Fluorine concentrations in experimental group are higher than those in control group and the Magnesium concentrations are lower significantly (P<0.001), but the concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Ba, Mn, Sr are not remarkable difference. Combined with the serum biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption, the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed. (author)

  4. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Studies of osteoporosis in Croatia using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanic, D.; Blanusa, M.; Cvijetic, S.; Prester, L.; Uzelac, V.

    1996-01-01

    A short overview is presented of research activities concerning osteoporosis and trace element exposure monitoring carried out by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb during the last forty years. The overview includes: cross-sectional and Prospective epidemiological studies in districts with habitually low and high calcium intake; clinical studies concerning peak bone mass and bone mineral density in Postmenopausal women; studies on trace element exposure monitoring. The collaborating institutions, agencies and relevant recent publications are quoted. A survey is given of relevant methods which were used in earlier studies as well as the techniques which will be used in the current IAEA project. A brief description of the work which will be undertaken (particularly during the first year) within the framework of the IAEA CRP is given. (author)

  6. The role of hypnosis and related techniques in insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypnosis is a widespread technique in psychotherapy with applicability in various psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. Although there are very few studies in this area of research, some results argue in favor of using hypnosis for various sleep disorders. Insomnia is a common health problem, in both primary form and associated with other pathologies, causing a reduction of self-efficiency/cognitive abilities and an overall decreased life quality. Classical psychotropic medication that is commonly used to treat insomnia can cause significant side effects, produce phenomena of dependence and is generally effective only during the period of treatment. Since the current means of pharmacologic treatment for insomnia present significant limitations, especially when treating chronic insomnia, a more suitable alternative could be attained by non-pharmacological approaches such as hypnosis.

  7. In vitro Evaluation of the Colistin-Carbapenem Combination in Clinical Isolates of A. baumannii Using the Checkerboard, Etest, and Time-Kill Curve Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudeiha, Micheline A H; Dahdouh, Elias A; Azar, Eid; Sarkis, Dolla K; Daoud, Ziad

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide increase in the emergence of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) calls for the investigation into alternative approaches for treatment. This study aims to evaluate colistin-carbapenem combinations against Acinetobacter spp., in order to potentially reduce the need for high concentrations of antibiotics in therapy. This study was conducted on 100 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates that were collected from different patients admitted at Saint George Hospital-University Medical Center in Beirut. The isolates were identified using API 20NE strips, which contain the necessary agents to cover a panel of biochemical tests, and confirmed by PCR amplification of bla OXA-51-like . Activities of colistin, meropenem and imipenem against Acinetobacter isolates were determined by ETEST and microdilution methods, and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In addition, PCR amplifications of the most common beta lactamases contributing to carbapenem resistance were performed. Tri locus PCR-typing was also performed to determine the international clonality of the isolates. Checkerboard, ETEST and time kill curves were then performed to determine the effect of the colistin-carbapenem combinations. The synergistic potential of the combination was then determined by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI), which is an index that indicates additivity, synergism, or antagonism between the antimicrobial agents. In this study, 84% of the isolates were resistant to meropenem, 78% to imipenem, and only one strain was resistant to colistin. 79% of the isolates harbored bla OXA-23-like and pertained to the International Clone II. An additive effect for the colistin-carbapenem combination was observed using all three methods. The combination of colistin-meropenem showed better effects as compared to colistin-imipenem ( p carbapenems could be a promising antimicrobial strategy in

  8. Heat techniques in the light of the innovation curve. New technology for gas appliances and solar water heaters; Warmtetechnieken in het licht van de innovatiecurve. Nieuwe technologie gezocht voor gastoestel en zonneboilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2012-09-15

    The development, market introduction and deployment of new techniques often follows an S-shaped curve. The gas-fired boiler transformed from a conventional apparatus into the current high efficiency boiler. Will the high efficiency electricity boiler be the next breakthrough technique? The electrical and gas heat pumps are fully developed techniques, but this does not apply to their use in Dutch single-family dwellings [Dutch] De ontwikkeling, marktintroductie en toepassing van nieuwe technieken verloopt vaak volgens een S-vormige curve. De gasketel transformeerde van conventioneel toestel naar de huidige hr-ketel. Is de hre-ketel de volgende doorbraaktechniek? De elektrische en de gaswarmtepomp zijn uitontwikkelde technieken, maar nog niet voor de toepassing in een Nederlandse eengezinswoning.

  9. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shames, D.M.; Korobkin, M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131 -hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131 I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85 Sr- or 95 Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate

  10. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  11. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  12. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  13. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  14. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Air pollution in Thailand using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelhaphunt, N.; Chueinta, W.

    1994-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation, both instrumental and radiochemical, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry are used in a study of the concentrations of Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, V, Zn and Pb in airborne particulate matter collected from 7 permanent and 9 temporary air quality monitoring stations. The location of the stations are urban residential, suburban residential, mixed (commercial and residential), commercial and industrial areas and near major roads in Bangkok Metropolitan areas. Air sampling is performed once a month for 24 hours continuously using the high volume air sampler (GMW 2000 H) and for 5, 10, and 15 days continuously using an Anderson Air Sampler (SIBATA AN-200). The elements As, Cd and Cu are determined destructively using ion exchange chromatography while Hg and Se are determined by the dry combustion technique. The determination of Pb was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of Pb concentrations in airborne particulate matters, collected during 1987 to 1991, were reported by the Office of the National Environment Board. Levels of Pb content were found to be lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Integrative techniques related to positive processes in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    This review compiles and evaluates a number of therapist interventions that have been found to significantly contribute to positive psychotherapy processes (i.e., increased alliance, patient engagement/satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement). Four forms of intervention are presented: Affect-focused, Supportive, Exploratory, and Patient-Therapist Interaction. The intention of this review is to link specific interventions to applied practice so that integrative clinicians can potentially use these techniques to improve their clinical work. To this end, there is the inclusion of theory and empirical studies from a range of orientations including Emotionally Focused, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Cognitive-Behavioral, Interpersonal, Eclectic, and Motivational Interviewing. Each of the four sections will include the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism of change for the intervention, research that supports its positive impact on psychotherapy processes, and conclude with examples demonstrating its use in actual practice. Clinical implications and considerations regarding the use of these interventions will also be presented. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Margui, Eva

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a wide variety of routine quality control and research samples. Among its many desirable features, it delivers true multi-element character analysis, acceptable speed and economy, easy of automation, and the capacity to analyze solid samples. This remarkable contribution to this field provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of basic principles, recent developments, instrumentation, sample preparation procedures, and applications of XRF analysis. If you are a professional in materials science, analytic chemistry, or physics, you will benefit from not only the review of basics, but also the newly developed technologies with XRF. Those recent technological advances, including the design of low-power micro- focus tubes and novel X-ray optics and detectors, have made it possible to extend XRF to the analysis of low-Z elements and to obtain 2D or 3D information on a microme...

  18. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  19. Update on procedure-related risks for prenatal diagnosis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: As a consequence of the introduction of effective screening methods, the number of invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures is steadily declining. The aim of this review is to summarize the risks related to these procedures. Material and Methods: Review of the literature. Results: Data...... from randomised controlled trials as well as from systematic reviews and a large national registry study are consistent with a procedure-related miscarriage rate of 0.5-1.0% for amniocentesis as well as for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In single-center studies performance may be remarkably good due...... not be performed before 15 + 0 weeks' gestation. CVS on the other hand should not be performed before 10 weeks' gestation due to a possible increase in risk of limb reduction defects. Discussion: Experienced operators have a higher success rate and a lower complication rate. The decreasing number of prenatal...

  20. Observing cataclysmic variables and related objects with different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 675-682 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects /2./. Palermo , 09.09.2013-14.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * binaries * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy - STM: history, principle, construction, and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostadal, I.; Sobotik, P.

    1998-01-01

    The method of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is discussed. The principle of STM and some other related methods is highlighted, and spectroscopy using STM is dealt with. A brief summary is given of problems to be solved in microscope design, and the influence of these on the resolution obtained is presented. A comparison of STM with other methods used at present in the physics of thin films and surfaces confirms its irreplaceability

  2. Long-Term Evaluation of Changes in Operative Technique and Hardware-Related Complications With Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falowski, Steven M; Ooi, Yinn Cher; Bakay, Roy A E

    2015-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation is the most frequent neurosurgical procedure for movement disorders. While this elective procedure carries a low-risk profile, it is not free of complications. As a new procedure, the pattern of complications changed with experience and modification of surgical technique and equipment. This review analyzes the most common hardware-related complications that may occur and techniques to avoid them. It is a retrospective review of 432 patients undergoing 1077 procedures over a 14-year period by one surgeon with emphasis on the analysis of surgical technique and the changes over time. Comparisons were made pre and postimplementation of different surgical techniques over different time periods. The epochs relate to the learning curve, new equipment, and new techniques. Overall lead revision was observed at 5.7%, extension revision at 3.2%, infection rate at 1.2%, infarct without intracerebral hemorrhage at 0.8%, and intracerebral hemorrhage at 2.5% with a permanent deficit of 0.2%. An analysis and change in surgical technique which involved isolating the lead from the skin surface at both the cranial and retro-auricular incision also demonstrated a substantial decrease in lead fracture rate and infection rate. There was no mortality. This large series of patients and long-term follow-up demonstrates that risks are very low in comparison with other neurosurgical procedures, but DBS is still an elective procedure that necessitates extensive care and precision. In a rapidly evolving field, attention to surgical technique is imperative and will keep rates of complications at a minimum. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Studies on osteoporosis in Chile using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship found between BMD of the lumbar spine with the anthropomorphic parameters (age, sex, body size and bone area) in the normal Chilean population studied, was different from the relationship found between BMD of both hips with the same parameters. To determine peak bone mass it is necessary to increase the number of individuals studied. This is specially true for BMD of the lumbar spine. It seems important for the correct interpretation of BMD studies to determine local values for normals, specially for the analysis of BMD in the lumbar spine, which is related to body and bone size. It is necessary to normalize the data base for anthropomorphic parameters specially in epidemiological studies. Knowledge of these parameters for the normal data base used in the different densitometers is highly desirable. There are some differences between this data base and that provided by Hologic, specially for spine in both sexes. This difference could be explained by size related factors. There is a correlation between osteocalcin levels and BMD in lumbar spine and both femoral necks only in women

  4. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves as a technique for meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of duplex ultrasonography in peripheral arterial disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, SO; Hunink, MGM; Polak, JF

    Rationale and Objectives. We summarized and compared the diagnostic performance of duplex and color-guided duplex ultrasonography in the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease. We present our research as an example of the use of summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in a

  5. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  6. A simple technique for treating age-related macular degeneration with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Daniel E.; Francis, J. Winston; Newnham, W. John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a simple external beam photon radiotherapy technique to treat age-related macular degeneration without the need for simulation, planning computed tomography (CT) or computer dosimetry. Methods and Materials: The goal was to enable the treatment to be set up reliably on the treatment machine on Day 1 with the patient supine in a head cast without any prior planning. Using measurements of ocular globe topography from Karlsson et al. (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 33: 705-712), we chose a point 1.5 cm behind the anterior surface of the upper eyelid (ASUE) as the isocentre of a half-beam, blocked, 5.0 x 3.0-cm, angled lateral field to treat the involved eye. This would position the isocentre about 0.5 cm behind the posterior surface of the lens, and a little over 1 cm in front of the macula, according to Karlsson et al. The setup requires initial adjustment of the gantry from horizontal (to account for any asymmetry of position of the eyes), then angling 15 deg. posteriorly to avoid the contralateral eye. Finally, the couch is raised to position the isocentre 1.5 cm behind the ASUE. Results: To verify the applicability of the technique, we performed CT and computer dosimetry on the first 11 eyes so treated. Our CT measurements were in good agreement with Karlsson et al. The lens dose was < 5% and the macula was within the 95% isodose curve in each case (6-MV linac). Treatment setup time is approximately 10 min each day. The 11 patients were treated with 5 x 2.00 Gy (2 patients) or 5 x 3.00 Gy (9 patients), and subjective response on follow-up over 1 to 12 months (median 4 months) was comparable to previously reported results, with no significant acute side effects. Conclusion: Our technique is easy to set up and reliably treats the macula, with sparing of the lens and contralateral eye. It enables treatment to commence rapidly and cost-effectively without the need for simulation or CT computer planning

  7. A relative quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique: animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Xuefang; Zhou, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the myocardial perfusion by first-pass technique in swine model. Numerous techniques based on the analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) density have emerged. Although these methods proposed to be able to assess haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis, their limitations are noticed. There are still needs to develop some new techniques. Experiments were performed upon five (5) closed-chest swine. Balloon catheters were placed into the coronary artery to simulate different degrees of luminal stenosis. Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF) was measured using color microsphere technique. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) was measured using pressure wire. CT examinations were performed twice during First-pass phase under adenosine-stress condition. CT HU Density (HUDCT) and CT HU Density Ratio (HUDRCT) were calculated using the acquired CT images. Our study presents that HUDRCT shows a good (y=0.07245+0.09963x, r2=0.898) correlation with MBF and FFR. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, HUDRCT provides excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of significant ischemia during adenosine-stress as defined by FFR indicated by the value of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.927. HUDRCT has the potential to be developed as a useful indicator of quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion.

  8. In vitro Evaluation of the Colistin-Carbapenem Combination in Clinical Isolates of A. baumannii Using the Checkerboard, Etest, and Time-Kill Curve Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline A. H. Soudeiha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide increase in the emergence of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB calls for the investigation into alternative approaches for treatment. This study aims to evaluate colistin-carbapenem combinations against Acinetobacter spp., in order to potentially reduce the need for high concentrations of antibiotics in therapy. This study was conducted on 100 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates that were collected from different patients admitted at Saint George Hospital-University Medical Center in Beirut. The isolates were identified using API 20NE strips, which contain the necessary agents to cover a panel of biochemical tests, and confirmed by PCR amplification of blaOXA−51−like. Activities of colistin, meropenem and imipenem against Acinetobacter isolates were determined by ETEST and microdilution methods, and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In addition, PCR amplifications of the most common beta lactamases contributing to carbapenem resistance were performed. Tri locus PCR–typing was also performed to determine the international clonality of the isolates. Checkerboard, ETEST and time kill curves were then performed to determine the effect of the colistin-carbapenem combinations. The synergistic potential of the combination was then determined by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI, which is an index that indicates additivity, synergism, or antagonism between the antimicrobial agents. In this study, 84% of the isolates were resistant to meropenem, 78% to imipenem, and only one strain was resistant to colistin. 79% of the isolates harbored blaOXA−23−like and pertained to the International Clone II. An additive effect for the colistin-carbapenem combination was observed using all three methods. The combination of colistin-meropenem showed better effects as compared to colistin-imipenem (p < 0.05. The colistin-meropenem and

  9. Application of the thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry techniques to determinate the isodose curves in a cancer treatment planning simulation using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy - VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravim, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is an advance technique of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). This progress is due to the continuous gantry rotation with the radiation beam modulation providing lower time of the patient treatment. This research aimed the verification of the isodose curves in a simulation of a vertebra treatment with spinal cord protection using the thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry techniques and the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100), CaS0 4 :Dy and Al 2 0 3 :C dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Ti micro dosimeters (TLD-100). The dosimeters were characterized using PMMA plates of 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 and different thickness. All irradiations were done using Truebeam STx linear accelerator of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, with 6 MV photons beam. After the dosimeter characterization, they were irradiated according the specific planning simulation and using a PMMA phantom developed to VMAT measurements. This irradiation aimed to verify the isodose curves of the treatment simulation using the two dosimetry techniques. All types of dosimeters showed satisfactory results to determine the dose distribution but analysing the complexity of the isodose curves and the proximity of them, the LiF:Mg,Ti micro dosimeter showed the most appropriate for use due to its small dimensions. Regarding the best technique, as both technique showed satisfactory results, the TL technique presents less complex to be used because the most of the radiotherapy departments already have a TL laboratory. The OSL technique requires more care and greater investment in the hospital. (author)

  10. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  11. Studies of osteoporosis in Singapore using isotope related technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, K.; Goh, J.; Lee Soon Tai; Shamal Das De

    1996-01-01

    The main objectives of this study will be to determine the bone density in selected populations for the purposes of i)determining the age of peak bone mass in each study group and ii)quantifying the differences in bone density as functions of the age and sex of persons in the study group as well as quantifying the differences between study groups in different countries. Normal healthy subjects of both sexes across the age range of 15-50 will be recruited for this programme. There will be at least 15 subjects in each 5 year age range (i.e. a total of 105 subjects of each sex). The subjects will be of urban residency. The project will take a maximum of five years. Volunteers will be recruited from the hospital personnel and their friends and relatives. The subjects will be healthy individuals with no history of fractures and they should not be on any medication which may affect the bone density. A questionnaire regarding their lifestyle factors such as exercise, coffee/tea/alcohol intake and medication be filled. The subjects will also have X-rays of the dorsolumbar spine taken to ascertain the absence of scoliosis or crush fractures. Bone mineral density will be measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Norland XR-26 bone densitometer. The BMD in the L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine and right hip which includes the femoral neck, trochanter and Ward's triangle will be scanned. Body composition will also be determined by doing a whole body scan on the subjects. Autopsy samples of rib bones from healthy accident victims in the age range 20-50 years will be obtained and the biomechanical strength of these bones will be tested. Biopsy specimens of the iliac crest will also be obtained to study the differences in trace element composition between osteoporotic patients and controls. (author)

  12. The Reinvention of General Relativity: A Historiographical Framework for Assessing One Hundred Years of Curved Space-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander; Lalli, Roberto; Renn, M Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    The history of the theory of general relativity presents unique features. After its discovery, the theory was immediately confirmed and rapidly changed established notions of space and time. The further implications of general relativity, however, remained largely unexplored until the mid 1950s, when it came into focus as a physical theory and gradually returned to the mainstream of physics. This essay presents a historiographical framework for assessing the history of general relativity by taking into account in an integrated narrative intellectual developments, epistemological problems, and technological advances; the characteristics of post-World War II and Cold War science; and newly emerging institutional settings. It argues that such a framework can help us understand this renaissance of general relativity as a result of two main factors: the recognition of the untapped potential of general relativity and an explicit effort at community building, which allowed this formerly disparate and dispersed field to benefit from the postwar changes in the scientific landscape.

  13. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  14. Proceedings of firsts workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The book presents papers submitted to the first Workshop on Nuclear and related techniques in health that was holder at the first International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques in Agriculture, held in Havana, Cuba, on October 28 th and 30 th, 1997

  15. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  16. How carryover has an effect on recovery measures related to the area under the curve: theoretical and experimental investigations using cardiovascular parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yukihiro; Kato, Yuichi

    2011-03-01

    This study examines cardiovascular recovery from mental stress. Investigating the absence or presence of carryover effect, the effect of the final reactivity observed at the end of stressful task on the successive recovery, was the major objective. A recently advocated recovery measure related to the area under the curve, mean recovery rate (MRR), was investigated, comparing with the two relatives of this type, total carryover (TCO) and literally area under the curve (AUC). At the onset, a detailed theoretical formulation of each measure was carried out, starting from its original definition. It was predicted that MRR, but not TCO or AUC, could be free from the carryover effect. Next, 88 male students underwent a 5-min mental arithmetic during which blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Nearly all the theoretical predictions (i.e., 5/6 for the three recovery measures by two cardiovascular parameters) were supported by experimental data. There was only one exception: for heart rate, there was a proportional relationship even for MRR versus the final reactivity. Vagal rebound in the recovery period was conceived as the main contributor of this contradiction. The implications of these results for the understanding of future directions in recovery studies are discussed.

  17. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  18. C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio is a predictor of hepatitis B virus related decompensated cirrhosis: time-dependent receiver operating characteristics and decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Si; Xie, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Jing; Wu, Jian-Min; Chen, Rui-Chong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Song, Mei; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Wang, Yu-Qun; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Ke-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem and HBV-related-decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DC) usually leads to a poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine the utility of inflammatory biomarkers in predicting mortality of HBV-DC. A total of 329 HBV-DC patients were enrolled. Survival estimates for the entire study population were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic values for model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, Child-Pugh score, and inflammatory biomarkers neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) for HBV-DC were compared using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves and time-dependent decision curves. The survival time was 23.1±15.8 months. Multivariate analysis identified age, CAR, LMR, and platelet count as prognostic independent risk factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that CAR of at least 1.0 (hazard ratio, 7.19; 95% confidence interval, 4.69-11.03), and LMR less than 1.9 (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.41) were independently associated with mortality of HBV-DC. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic indicated that CAR showed the best performance in predicting mortality of HBV-DC compared with LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score. The results were also confirmed by time-dependent decision curves. CAR and LMR were associated with the prognosis of HBV-DC. CAR was superior to LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score in HBV-DC mortality prediction.

  19. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  20. Determination of J-integral R-curves for the pressure vessel material A 533 B1 using the potential drop technique and the multi-specimen method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krompholz, K.; Ullrich, G.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral experiments at room temperature were performed on three point bend type specimens of the nuclear pressure vessel material A 533 B1 with a/w-ratios of 0.3 and 0.5. Following the ASTM-proposal for the multi-specimen technique a value is obtained close to the value obtained in the HSST round robin test. On the other hand, from the measurement of the Jsub(IC)-value by means of the potential drop technique there is an indication that a lower value of Jsub(IC) is correct. This is in agreement with the multi-specimen technique using linear regression lines without excluding 'invalid' points. That is reasonable if fractographic investigations gives clear indications that stable crack growth has occurred as is the case in this work. (Auth.)

  1. The Use of Psychodrama Action Techniques in a Race Relations Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Peter L.; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lund, Nick L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes psychodrama action techniques that were effectively implemented in a university-level race relations course. Essential elements of these techniques included acting out and critical self-examination of the individual's personal beliefs. In a semi-structured class format in which uncensored spontaneity was stressed, students…

  2. Enhancements and Health-Related Studies of Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis covers two major points. One algorithm concerns with establishment of an accurate standardization method with multi-elemental capabilities and low workload suitable for NAA standardization at ETRR-2. The second one deals with constructing and developing an effective nondestructive technique for analysis of liquid samples based on NAA using (very) short-lived radionuclides. To achieve the first goal, attention has been directed toward implementation of the k 0 -method for calculation of the elements concentrations in the samples. The k 0 -method of NAA standardization has a considerable success as a method for accurate multi-elemental analysis with comparable low workload. The k 0 - method is based on the fact that the unknown sample is irradiated with only one standard element as comparator. To access the implementation of this method at ETRR-2, careful and complete characterization of the neutron flux parameters in the irradiation positions as well as the efficiency calibration of the γ-ray spectrometer must be carried out. The required neutron flux parameters are: the ratio of the thermal to epithermal neutron fluxes (f) and the deviation factor (α) of the epithermal neutron flux from the ideal 1/E law. The work presented in Chapter 4 shows the efficiency calibration curve of the γ ray spectrometer system which was obtained using standard radioactive point sources. Moreover, the f and α parameters were determined in some selected irradiation sites using sets of Zr-Au as neutron flux monitors. Due to different locations relative to the reactor core, the available neutron fluxes in the selected irradiation positions differ substantially, so that different irradiation demands can be satisfied. The reference materials coal NIST 1632c and IAEA-Soil 7 were analyzed for data validation and good agreement between the experimental values and the certified values was obtained. The obtained results have revealed that the k 0 -NAA

  3. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  4. Analysis test of understanding of vectors with the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory and item response curves technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttida Rakkapao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV, by applying item response theory (IRT. The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming unidimensionality and local independence. Moreover, all distractors of the TUV were analyzed from item response curves (IRC that represent simplified IRT. Data were gathered on 2392 science and engineering freshmen, from three universities in Thailand. The results revealed IRT analysis to be useful in assessing the test since its item parameters are independent of the ability parameters. The IRT framework reveals item-level information, and indicates appropriate ability ranges for the test. Moreover, the IRC analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the test’s distractors. Both IRT and IRC approaches reveal test characteristics beyond those revealed by the classical analysis methods of tests. Test developers can apply these methods to diagnose and evaluate the features of items at various ability levels of test takers.

  5. Analysis test of understanding of vectors with the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory and item response curves technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, Suttida; Prasitpong, Singha; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV), by applying item response theory (IRT). The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming unidimensionality and local independence. Moreover, all distractors of the TUV were analyzed from item response curves (IRC) that represent simplified IRT. Data were gathered on 2392 science and engineering freshmen, from three universities in Thailand. The results revealed IRT analysis to be useful in assessing the test since its item parameters are independent of the ability parameters. The IRT framework reveals item-level information, and indicates appropriate ability ranges for the test. Moreover, the IRC analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the test's distractors. Both IRT and IRC approaches reveal test characteristics beyond those revealed by the classical analysis methods of tests. Test developers can apply these methods to diagnose and evaluate the features of items at various ability levels of test takers.

  6. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  7. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  8. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  9. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  10. Characterization of a multilayer ionization chamber prototype for fast verification of relative depth ionization curves and spread-out-Bragg-peaks in light ion beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Alfredo; Magro, Giuseppe; Lavagno, Marco; Mairani, Andrea; Molinelli, Silvia; Russo, Stefania; Mastella, Edoardo; Vai, Alessandro; Maestri, Davide; La Rosa, Vanessa; Ciocca, Mario

    2018-05-01

    To dosimetrically characterize a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) prototype for quality assurance (QA) of pristine integral ionization curves (ICs) and spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs) for scanning light ion beams. QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy (PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations. The charge collecting electrodes are made of aluminum, for a nominal water equivalent thickness (WET) of ~75 mm. The detector prototype was calibrated by acquiring the signals in the initial plateau region of a pristine BP and in terms of WET. Successively, it was characterized in terms of repeatability response, linearity, short-term stability and dose rate dependence. Beam-induced measurements of activation in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate were also performed. To increase the detector coarse native spatial resolution (~2.3 mm), several consecutive acquisitions with a set of certified 0.175-mm-thick PMMA sheets (Goodfellow, Cambridge Limited, UK), placed in front of the QUBE mylar entrance window, were performed. The ICs/SOBPs were achieved as the result of the sum of the set of measurements, made up of a one-by-one PMMA layer acquisition. The newly obtained detector spatial resolution allowed the experimental measurements to be properly comparable against the reference curves acquired in water with the PTW Peakfinder. Furthermore, QUBE detector was modeled in the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code following the technical design details and ICs/SOBPs were calculated. Measurements showed a high repeatability: mean relative standard deviation within ±0.5% for all channels and both particle types. Moreover, the detector response was linear with dose (R 2  > 0.998) and independent on the dose rate. The mean deviation over the channel-by-channel readout respect to the reference beam flux (100%) was equal

  11. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  12. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  13. Theoretical Understanding the Relations of Melting-point Determination Methods from Gibbs Thermodynamic Surface and Applications on Melting Curves of Lower Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, K.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Zhou, H.; Lu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The melting temperatures of materials in the interior of the Earth has significant implications in many areas of geophysics. The direct calculations of the melting point by atomic simulations would face substantial hysteresis problem. To overcome the hysteresis encountered in the atomic simulations there are a few different melting-point determination methods available nowadays, which are founded independently, such as the free energy method, the two-phase or coexistence method, and the Z method, etc. In this study, we provide a theoretical understanding the relations of these methods from a geometrical perspective based on a quantitative construction of the volume-entropy-energy thermodynamic surface, a model first proposed by J. Willard Gibbs in 1873. Then combining with an experimental data and/or a previous melting-point determination method, we apply this model to derive the high-pressure melting curves for several lower mantle minerals with less computational efforts relative to using previous methods only. Through this way, some polyatomic minerals at extreme pressures which are almost unsolvable before are calculated fully from first principles now.

  14. IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohymont, Bernard; Demarde, Gaston R.

    2004-01-01

    The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)

  15. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  16. General circular velocity relation of a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential: application to the rotation curves analysis and total mass determination of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, P.; Martínez-García, E. E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we derive a novel circular velocity relation for a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential applicable to every system of curvilinear coordinates, suitable to be reduced to orthogonal form. As an illustration of the potentiality of the determined circular velocity expression, we perform the rotation curves analysis of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 and we estimate the total and dark matter mass of these two galaxies under the assumption that their respective dark matter haloes have spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions. We employ stellar population synthesis models and the total H I density map to obtain the stellar and H I+He+metals rotation curves of both galaxies. The subtraction of the stellar plus gas rotation curves from the observed rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 generates the dark matter circular velocity curves of both galaxies. We fit the dark matter rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 through the newly established circular velocity formula specialized to the spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions, considering the Navarro, Frenk, and White, Burkert, Di Cintio, Einasto, and Stadel dark matter haloes. Our principal findings are the following: globally, cored dark matter profiles Burkert and Einasto prevail over cuspy Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Di Cintio. Also, spherical/oblate dark matter models fit better the dark matter rotation curves of both galaxies than prolate dark matter haloes.

  17. PEDAGIGOCAL TECHNIQUE OF BUILDING THE CULTURE OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AT ART CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vyacheslavovna Kahnovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the pedagogical technique of building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at the local and modular level. Interpersonal relations are viewed as the module and art classes as the local level. The research is timely as it can assist in studying the problem of moral development of preschool children by building the culture of interpersonal relations by artistic education means. The study presents novelty concluding from the survey of scientific literature. The process of building the culture of interpersonal relations in children has not been properly studied by preschool pedagogy. The task of the present study is to elaborate a pedagogical technique to build the culture of interpersonal relations between children at art classes. The article discusses ‘technological’ criteria (term by G.K. Selevko and presents interactive principles of the pedagogical technique. Group activities alongside with individual ones were viewed as organizational forms of art classes. Building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes is closely connected with the development of their personality, a child’s  consciousness, their motivational and conceptual spheres during their gradual moral development at various levels - emotional (attitude, axiological level, psychic (intentional cognitive processes, activity (artistic and interpersonal literacy. Graphic (projective methods were used to analyze age dynamics of ethical and moral development. The conclusion describes a set of pedagogical conditions for efficient building of the culture of interpersonal relations in children at art classes.  Goal. To elaborate a pedagogical technique for building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes. The technique can be applied at local and modular level.Methods and Methodology. The pedagogical technique is aimed at building the culture of interpersonal relations

  18. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  19. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirac Twidwell

    Full Text Available Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1 a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2 a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3 an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands.

  20. A spatial compression technique for head-related transfer function interpolation and complexity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarchi, Sayedali; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hallam, John

    2015-01-01

    A head-related transfer function (HRTF) model employing Legendre polynomials (LPs) is evaluated as an HRTF spatial complexity indicator and interpolation technique in the azimuth plane. LPs are a set of orthogonal functions derived on the sphere which can be used to compress an HRTF dataset...

  1. Pollen of Sarawakodendron (Celastraceae) and some related genera, with notes on techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1969-01-01

    1. A simple technique for acetolysis of small quantities of polliniferous (herbarium) material is described and notes on pollen photomicrography are presented. 2. Pollen grains of Sarawakodendron and six related genera, consisting of twenty-nine mostly Malesian species, have been examined and

  2. Side effects after radiotherapy of age-related macular degeneration with the Nijmegen technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, C.B.; Tromp, A.I.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Leys, A.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Deutman, A.F.; Vingerling, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a randomized trial concerning radiotherapy for age-related macular degeneration, fluorescein angiograms were taken of controls and patients. In this study the frequency of side effects in eyes receiving radiotherapy with the Nijmegen technique is compared with the findings in the eyes

  3. Multielement determination in Cuban red mangrove samples using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez Alvarez, J.R.; Aguiar Lambert, D.; Montero Alvarez, A.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Gonzalez Garcia, H.; Ramirez Sasco, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work the contents of Al; K; Ca; Mn; Fe; Ni; Cu; Zn; Sr; Cd and Pb in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) from different Cuban regions are determined, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (Emission-Transmission (Et) and I/C methods), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and Polarography (Anodic Stripping Voltametry method). Biological Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are employed for the tracing of the tracing of the curves of the relative I/C method and for the evaluation of the analytical results accuracy. The reliability of the results is also checked by statistical means. Standard deviations and the detection limits of each method are reported. Finally, the obtained values for the concentration of the different elements in each studied ecosystem are presented; a detailed discussion about their significance will be performed in a further paper

  4. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  5. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin releases correlated with the area under the lafutidine concentration-time curve in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, K; Shimatani, T; Azuma, Y; Inoue, M; Morikawa, N

    2006-08-01

    To examine the effects of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist, lafutidine, at clinical dosage (10 mg tablet after a standardized meal) on plasma levels of the gastrointestinal peptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin and gastrin. Six healthy male volunteers ate a standardized meal, and received either lafutidine orally at a dose of 10 mg or water only (control). Blood samples were taken before and up to 4 h after the drug administration. Plasma lafutidine concentrations were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis of lafutidine was performed using one-compartmental model. The levels of immunoreactive substances of plasma CGRP, somatostatin and gastrin were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the amount of peptide release was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Lafutidine significantly increased plasma CGRP levels at 1, 1.5, 2.5 and 4 h and the total amount of CGRP release (192 +/- 14.0 pg.h/mL) compared with the control group (128 +/- 21.5 pg.h/mL). Lafutidine significantly increased the plasma somatostatin levels at 1 and 1.5 h, and the total amount of somatostatin released (107 +/- 18.2 pg.h/mL) compared with the control (78.4 +/- 7.70 pg.h/mL). The area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 4 h after administration correlated well with the Delta-CGRP and Delta-somatostatin release but not with total amount of gastrin released. However, plasma gastrin levels were significantly elevated at 1.5 h after drug administration. Lafutidine at clinical dosage increases plasma CGRP and the somatostatin. The amounts released correlated with the AUC of lafutidine in humans. These results suggest that the increased release of CGRP and somatostatin may contribute to its gastroprotective and anti-acid secretory effect.

  6. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  7. Proceedings of Fifth International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques NURT 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The Cd-Rom presents papers submitted to the Fifth International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques NURT 2006 held in Havana, Cuba, on April, 2006. The NURT Symposia are one of the key Cuban scientific meetings dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in all domains of the society. They are arranged with a two-year frequency and provide a unique opportunity for the international scientific community to meet outstanding researches and to discuss current trends and task in several areas of applied, nuclear related topics. The first editions of the NURT were organized under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1997, 1999, 200, 2003 and hosted delegates and invited scientific from more than 40 countries from all over the world. The join several workshops, each one devoted to an specific field research

  8. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  9. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  10. LENR BEC Clusters on and below Wires through Cavitation and Related Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, Roger; Stringham, Julie

    2011-03-01

    During the last two years I have been working on BEC cluster densities deposited just under the surface of wires, using cavitation, and other techniques. If I get the concentration high enough before the clusters dissipate, in addition to cold fusion related excess heat (and other effects, including helium-4 formation) I anticipate that it may be possible to initiate transient forms of superconductivity at room temperature.

  11. It's not hype, it's communication: Using public relations techniques to improve your technical messages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Technical communicators are concerned that if they employ public relations (PR) techniques, they somehow compromise their work. They believe PR equates with type. However, to those of us in the field, PR means simply how people relate. Knowing PR techniques gives one a better understanding of human factors and interactions; using the techniques improves the chances for communication to occur. If technical communications are willing to learn PR techniques, they will gain strong tools to use to strengthen their messages.

  12. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  13. Influence of the curve density relative electron in dosimetry clinic in treatments stereo tactics; Influencia de la curva de densidad electronica relativa en la dosimetria clinica en tratamientos estereotaxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Casado Villalon, F. J.; Parra Osorio, V.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Garcia Pareja, S.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the difference between clinical dosimetry in the treatments with radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy fractional obtained from the relative Electron density curve (Schneider 1996) tabulated and provided with the scanner's radiation therapy. (Author)

  14. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  15. Predictable Technique to Register Retruded Contact Position (RCP) Using a Disposable Jaw Relation Recording Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Tony; Lobel, William A; Massad, Joseph; Ahuja, Swati; Danilov, Zarko Jack

    2015-05-01

    The dental literature presents various definitions and techniques to describe and register centric relation (CR) or centric occlusion (CO). Briefly reviewing the literature in relation to CR, this article proposes the use of the term retruded contact position (RCP), clinically defined as retruded, unstrained, repeatable position and where the mandibular movements start when a Gothic arch tracing is used. With this clinical definition, a technique can be easily selected that meets all the requirements of such position. The article discusses the use of a jaw recorder that is an intraorally graphic recording device that results in a tracing of mandibular movements in one plane, with the apex of the tracing indicating the retruded, unstrained, and repeatable relationship. The intersection of the arcs produced by the right and left working movement form the apex of the Gothic arch tracing. Several clinical situations using the jaw recorder are described. Clinicians can now quickly and accurately record RCP, balance complete, partial, or implant dentures, and orthopedically reposition the mandible. The technique achieves highly reliable and reproducible results.

  16. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the particular strengths of nuclear methods is in analytical quality assurance, including the validation of analytical methods and the development of new analytical reference materials. These methodologies are therefore helping to harmonize the data produced not only by nuclear techniques themselves, but also by other non-nuclear methods of analysis. The aim of this symposium was to provide an international forum for discussion of these topics. Its programme covered a wide variety of applications of nuclear (and related) analytical techniques (mainly neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive X ray fluorescence, particle induced X ray emission and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as used in the study of air particulates, solid waste products, sediments, food, water, human tissues, biomonitors and other kinds of environmental samples

  18. String Sigma Models on Curved Supermanifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Catenacci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the techniques of integral forms to analyze the easiest example of two-dimensional sigma models on a supermanifold. We write the action as an integral of a top integral form over a D = 2 supermanifold, and we show how to interpolate between different superspace actions. Then, we consider curved supermanifolds, and we show that the definitions used for flat supermanifolds can also be used for curved supermanifolds. We prove it by first considering the case of a curved rigid supermanifold and then the case of a generic curved supermanifold described by a single superfield E.

  19. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  20. Proceedings of the 13th meeting for tandem accelerators and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The 13th Meeting for Tandem Accelerators and Related Techniques was held on June 8-9, 2000 at Mutsu, Aomori Prefecture, under the auspices of Marine Research Laboratory, Mutsu Establishment, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. About 60 people participated in the meeting from 27 universities and organizations, many of which have a tandem accelerator or an electrostatic accelerator. The objectives of the meeting are to exchange information on tandem accelerates or electrostatic accelerators by making a presentation on related research and topics, and also to enhance mutual friendship of participants, resulting in the contribution to associated R and D. The meeting mainly consisted of presentations by participants and corresponding Q and A; the present situation on facilities of accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS), operations of and research on tandem accelerators or electrostatic accelerators, applications of AMS, related techniques and applications using accelerators, and so on. This report summarizes the contents of presentations made in the meeting. The 30 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  2. Illumination technique for the relative calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Segreto, Alberto; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Conconi, Paolo; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    We present a new illumination technique for the camera relative gain calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope. The camera illumination is achieved by means of an optical fiber that diffuses the light inside a protective PMMA window above the focal plane. We report the encouraging results of the development tests carried out on two PMMA window prototypes illuminated by a standard optical fiber. We checked also the reliability of the method by a series of ray tracing simulations for different scattering models and PMMA window shapes finding good agreement with experimental results

  3. Illumination technique for the relative calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodeghiero, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.rodeghiero@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35100 PD (Italy); Catalano, Osvaldo; Segreto, Alberto [INAF IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 PA (Italy); De Caprio, Vincenzo [INAF OACN, Salita Moiariello, 16, 80131 Napoli, NA (Italy); Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi [INAF OAPD, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35100 PD (Italy); Conconi, Paolo; Canestrari, Rodolfo [INAF OAB, Via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)

    2014-11-11

    We present a new illumination technique for the camera relative gain calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov telescope. The camera illumination is achieved by means of an optical fiber that diffuses the light inside a protective PMMA window above the focal plane. We report the encouraging results of the development tests carried out on two PMMA window prototypes illuminated by a standard optical fiber. We checked also the reliability of the method by a series of ray tracing simulations for different scattering models and PMMA window shapes finding good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Related Research and Arthroscopy: Increasing the Breadth of Arthroscopy and Arthroscopy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Merrick J; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H

    2017-11-01

    An editorial goal is to increase the breadth of Arthroscopy and Arthroscopy Techniques. Our readers are more than arthroscopic surgeons and scientists. Rather, the health care providers and scientists who read our journals are, first and foremost, physicians, allied health practitioners, and academic intellectuals whose interests include improving individual and public health and welfare across a wide spectrum of scholarly topics. By reaching a broader audience, we hope to expand our contribution to arthroscopic and related surgery and continue to develop the potential of our subspecialty. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of various spring analogy related mesh deformation techniques in two-dimensional airfoil design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Özgen, S.

    2017-06-01

    During the last few decades, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has developed greatly and has become a more reliable tool for the conceptual phase of aircraft design. This tool is generally combined with an optimization algorithm. In the optimization phase, the need for regenerating the computational mesh might become cumbersome, especially when the number of design parameters is high. For this reason, several mesh generation and deformation techniques have been developed in the past decades. One of the most widely used techniques is the Spring Analogy. There are numerous spring analogy related techniques reported in the literature: linear spring analogy, torsional spring analogy, semitorsional spring analogy, and ball vertex spring analogy. This paper gives the explanation of linear spring analogy method and angle inclusion in the spring analogy method. In the latter case, two di¨erent solution methods are proposed. The best feasible method will later be used for two-dimensional (2D) Airfoil Design Optimization with objective function being to minimize sectional drag for a required lift coe©cient at di¨erent speeds. Design variables used in the optimization include camber and thickness distribution of the airfoil. SU2 CFD is chosen as the §ow solver during the optimization procedure. The optimization is done by using Phoenix ModelCenter Optimization Tool.

  6. Endovascular management of pancreatitis-related pseudoaneurysms: A review of techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Zabicki

    Full Text Available To present the various techniques used in the management of pancreatitis-related pseudoaneurysms of visceral vessels.The retrospective clinical study was carried out at the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology at Poznan University of Medical Sciences from 2011 to 2016. The fifteen patients included in the study were diagnosed with pseudoaneurysms of visceral arteries, as a complication of chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was made using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, followed by angiography. On admission, all patients were symptomatic, with varying degrees of abdominal pain. One patient was haemodynamically unstable. Treatments with endovascular techniques were analysed, along with their efficacy and outcomes. Coil embolisation was performed in 5 patients. Stent graft was used in 1 patient. Liquid embolic agents were used in 7 cases, of which 5 patients were treated with thrombin injection and 2 with Squid. A combination of techniques was used in 2 patients.The most common artery affected by pseudoaneurysm formation was the splenic artery (7/15; 46.7%, and the size of the pseudoaneurysms ranged from 27 mm to 85 mm. Primary technical success was achieved in 14 out of 15 patients (93.3%. One patient required reintervention. Two patients required splenectomy after embolisation due to splenic ischemia. No recanalisation was present at the follow-up computed tomography performed after 1 to 3 weeks, and no mortality was observed within 30 days.Vascular complications of pancreatitis require accurate diagnosis and immediate treatment. Endovascular intervention is highly effective and is the preferred treatment option. The technique used is determined based on vascular anatomy and the patient's haemodynamic status.

  7. Nuclear and related techniques for improving productivity of indigenous animals in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The seminar provided a forum to review the various ways by which nuclear and related methods can be used to improve animal nutrition, reproduction and disease control under the different ecological conditions prevailing in Africa and the Middle East. The seminar was held concurrently with an FAO/IAEA Advisory Group Meeting. The purpose of this meeting was for invited scientists from various disciplines to evaluate those nuclear and related techniques currently used to quantify such functions as animal adaptation, digestion and utilization of poor quality feedstuffs, reproductive efficiency and resistance to disease and other forms of stress. This volume contains a selection of the papers presented during the seminar as well as the Recommendations of the Advisory Group Meeting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers of this volume

  8. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  9. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  10. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  11. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  12. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  13. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  14. Work-related thumb disorders in South African physiotherapists treating musculoskeletal conditions using manual therapy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Jenkins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of and factors associated with work-related thumb problems (WRTP in South African physiotherapists treating musculoskeletal conditions using manual therapy techniques? Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was used and data were collected using two Internet-based questionnaires. Participants: The sample size calculated for the study was 284 using 95% confidence levels and a 5% margin of error. There were 395 participants that were included in the study. Outcome measures: The variables measured included demographic, employment, educational and occupational factors. Results: The lifetime prevalence of WRTP in the physiotherapists was 65.3%. The manual techniques that were significantly associated with WRTP in the respondents who reported thumb problems were all grades of transverse glides applied to the spine as well as grade II–IV unilateral and central posterior-anterior pressures to the spine. The factors that remained significantly associated with WRTP in all 395 respondents after regression analysis were the cervical treatment of up to six patients a day and hyperextension > 30° of the non-dominant interphalangeal (IP joint of the thumb. Conclusion: This study confirms that a high percentage of physiotherapists using manual therapy techniques to treat musculoskeletal conditions are experiencing WRTP. Recommendations: The development of a valid and reliable WRTP screening tool is needed to aid in the identification of physiotherapists at risk and thus in the primary prevention of WRTP. A longitudinal study which follows newly qualified physiotherapists is recommended to investigate a possible cause-effect relationship and preventative strategies for WRTP in physiotherapists.

  15. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  16. Identification of variables for site calibration and power curve assessment in complex terrain. Task 8, a literature survey on theory and practice of parameter identification, specification and estimation (ISE) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Leendertse, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-04-01

    This document presents the literature survey results on Identification, Specification and Estimation (ISE) techniques for variables within the SiteParIden project. Besides an overview of the different general techniques also an overview is given on EU funded wind energy projects where some of these techniques have been applied more specifically. The main problem in applications like power performance assessment and site calibration is to establish an appropriate model for predicting the considered dependent variable with the aid of measured independent (explanatory) variables. In these applications detailed knowledge on what the relevant variables are and how their precise appearance in the model would be is typically missing. Therefore, the identification (of variables) and the specification (of the model relation) are important steps in the model building phase. For the determination of the parameters in the model a reliable variable estimation technique is required. In EU funded wind energy projects the linear regression technique is the most commonly applied tool for the estimation step. The linear regression technique may fail in finding reliable parameter estimates when the model variables are strongly correlated, either due to the experimental set-up or because of their particular appearance in the model. This situation of multicollinearity sometimes results in unrealistic parameter values, e.g. with the wrong algebraic sign. It is concluded that different approaches, like multi-binning can provide a better way of identifying the relevant variables. However further research in these applications is needed and it is recommended that alternative methods (neural networks, singular value decomposition etc.) should also be tested on their usefulness in a succeeding project. Increased interest in complex terrains, as feasible locations for wind farms, has also emphasised the need for adequate models. A common standard procedure to prescribe the statistical

  17. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  18. Evaluation of auditory perception development in neonates by event-related potential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinfen; Li, Hongxin; Zheng, Aibin; Dong, Xuan; Tu, Wenjuan

    2017-08-01

    To investigate auditory perception development in neonates and correlate it with days after birth, left and right hemisphere development and sex using event-related potential (ERP) technique. Sixty full-term neonates, consisting of 32 males and 28 females, aged 2-28days were included in this study. An auditory oddball paradigm was used to elicit ERPs. N2 wave latencies and areas were recorded at different days after birth, to study on relationship between auditory perception and age, and comparison of left and right hemispheres, and males and females. Average wave forms of ERPs in neonates started from relatively irregular flat-bottomed troughs to relatively regular steep-sided ripples. A good linear relationship between ERPs and days after birth in neonates was observed. As days after birth increased, N2 latencies gradually and significantly shortened, and N2 areas gradually and significantly increased (both Pbrain were significantly greater, and N2 latencies in the central part were significantly shorter in the left hemisphere compared with the right, indicative of left hemisphere dominance (both Pdevelopment. In the days following birth, the auditory perception ability of neonates gradually increases. This occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere, with auditory perception ability appearing to develop earlier in female neonates than in males. ERP can be used as an objective index used to evaluate auditory perception development in neonates. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  20. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the xenon atom pair and related spectroscopic and thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Jäger, Benjamin; Bich, Eckard

    2017-07-01

    A new ab initio interatomic potential energy curve for two ground-state xenon atoms is presented. It is based on supermolecular calculations at the coupled-cluster level with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] employing basis sets up to sextuple-zeta quality, which were developed as part of this work. In addition, corrections were determined for higher coupled-cluster levels up to CCSDTQ as well as for scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects at the CCSD(T) level. A physically motivated analytical function was fitted to the calculated interaction energies and used to compute the vibrational spectrum of the dimer, the second virial coefficient, and the dilute gas transport properties. The agreement with the best available experimental data for the investigated properties is excellent; the new potential function is superior not only to previous ab initio potentials but also to the most popular empirical ones.

  1. State-of-the-art ab initio potential energy curve for the xenon atom pair and related spectroscopic and thermophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert; Jäger, Benjamin; Bich, Eckard

    2017-07-21

    A new ab initio interatomic potential energy curve for two ground-state xenon atoms is presented. It is based on supermolecular calculations at the coupled-cluster level with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] employing basis sets up to sextuple-zeta quality, which were developed as part of this work. In addition, corrections were determined for higher coupled-cluster levels up to CCSDTQ as well as for scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects at the CCSD(T) level. A physically motivated analytical function was fitted to the calculated interaction energies and used to compute the vibrational spectrum of the dimer, the second virial coefficient, and the dilute gas transport properties. The agreement with the best available experimental data for the investigated properties is excellent; the new potential function is superior not only to previous ab initio potentials but also to the most popular empirical ones.

  2. Parameters of Dismantling Techniques Related to Costs for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon

    2012-01-01

    Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning operation. Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning planning. Alternative technologies may be evaluated and compared on their efficiency and effectiveness, and measured against a baseline cost as to the feasibility and benefit derived from the technology. This principle ensures that the cost consideration is economically sound and practical for funding. This paper provides a list with basic review of cutting and dismantling techniques, including some typical characteristics if available, as well as aspects of implementation, parameters of cutting and dismantling techniques in decommissioning costing. This paper gives an overview of the principles of the unit factor approach and its implementation in costing in relation to dismantling activities. In general, proper evaluation of decommissioning costs is important for following issues and relevant measures for achieving the listed aspects are: · Selection of a decommissioning strategy and activities: several decommissioning options should be evaluated: · Support to a cost-benefit analysis to ensure that the principle of optimization and reasonably practicable measures are applied: the extent of evaluated decommissioning options should cover all possible scenarios for dismantling activities; · Estimate of required financial resources for the selected strategy: the selected option should involve the dismantling activities in a structure and extent relevant to real procedure of dismantling activities; · Preparation of the project schedule, workforce requirements and phased funding needs: dismantling activities should be structured according to the tasks of the decommissioning schedule; · Definition of measures for proper management and maintenance of resources for safe and timely decommissioning: the time distribution and safety related parameters of dismantling activities should be known

  3. Elimination of chromatographic and mass spectrometric problems in GC-MS analysis of Lavender essential oil by multivariate curve resolution techniques: Improving the peak purity assessment by variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Moazeni-Pourasil, Roudabeh Sadat; Sereshti, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    In analysis of complex natural matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), many disturbing factors such as baseline drift, spectral background, homoscedastic and heteroscedastic noise, peak shape deformation (non-Gaussian peaks), low S/N ratio and co-elution (overlapped and/or embedded peaks) lead the researchers to handle them to serve time, money and experimental efforts. This study aimed to improve the GC-MS analysis of complex natural matrices utilizing multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods. In addition, to assess the peak purity of the two-dimensional data, a method called variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis (VSMW-EFA) is introduced and examined. The proposed methodology was applied to the GC-MS analysis of Iranian Lavender essential oil, which resulted in extending the number of identified constituents from 56 to 143 components. It was found that the most abundant constituents of the Iranian Lavender essential oil are α-pinene (16.51%), camphor (10.20%), 1,8-cineole (9.50%), bornyl acetate (8.11%) and camphene (6.50%). This indicates that the Iranian type Lavender contains a relatively high percentage of α-pinene. Comparison of different types of Lavender essential oils showed the composition similarity between Iranian and Italian (Sardinia Island) Lavenders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  5. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  6. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  7. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  8. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  9. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian de Ponte Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  10. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  11. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  12. On harmonic curvatures of a Frenet curve in Lorentzian space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelahci, Mihriban; Bektas, Mehmet; Erguet, Mahmut

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider curves of AW(k)-type, 1 ≤ k ≤ 3, in Lorentzian space. We give curvature conditions of these kind of curves. Furthermore, we study harmonic curvatures of curves of AW(k)-type. We investigate that under what conditions AW(k)-type curves are helix. Some related theorems and corollaries are also proved.

  13. The spatial profile of visual attention in mental curve tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, H. S.; Spekreijse, H.; Roelfsema, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    In a curve-tracing task, subjects have to judge whether items are located on a single, continuous curve. Spatially separate segments of such a curve are related to each other through grouping criteria, like collinearity and connectedness. These grouping cues need to be exploited during curve

  14. Characterizing time series via complexity-entropy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Jauregui, Max; Zunino, Luciano; Lenzi, Ervin K.

    2017-06-01

    The search for patterns in time series is a very common task when dealing with complex systems. This is usually accomplished by employing a complexity measure such as entropies and fractal dimensions. However, such measures usually only capture a single aspect of the system dynamics. Here, we propose a family of complexity measures for time series based on a generalization of the complexity-entropy causality plane. By replacing the Shannon entropy by a monoparametric entropy (Tsallis q entropy) and after considering the proper generalization of the statistical complexity (q complexity), we build up a parametric curve (the q -complexity-entropy curve) that is used for characterizing and classifying time series. Based on simple exact results and numerical simulations of stochastic processes, we show that these curves can distinguish among different long-range, short-range, and oscillating correlated behaviors. Also, we verify that simulated chaotic and stochastic time series can be distinguished based on whether these curves are open or closed. We further test this technique in experimental scenarios related to chaotic laser intensity, stock price, sunspot, and geomagnetic dynamics, confirming its usefulness. Finally, we prove that these curves enhance the automatic classification of time series with long-range correlations and interbeat intervals of healthy subjects and patients with heart disease.

  15. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe

  16. Drainage-related ultrasonography (DRUS): a novel technique for discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive hydroureters in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Aryan, Zahra; Ebadi, Maryam; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Elmi, Azadeh; Talab, Saman Shafaat; Sadeghi, Zhina

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in urologic imaging, the paucity of an optimal technique that accurately clarifies obstructive and nonobstructive hydroureter exists. This study was conducted to introduce a novel and modified ultrasonographic technique, known as drainage-related ultrasonography (DRUS), discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing hydroureter. A total of 358 children (mean age, 3.7 years) with 418 nonrefluxing hydroureter were included. These children were composed of two groups of obstructive nonrefluxing (141 children with 157 dilated ureters) and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing (217 children with 261 hydroureter). The definite diagnosis regarding the subtype of hydroureter was derived from appropriate investigation. The maximum diameter of the dilated ureter, which was observed on ultrasonography, was recorded before and after 3 h of catheterization, as D1 and D2, respectively. To assess the D ratio, a formula was developed, that is, [(|D1 - D2|)/D1] × 100. Values were recorded and cutoff points were set to discriminate between subtypes. Obstructive versus nonobstructive subtypes of nonrefluxing hydroureter were clarified with 78.5 % sensitivity and 83.4 % specificity, by setting a cutoff point of 22 % for the D ratio. Regardless of the cutoff point assigned to the reduction in D (D2 compared with D1), DRUS revealed 93.9 % sensitivity, 80.6 % specificity, 63.2 % positive predictive value, and 97.4 % negative predictive value in discriminating upper from lower obstruction. DRUS affords favorable results in terms of differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing hydroureter, as well as between upper and lower obstruction in obstructive cases. It has the potential to become an efficient imaging modality in the diagnostic algorithm of hydroureter.

  17. Impact produced by seoi-otoshi technique. Relation to years in practice and judo rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Judokas commonly train the seoi-otoshi technique (aka, drop-knee seoi-nage. A controversy exists about the convenience of its use by the younger judokas due to the risk of high loads produced by the impacts on their growing structures. The aim of the present paper was to measure the impacts against the tatami when executing the knee seoi-otoshi technique and its relationship with the years of practice and the degree or level (color of the belt. Thirty-three judokas from different years and degree volunteered to participate. Two force plates covered by standard tatami, registered the ground reaction forces while five consecutive repetitions were executed. We measured the mean and maximum peaks of force relative to their own body weight (BW. The results show peaks of more than 10 BW, which can be considered a potential risk of injury in the younger judokas, especially when repeated in time. In addition, a tendency to decrease the impact as the years of practice increase is observed (potential function; R2= 0.41, p<0.000 in the force peak, and the force in the expert group has been significantly lower than in the other groups (p<0.001. On the other hand, the degree (belt color shows a quadratic relationship (R2= 0.45, p<0.000 in the force peak. The lack of agreement between the years of practice and the degree shows that the promotion criteria does not appear to be a valid one from a preventive viewpoint, especially in the lower degrees which would correspond to younger practitioners whose locomotor structures are still not fully developed.

  18. Characterization of time series via Rényi complexity-entropy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, M.; Zunino, L.; Lenzi, E. K.; Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most useful tools for distinguishing between chaotic and stochastic time series is the so-called complexity-entropy causality plane. This diagram involves two complexity measures: the Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity. Recently, this idea has been generalized by considering the Tsallis monoparametric generalization of the Shannon entropy, yielding complexity-entropy curves. These curves have proven to enhance the discrimination among different time series related to stochastic and chaotic processes of numerical and experimental nature. Here we further explore these complexity-entropy curves in the context of the Rényi entropy, which is another monoparametric generalization of the Shannon entropy. By combining the Rényi entropy with the proper generalization of the statistical complexity, we associate a parametric curve (the Rényi complexity-entropy curve) with a given time series. We explore this approach in a series of numerical and experimental applications, demonstrating the usefulness of this new technique for time series analysis. We show that the Rényi complexity-entropy curves enable the differentiation among time series of chaotic, stochastic, and periodic nature. In particular, time series of stochastic nature are associated with curves displaying positive curvature in a neighborhood of their initial points, whereas curves related to chaotic phenomena have a negative curvature; finally, periodic time series are represented by vertical straight lines.

  19. Studies of osteoporosis in the Northern China, using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Linlin; Duan Yunbo; Ma Haibo; Zhang Wei; Ge Chonghua; Liu Zhonghou; Wang Shilin

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis is an enormous public health problem, because it causes multiple fractures in the elderly people, and huge health care cost. The progressive aging of the world's population predicts a substantial increase in the global burden of osteoporosis, so further studying and preventing osteoporosis are often important problems. Since 1986 our department started large investigation of BMDat forearm using single photon absorptiometry (SPA) and in 1991-1993 was undertook Investigation of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and proximal femur in normal Chinese population using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA). The results showed the BMD of all above sites is age-related, the age of peak BMD is different at the forearm, lumbar spine and hip, and the difference is related with sex. After the age of peak bone mass, BMD steadily declined with advancing age. In the Co-ordinated Research Programme on Comparative International Studies of Osteoporosis using Isotope Techniques. The first, we will further study age-, sex-related changes in bone mass among Chinese northern healthy residents in urban. Not only consider that chronic disease and medicine influence on osteoporosis, also consider the influence of life-style factors. The second, the trace elements of tooth and hair samples will be analysed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). It try to find the correlation of trace elements composition between tooth and hair samples. The possible difference in theses elements between osteoporotic patients and controls. (author)

  20. Developing an empirical Environmental Kuznets Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Purnawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC that relates between environmental pollution level and the prosperity level in Tangerang City. The method uses two models of pooled data regression technique namely, Random Effect Model (REM, and Fixed Effects Model (FEM both quadratic and cubic. The period of observation is 2002-2012. The results suggest that relationship between per capita income and the level of environment quality, reflected as the BOD concentration (Oxygen Biological damage and COD (Chemical Oxygen Damage can be explained by the quadratic FEM model and follow the EKC hypothesis even though the turning point is not identified.

  1. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    chapter of this thesis is devoted to fermions in curved background spacetimes and, in particular, catalyzed symmetry breaking. This phenomenon arises from a parametric enhancement of critical fluctuations independently of the coupling strength. Symmetry-breaking fermionic long-range fluctuations exhibit such an enhancement on negatively curved spaces, as is known from mean-field studies. We study gravitational catalysis from the viewpoint of the functional renormalization group using the 3d Gross-Neveu model as a specific example. We observe gravitational catalysis towards a phase of broken discrete chiral symmetry both on a maximally symmetric spacetime (AdS) and on a purely spatially curved manifold (Lobachevsky plane) with constant negative curvature. The resulting picture for gravitational catalysis obtained from the renormalization group flow is closely related to that of magnetic catalysis. As an application, we estimate the curvature required for subcritical systems of finite length to acquire a gravitionally catalyzed mass gap.

  2. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  3. Analysis of web-based online services for GPS relative and precise point positioning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Ocalan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS has been used effectively in several engineering applications for the survey purposes by multiple disciplines. Web-based online services developed by several organizations; which are user friendly, unlimited and most of them are free; have become a significant alternative against the high-cost scientific and commercial software on achievement of post processing and analyzing the GPS data. When centimeter (cm or decimeter (dm level accuracies are desired, that can be obtained easily regarding different quality engineering applications through these services. In this paper, a test study was conducted at ISKI-CORS network; Istanbul-Turkey in order to figure out the accuracy analysis of the most used web based online services around the world (namely OPUS, AUSPOS, SCOUT, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, APPS, magicGNSS. These services use relative and precise point positioning (PPP solution approaches. In this test study, the coordinates of eight stations were estimated by using of both online services and Bernese 5.0 scientific GPS processing software from 24-hour GPS data set and then the coordinate differences between the online services and Bernese processing software were computed. From the evaluations, it was seen that the results for each individual differences were less than 10 mm regarding relative online service, and less than 20 mm regarding precise point positioning service. The accuracy analysis was gathered from these coordinate differences and standard deviations of the obtained coordinates from different techniques and then online services were compared to each other. The results show that the position accuracies obtained by associated online services provide high accurate solutions that may be used in many engineering applications and geodetic analysis.

  4. Establishing Food Traceability System Using Nuclear and Related Techniques in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainon Othman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Salmah Moosa; Roslanzairi Mostapha

    2015-01-01

    Determination of food traceability is important in quality control and safety of food. The dramatic increase in the volume of global trade and complexity of supply chains has caused a number of issues concerning food authenticity and safety. Commodities that attract premium prices are subject to fraud such as adulteration and counterfeit. This poses serious health risks due to unknown origin of the counterfeit. In addition to safety concern, the capability to certify food origin is becoming significant economic importance. In several countries, the use of geographical indications allows producers to obtain market recognition and often a premium price. In addressing food safety issues in Malaysia, the Food Hygiene Regulations (2009) has provision for traceability but mechanism on how traceability can be achieved is not prescribed. Present mechanism is mainly paper-based system that passes information along with the commodity. However, such system is subject to failure either inadvertently or deliberately (fraud). Thus there is a need to establish a science-based traceability system to support the food safety surveillance program in Malaysia. This paper presents the concept and use of nuclear and related techniques involving isotopic and elemental fingerprinting in determining the geographical origin of various food products and its potential application for traceability of Malaysian agricultural produce. (author)

  5. Calibration of CR-39 for radon-related parameters using sealed cup technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Daif, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Effective radium content, mass and areal radon exhalation rates of soil and rock samples are important radon-related parameters and can be used as a better indicator of radon risk. A sealed cup fitted to a CR-39 detector and to the sample under measurement is an advantageous passive device for the measurement of these parameters. The main factors affecting the results are the detector calibration factor and the sample weight. The results of an active technique (Lucas cell) and the CR-39 detector have been found to be correlated resulting in a reliable detector calibration factor. The result illustrates the dependence of the CR-39 calibration factor with the sample weight which is difficult to use in practice, because each sample weight has its own calibration factor of CR-39. It is reported to demonstrate the advantage of a back diffusion correction. After correcting the results for back diffusion effects, one obtains an approximately constant calibration factor for the sample volumes up to one-third the total sealed cup volume. For this condition the calibration factor is equal to 0.237 track cm -2 per Bq m -3 d with about 1% uncertainty. (authors)

  6. An Investigation into the Relation between the Technique of Movement and Overload in Step Aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the features of a step workout technique which may be related to motor system overloading in step aerobics. Subjects participating in the research were instructors (n=15 and students (n=15 without any prior experience in step aerobics. Kinematic and kinetic data was collected with the use of the BTS SMART system comprised of 6 calibrated video cameras and two Kistler force plates. The subjects’ task was to perform basic steps. The following variables were analyzed: vertical, anteroposterior, and mediolateral ground reaction forces; foot flexion and abduction and adduction angles; knee joint flexion angle; and trunk flexion angle in the sagittal plane. The angle of a foot adduction recorded for the instructors was significantly smaller than that of the students. The knee joint angle while stepping up was significantly higher for the instructors compared to that for the students. Our research confirmed that foot dorsal flexion and adduction performed while stepping up increased load on the ankle joint. Both small and large angles of knee flexion while stepping up and down resulted in knee joint injuries. A small trunk flexion angle in the entire cycle of step workout shut down dorsal muscles, which stopped suppressing the load put on the spine.

  7. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  8. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  9. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  10. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  11. Nuclear and related techniques in control and epidemiology of haemoparasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, A.

    2004-01-01

    at least some production against challenge with parasite isolated from different areas. A general review of the studies carried out to diagnose and control of haemoparasitic infections with the aid of nuclear and related techniques is presented and discussed

  12. Nuclear and related techniques in control and epidemiology of haemoparasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, A.

    2004-01-01

    some production against challenge with parasite isolated from different areas. A general review of the studies carried out to diagnose and control of haemoparasitic infections with the aid of nuclear and related techniques is presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Phonon dispersion curves for CsCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, N.K.; Singh, Preeti; Rini, E.G.; Galgale, Jyostna; Singh, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique. (author)

  16. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  17. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  18. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  19. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  20. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  1. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  2. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  3. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  4. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  5. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  6. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  7. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  8. Crop improvement for salinity and drought tolerance using nuclear and related techniques (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.; Lagoda, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    complex interactions among the traits involved in tolerance to both drought and salinity, pyramiding using marker-assisted breeding, induced mutation and other biotechnologies, combined with a multidisciplinary approach and the participation of farmers, is likely to provide the best strategy to accelerate the progress towards the development of adapted tolerant crop germplasm. The joint FAO/IAEA division is investing considerable effort in evaluating opportunities for using nuclear and related technologies to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. The division has a long-standing experience in developing and coordinating collaborative research programs (CRP) on abiotic stresses, involving NARs in developing countries, international IARCs and expert scientists. Similarly, several technical cooperation projects (TCP) were carried out on crop improvement for tolerance to drought and salinity, at national, regional and interregional levels. The Soil and Biotechnology laboratories at Seibersdorf also have the experience and facilities for developing, testing and applying new isotope and nuclear-related techniques for the improvement of crop productivity and stress tolerance. An important project is currently being implemented by the joint FAO/IAEA division for the identification and development of crop germplasm with superior resource use efficiency and nutritional value and adapted to harsh environments. Two CRPs have been recently launched under this project dealing respectively with (i) the identification and pyramiding of mutated genes, and novel approaches for improving crop tolerance to salinity and drought, and (II) the selection for greater agronomic water-use efficiency in wheat and rice using carbon isotope discrimination under drought and saline environments. This paper will review the recent progress made at the joint FAO/IAEA division in deciphering the complexity of drought and salinity problems and developing drought and salt

  9. Studies of osteoporosis within the Debrecen regional osteoporosis program (drop) in Hungary using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, A.; Jozsa, Z.; Balogh, Z.; Kiss, A.Z.; Bettembuk, P.

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of the annual incidence of various osteoporotic fractures in Hungary only recently became available. Further prospective data are needed in order to get an estimate on the public health impact of osteoporosis. It has been postulated that beyond genetic factors, environmental effects play important roles in determining the peak bone mass. Many of the influential environmental factors and also the normal course of the development of peak bone mass need further investigation in our region, also to explore suspected interregional differences in bone health. This study will take place in a centre as participant of a multicentre international population study and aims to draw a random sample of the minimum of 105 persons of both sexes from the urban population (15 to 50) of Debrecen, a town of 220 thousand inhabitants in the Eastern region of Hungary and measure bone density of the spine, hip and total body using isotope related techniques. Further goal is to review major lifestyle variables, such as nutrition and exercise. Laboratory markers of bone metabolism will be assayed and bone samples obtained from victims of accidents to analyze bone quality and elemental composition. Alternative bone sites, such as teeth and oral alveolar bone will be also considered sources of bone samples for comparison to other bone regions. The duration of the study will be 4 years and the study subjects will be followed by repeated measurements and clinical assessment. The data will be collected and analyzed according to a common protocol supported by the IAEA. This makes possible comparing data from the participating countries. Experiences of previous work in this Institute on similar subject is also reviewed briefly. (author)

  10. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  11. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  12. The learning curve associated with the introduction of the subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, Reinoud E.; Brouwer, Tom F.; Barr, Craig S.; Theuns, Dominic A.; Boersma, Lucas; Weiss, Raul; Neuzil, Petr; Scholten, Marcoen; Lambiase, Pier D.; Leon, Angel R.; Hood, Margaret; Jones, Paul W.; Wold, Nicholas; Grace, Andrew A.; Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Burke, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) was introduced to overcome complications related to transvenous leads. Adoption of the S-ICD requires implanters to learn a new implantation technique. The aim of this study was to assess the learning curve for S-ICD implanters

  13. The learning curve associated with the introduction of the subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Knops (Reinoud); T.F. Brouwer (Tom F.); C.S. Barr (Craig); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); L. Boersma (Lucas); R. Weiss (Ram); P. Neuzil (Petr); M.F. Scholten (Marcoen); P.D. Lambiase (Pier); A. Leon (Angel); A.M. Hood (Margaret); P. Jones; Wold, N. (Nicholas); Grace, A.A. (Andrew A.); L.R.A. Olde Nordkamp (Louise R.A.); M.C. Burke (Martin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) was introduced to overcome complications related to transvenous leads. Adoption of the S-ICD requires implanters to learn a new implantation technique. The aim of this study was to assess the learning curve for S-ICD

  14. TWO METHODS OF ESTIMATING SEMIPARAMETRIC COMPONENT IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET'S CURVE (EKC)

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Zapata, Hector O.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares parametric and semiparametric smoothing techniques to estimate the environmental Kuznet curve. The ad hoc functional form where income is related either as a square or a cubic function to environmental quality is relaxed in search of a better nonlinear fit to the pollution-income relationship for panel data.

  15. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Betancourt, M., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  16. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST

  17. Solid Phase Microextraction and Related Techniques for Drugs in Biological Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Said, Rana; Bassyouni, Fatma; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery and development, the quantification of drugs in biological samples is an important task for the determination of the physiological performance of the investigated drugs. After sampling, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Because of the low concentration levels of drug in plasma and the variety of the metabolites, the selected extraction technique should be virtually exhaustive. Recent developments of sample handling techniques are directed, from o...

  18. Remote sensing used for power curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles

  19. Relative mass resolution technique for optimum design of a gamma nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon

    1995-02-01

    applications, a very simple and accurate Monte Carlo code is required to calculate average escape probability from a radwaste drum and average detection probability of gamma rays in a detector. Some concepts such as convexity theorem and relative mass resolution(RMR) which can determine the optimized detection position for the rad-waste drum are useful. The optimized detection point means a point which makes the summation of spatial uncertainty and statistical uncertainty of the measurement a minimum. At this detection point, we can achieve the best detection results with the minimized uncertainty which have been compared with the experimental results. The major applications are focused on the concentrated liquid waste drum, the spent resin waste drum, and the spent filter waste drum. The gamma sources in the sample drum were Co-60, Cs-137 and Pu-239, respectively. In a one-detector system, the minimum RMR lies between 70 cm and 90 cm apart from sample drum. The RMR of a two-detector system is superior to that of a one-detector system. The results of this study indicate that the Monte Carlo simulation and RMR technique used in generation of response functions of photons and calculation of the optimal detection position should be useful for the optimal design of NDA systems

  20. Curve of Spee and Its Relationship with Dentoskeletal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Raje Batham

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The curve of Spee is related to various dentoskeletal variables. Thus, the determination of this relationship is useful to assess the feasibility of leveling the curve of Spee by orthodontic treatment.

  1. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  2. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  3. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  4. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  5. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  6. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  7. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  8. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  9. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    is to derive statistical features from the time series and to use machine learning methods, generally supervised, to separate objects into a few of the standard classes. In this work, we transform the time series to two-dimensional light curve representations in order to classify them using modern deep......Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach...... learning techniques. In particular, we show that convolutional neural networks based classifiers work well for broad characterization and classification. We use labeled datasets of periodic variables from CRTS survey and show how this opens doors for a quick classification of diverse classes with several...

  10. A casting and imaging technique for determining void geometry and relative permeability behavior of a single fracture specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.L.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1990-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for making translucent replicas of the void space of natural rock fractures. Attenuation of light shined through the cast combined with digital image analysis provides a pointwise definition of fracture apertures. The technique has been applied to a fracture specimen from Dixie Valley, Nevada, and the measured void space geometry has been used to develop theoretical predictions of two-phase relative permeability. A strong anisotropy in relative permeabilities has been found, which is caused by highly anisotropic spatial correlations among fracture apertures. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Environmental Monitoring Techniques and Equipment related to the installation and operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanu, Sergio; Carli, Filippo Maria; Piermattei, Viviana; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco; Peviani, Maximo Aurelio; Dampney, Keith; Norris, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Results of activities under project Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network for Emerging Energy Technologies (MaRINET) are reported, which led to DEMTE, a database, created on the basis of standardized monitoring of the marine environment during installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. Obtained with the consortium partners’ available techniques and equipment, the database shows that such instruments cover all identified marine environmental compartments, despite the lack of underwater vehicles and the reduced skills in using satellite technologies. These weaknesses could be overcome by an accurate planning of equipment, techniques and knowledge sharing. The approach here presented also leads to an effective analysis even in non-marine contexts

  12. Embroidery and Related Manufacturing Techniques for Wearable Antennas: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Tsolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will review the evolution of wearable textile antennas over the last couple of decades. Particular emphasis will be given to the process of embroidery. This technique is advantageous for the following reasons: (i bespoke or mass produced designs can be manufactured using digitized embroidery machines; (ii glue is not required and (iii the designs are aesthetic and are integrated into clothing rather than being attached to it. The embroidery technique will be compared to alternative manufacturing processes. The challenges facing the industrial and public acceptance of this technology will be assessed. Hence, the key opportunities will be highlighted.

  13. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  14. Sound concentration caused by curved surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercammen, M.L.S.

    2012-01-01

    In room acoustics the focusing effect of reflections from concave surfaces is a wellknown problem. Although curved surfaces are found throughout the history of architecture, the occurrence of concave surfaces has tended to increase in modern architecture, due to new techniques in design, materials

  15. J-curve relation between daytime nap duration and type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: A dose-response meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Adequate sleep is important for good health, but it is not always easy to achieve because of social factors. Daytime napping is widely prevalent around the world. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between napping (or excessive daytime sleepiness: EDS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and to quantify the potential dose-response relation using cubic spline models. Electronic databases were searched for articles published up to 2016, with 288,883 Asian and Western subjects. Pooled analysis revealed that a long nap (≥60 min/day) and EDS were each significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes versus no nap or no EDS (odds ratio 1.46 (95% CI 1.23–1.74, p nap and 2.00 (1.58–2.53) for EDS). In contrast, a short nap (nap time and the risk of diabetes or metabolic syndrome, with no effect of napping up to about 40 minutes/day, followed by a sharp increase in risk at longer nap times. In summary, longer napping is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of a short nap. PMID:27909305

  16. Spin structures on algebraic curves and their applications in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, F.

    1990-01-01

    The free fields on a Riemann surface carrying spin structures live on an unramified r-covering of the surface itself. When the surface is represented as an algebraic curve related to the vanishing of the Weierstrass polynomial, its r-coverings are algebraic curves as well. We construct explicitly the Weierstrass polynomial associated to the r-coverings of an algebraic curve. Using standard techniques of algebraic geometry it is then possible to solve the inverse Jacobi problem for the odd spin structures. As an application we derive the partition functions of bosonic string theories in many examples, including two general curves of genus three and four. The partition functions are explicitly expressed in terms of branch points apart from a factor which is essentially a theta constant. 53 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  17. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  18. A Diagnostic Technique for Formulating Market Strategies in Higher Education Based on Relative Competitive Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; Quazi, Hesan A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance-performance analysis, a marketing research technique using analysis of consumer attitudes toward salient product or service attributes, is found useful for colleges and universities in developing marketing strategies, particularly when competition is considered as an important dimension. Data are drawn from a survey of 252 students at 1…

  19. Induction of Highly Curved Structures in Relation to Membrane Permeabilization and Budding by the Triterpenoid Saponins, α- and δ-Hederin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Joseph; Le Duff, Cécile S.; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of triterpenoid monodesmosidic saponins, α-hederin and δ-hederin, with lipid membranes are involved in their permeabilizing effect. Unfortunately, the interactions of these saponins with lipid membranes are largely unknown, as are the roles of cholesterol or the branched sugar moieties (two for α-hederin and one for δ-hederin) on the aglycone backbone, hederagenin. The differences in sugar moieties are responsible for differences in the molecular shape of the saponins and the effects on membrane curvature that should be the most positive for α-hederin in a transbilayer direction. In large unilamellar vesicles and monocyte cells, we showed that membrane permeabilization was dependent on the presence of membrane cholesterol and saponin sugar chains, being largest for α-hederin and smallest for hederagenin. In the presence of cholesterol, α-hederin induced the formation of nonbilayer phases with a higher rate of Brownian tumbling or lateral diffusion. A reduction of Laurdan's generalized polarization in relation to change in order of the polar heads of phospholipids was observed. Using giant unilamellar vesicles, we visualized the formation of wrinkled borders, the decrease in liposome size, budding, and the formation of macroscopic pores. All these processes are highly dependent on the sugars linked to the aglycone, with α-hederin showing a greater ability to induce pore formation and δ-hederin being more efficient in inducing budding. Hederagenin induced intravesicular budding but no pore formation. Based on these results, a curvature-driven permeabilization mechanism dependent on the interaction between saponin and sterols and on the molecular shape of the saponin and its ability to induce local spontaneous curvature is proposed. PMID:23530040

  20. Intelligent Prediction of Soccer Technical Skill on Youth Soccer Player's Relative Performance Using Multivariate Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M. R; Maliki, A. B. H. M; Musa, R. M; Kosni, N. A; Juahir, H

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to predict the potential pattern of soccer technical skill on Malaysia youth soccer players relative performance using multivariate analysis and artificial neural network techniques. 184 male youth soccer players were recruited in Malaysia soccer academy (average age = 15.2±2.0) underwent to, physical fitness test, anthropometric, maturity, motivation and the level of skill related soccer. Unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ident...

  1. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  2. Usefulness of the 'Rendezvous' Technique in Living Related Right Liver Donors with Postoperative Biliary Leakage from Bile Duct Anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, R.; Traina, M.; Maruzzelli, L.; Caruso, S.; Di Pisa, M.; Gruttadauria, S.; Luca, A.; Gridelli, B.

    2008-01-01

    This is a report on two cases of large bile leak following right hepatectomy performed for living related liver transplantation, originating from the stump of the ligated right bile duct, and treated with the placement of large percutaneous biliary catheters through a combined percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic approach (rendezvous technique).

  3. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  4. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  5. The relation of plasma octopamine to hepatic encephalopathy studied with stable isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between octopamine and hepatic encephalopathy, plasma octopamine content of normal adults and hepatic patients (compensated or de-compensated cirrhotic, patients with encephalopathy) were determined with isotope dilution and GCMS technique, 200 ng of [1, 1-D]-octopamine was added to each sample as internal standard. After the de-proteinized plasma was subjected to cation exchange chromatography, the amine fraction was derivatized with PFP and analyzed with GCMS using the selected ion monitoring technique. The result showed that the level of plasma octopamine was significantly elevated in patients with encephalopathy. Since this method is sensitive and specific, it is readily applicable to the analysis of a few nano grams of octopamine

  6. Techniques for Reducing Consistency-Related Communication in Distributed Shared Memory System

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaenepoel, W; Bennett, J.K.; Carter, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Distributed shared memory 8DSM) is an abstraction of shared memory on a distributed memory machine. Hardware DSM systems support this abstraction at the architecture level; software DSM systems support the abstraction within the runtime system. One of the key problems in building an efficient software DSM system is to reduce the amount of communication needed to keep the distributed memories consistent. In this paper we present four techniques for doing so: 1) software release consistency; 2)...

  7. Hyphenated techniques in multidimensional gas chromatography for analysis of wine aroma and related odorants

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Sung Tong

    2017-01-01

    The advent of analytical multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) techniques, with recent development in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) as well as microfluidic technology in conventional heart-cut MDGC, has achieved excellent separation efficiency for advanced characterization of complex volatile and semi-volatile samples, which is unlikely to be accomplished by single dimensional chromatography. This dissertation work has highlighted the potential opportunities fo...

  8. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  9. Diagrams and Relational Maps: The Use of Graphic Elicitation Techniques with Interviewing for Data Collection, Analysis, and Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Copeland PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic elicitation techniques, which ask research participants to provide visual data representing personal understandings of concepts, experiences, beliefs, or behaviors, can be especially useful in helping participants to express complex or abstract ideas or opinions. The benefits and drawbacks of using graphic elicitation techniques for data collection, data analysis, and data display in qualitative research studies are analyzed using examples from a research study that employed data matrices and relational maps in conjunction with semi-structured interviews. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the use of these combined techniques for data collection facilitates triangulation and helps to establish internal consistency of data, thereby increasing the trustworthiness of the interpretation of that data and lending support to validity and reliability claims. Findings support the notion that graphic elicitation techniques can be highly useful in qualitative research studies at the data collection, the data analysis, and the data reporting stages. For example, this study found that graphic elicitation techniques are especially useful for eliciting data related to emotions and emotional experiences.

  10. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  11. A Mindfulness-Based Decentering Technique Increases the Cognitive Accessibility of Health and Weight Loss Related Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Tapper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants (n = 90 spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control. Finally, all participants completed 20 letter strings, rated their motivation for weight loss and for healthy eating, and indicated whether or not they were dieting to lose weight. As predicted, those who had applied the decentering technique produced a greater number of health and weight loss related words when completing the letter strings, compared to those who had simply let their mind wander (p < 0.001. However, contrary to predictions, these effects were not significantly greater amongst those who were more motivated to lose weight or eat healthily, or amongst those who were dieting to lose weight, though the means were in the predicted directions. The results suggest that this particular mindfulness technique may increase the accessibility of relevant goals. Further research would be needed to (a compare effects with other strategies that prompt individuals to remember their goals, (b examine other potential mechanisms of action, and (c confirm that effects on self-control are mediated by increased goal accessibility.

  12. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van; Godthelp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  13. Public Relations for Brazilian Libraries: Process, Principles, Program Planning, Planning Techniques and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette N.

    A brief overview of the functions of public relations in libraries introduces this manual, which provides an explanation of the public relations (PR) process, including fact-finding, planning, communicating, evaluating, and marketing; some PR principles; a 10-step program that could serve as a model for planning a PR program; a discussion of PR…

  14. Proceedings of VII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. XIII Workshop on Nuclear Physics. WONP-NURT 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This year the XIII Workshop on Nuclear Physics (WONP) and the VII Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques (NURT) are organized jointly, by Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas and Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. Both events gather scientists from several countries with top research work on nuclear physics and its applications. WONP has been carried out since 1994 promoting an ever-exchanging exchange between professionals of various nuclear and applied physics fields, those related to environmental and health care. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  15. Proceedings of VI International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics. WONP-NURT 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This year the XII Workshop on Nuclear Physics (WONP) and the VI Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques (NURT) are organized jointly, by Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas and Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. Both events gather scientists from several countries with top research work on nuclear physics and its applications. WONP has been carried out since 1994 promoting an ever-exchanging exchange between professionals of various nuclear and applied physics fields, those related to environmental and health care. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  16. From Curve Fitting to Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zielesny, Achim

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of experimental data is at heart of science from its beginnings. But it was the advent of digital computers that allowed the execution of highly non-linear and increasingly complex data analysis procedures - methods that were completely unfeasible before. Non-linear curve fitting, clustering and machine learning belong to these modern techniques which are a further step towards computational intelligence. The goal of this book is to provide an interactive and illustrative guide to these topics. It concentrates on the road from two dimensional curve fitting to multidimensional clus

  17. Bound states in curved quantum waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Seba, P.

    1987-01-01

    We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)

  18. RAF 7015: Strengthening Regional Capacities for Marine Risk Assessment Using Nuclear and Related Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, E.; Mwangi, S.

    2017-01-01

    To develop and implement harmonized and integrated regional sea food safety monitoring in the MS through the application of nuclear techniques for enhanced sustainability of marine resource. Rapid urbanization and industrialization are causing alterations of the characteristics of marine environment thus threatening the ecosystem health and sustainability of marine environment and Affects public health, recreational water quality and economic viability.Threats to marine ecosystem include Over-exploitation, habitat destruction, Global warming- rise in SST, HABs and invasive species, Ocean acidification and Marine pollution

  19. Framework for regional environmental management. [Problem-solving techniques; public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievering, H.; Sinopoli, J.

    1976-04-01

    A framework for environmental decision-making is described in which both qualitative and quantitative aspects of regional problems can be integrated into a problem-solving context. The techniques employed in this framework are computer simulation, games, and vote-trading. The paper concludes that through this framework: (a) environmental analysts can assess public value structure goal sets which can be used in the development of regional simulations, and (b) in turn, the quantitative aspects of the problems will be more easily communicated to the affected public. A brief description of the application of the framework is also presented.

  20. FM Quieting Curves and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Electronics Engineering Group (EEO) is organized as an independent group reorting, directly to -the Comwiander, Air ’Force Conmmunica-r tions Service (WOC...NUMBER N/A 7. AklTHO -() 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(#) /, .C...or.e M./ Kizer/ , ,/A 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT...in vestigial sideband modulation) and are separated from the carrier frequency by a frequency difference equal to the frequency of the baseband

  1. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Adriana; Craciun, L.; Cuculeanu, V.; Eseanu, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  2. A proposal of the diagnosis-dynamic characteristic (DDC) model describing the relation between search time and confidence levels for a dichotomous judgment, and its application to ROC curve generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Fukuda, Nobuo; Furukawa, Akira; Suwa, Koji; Wada, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Sone, Shusuke

    2006-03-01

    When physicians inspect an image, they make up a certain degree of confidence that the image are abnormal; p(t), or normal; n(t)[n(t)=1-p(t)]. After infinite time of the inspection, they reach the equilibrium levels of the confidence of p*=p(∞) and n*=n(∞). There are psychological conflicts between the decisions of normal and abnormal. We assume that the decision of "normal" is distracted by the decision of "abnormal" by a factor of k(1 + ap), and in an inverse direction by a factor of k(1 + bn), where k ( > 0) is a parameter that relates with image quality and skill of the physicians, and a and b are unknown constants. After the infinite time of inspection, the conflict reaches the equilibrium, which satisfies the equation, k(1 + ap*)n* = k(1 + bn*)p*. Here we define a parameter C, which is 2p*/[p*(1 - p*)]. After the infinite time of inspection, the conflict reaches the equilibrium, which satisfies t that changes in the confidence level with the time (dp/dt) is proportional to [k(1+ap)n - k(1+bn)p], i.e. k[-cp2 + (c - 2)p + 1]. Solving the differential equation, we derived the equation; t(p) and p(t) depending with the parameters; k, c, S. S (0-1) is the value arbitrary selected and related with probability of "abnormal" before the image inspection (S = p(0)). Image reading studies were executed for CT images. ROC curves were generated both by the traditional 4-step score-based method and by the confidence level; p estimated from the equation t(p) of the DDC model using observed judgment time. It was concluded that ROC curves could be generated by measuring time for dichotomous judgment without the subjective scores of diagnostic confidence and applying the DDC model.

  3. Literature-related discovery techniques applied to ocular disease : a vitreous restoration example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewLiterature-related discovery and innovation (LRDI) is a text mining approach for bridging unconnected disciplines to hypothesize radical discovery. Application to medical problems involves identifying key disease symptoms, and identifying causes and treatments for those symptoms

  4. Classification of ASKAP Vast Radio Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Lo, Kitty; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Reed, Colorado; Murphy, Tara; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light curve classification. We perform our experiments on light curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.

  5. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F.

    1994-11-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  6. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  7. A simple transformation for converting CW-OSL curves to LM-OSL curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulur, E.

    2000-01-01

    A simple mathematical transformation is introduced to convert from OSL decay curves obtained in the conventional way to those obtained using a linear modulation technique based on a linear increase of the stimulation light intensity during OSL measurement. The validity of the transformation...... was tested by the IR-stimulated luminescence curves from feldspars, recorded using both the conventional and the linear modulation techniques. The transformation was further applied to green-light-stimulated OSL from K and Na feldspars. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  9. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  10. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  11. Evaluation of the reproducibility of two techniques used to determine and record centric relation in angle's class I patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Paixão

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The centric relation is a mandibular position that determines a balance relation among the temporomandibular joints, the chew muscles and the occlusion. This position makes possible to the dentist to plan and to execute oral rehabilitation respecting the physiological principles of the stomatognathic system. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of centric relation records obtained using two techniques: Dawson's Bilateral Manipulation and Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing. Twenty volunteers (14 females and 6 males with no dental loss, presenting occlusal contacts according to those described in Angle's I classification and without signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were selected. All volunteers were submitted five times with a 1-week interval, always in the same schedule, to the Dawson's Bilateral Manipulation and to the Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing with aid of an intraoral apparatus. The average standard error of each technique was calculated (Bilateral Manipulation 0.94 and Gothic Arch Tracing 0.27. Shapiro-Wilk test was applied and the results allowed application of Student's t-test (sampling error of 5%. The techniques showed different degrees of variability. The Gysi's Gothic Arch Tracing was found to be more accurate than the Bilateral Manipulation in reproducing the centric relation records.

  12. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  13. Muscle torque and its relation to technique, tactics, sports level and age group in judo contestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).

  14. An interactive editor for curve-skeletons: SkeletonLab

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Simone; Meloni, P.; Usai, F.; Spano, L.D.; Scateni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Curve-skeletons are powerful shape descriptors able to provide higher level information on topology, structure and semantics of a given digital object. Their range of application is wide and encompasses computer animation, shape matching, modelling and remeshing. While a universally accepted definition of curve-skeleton is still lacking, there are currently many algorithms for the curve-skeleton computation (or skeletonization) as well as different techniques for building a mesh around a give...

  15. Integrity evaluation of power plant components by fracture mechanics and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Vanderglas, M.L.; Davies, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Power plant components can be subject to unexpected failures with serious consequences, unless careful attention is paid to minute crack defects and their possible growth. The Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics approach to structural integrity evaluation, as it appears in the ASME Code, is discussed. Projects related to material data generation and the development of structural analysis methods to make the above method usable are described. Several integrity-related questions outside the scope of the Code guidelines are documented, concluding with comments on possible future developments

  16. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  17. Using Alternative Teaching Techniques To Enhance Student Performance in the Traditional Introductory Public Relations Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the value of two alternative tools as supplements for the traditional introduction to public relations course. Considers the usage of a study manual, usage of televised review sessions, year in school and major status. Indicates that all four variables are significantly correlated with class performance, but that the study manual explains…

  18. Conditioning techniques and ischemic reperfusion injury in relation to on-pump cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Ottas, Konstantin Alex; Andreasen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the potential protective effects of two conditioning methods, on myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury in relation to cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Totally 68 patients were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 23), a remote ischemic...

  19. Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…

  20. Proceedings of XIV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. VIII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This year 2013, the XIV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and VIII International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2013 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 5 to 8 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM

  1. Proceedings of XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics. IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques. WONP-NURT 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This year 2015, the XV Workshop on Nuclear Physics and IX International Symposium on Nuclear and Related Techniques, WONP-NURT 2015 organized by the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development from 9 to 13 February at the National Museum of Fine Arts. NURT is one of the key Cuban scientific meetings since 1997 dealing with the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in several domains of the society. WONP and NURT provide an unique opportunity for the national and international scientific community to meet outstanding researchers and discuss current trends in several areas of theoretical, experimental and applied nuclear physics and related topics. The papers submitted to this event are presented in this CD-ROM.

  2. Acupuncture-Related Techniques for Psoriasis: A Systematic Review with Pairwise and Network Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Ko, Shu-Hua; Wang, Mei-Hua; Chi, Ching-Chi; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2017-12-01

    There has be a large body of evidence on the pharmacological treatments for psoriasis, but whether nonpharmacological interventions are effective in managing psoriasis remains largely unclear. This systematic review conducted pairwise and network meta-analyses to determine the effects of acupuncture-related techniques on acupoint stimulation for the treatment of psoriasis and to determine the order of effectiveness of these remedies. This study searched the following databases from inception to March 15, 2016: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCO (including Academic Search Premier, American Doctoral Dissertations, and CINAHL), Airiti Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of acupuncture-related techniques on acupoint stimulation as intervention for psoriasis were independently reviewed by two researchers. A total of 13 RCTs with 1,060 participants were included. The methodological quality of included studies was not rigorous. Acupoint stimulation, compared with nonacupoint stimulation, had a significant treatment for psoriasis. However, the most common adverse events were thirst and dry mouth. Subgroup analysis was further done to confirm that the short-term treatment effect was superior to that of the long-term effect in treating psoriasis. Network meta-analysis identified acupressure or acupoint catgut embedding, compared with medication, and had a significant effect for improving psoriasis. It was noted that acupressure was the most effective treatment. Acupuncture-related techniques could be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy for psoriasis in short term, especially of acupressure and acupoint catgut embedding. This study recommends further well-designed, methodologically rigorous, and more head-to-head randomized trials to explore the effects of acupuncture-related techniques for treating psoriasis.

  3. Impact of the learning curve on outcome after transcatheter mitral valve repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledwoch, Jakob; Franke, Jennifer; Baldus, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This analysis from the German Mitral Valve Registry investigates the impact of the learning curve with the MitraClip(®) technique on procedural success and complications. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients treated since 2009 in centers that performed more than 50 transcatheter mitral...... not decrease over time. CONCLUSION: A learning curve using the MitraClip(®) device does not appear to significantly affect acute MR reduction, hospital and 30-day mortality. Most likely, the proctor system leads to already high initial procedure success and relatively short procedure time....

  4. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the needs of ground-based researcher-analysts to access real-time engineering data in the form of processed information has expanded rapidly. Fortunately, the capacity to deliver that information has also expanded. The development of advanced display systems is essential to the success of a research test activity. Those developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR), range from simple alphanumerics to interactive mapping and graphics. These unique display systems are designed not only to meet basic information display requirements of the user, but also to take advantage of techniques for optimizing information display. Future ground-based display systems will rely heavily not only on new technologies, but also on interaction with the human user and the associated productivity with that interaction. The psychological abilities and limitations of the user will become even more important in defining the difference between a usable and a useful display system. This paper reviews the requirements for development of real-time displays; the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and interactivity of displays; and an analysis of some existing WATR displays.

  5. Diagnosis of animal diseases using nuclear and related techniques: Developments and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; McKay, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear techniques such as radioimmune precipitation, radioimmunoassay, DNA cloning and amino acid sequencing have led to a greater understanding of protein structure and function, antigenic variation and the immune response to infection. Knowledge gained from the use of this technology has led to the development of improved diagnostic assays. Although radioimmunoassay has been used for animal disease diagnosis for many years, more recently it has been replaced by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA offers advantages in speed of reading and longer reagent shelf life and obviates the use of radiochemicals. This is particularly important in developing countries, which may have no facilities for storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials. In the case of rinderpest diagnosis, taken as an example, the virus neutralization test was replaced by a simple indirect ELISA for seromonitoring throughout the Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign. In the near future, this will be replaced by a competitive ELISA using a rinderpest specific monoclonal antibody, which will offer significant advantages in sensitivity and specificity. In the future it may be possible to replace the rinderpest antigen with vector expressed proteins or synthetic polypeptides. More recent developments such as the 'amplified' ELISA and the use of fluorogenic and bioluminescent substrates may further improve disease diagnosis. The knowledge gained from the use of modern technology is essential to the development of improved diagnostic assays which in turn will lead to improved disease diagnosis and control. (author). 9 refs

  6. Consideration on the diagnostic ability of various imaging techniques in relation to renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ike, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis of renal tumors is being improved with the increased imaging accuracy which has resulted from advancement in the various equipment used and improvement in techniques. However, at the clinical level, diagnostic procedures based on the characteristics of the delineated images are not yet established and the diverse diagnostic procedures are being conducted currently in a stereotyped manner. In this study, the images of 61 cases diagnosed as renal tumor were analysed retrospectively with the purpose of establishing the imaging accuracy, capacity for diagnosis based on image characteristics and a subseguent proper diagnostic procedure. It was found that CT and Angio gave similar diagnostic accuracy. It was further revealed that US images enabled to differentiate renal tumors from the more commonly experienced renal cystic disease. For determination of tunica involucrum infiltration, which is essential to diagnose Stage I and II renal tumors, CT was proved to be superior to Angio. CT and US were also to be so in the determination of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes which is a Stage III criterion. In recent years, CT and US imaging accuracies have increased, hence the improvement in the capacity to diagnose non-observable renal tumors is highly expected. (author)

  7. Detecting corner points from digital curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Corners in digital images give important clues for shape representation, recognition, and analysis. Since dominant information regarding shape is usually available at the corners, they provide important features for various real life applications in the disciplines like computer vision, pattern recognition, computer graphics. Corners are the robust features in the sense that they provide important information regarding objects under translation, rotation and scale change. They are also important from the view point of understanding human perception of objects. They play crucial role in decomposing or describing the digital curves. They are also used in scale space theory, image representation, stereo vision, motion tracking, image matching, building mosaics and font designing systems. If the corner points are identified properly, a shape can be represented in an efficient and compact way with sufficient accuracy. Corner detection schemes, based on their applications, can be broadly divided into two categories: binary (suitable for binary images) and gray level (suitable for gray level images). Corner detection approaches for binary images usually involve segmenting the image into regions and extracting boundaries from those regions that contain them. The techniques for gray level images can be categorized into two classes: (a) Template based and (b) gradient based. The template based techniques utilize correlation between a sub-image and a template of a given angle. A corner point is selected by finding the maximum of the correlation output. Gradient based techniques require computing curvature of an edge that passes through a neighborhood in a gray level image. Many corner detection algorithms have been proposed in the literature which can be broadly divided into two parts. One is to detect corner points from grayscale images and other relates to boundary based corner detection. This contribution mainly deals with techniques adopted for later approach

  8. A neural network for the Bragg synthetic curves recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso V, M.R.; Vega C, J.J.; Fernandez A, J.; Belmont M, E.; Policroniades R, R.; Moreno B, E.

    1996-01-01

    A ionization chamber was employed named Bragg curve spectroscopy. The Bragg peak amplitude is a monotone growing function of Z, which permits to identify elements through their measurement. A better technique for this measurement is to improve the use of neural networks with the purpose of the identification of the Bragg curve. (Author)

  9. Use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in environmental research as exemplified by selected air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Stropnik, B.; Svetina, M.

    2000-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry proved to be particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their nondestructive character and multi element capability. This paper emphasizes their importance among other multielement analytical methods by discussing their specific role due to specific physics basis, quite different to other destructive non-nuclear methods, and by summarizing results obtained in several studies related to air pollution research, including analyses of airborne particulate matter, water samples, lichens and mosses. (author)

  10. Assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation through the use of the 137Cs and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queralt, I.; Zapata, F.; Garcia Agudo, E.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decades the international scientific community has been increasingly aware of both the risk and the effects of soil erosion and sedimentation processes cause to sustainable agricultural activities and the quality of the superficial environment. Soil erosion is a major environmental worldwide concern of our time. Over the past thirty years two main streams of thought have developed about the effects of soil erosion. The first one, mainly based on ecologist and environmentalist criteria, believes that soil erosion is a true disease on the land that quickly depletes the soil production capacity with some additional subsequent effects such as eutrophication of water reservoirs and pollution of natural waters. The second one supports that soil erosion is a natural process shaping the overall landscape. Development of fertile soils on river valleys can be attributed to erosion processes in the upper reaches of catchment. Loss of productivity due to soil erosion on agricultural lands can be easily compensated by small addition of fertilisers . W h a t ever position we adopt a development of methods offering reliable data is needed. The use of models based on radiogenic isotopes distribution in soil profiles can offer valuable data set both in soil erosion and deposition. In addition, soil redistribution can be effectively assessed. These methods can be applied in a huge range of soil conditions in different geographic zones and the results are comparable at global scale. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored since 1995, the implementation of two co-ordinated research projects (CRP's) dealing with the application of the 137 Cs technique in soil erosion and sedimentation studies respectively. A joint Meeting of both CRP's was organised by the Land and Water Conservation Group of the Institute of Earth Sciences 'Jaume Almera', CSIC, in Barcelona, Spain, from 4 to 8 October 1999. This Special Issue of Acta Geologica Hispanica contains a

  11. An evaluation of diabetes targeted apps for Android smartphone in relation to behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C D; Cade, J E; Carter, M

    2017-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) could support diabetes management through dietary, weight and blood glucose self-monitoring, as well as by promoting behaviour change. The present study aimed to evaluate diabetes apps for content, functions and behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Diabetes self-management apps for Android smartphones were searched for on the Google Play Store. Ten apps each from the following search terms were included; 'diabetes', 'diabetes type 1', 'diabetes type 2', 'gestational diabetes'. Apps were evaluated by being scored according to their number of functions and BCTs, price, and user rating. The mean (SD) number of functions was 8.9 (5.9) out of a possible maximum of 27. Furthermore, the mean (SD) number of BCTs was 4.4 (2.6) out of a possible maximum of 26. Apps with optimum BCT had significantly more functions [13.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.9-15.9] than apps that did not (4.7; 95% CI = 3.2-6.2; P < 0.01) and significantly more BCTs (5.8; 95% CI = 4.8-7.0) than apps without (3.1; 95% CI = 2.2-4.1; P < 0.01). Additionally, apps with optimum BCT also cost more than other apps. In the adjusted models, highly rated apps had an average of 4.8 (95% CI = 0.9-8.7; P = 0.02) more functions than lower rated apps. 'Diabetes apps' include few functions or BCTs compared to the maximum score possible. Apps with optimum BCTs could indicate higher quality. App developers should consider including both specific functions and BCTs in 'diabetes apps' to make them more helpful. More research is needed to understand the components of an effective app for people with diabetes. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Evidence for the effectiveness of Alexander Technique lessons in medical and health-related conditions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, J P; Moore, N R

    2012-01-01

    Complementary medicine and alternative approaches to chronic and intractable health conditions are increasingly being used, and require critical evaluation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate available evidence for the effectiveness and safety of instruction in the Alexander Technique in health-related conditions. PUBMED, EMBASE, PSYCHINFO, ISI Web-of-Knowledge, AMED, CINHAL-plus, Cochrane library and Evidence-based Medicine Reviews were searched to July 2011. Inclusion criteria were prospective studies evaluating Alexander Technique instruction (individual lessons or group delivery) as an intervention for any medical indication/health-related condition. Studies were categorised and data extracted on study population, randomisation method, nature of intervention and control, practitioner characteristics, validity and reliability of outcome measures, completeness of follow-up and statistical analyses.   Of 271 publications identified, 18 were selected: three randomised, controlled trials (RCTs), two controlled non-randomised studies, eight non-controlled studies, four qualitative analyses and one health economic analysis. One well-designed, well-conducted RCT demonstrated that, compared with usual GP care, Alexander Technique lessons led to significant long-term reductions in back pain and incapacity caused by chronic back pain. The results were broadly supported by a smaller, earlier RCT in chronic back pain. The third RCT, a small, well-designed, well-conducted study in individuals with Parkinson's disease, showed a sustained increased ability to carry out everyday activities following Alexander lessons, compared with usual care. The 15 non-RCT studies are also reviewed. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of Alexander Technique lessons for chronic back pain and moderate evidence in Parkinson's-associated disability. Preliminary evidence suggests that Alexander Technique lessons may lead to improvements in balance skills in the

  13. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  14. Investigation of graphite composite anodes surfaces by atomic force microscopy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, Karen Akemi; Nishioka, Keiko; Sato, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The surface of a synthetic graphite (KS-44) and polyvinylidene difluoride binder (PVDF) anode for lithium-ion secondary batteries is imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and several related scanning probe microscope (SPM) instruments including: dynamic force microscopy (DFM), friction force microscopy (FFM), laterally-modulated friction force microscopy (LM-FFM), visco-elasticity atomic force microscopy (VE-AFM), and AFM/simultaneous current measurement mode (SCM). DFM is found to be an exceptional mode for topographic imaging while FFM results in the clearest contrast distinction between PVDF binder and KS-44 graphite regions. (orig.)

  15. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  16. Comparative study of label and label-free techniques using shotgun proteomics for relative protein quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Marcus O D; Wetterhall, Magnus; Kultima, Kim; Artemenko, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    The analytical performance of three different strategies, iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification), dimethyl labeling (DML) and label free (LF) for relative protein quantification using shotgun proteomics have been evaluated. The methods have been explored using samples containing (i) Bovine proteins in known ratios and (ii) Bovine proteins in known ratios spiked into Escherichia coli. The latter case mimics the actual conditions in a typical biological sample with a few differentially expressed proteins and a bulk of proteins with unchanged ratios. Additionally, the evaluation was performed on both QStar and LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometers. LF LTQ-FTICR was found to have the highest proteome coverage while the highest accuracy based on the artificially regulated proteins was found for DML LTQ-FTICR (54%). A varying linearity (k: 0.55-1.16, r(2): 0.61-0.96) was shown for all methods within selected dynamic ranges. All methods were found to consistently underestimate Bovine protein ratios when matrix proteins were added. However, LF LTQ-FTICR was more tolerant toward a compression effect. A single peptide was demonstrated to be sufficient for a reliable quantification using iTRAQ. A ranking system utilizing several parameters important for quantitative proteomics demonstrated that the overall performance of the five different methods was; DML LTQ-FTICR>iTRAQ QStar>LF LTQ-FTICR>DML QStar>LF QStar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying the method of linearization of exponential calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzh, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of study of the method for linearization of exponential calibration curves are given. The calibration technique and comparison of the proposed method with piecewise-linear approximation and power series expansion, are given

  18. A Note on Comparing the Elasticities of Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Demonstrates a simple and useful way to compare the elasticity of demand at each price (or quantity) for different demand curves. The technique is particularly useful for the intermediate microeconomic course. (Author)

  19. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  20. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  1. Quantum field theory in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline what the extension of such a treatment to curved space entails and to discuss what essentially new features arise when one takes into account the quantum mechanical nature of gravitating systems. I shall throughout assume a classical, unquantized gravitational field and confine the discussion to matter fields although similar techniques and ideas may be applied to 'gravitons' - that is linearized perturbations of the metric propagating on some fixed, unperturbed, background. (orig./WL) [de

  2. Evaluation of PCR and high-resolution melt curve analysis for differentiation of Salmonella isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidabadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Nili, Hassan; Dadras, Habibollah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Connolly, Joanne; Valcanis, Mary; Raidal, Shane; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Consumption of poultry products contaminated with Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases worldwide and therefore detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp. in poultry is important. In this study, oligonucleotide primers were designed from hemD gene and a PCR followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis was developed for rapid differentiation of Salmonella isolates. Amplicons of 228 bp were generated from 16 different Salmonella reference strains and from 65 clinical field isolates mainly from poultry farms. HRM curve analysis of the amplicons differentiated Salmonella isolates and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons from selected isolates revealed that each melting curve profile was related to a unique DNA sequence. The relationship between reference strains and tested specimens was also evaluated using a mathematical model without visual interpretation of HRM curves. In addition, the potential of the PCR-HRM curve analysis was evaluated for genotyping of additional Salmonella isolates from different avian species. The findings indicate that PCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid and robust technique for genotyping of Salmonella isolates to determine the serovar/serotype.

  3. Study of organohalogens in foodstuffs and environmental samples by neutron activation analysis and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D. D.; Mao, X.Y.; Ouyang, H.; Chai, Z. F.; Zhang, H.; Sun, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Pine needles and foodstuffs collected from Beijing, China, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic solvent extraction for total halogens, extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX). The INAA detection limits are 50 ng, 8 ng and 3.5 ng for Cl, Br and I, respectively. The contents and distribution patterns of organohalogens in these samples are reported. EOCl accounted for 0.013-0.016% and 1.6-2.7% of the total chlorine in yogurt and apples, respectively, which suggested that chlorine in foodstuffs mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organochlorines. EOCl contents in pine needles and foodstuffs were noticeably higher than those of EOBr and EOI. For pine needles, yogurt and apples, 1.6-34%, 23-58% and 29-35% of EOCl remained as extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl), respectively. Pine needle containing higher EOCl contents in chemical industrial and traffic hub areas indicated that chemical industries and exhaust emission from vehicle were the main sources of organochlorines in the Beijing's air. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, heptachlor, HCB and PCBs) to the total EOCl and EPOCl were 0.04-1.6% and 0.7-21.5%, respectively, which implied that the identity of species of a major portion of the EOCl and EPOCl measured in pine needles was unknown. (author)

  4. Comparative Evaluations and Microstructure: Mechanical Property Relations of Sintered Silicon Carbide Consolidated by Various Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, Prasenjit; Chatterjee, Arya; Majumdar, Bhaskar; Saha, Bhaskar Prasad; Mitra, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    A comparative evaluation between pressureless or self-sintered silicon carbide (SSiC), hot-pressed silicon carbide (HP-SiC), and spark plasma-sintered silicon carbide (SPS-SiC) has been carried out with emphasis on examination of their microstructures and mechanical properties. The effect of sample dimensions on density and properties of SPS-SiC has been also examined. Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness measured by indentation or testing of single-edge notched beam specimens have been found to follow the following trend, HP-SiC > SSiC > SPS-SiC. The SPS-SiC samples have shown size-dependent densification and mechanical properties, with the smaller sample exhibiting superior properties. The mechanical properties of sintered SiC samples appear to be influenced by relative density, grain size, and morphology, as well as the existence of intergranular glassy phase. Studies of fracture surface morphologies have revealed the mechanism of failure to be transgranular in SSiC or HP-SiC, and intergranular in case of SPS-SiC, indicating the dominating influence of grain size and α-SiC formation with high aspect ratio.

  5. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    Poor bone mass is a major public health problem of worldwide concern. Obviously the main reason for this concern is the fact that the decreasing bone mass is directly related to bone fragility, osteoporosis and increased incidence of fractures affecting mainly elder people. The problems originated from the bone fractures involved areas as economy, social and scientific. Such is the importance of this problem that the Scientific Advisory Committee of the World Health Organization selected osteoporosis as one of the four priority research areas being developed by the Program for Research on Aging. The project on osteoporosis is a crossnational study which will try to explain the differences in hip fractures in countries around the world disclosing the risk and protective factors which will help developing etiologic hypotheses and planning specific preventive interventions. One of the primary objectives is to determine the age range over which peak bone mass (BMD) is maintained which is a valuable guide for plans of osteoporosis prevention. This project is aimed at defining the peak bone mass as well as the period it lasts before the non-nal decrease with aging

  6. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is presently a major problem scientific as well as economic all over the world. For this reason this disease has been studied quite intensely involving not only researchers but also densitometer makers and medicine manufacturers. Many etiologies have been described relating factors which could interfere either in bone formation or bone reabsorption or both. As bone loss along the life is a normal event it is quite understandable that the amount of remaining bone will depend on the amount gained during bone formation. For this reason it is quite important to know the peak of bone mass and the factors that would interfere in the amount of bone formed. It is also very important to define for a certain population its peak of bone mass which would be a valuable guide for future plans of osteoporosis prevention. This project is aimed at defining the peak of bone mass in an urban population which was chosen randomly taken into account the fact that there is a great miscegenation in S.Paulo

  7. A Review of Techniques for Detection of Movement Intention Using Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP is a low-frequency negative shift in the electroencephalography (EEG recording that takes place about 2 seconds prior to voluntary movement production. MRCP replicates the cortical processes employed in planning and preparation of movement. In this study, we recapitulate the features such as signal’s acquisition, processing, and enhancement and different electrode montages used for EEG data recoding from different studies that used MRCPs to predict the upcoming real or imaginary movement. An authentic identification of human movement intention, accompanying the knowledge of the limb engaged in the performance and its direction of movement, has a potential implication in the control of external devices. This information could be helpful in development of a proficient patient-driven rehabilitation tool based on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. Such a BCI paradigm with shorter response time appears more natural to the amputees and can also induce plasticity in brain. Along with different training schedules, this can lead to restoration of motor control in stroke patients.

  8. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, Mitko

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the Coordinated Research Project (No:9937/R0), entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques', is to identify and validate site specific epiphytic plants for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in Jamaica using nuclear analytical techniques at the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS). The specific objectives for the second year of the project were: Development of HOP for sampling epiphytic plants in Jamaica; Sampling design and sample collection; Sample preparation and analysis; Development of an in-house SRM and participation in the NAT-5 inter-laboratory study; Data analysis and interpretation of the results; Development of a work plan of the third year of the project

  9. Matrix Results and Techniques in Quantum Information Science and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelejo, Diane Christine

    In this dissertation, we present several matrix-related problems and results motivated by quantum information theory. Some background material of quantum information science will be discussed in chapter 1, while chapter 7 gives a summary of results and concluding remarks. In chapter 2, we look at 2n x 2 n unitary matrices, which describe operations on a closed n-qubit system. We define a set of simple quantum gates, called controlled single qubit gates, and their associated operational cost. We then present a recurrence scheme to decompose a general 2n x 2n unitary matrix to the product of no more than 2n-12n-1 single qubit gates with small number of controls. In chapter 3, we address the problem of finding a specific element phi among a given set of quantum channels S that will produce the optimal value of a scalar function D(rho 1,phi(rho2)), on two fixed quantum states rho 1 and rho2. Some of the functions we considered for D(·,·) are the trace distance, quantum fidelity and quantum relative entropy. We discuss the optimal solution when S is the set of unitary quantum channels, the set of mixed unitary channels, the set of unital quantum channels, and the set of all quantum channels. In chapter 4, we focus on the spectral properties of qubit-qudit bipartite states with a maximally mixed qudit subsystem. More specifically, given positive numbers a1 ≥ ... ≥ a 2n ≥ 0, we want to determine if there exist a 2n x 2n density matrix rho having eigenvalues a1,..., a2n and satisfying tr 1(rho)=1/n In. This problem is a special case of the more general quantum marginal problem. We give the minimal necessary and sufficient conditions on a1,..., a2n for n ≤ 6 and state some observations on general values of n.. In chapter 5, we discuss the numerical method of alternating projections and illustrate its usefulness in: (a) constructing a quantum channel, if it exists, such that phi(rho(1))=sigma(1),...,phi(rho (k))=sigma(k) for given rho (1),...,rho(k) ∈ Dn and

  10. A P300 event related potential technique for assessment of sexually oriented interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Yoram; Volos, Michal; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Gruenwald, Ilan; Yarnitsky, David

    2006-12-01

    Despite all of the modern, sophisticated tests that exist for diagnosing and assessing male and female sexual disorders, to our knowledge there is no objective psychophysiological test to evaluate sexual arousal and interest. We provide preliminary data showing a decrease in auditory P300 wave amplitude during exposure to sexually explicit video clips and a significant correlation between the auditory P300 amplitude decrease and self-reported scores of sexual arousal and interest in the clips. A total of 30 healthy subjects were exposed to several blocks of auditory stimuli administered using an oddball paradigm. Baseline auditory P300 amplitudes were obtained and auditory stimuli were then delivered while viewing visual clips with 3 types of content, including sport, scenery and sex. Auditory P300 amplitude significantly decreased during viewing clips of all contents. Viewing sexual content clips caused a maximal decrease in P300 amplitude (p <0.0001). In addition, a high correlation was found between the amplitude decrease and scores on the sexual arousal questionnaire regarding the viewed clips (r = 0.61, p <0.001). In addition, the P300 amplitude decrease was significantly related to the sexual interest score (r = 0.37, p = 0.042) but not to interest in clips of nonsexual content. The change in auditory P300 amplitude during exposure to visual stimuli with sexual context seems to be an objective measure of subject sexual interest. This method might be applied to assess therapeutic intervention and as a diagnostic tool for assessing disorders of impaired libido or psychogenic sexual dysfunction.

  11. IAEA activities in nuclear medicine and related medical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as specified in its Statute, is to ''enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.'' Its programmes in human health include both the exploitation and measurement of radiation fields (radiotherapy and dosimetry) and the use of radionuclides in an investigative or tracer role (the primary subject of this Symposium). The Agency carries out its programmes by means of several mechanisms. The technical co-operation programme, responding to requests for support from governments of Member States, is the dominant mechanism. Through it, experts may be made available to introduce new skills to a laboratory; essential equipment may be provided; and training may be organized in various forms. A second mechanism is the research contract programme, providing financial support to individual laboratories for particular research projects. A third mechanism is information exchange: scientific meetings, publications and the nuclear abstracts service of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). In the field covered by this Symposium, the technical content of the projects supported by the Agency using these mechanisms may be classed in several categories. One domain that penetrates all others is instrumentation: selection, quality control and maintenance to prevent or correct breakdowns. Another category of activity, requiring the least sophisticated technology, is radioimmunoassay and related procedures. A third category involves the use of radionuclides in vivo, notably the classic applications of nuclear medicine in diagnosing the health status of individual patients, but including also investigation of the nature and aetiology of disease. A fourth category of project includes the study of the biological role of trace elements, especially by neutron activation analysis

  12. Studies of osteoporosis in South Africa using isotope-related and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is limited by its being an interim account of the research and is of necessity incomplete. Amongst the present data, there are insufficient results obtained for African subjects and for the extreme age ranges. These lacunae are expected to remain temporary set backs. All the measurements were made on the patients' left sides. This was chosen to coincide with the non-dominant femoral region. One trend is clear for all groups of subjects, where there are sufficient statistics. There is the expected fall in BMD beyond the age of menopause. Although there are severe statistical constraints on data to date from African subjects, their BMD is probably not lower than that of the other groups. Since their social circumstances are generally unsatisfactory, this is at first sight surprising and clearly requires further investigation. For persons of the other two groups the statistics are better. There is little discernible difference in the BMD values of the two groups at all ages. Important questions raised in this work include the following. What are the relative contributions of genetic and dietary influences to differences in BMD? This can only be answered by more BMD studies, especially on Africans, and preferably accompanied by investigations of dietary and other relevant habits It is likely that the African diet differs from that of the other groups. But there is evidence to show that such differences are becoming eroded. (Such evidence arises both from dietary surveys and from incidence of the burden of life-style associated diseases.) Future work will include trace element determinations on autopsy samples

  13. Two novel kinetic techniques for determining relative V/K values for alternate substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, V.; Kannan, B.

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium perturbation method of determining kinetic isotope effects has been extended to permit the accurate measurement of relative V/K values for alternate substrates. In the Enoyl-CoA hydratase reaction at pH 8.0 the V/K for trans-2-pentenoyl-CoA (5:1(2t)-CoA) less than 10% greater than V/K for crotonyl-CoA while at pH 4.6 V/K for 5:1(2t)-CoA is over twice the V/K for crotonyl-CoA. This change in the ratio of V/K values indicates that there must be a pKa in the V/K pH profile for 5:1(2t)-CoA that is not characteristic of the free enzyme, a simple interpretation being 5:1(2t)-CoA is a sticky substrate. The pseudoequilibrium perturbation method is inaccurate when the ratio of V/K values exceeds 3. A companion pseudoequilibrium method is introduced where the initial conditions are constrained to produce an initial velocity of zero, rather than requiring the initial and final concentrations of the chromophoric substrate to be identical. The ratio of V/K values is simply the ratio of the concentration of the perturbant molecule to the equilibrium concentration of the nonperturbing analogue. This method combines the advantages of both the equilibrium perturbation method and of initial steady state measurements. The kinetic mechanism of L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme whose severe substrate inhibition and small primary 2 H isotope effect have made routine kinetic studies impractical, has been investigated by this method

  14. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Reyes Flores, J.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Reuben, R.

    2005-01-01

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  15. The relative biological effectiveness for carbon and oxygen ion beams using the raster-scanning technique in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Habermehl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE of carbon (12C and oxygen ion (16O-irradiation applied in the raster-scanning technique at the Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy center (HIT based on clonogenic survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines compared to photon irradiation. METHODS: Four human HCC lines Hep3B, PLC, HepG2 and HUH7 were irradiated with photons, 12C and 16O using a customized experimental setting at HIT for in-vitro trials. Cells were irradiated with increasing physical photon single doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy and heavy ion-single doses of 0, 0.125, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Gy (12C and 16O. SOBP-penetration depth and extension was 35 mm +/-4 mm and 36 mm +/-5 mm for carbon ions and oxygen ions respectively. Mean energy level and mean linear energy transfer (LET were 130 MeV/u and 112 keV/um for 12C, and 154 MeV/u and 146 keV/um for 16O. Clonogenic survival was computated and relative biological effectiveness (RBE values were defined. RESULTS: For all cell lines and both particle modalities α- and β-values were determined. As expected, α-values were significantly higher for 12C and 16O than for photons, reflecting a steeper decline of the initial slope of the survival curves for high-LET beams. RBE-values were in the range of 2.1-3.3 and 1.9-3.1 for 12C and 16O, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both irradiation with 12C and 16O using the raster-scanning technique leads to an enhanced RBE in HCC cell lines. No relevant differences between achieved RBE-values for 12C and 16O were found. Results of this work will further influence biological-adapted treatment planning for HCC patients that will undergo particle therapy with 12C or 16O.

  16. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  17. Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentration (C), are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form (i.e., C = aQb, where a and b are fitted parameters). Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: (i) How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? (ii) Are trends in rating curves diagnostic of changes to river water or sediment discharge? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Here it is shown that a is a poor metric for trends in the vertical offset of a rating curve, and a new parameter, â, as determined by the discharge-normalized power function [C = â (Q/QGM)b], where QGM is the geometric mean of the Q values sampled, provides a better characterization of trends. However, these techniques must be applied carefully, because curvature in the relationship between log(Q) and log(C), which exists for many rivers, can produce false trends in â and b. Also, it is shown that trends in â and b are not uniquely diagnostic of river water or sediment supply conditions. For example, an increase in â can be caused by an increase in sediment supply, a decrease in water supply, or a combination of these conditions. Large changes in water and sediment supplies can occur without any change in the parameters, â and b. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.

  18. Development of the curve of Spee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Steven D; Caspersen, Matthew; Hardinger, Rachel R; Franciscus, Robert G; Aquilino, Steven A; Southard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    Ferdinand Graf von Spee is credited with characterizing human occlusal curvature viewed in the sagittal plane. This naturally occurring phenomenon has clinical importance in orthodontics and restorative dentistry, yet we have little understanding of when, how, or why it develops. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding by examining the development of the curve of Spee longitudinally in a sample of untreated subjects with normal occlusion from the deciduous dentition to adulthood. Records of 16 male and 17 female subjects from the Iowa Facial Growth Study were selected and examined. The depth of the curve of Spee was measured on their study models at 7 time points from ages 4 (deciduous dentition) to 26 (adult dentition) years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the curve of Spee depth between time points. For each subject, the relative eruption of the mandibular teeth was measured from corresponding cephalometric radiographs, and its contribution to the developing curve of Spee was ascertained. In the deciduous dentition, the curve of Spee is minimal. At mean ages of 4.05 and 5.27 years, the average curve of Spee depths are 0.24 and 0.25 mm, respectively. With change to the transitional dentition, corresponding to the eruption of the mandibular permanent first molars and central incisors (mean age, 6.91 years), the curve of Spee depth increases significantly (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 1.32 mm. The curve of Spee then remains essentially unchanged until eruption of the second molars (mean age, 12.38 years), when the depth increases (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 2.17 mm. In the adolescent dentition (mean age, 16.21 years), the depth decreases slightly (P = 0.0009) to a mean maximum depth of 1.98 mm, and, in the adult dentition (mean age 26.98 years), the curve remains unchanged (P = 0.66), with a mean maximum depth of 2.02 mm. No significant differences in curve of Spee development were found between

  19. Focus on Physics: The Delightful Catenary Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    When teaching how "tension" and "compression" relate to geometrical structures such as bridges, arches, and domes, The author shows a picture of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, completed in the 14th century, and presents a lesson on using the curve called a catenary to explain how he teaches about tension and compression…

  20. Irregularities in the dendrochronological calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaway, J.H.; Ottaway, B.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the reality or otherwise of short-term deviations from a linear or smooth curve relating conventional C-14 dates to dendrochronological measurements. The possibility of the effect of short-term changes in the earth's atmosphere and in the oceans, and particularly in their temperature, is considered. (U.K.)

  1. Large-scale nanofabrication of periodic nanostructures using nanosphere-related techniques for green technology applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Chung; Wu, Jyun-De; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Chang-Han; Liu, Chi-Ching; Ku, Chen-Ta; Chen, Yen-Jon; Chou, Meng-Cheng; Chang, Yun-Chorng

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology has been developed for decades and many interesting optical properties have been demonstrated. However, the major hurdle for the further development of nanotechnology depends on finding economic ways to fabricate such nanostructures in large-scale. Here, we demonstrate how to achieve low-cost fabrication using nanosphere-related techniques, such as Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) and Nanospherical-Lens Lithography (NLL). NSL is a low-cost nano-fabrication technique that has the ability to fabricate nano-triangle arrays that cover a very large area. NLL is a very similar technique that uses polystyrene nanospheres to focus the incoming ultraviolet light and exposure the underlying photoresist (PR) layer. PR hole arrays form after developing. Metal nanodisk arrays can be fabricated following metal evaporation and lifting-off processes. Nanodisk or nano-ellipse arrays with various sizes and aspect ratios are routinely fabricated in our research group. We also demonstrate we can fabricate more complicated nanostructures, such as nanodisk oligomers, by combining several other key technologies such as angled exposure and deposition, we can modify these methods to obtain various metallic nanostructures. The metallic structures are of high fidelity and in large scale. The metallic nanostructures can be transformed into semiconductor nanostructures and be used in several green technology applications.

  2. Nonparametric estimation of age-specific reference percentile curves with radial smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaohai; Qu, Yongming; Huang, Yao; Zhang, Xiao; Song, Hanping; Jiang, Honghua

    2012-01-01

    Reference percentile curves represent the covariate-dependent distribution of a quantitative measurement and are often used to summarize and monitor dynamic processes such as human growth. We propose a new nonparametric method based on a radial smoothing (RS) technique to estimate age-specific reference percentile curves assuming the underlying distribution is relatively close to normal. We compared the RS method with both the LMS and the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) methods using simulated data and found that our method has smaller estimation error than the two existing methods. We also applied the new method to analyze height growth data from children being followed in a clinical observational study of growth hormone treatment, and compared the growth curves between those with growth disorders and the general population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential geometry of curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Students and professors of an undergraduate course in differential geometry will appreciate the clear exposition and comprehensive exercises in this book that focuses on the geometric properties of curves and surfaces, one- and two-dimensional objects in Euclidean space. The problems generally relate to questions of local properties (the properties observed at a point on the curve or surface) or global properties (the properties of the object as a whole). Some of the more interesting theorems explore relationships between local and global properties. A special feature is the availability of accompanying online interactive java applets coordinated with each section. The applets allow students to investigate and manipulate curves and surfaces to develop intuition and to help analyze geometric phenomena.

  4. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-06-19

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.

  5. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  6. Multiwavelength light curve parameters of Cepheid variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative analysis of theoretical and observed light curves of Cepheid variables using Fourier decomposition. The theoretical light curves at multiple wavelengths are generated using stellar pulsation models for chemical compositions representative of Cepheids in the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds. The observed light curves at optical (VI, near-infrared (JHKs and mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5-μm bands are compiled from the literature. We discuss the variation of light curve parameters as a function of period, wavelength and metallicity. Theoretical and observed Fourier amplitude parameters decrease with increase in wavelength while the phase parameters increase with wavelength. We find that theoretical amplitude parameters obtained using canonical mass-luminosity levels exhibit a greater offset with respect to observations when compared to non-canonical relations. We also discuss the impact of variation in convective efficiency on the light curve structure of Cepheid variables. The increase in mixing length parameter results in a zero-point offset in bolometric mean magnitudes and reduces the systematic large difference in theoretical amplitudes with respect to observations.

  7. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  8. Investigation of the load on the lumbar region in nursing technique's movements - relation between twist and surface electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yasuko; Shiozaki, Akira; Majima, Yukie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the twist angle of the lumbar region and the surface electromyogram (EMG) and examined their mutual relation to elucidate the degree and influence of factors of "twist" in nursing techniques as a cause of lower back pain. Using a goniometer (two-way angle and twist sensors) and an EMG(SX230; DKH Co., Ltd.), we conducted measurements by affixing the goniometer on the lumbar vertebral column and EMG sensor at four points of right and left sides of L2 and L4 (of the erector muscle of the spine). The measured nursing techniques were three common methods of "transferring a patient from bed to wheelchair," which is said to impart a heavy load on the lumbar region. Results show that the correlation value between the twist angle rate and mean energy is likely to be greater, suggesting that the magnitude of the load on the lumbar region should be related to the twist speed rather than to the twist angle of the movement itself.

  9. Reliability and failure modes of implant-supported zirconium-oxide fixed dental prostheses related to veneering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Thompson, Van P.; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Stappert, Christian F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives To compare fatigue failure modes and reliability of hand-veneered and over-pressed implant-supported three-unit zirconium-oxide fixed-dental-prostheses(FDPs). Methods Sixty-four custom-made zirconium-oxide abutments (n=32/group) and thirty-two zirconium-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM manufactured. Frameworks were veneered with hand-built up or over-pressed porcelain (n=16/group). Step-stress-accelerated-life-testing (SSALT) was performed in water applying a distributed contact load at the buccal cusp-pontic-area. Post failure examinations were carried out using optical (polarized-reflected-light) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize crack propagation and failure modes. Reliability was compared using cumulative-damage step-stress analysis (Alta-7-Pro, Reliasoft). Results Crack propagation was observed in the veneering porcelain during fatigue. The majority of zirconium-oxide FDPs demonstrated porcelain chipping as the dominant failure mode. Nevertheless, fracture of the zirconium-oxide frameworks was also observed. Over-pressed FDPs failed earlier at a mean failure load of 696 ± 149 N relative to hand-veneered at 882 ± 61 N (profile I). Weibull-stress-number of cycles-unreliability-curves were generated. The reliability (2-sided at 90% confidence bounds) for a 400N load at 100K cycles indicated values of 0.84 (0.98-0.24) for the hand-veneered FDPs and 0.50 (0.82-0.09) for their over-pressed counterparts. Conclusions Both zirconium-oxide FDP systems were resistant under accelerated-life-time-testing. Over-pressed specimens were more susceptible to fatigue loading with earlier veneer chipping. PMID:21557985

  10. FAM-MDR: a flexible family-based multifactor dimensionality reduction technique to detect epistasis using related individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cattaert

    Full Text Available We propose a novel multifactor dimensionality reduction method for epistasis detection in small or extended pedigrees, FAM-MDR. It combines features of the Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model And Regression approach (GRAMMAR with Model-Based MDR (MB-MDR. We focus on continuous traits, although the method is general and can be used for outcomes of any type, including binary and censored traits. When comparing FAM-MDR with Pedigree-based Generalized MDR (PGMDR, which is a generalization of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR to continuous traits and related individuals, FAM-MDR was found to outperform PGMDR in terms of power, in most of the considered simulated scenarios. Additional simulations revealed that PGMDR does not appropriately deal with multiple testing and consequently gives rise to overly optimistic results. FAM-MDR adequately deals with multiple testing in epistasis screens and is in contrast rather conservative, by construction. Furthermore, simulations show that correcting for lower order (main effects is of utmost importance when claiming epistasis. As Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is a complex phenotype likely influenced by gene-gene interactions, we applied FAM-MDR to examine data on glucose area-under-the-curve (GAUC, an endophenotype of T2DM for which multiple independent genetic associations have been observed, in the Amish Family Diabetes Study (AFDS. This application reveals that FAM-MDR makes more efficient use of the available data than PGMDR and can deal with multi-generational pedigrees more easily. In conclusion, we have validated FAM-MDR and compared it to PGMDR, the current state-of-the-art MDR method for family data, using both simulations and a practical dataset. FAM-MDR is found to outperform PGMDR in that it handles the multiple testing issue more correctly, has increased power, and efficiently uses all available information.

  11. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Gao, Y.X.; Li, B.; Yu, H.W.; Li, Y.F.; Sun, J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, most analytical problems relating to biological systems were addressed by measuring the total concentrations of elements. Now there is increasing interest of the importance of their chemical forms, in which an element is present in biological systems, e.g., the oxidation state, the binding state with macromolecules, or even the molecular structure. The biological effects of chromium, which is classified as an essential nutrient, are dependent upon its oxidation. state. In general, trivalent chromium is biochemically active, whereas hexavalent chromium is considered to be toxic. Mercury is one of serious environmental persistent pollutants. However, organic forms of mercury are known to possess much higher toxicity than inorganic mercury. Therefore, information on speciation is critically required in order to better understanding of their bioavailability, metabolism, transformation, and toxicity in vivo. Recently, chemical speciation of selenium, mercury, copper, zinc, iron, and so on, has been investigated by INAA, ICP-MS, XRF, EXAFS and related techniques combined with chemical and biochemical separation (extraction, chromatography, gel electrophoresis, etc.). INAA, XRF, and ICP-MS have superior advantages in aspect of multielemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity, which render the possibility of analyzing various elements of interest simultaneously. These offline or online techniques have been flexibly applied to different biological matrixes, such as human hair, serum, urine, various tissues and organs in our researches. In addition, EXAFS provides structural information about the moiety of metal centers up to a distance of approximately 4-5 Anstrom. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Imbalance of elements, such as Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ca, etc., has been found in the whole blood or serum of patients with HCC. We found that the profiles of Se, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu-containing proteins

  12. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  13. Progress in study of Prespa Lake using nuclear and related techniques (IAEA Regional Project RER/8/008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anovski, Todor

    2001-09-01

    One of the main objective of the IAEA - Regional project RER/8/008 entitled Study of Prespa Lake Using Nuclear and Related Techniques was to provide a scientific basis for sustainable and environmental management of the Lake Prespa (Three lakes: Ohrid, Big Prespa and Small Prespa are on the borders between Albania, Republic of Macedonia and Greece, and are separated by the Mali i Thate and Galichica, mostly Carstificated mountains), see Fig. 1. In this sense investigations connected with the hydrogeology, water quality (Physics-chemical, biological and radiological characteristics) and water balance determination by application of Environmental isotopes ( i.e. H,D,T,O-18,O-18 etc.,) distribution, artificial water tracers and other relevant analytical techniques such as: AAS, HPLC, Total α and β-activity, α and γ-spectrometry as well as ultra sonic measurements (defining of the Lake bottom profile) through regional cooperation / Scientists from Albania, Greece and Republic of Macedonia, participated in the implementation of the Project/ during one hydrological year, had been initiated and valuable results obtained, a part of which are presented in this report. This cooperation was the only way for providing necessary data for better understanding beside the other, of the water quality of the Prespa Lake and its hydrological relationship to Ohrid Lake too, representing a unique regional hydro system in the world. (Author)

  14. Theory and practical understanding of the migration behavior of proteins and peptides in CE and related techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth; Hilbrig, Frank

    2007-07-01

    CEC is defined as an analytical method, where the analytes are separated on a chromatographic column in the presence of an applied voltage. The separation of charged analytes in CEC is complex, since chromatographic interaction, electroosmosis and electrophoresis contribute to the experimentally observed behavior. The putative contribution of effects such as surface electrodiffusion has been suggested. A sound theoretical treatment incorporating all effects is currently not available. The question of whether the different effects contribute in an independent or an interdependent manner is still under discussion. In this contribution, the state-of-the-art in the theoretical description of the individual contributions as well as models for the retention behavior and in particular possible dimensionless 'retention factors' is discussed, together with the experimental database for the separation of charged analytes, in particular proteins and peptides, by CEC and related techniques.

  15. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  16. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  17. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  18. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  19. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume III. An analysis of the validity of the utilities' stock-recruitment curve-fitting exercise and prior estimation of beta technique. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1792

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Kirk, B.L.

    1982-03-01

    This report addresses the validity of the utilities' use of the Ricker stock-recruitment model to extrapolate the combined entrainment-impingement losses of young fish to reductions in the equilibrium population size of adult fish. In our testimony, a methodology was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model really did apply to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the utilities' estimates, based on curve-fitting, of the parameter alpha (which controls the impact) be considered reliable. In addition, an analysis is included of the efficacy of an alternative means of estimating alpha, termed the technique of prior estimation of beta (used by the utilities in a report prepared for regulatory hearings on the Cornwall Pumped Storage Project). This validation methodology should also be useful in evaluating inferences drawn in the literature from fits of stock-recruitment models to data obtained from other fish stocks

  20. Statistical determination of significant curved I-girder bridge seismic response parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Junwon

    2013-06-01

    Curved steel bridges are commonly used at interchanges in transportation networks and more of these structures continue to be designed and built in the United States. Though the use of these bridges continues to increase in locations that experience high seismicity, the effects of curvature and other parameters on their seismic behaviors have been neglected in current risk assessment tools. These tools can evaluate the seismic vulnerability of a transportation network using fragility curves. One critical component of fragility curve development for curved steel bridges is the completion of sensitivity analyses that help identify influential parameters related to their seismic response. In this study, an accessible inventory of existing curved steel girder bridges located primarily in the Mid-Atlantic United States (MAUS) was used to establish statistical characteristics used as inputs for a seismic sensitivity study. Critical seismic response quantities were captured using 3D nonlinear finite element models. Influential parameters from these quantities were identified using statistical tools that incorporate experimental Plackett-Burman Design (PBD), which included Pareto optimal plots and prediction profiler techniques. The findings revealed that the potential variation in the influential parameters included number of spans, radius of curvature, maximum span length, girder spacing, and cross-frame spacing. These parameters showed varying levels of influence on the critical bridge response.

  1. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  2. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  3. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  4. National proficiency-gain curves for minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, H; Markar, S R; Askari, A; Ni, M; Faiz, O; Hanna, G B

    2016-01-01

    Minimal access surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has short-term benefits but is associated with a proficiency-gain curve. The aim of this study was to define national proficiency-gain curves for minimal access colorectal and oesophagogastric surgery, and to determine the impact on clinical outcomes. All adult patients undergoing minimal access oesophageal, colonic and rectal surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Proficiency-gain curves were created using risk-adjusted cumulative sum analysis. Change points were identified, and bootstrapping was performed with 1000 iterations to identify a confidence level. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality; secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality, reintervention, conversion and length of hospital stay. Some 1696, 15 008 and 16 701 minimal access oesophageal, rectal and colonic cancer resections were performed during the study period. The change point in the proficiency-gain curve for 30-day mortality for oesophageal, rectal and colonic surgery was 19 (confidence level 98·4 per cent), 20 (99·2 per cent) and three (99·5 per cent) procedures; the mortality rate fell from 4·0 to 2·0 per cent (relative risk reduction (RRR) 0·50, P = 0·033), from 2·1 to 1·2 per cent (RRR 0·43, P curve for reintervention in oesophageal, rectal and colonic resection was 19 (98·1 per cent), 32 (99·5 per cent) and 26 (99·2 per cent) procedures respectively. There were also significant proficiency-gain curves for 90-day mortality, conversion and length of stay. The introduction of minimal access gastrointestinal cancer surgery has been associated with a proficiency-gain curve for mortality and major morbidity at a national level. Unnecessary patient harm should be avoided by appropriate training and monitoring of new surgical techniques. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Treating Stress-Related Pain with the Flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique: Are There Differences between Women and Men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Å Bood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore, for the first time, sex differences among patients diagnosed with stress-related pain before and after flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST treatment, delivered 12 times during seven weeks. The present study included 88 patients (69 women, 19 men from three different studies (post hoc analysis. They had been diagnosed by a physician as having chronic stress-related muscle tension pain. The analyses indicated that the flotation-REST treatment had beneficial effects on stress, anxiety, depression, sleep quality and pain and that there were few sex differences. Women were more depressed than men before treatment, but after treatment there was no difference between sexes. However, there was a sex difference in the ability to endure experimentally induced pain, suggesting that men exhibited greater endurance both before and after the flotation-REST treatment. The results also showed, for the first time, that both sexes improved their ability to endure experimentally induced pain (higher scores for upper pain threshold following the successful flotation-REST pain treatment.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Study Based on the Critical Incident Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Catassi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten. Gluten avoidance, which is the only available treatment for CD, could impact on quality of life of children with CD. We present the results of a qualitative study on the emotional impact of gluten free diet (GFD on the everyday life of children affected with CD. We investigated 76 celiac patients aged 2–18 years (average age: 9.5 years. By using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT, we defined emotions related to difficulties and awkward situations experienced by the patients. Written answers to open-ended questions from either children (older than 8 years and parents (children younger than 8 years were analyzed qualitatively. We found 80 dilemmas experienced in three different arenas (food situations at school, meals at home, meals outside and characterized lived experiences of children with CD in everyday life (specific emotions, difficulties in relationships and in management of daily life. Children with CD experience strong emotions related to the GFD, permeating several aspects of everyday life. These dilemmas may be missed by a conventional, questionnaire-based approach to the psycho-social consequences of CD treatment.

  7. The use of nuclear related analytical techniques for the determination of ingestion and body content of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, H.; Santoso, D.; Widjajakusuma, B.

    1998-01-01

    A number of observations revealed that various human disease states are associated with measurable abnormalities of trace element levels. Until present there is no data on trace element levels in human tissues and dietary intake representing the population in Indonesia. Trace element level in various biological materials, especially human serum related to health syndrome (e.g. acute myocardial infarction and goiter prevalences) was performed by National Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with relevant institutes. The present study is concerned with determination of ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, Sr, I, Th and U). Quantitation of the elements in the samples will be determined by neutron activation analysis, complemented by nuclear related analytical techniques, e.g. inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples to be analyzed consist of (a) total diets and individual staple foodstuffs, (b) autopsy specimens of liver, lung, kidney, muscle, thyroid and bone, and (c) drinking water. It seems difficult for us to define nationally representative specimens of total diets and individual staple foodstuffs. Based on these facts, in the first year activity samples of dietary intake from various socio economic levels of population in West Java will be collected. Human tissue sample is obtained from autopsy of normal persons who are killed in traffic accident or homicide victim. Traces of Th and U in drinking water are determined by neutron activation analysis following preconcentration of these elements in chelating resin Chlelex 100. (author)

  8. Environmental and traffic-related parameters affecting road dust composition: A multi-technique approach applied to Venice area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Visin, Flavia; Gonella, Francesco; Cattaruzza, Elti; Glisenti, Antonella; Formenton, Gianni; Tieppo, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    Road dust is a non-exhaust source of atmospheric particulate by re-suspension. It is composed of particles originating from natural sources as well as other non-exhaust source such as tire, brake and asphalt wear. The discrimination between atmospheric particles directly emitted from abrasion process and those related to re-suspension is therefore an open issue, as far as the percentage contribution of non-exhaust emissions is becoming more considerable due also to the recent policy actions and the technological upgrades in the automotive field, focused on the reduction of exhaust emissions. In this paper, road dust collected along the bridge that connects Venice (Italy) to the mainland is characterized with a multi-technique approach in order to determine its composition depending on environmental as well as traffic-related conditions. Six pollutant sources of road dust particles were identified by cluster analysis: brake, railway, tire, asphalt, soil + marine, and mixed combustions. Considering the lack of information on this matrix in this area, this study is intended to provide useful information for future identification of road dust re-suspension source in atmospheric particulate.

  9. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  10. Environmental Kuznets curves for CO2. Heterogeneity versus homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Dijkgraaf, Elbert [Department of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Melenberg, Bertrand [CentER for Economic Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2005-01-11

    We explore the emissions income relationship for CO2 in OECD countries using various modelling strategies.Even for this relatively homogeneous sample, we find that the inverted-U-shaped curve is quite sensitive to the degree of heterogeneity included in the panel estimations.This finding is robust, not only across different model specifications but also across estimation techniques, including the more flexible non-parametric approach.Differences in restrictions applied in panel estimations are therefore responsible for the widely divergent findings for an inverted-U shape for CO2.Our findings suggest that allowing for enough heterogeneity is essential to prevent spurious correlation from reduced-form panel estimations.Moreover, this inverted U for CO2 is likely to exist for many, but not for all, countries.

  11. Two-Point Codes for the Generalised GK curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barelli, Élise; Beelen, Peter; Datta, Mrinmoy

    2017-01-01

    completely cover and in many cases improve on their results, using different techniques, while also supporting any GGK curve. Our method builds on the order bound for AG codes: to enable this, we study certain Weierstrass semigroups. This allows an efficient algorithm for computing our improved bounds. We......We improve previously known lower bounds for the minimum distance of certain two-point AG codes constructed using a Generalized Giulietti–Korchmaros curve (GGK). Castellanos and Tizziotti recently described such bounds for two-point codes coming from the Giulietti–Korchmaros curve (GK). Our results...

  12. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

  13. On the distribution of Weierstrass points on Gorenstein quintic curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Alwaleed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with developing a technique to compute in a very precise way the distribution of Weierstrass points on the members of any 1-parameter family Ca, a∈C, of Gorenstein quintic curves with respect to the dualizing sheaf KCa. The nicest feature of the procedure is that it gives a way to produce examples of existence of Weierstrass points with prescribed special gap sequences, by looking at plane curves or, more generally, to subcanonical curves embedded in some higher dimensional projective space.

  14. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Bustillos, Oscar W.V.; Guenther, Alex B.; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Emmons, Louisa; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Siebicke, Lukas; Serca, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  15. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Bustillos, Oscar W.V., E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisa Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guenther, Alex B.; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Emmons, Louisa, E-mail: guenther@ucar.edu [Biosphere Atmosphere Interaction Group, Atmosphere Chemistry Division of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Siebicke, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.siebicke@ecofog.gf [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA-UMR EEF), Nancy (France); Serca, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.serca@aero.obs-mip.fr [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d' Aerologie

    2013-07-01

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  16. The p300 event-related potential technique for libido assessment in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Yoram; Sprecher, Elliot; Gruenwald, Ilan; Yarnitsky, David; Gartman, Irena; Granovsky, Yelena

    2009-06-01

    There is a need for an objective technique to assess the degree of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Recently, we described such a methodology (event-related potential technique [ERP]) based on recording of p300 electroencephalography (EEG) waves elicited by auditory stimuli during synchronous exposure to erotic films. To compare sexual interest of sexually healthy women to females with sexual dysfunction (FSD) using ERP, and to explore whether FSD women with and without HSDD would respond differently to two different types of erotic stimuli-films containing (I) or not containing (NI) sexual intercourse scenes. Twenty-two women with FSD, of which nine had HSDD only, and 30 sexually healthy women were assessed by the Female Sexual Functioning Index. ERP methodology was performed applying erotic NI or I films. Significant differences in percent of auditory p300 amplitude reduction (PR) in response to erotic stimuli within and between all three groups for each film type. PRs to each film type were similar in sexually healthy women (60.6% +/- 40.3 (NI) and 51.7% +/- 32.3 [I]), while in women with FSD, reduction was greater when viewing the NI vs. I erotic films (71.4% +/- 41.0 vs. 37.7% +/- 45.7; P = 0.0099). This difference was mainly due to the greater PR of the subgroup with HSDD in response to NI vs. I films (77.7% +/- 46.7 vs. 17.0% +/- 50.3) than in the FSD women without HSDD group or the sexually healthy women (67.5% +/- 38.7 vs. 50.4% +/- 39.4 respectively), P = 0.0084. For comparisons, we used the mixed-model one-way analysis of variance. Differences in neurophysiological response patterns between sexually healthy vs. sexually dysfunctional females may point to a specific inverse discrimination ability for sexually relevant information in the subgroup of women with HSDD. These findings suggest that the p300 ERP technique could be used as an objective quantitative tool for libido assessment in sexually dysfunctional women.

  17. Shape optimization of self-avoiding curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn W.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a softened notion of proximity (or self-avoidance) for curves. We then derive a sensitivity result, based on shape differential calculus, for the proximity. This is combined with a gradient-based optimization approach to compute three-dimensional, parameterized curves that minimize the sum of an elastic (bending) energy and a proximity energy that maintains self-avoidance by a penalization technique. Minimizers are computed by a sequential-quadratic-programming (SQP) method where the bending energy and proximity energy are approximated by a finite element method. We then apply this method to two problems. First, we simulate adsorbed polymer strands that are constrained to be bound to a surface and be (locally) inextensible. This is a basic model of semi-flexible polymers adsorbed onto a surface (a current topic in material science). Several examples of minimizing curve shapes on a variety of surfaces are shown. An advantage of the method is that it can be much faster than using molecular dynamics for simulating polymer strands on surfaces. Second, we apply our proximity penalization to the computation of ideal knots. We present a heuristic scheme, utilizing the SQP method above, for minimizing rope-length and apply it in the case of the trefoil knot. Applications of this method could be for generating good initial guesses to a more accurate (but expensive) knot-tightening algorithm.

  18. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nicolás; Buiochi, Flávio; Brizzotti Andrade, Marco Aurélio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM), to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods. PMID:28787875

  19. Detection of flaws below curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsley, R.K.; Addison, R.C.; Graham, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    A measurement model has been developed to describe ultrasonic measurements made with circular piston transducers in parts with flat or cylindrically curved surfaces. The model includes noise terms to describe electrical noise, scatterer noise and echo noise as well as effects of attenuation, diffraction and Fresnel loss. An experimental procedure for calibrating the noise terms of the model was developed. Experimental measurements were made on a set of known flaws located beneath a cylindrically curved surface. The model was verified by using it to correct the experimental measurements to obtain the absolute scattering amplitude of the flaws. For longitudinal wave propagation within the part, the derived scattering amplitudes were consistent with predictions at internal angles of less than 30 0 . At larger angles, focusing and aberrations caused a lack of agreement; the model needs further refinement in this case. For shear waves, it was found that the frequency for optimum flaw detection in the presence of material noise is lower than that for longitudinal waves; lower frequency measurements are currently in progress. The measurement model was then used to make preliminary predictions of the best experimental measurement technique for the detection of cracks located under cylindrically curved surfaces

  20. Numerical Characterization of Piezoceramics Using Resonance Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials characterization is a challenging problem involving physical concepts, electrical and mechanical measurements and numerical optimization techniques. Piezoelectric ceramics such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT belong to the 6 mm symmetry class, which requires five elastic, three piezoelectric and two dielectric constants to fully represent the material properties. If losses are considered, the material properties can be represented by complex numbers. In this case, 20 independent material constants are required to obtain the full model. Several numerical methods have been used to adjust the theoretical models to the experimental results. The continuous improvement of the computer processing ability has allowed the use of a specific numerical method, the Finite Element Method (FEM, to iteratively solve the problem of finding the piezoelectric constants. This review presents the recent advances in the numerical characterization of 6 mm piezoelectric materials from experimental electrical impedance curves. The basic strategy consists in measuring the electrical impedance curve of a piezoelectric disk, and then combining the Finite Element Method with an iterative algorithm to find a set of material properties that minimizes the difference between the numerical impedance curve and the experimental one. Different methods to validate the results are also discussed. Examples of characterization of some common piezoelectric ceramics are presented to show the practical application of the described methods.

  1. Overall and peripheral lung function assessment by spirometry and forced oscillation technique in relation to asthma diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijkenskjöld Rentzhog, C; Janson, C; Berglund, L; Borres, M P; Nordvall, L; Alving, K; Malinovschi, A

    2017-12-01

    Classic spirometry is effort dependent and of limited value in assessing small airways. Peripheral airway involvement, and relation to poor control, in asthma, has been highlighted recently. Forced oscillation technique (FOT) offers an effort-independent assessment of overall and peripheral lung mechanics. We studied the association between lung function variables, obtained either by spirometry or multifrequency (5, 11 and 19 Hz) FOT, and asthma diagnosis and control. Spirometry measures, resistance at 5 (R5) and 19 Hz (R19), reactance at 5 Hz (X5), resonant frequency (f res ), resistance difference between 5-19 Hz (R5-R19) and Asthma Control Test scores were determined in 234 asthmatic and 60 healthy subjects (aged 13-39 years). We used standardized lung function variables in logistic regression analyses, unadjusted and adjusted for age, height, gender and weight. Lower FEV 1 /FVC (OR [95% CI] 0.47 [0.32, 0.69]) and FEF 50 (0.62 [0.46, 0.85]) per standard deviation increase, and higher R5 (3.31 [1.95, 5.62]) and R19 (2.54 [1.65, 3.91]) were associated with asthma diagnosis. Independent predictive effects of FEV 1 /FVC and R5 or R19, respectively, were found for asthma diagnosis. Lower FEV 1 /FVC and altered peripheral FOT measures (X5, f res and R5-R19) were associated with uncontrolled asthma (P-values < .05). Resistance FOT measures were equally informative as spirometry, related to asthma diagnosis, and, furthermore, offered additive information to FEV 1 /FVC, supporting a complementary role for FOT. Asthma control was related to FOT measures of peripheral airways, suggesting a potential use in identifying such involvement. Further studies are needed to determine a clinical value and relevant reference values in children, for the multifrequency FOT measurements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  3. Bezier Curve Modeling for Neutrosophic Data Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Tas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set concept is defined with membership, non-membership and indeterminacy degrees. This concept is the solution and representation of the problems with various fields. In this paper, a geometric model is introduced for Neutrosophic data problem for the first time. This model is based on neutrosophic sets and neutrosophic relations. Neutrosophic control points are defined according to these points, resulting in neutrosophic Bezier curves.

  4. Feynman propagator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Raine, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Wick rotation is generalized in a covariant manner so as to apply to curved manifolds in a way that is independent of the analytic properties of the manifold. This enables us to show that various methods for defining a Feynman propagator to be found in the literature are equivalent where they are applicable. We are also able to discuss the relation between certain regularization methods that have been employed

  5. PREFACE: International Conference on the Use of X-ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nasser; El-Khatib, Sami

    2012-07-01

    The International Conference on the Use of X-Ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH11) was held on 7 and 8 December 2011 at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) in the United Arab Emirates. The conference was organized in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory (NXFL). The conference was inaugurated by Dr Peter Heath, Chancellor of the American University of Shrjah and attended by Mr Kwaku Aning, deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy and Ambassador Hamad Al-Kaabi, Ambassador of the UAE to the International Atomic Energy university officials, faculty and students. The conference covered a variety of topics including the use of x-ray and micro beam x-ray analysis, synchrotron based techniques, ion beam and neutron based techniques, optical imaging and mass spectroscopy and chromatography techniques as well as best conservation practices. XTACH11 provided an excellent forum for scientists in the region to interact, exchange ideas and to initiate collaborations with each other as well as with the international community. It showcased some of the latest technical developments in the field of non-destructive testing for the diagnosis and conservation of cultural heritage materials. In addition to the presentations by the invited speakers (Rene van Grieken and K Janssens, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Thomas Calligaro, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France; Stefano Ridolfi, Ars Mensurae, Rome, Italy, and Andrzej Markowicz, IAEA, Austria), a total of 25 other research papers were also presented and discussed. Scientists from many countries participated in the conference: Austria, Belgium, Egypt, Italy, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The conference concluded with a Discussion Panel. Thomas Calligaro (Centre de Recherché et de

  6. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  7. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  8. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  9. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  10. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  11. Analyzing the Relative Linkages of Land Use and Hydrologic Variables with Urban Surface Water Quality using Multivariate Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We used a systematic data-analytics approach to analyze and quantify relative linkages of four stream water quality indicators (total nitrogen, TN; total phosphorus, TP; chlorophyll-a, Chla; and dissolved oxygen, DO) with six land use and four hydrologic variables, along with the potential external (upstream in-land and downstream coastal) controls in highly complex coastal urban watersheds of southeast Florida, U.S.A. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of principle component and factor analyses, in concert with Pearson correlation analysis, were applied to map interrelations and identify latent patterns of the participatory variables. Relative linkages of the in-stream water quality variables with their associated drivers were then quantified by developing dimensionless partial least squares (PLS) regression model based on standardized data. Model fitting efficiency (R2=0.71-0.87) and accuracy (ratio of root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of the observations, RSR=0.35-0.53) suggested good predictions of the water quality variables in both wet and dry seasons. Agricultural land and groundwater exhibited substantial controls on surface water quality. In-stream TN concentration appeared to be mostly contributed by the upstream water entering from Everglades in both wet and dry seasons. In contrast, watershed land uses had stronger linkages with TP and Chla than that of the watershed hydrologic and upstream (Everglades) components for both seasons. Both land use and hydrologic components showed strong linkages with DO in wet season; however, the land use linkage appeared to be less in dry season. The data-analytics method provided a comprehensive empirical framework to achieve crucial mechanistic insights into the urban stream water quality processes. Our study quantitatively identified dominant drivers of water quality, indicating key management targets to maintain healthy stream ecosystems in complex urban-natural environments near the coast.

  12. Latent profiles of elite Malaysian athletes’ use of psychological skills and techniques and relations with mental toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The majority of past work on athletes’ use of psychological skills and techniques (PSTs has adopted a variable-centered approach in which the statistical relations among study variables are averaged across a sample. However, variable-centered-analyses exclude the possibility that PSTs may be used in tandem or combined in different ways across practice and competition settings. With this empirical gap in mind, the purposes of this study were to identify the number and type of profiles of elite athletes’ use of PSTs, and examine differences between these clusters in terms of their self-reported mental toughness. Methods In this cross-sectional survey study, 285 Malaysian elite athletes (170 males, 115 females aged 15–44 years (M = 18.89, SD = 4.49 completed measures of various PSTs and mental toughness. Latent profile analysis was employed to determine the type and number of profiles that best represent athletes’ reports of their use of PSTs in practice and competition settings, and examine differences between these classes in terms of self-reported mental toughness. Results Our results revealed three profiles (low, moderate, high use in both practice and competition settings that were distinguished primarily according to quantitative differences in the absolute levels of reported use across most of the PSTs assessed in practice and competition settings, which in turn, were differentially related with mental toughness. Specifically, higher use of PSTs was associated with higher levels of mental toughness. Conclusion This study provides one of the first analyses of the different configurations of athletes’ use of PSTs that typify unique subgroups of performers. An important next step is to examine the longitudinal (in stability of such classes and therefore provide insight into the temporal dynamics of different configurations of athletes’ use of PSTs.

  13. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  14. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  15. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  16. Determination of water retention curves of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M.V.; Romero, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The water retention curves of concrete and mortar obtained with two different techniques and following wetting and drying paths were determined. The material was the same used to manufacture the disposal cells of the Spanish surface facility of El Cabril. The water retention capacity of mortar is clearly higher than that of concrete when expressed as gravimetric water content, but the difference reduces when it is expressed as degree of saturation. Hysteresis between wetting and drying was observed for both materials, particularly for mortar. The tests went on for very long periods of time, and concerns about the geochemical, mineralogical and porosity changes occurred in the materials during the determinations (changes in dry mass, grain density, samples volume) and their repercussion on the results obtained (water content and degree of saturation computation) were raised. Also, the fact of having used techniques applying total and matrix suction could have affected the results. (authors)

  17. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, M.; Lalor, G.C.; Preston, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air quality has been monitored at selected areas in Jamaica using high volume samplers. The results obtained, showed elevated levels of aluminium in bauxitic areas and very high lead concentrations in urban areas, from 5 to 35 times greater than in rural areas. The lower throughput of the conventional air particulate samplers however, restricts the air quality and health assessment on a nation-wide scale. Biomonitoring offers a cost-effective alternative to air-quality assessment if appropriate indicator species are chosen. The epiphytic lower plants such as lichens and mosses have been used as indicators of regional air quality in several European countries and USA. However, there is not enough studies on lichens and mosses in tropical countries, probably due to the lower occurrence of these species, which cover only 8% of the world's land surface. In Jamaica the epiphytic higher plants, represented by the genus Tillandsia are widely distributed, which make them along with the lichens and mosses potential site-specific bioindicators of air quality. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear And Related Analytical Techniques' will address these needs of the country. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop specific bioindicators of atmospheric air pollution in Jamaica, which will provide baseline information for health hazards assessment

  18. Use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques in studies of trace and minor elements in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, Borut; Stropnik, Boris

    1994-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques, neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis are particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their non-destructive character and multi-element capability. In this work, procedures for k o -standardized instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry for trace and minor elements in air pollution studies were investigated. The methods applied were validated by the analysis of suitable reference materials. Using INAA, 20 experimentally obtained elemental values out of 21 certified and all 29 experimentally obtained values compared with 'consensus' values (for the elements where no certified numbers are available) in two SRMs were statistically indistinguishable. Also, the contents of 28 elements in candidate NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves are reported. The EDXRF results were statistically indistinguishable from certified values for eight out of nine elements in NIST SRM 3087. The detection limit for this method is around at 0.1 μg cm -2 per element, so in BCR CRM No. 128, which is intended for ambient air pollution data, only Fe and Zn out of 14 elements reported in the certificate were detected with acceptable precision (i.e., 10%) owing to the very low air particulate matter loading, lying in the region of only 250 μg cm -2 . (Author)

  19. A state-of-the-art review of continuous monitoring and surveillance techniques in relation to reactor pressure circuit integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the present state of the art in the application to LWR primary circuit components of techniques for continuous monitoring and surveillance as an aid to structural integrity engineering assessments and to plant-life management. After discussing aspects related to the monitoring of plant operating conditions, particularly with respect to transient recording, the paper discusses neutron noise and vibration/noise measurements. The aspects of stress, temperature and chemical environment monitoring are discussed. Turning to measuring changes in mechanical properties of the structural materials the review first covers surveillance programmes for assessing irradiation embrittlement and then indicates a number of possibilities for the non-destructive monitoring of such changes although it is emphasized that none of these is ready for application without further development, calibration and plant trials. Moving on to the subject of monitoring structural damage the role of in-service inspection (ISI) using non-destructive testing methods is mentioned and the way that other methods, especially acoustic emission measurements, could supplement or in part replace such ISI is discussed. Other subjects covered include loose parts detection and leak detection which again often involve the use of acoustic emission. The paper ends with a short discussion and recommendations on future work and future possibilities

  20. Relation between anchorings of liquid crystals and conformation changes in aligning agents by the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Wei, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The anchoring direction of liquid crystals on a solid substrate surface depends upon many parameters characterizing the liquid-crystal--substrate interface, a variation of which may change this anchoring direction leading to the so-called anchoring transition. Here, based on the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique, we present two model systems to study the relation between anchoring directions and the conformation changes in aligning agents. A double-armed crown ether liquid crystal and a side chain polymer liquid crystal at an air-water interface both show phase transitions, accompanied by conformation changes. However, when the monolayers in different phases were transferred onto solid substrates to orient liquid crystals, we found that for the crown ether material the conformation change can alter the anchoring of liquid crystals between homeotropic and homogeneous alignments, while for the polymer liquid crystal, despite the conformation changes, the liquid crystals can only be aligned homeotropically. The involved mechanisms were briefly discussed in terms of the Landau-type phenomenological theory

  1. Section curve reconstruction and mean-camber curve extraction of a point-sampled blade surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-long Li

    Full Text Available The blade is one of the most critical parts of an aviation engine, and a small change in the blade geometry may significantly affect the dynamics performance of the aviation engine. Rapid advancements in 3D scanning techniques have enabled the inspection of the blade shape using a dense and accurate point cloud. This paper proposes a new method to achieving two common tasks in blade inspection: section curve reconstruction and mean-camber curve extraction with the representation of a point cloud. The mathematical morphology is expanded and applied to restrain the effect of the measuring defects and generate an ordered sequence of 2D measured points in the section plane. Then, the energy and distance are minimized to iteratively smoothen the measured points, approximate the section curve and extract the mean-camber curve. In addition, a turbine blade is machined and scanned to observe the curvature variation, energy variation and approximation error, which demonstrates the availability of the proposed method. The proposed method is simple to implement and can be applied in aviation casting-blade finish inspection, large forging-blade allowance inspection and visual-guided robot grinding localization.

  2. Automatic exposure control systems designed to maintain constant image noise: effects on computed tomography dose and noise relative to clinically accepted technique charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher P; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    To compare computed tomography dose and noise arising from use of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system designed to maintain constant image noise as patient size varies with clinically accepted technique charts and AEC systems designed to vary image noise. A model was developed to describe tube current modulation as a function of patient thickness. Relative dose and noise values were calculated as patient width varied for AEC settings designed to yield constant or variable noise levels and were compared to empirically derived values used by our clinical practice. Phantom experiments were performed in which tube current was measured as a function of thickness using a constant-noise-based AEC system and the results were compared with clinical technique charts. For 12-, 20-, 28-, 44-, and 50-cm patient widths, the requirement of constant noise across patient size yielded relative doses of 5%, 14%, 38%, 260%, and 549% and relative noises of 435%, 267%, 163%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, as compared with our clinically used technique chart settings at each respective width. Experimental measurements showed that a constant noise-based AEC system yielded 175% relative noise for a 30-cm phantom and 206% relative dose for a 40-cm phantom compared with our clinical technique chart. Automatic exposure control systems that prescribe constant noise as patient size varies can yield excessive noise in small patients and excessive dose in obese patients compared with clinically accepted technique charts. Use of noise-level technique charts and tube current limits can mitigate these effects.

  3. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  4. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  5. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  6. Construction of molecular potential energy curves by an optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Blake, A. J.; McCoy, D. G.; Torop, L.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for determining the potential energy curves for diatomic molecules from measurements of diffused or continuum spectra is presented. It is based on a numerical procedure which minimizes the difference between the calculated spectra and the experimental measurements and can be used in cases where other techniques, such as the conventional RKR method, are not applicable. With the aid of suitable spectral data, the associated dipole electronic transition moments can be simultaneously obtained. The method is illustrated by modeling the "longest band" of molecular oxygen to extract the E 3Σ u- and B 3Σ u- potential curves in analytical form.

  7. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  8. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  9. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  10. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  11. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  12. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  13. Investigation of size-fractionated urban aerosol and trace gases in Budapest by nuclear-related and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Zemplen-Papp, E.; Bobvos, J.

    1998-01-01

    An air pollution study was conducted at two urban residential sites in Budapest (one representing the downtown, the other representing a wooded suburb) from 9 April till 17 May 1996. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were simultaneously collected on a daily basis, and meteorological conditions were recorded at both sampling sites. Stacked filter units (SFUs) with an upper size inlet cut-off were used as sampling device separating the urban aerosol into a coarse (about 10-2 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter, EAD) and a fine ( 2 , SO 2 , CO and the total mass of the suspended particulate matter were measured every half hour at one of the sampling sites by commercial equipment. The SFU filters were analyzed by gravimetry for the total particle mass, by a light reflectance technique for black carbon, by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis for elemental composition (in combination for up to 40-45 elements). The analytical results were used for characterizing the levels and the multi-elemental composition of the urban aerosol at both sampling sites and for both size fractions, for investigating the atmospheric concentrations and diurnal variation of some criteria pollutants, and for comparing the time-trends of aerosols and trace gases. Identification of the major source types of the aerosol fractions and trace gases, and assessment of the relative contribution from these sources are to be accomplished by multivariate receptor modeling. The present paper reports on the status of the air pollution study, and gives a discussion of the results

  14. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  15. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  16. Understanding Neighborhood Environment Related to Hong Kong Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study Using Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y.; Wong, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Methods Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10–11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question “What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?” Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children’s physical activity. Results Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children’s physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included “Sufficient lighting”, “Bridge or tunnel”, “Few cars on roads”, “Convenient transportation”, “Subway station”, “Recreation grounds”, “Shopping malls with air conditioning”, “Fresh air”, “Interesting animals”, and “Perfume shop”. Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included “People who make me feel unsafe”, “Crimes nearby”, “Afraid of being taken or hurt at night”, “Hard to find toilet in shopping mall”, “Too much noise”, and “Too many people in recreation grounds”. Conclusions Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities. PMID:25187960

  17. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver W; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Scannella, John B

    2009-11-25

    Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D) I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae), or severing the spinal cord (Falconini). Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  18. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL

  19. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL

  20. Are we Breathing Clean Air in Metro Manila? (Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and Receptor Modeling Revealing the Real Score)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.

    2015-01-01

    Air Particulate matter (APM) is a mixture of different pollutant sources which can be of anthropogenic and/or natural origin, of which the size of great concern with regard to adverse effects on human health are generally less than 10μm (Referred to as PM10). Identification and apportionment of pollutant sources is important to be able to have better understanding of prevailing conditions in the area and thus better air quality management can be applied. APM (PM10) at sampling sites in Metro Manila (Philippines) has been monitored since 1998 for the primary purpose of source identification and source apportionment. APM samples (fractionated into coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fractions) were collected using a Gent air sampler. Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry and black carbon by reflectometry organic carbon/elemental carbon by thermal optical reflectance. Elemental concentrations were determined using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as the particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Source apportionment of fine air particles was done using PMF2. Result show PM10 levels to be in compliance to the Philippine 1-year guideline value of 60 μg m“-“3 but in exceedance of the US EPA 1-year standard of 15 μg m“-“3 and the WHO 1-year guideline value of 10 μg m“-“3. Annual mean % Fine BC levels range from 33% to 59%, but individual points can reach up to more than 80% of the PM2.5 levels. Pb level in the fine fraction exhibit decreasing trend coinciding with the introduction of unleaded-gasoline starting in 1998 and the eventual phase-out of the use of leaded-gasoline in 2001. Six air pollution sources have been identified in the fine fraction with vehicular emissions making up the bulk at about 50%. Other sources are smoke, secondary S, fine soil and industry. Addressing problems regarding traffic-related activities can greatly reduce the fine particulate pollution problems

  1. Patient-related quality assurance with different combinations of treatment planning systems, techniques, and machines. A multi-institutional survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiniger, Beatrice; Schwedas, Michael; Weibert, Kirsten; Wiezorek, Tilo [University Hospital Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Berger, Rene [SRH Hospital Gera, Department of Radiation Oncology, Gera (Germany); Eilzer, Sabine [Martin-Luther-Hospital, Radiation Therapy, Berlin (Germany); Kornhuber, Christine [University Hospital Halle, Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Lorenz, Kathleen [Hospital of Chemnitz, Department for Radiation Oncology, Chemnitz (Germany); Peil, Torsten [MVZ Center for Radiation Oncology Halle GmbH, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Reiffenstuhl, Carsten [University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Schilz, Johannes [Helios Hospital Erfurt, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erfurt (Germany); Schroeder, Dirk [SRH Central Hospital Suhl, Department of Radiation Oncology, Suhl (Germany); Pensold, Stephanie [Community Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Walke, Mathias [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolf, Ulrich [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    This project compares the different patient-related quality assurance systems for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques currently used in the central Germany area with an independent measuring system. The participating institutions generated 21 treatment plans with different combinations of treatment planning systems (TPS) and linear accelerators (LINAC) for the QUASIMODO (Quality ASsurance of Intensity MODulated radiation Oncology) patient model. The plans were exposed to the ArcCHECK measuring system (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL, USA). The dose distributions were analyzed using the corresponding software and a point dose measured at the isocenter with an ionization chamber. According to the generally used criteria of a 10 % threshold, 3 % difference, and 3 mm distance, the majority of plans investigated showed a gamma index exceeding 95 %. Only one plan did not fulfill the criteria and three of the plans did not comply with the commonly accepted tolerance level of ±3 % in point dose measurement. Using only one of the two examined methods for patient-related quality assurance is not sufficiently significant in all cases. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Projekts sollten die verschiedenen derzeit im mitteldeutschen Raum eingesetzten patientenbezogenen Qualitaetssicherungssysteme zur intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie (IMRT) und volumenmodulierten Arc-Radiotherapie (VMAT) mit einem unabhaengigen Messsystem verglichen werden. Die teilnehmenden Einrichtungen berechneten insgesamt 21 Bestrahlungsplaene mit verschiedenen Planungssystemen (TPS) und Linearbeschleunigern (LINAC) fuer das Patientenmodell QUASIMODO (Quality ASsurance of Intensity MODulated radiation Oncology), die dann auf das ArcCHECK-Phantom (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL, USA) uebertragen und abgestrahlt wurden. Zur Auswertung wurde sowohl eine Punktmessung im Isozentrum als auch die Dosisverteilung in der Diodenebene des

  2. Neutrophil and lymphocyte dose curves in whole-body relatively homogeneous human γ-irradiation (on the basis of the materials of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konchalovskij, M.V.; Baranov, A.E.; Solov'ev, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The experience in a study of regularties of the bone marrow syndrome in persons exposed to rather homogeneous γ-beam irradiation during the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (127 cases) were summed up. Hematological data were processed by computer, and emperic dose curves of neutrophils and lymphocytes were obtained within the range of 0.5-12 Gy by regressive analysis. New data were obtained on the nature of a course of a granulocyte recovery phase at a dose level over 5 Gy. Some features of the time course of lymphocytes in persons exposed to radiation during the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, were considered

  3. Cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory in curved spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a largely self-contained and broadly accessible exposition on two cosmological applications of algebraic quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime: a fundamental analysis of the cosmological evolution according to the Standard Model of Cosmology; and a fundamental study of the perturbations in inflation. The two central sections of the book dealing with these applications are preceded by sections providing a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Introductory material on the construction of linear QFTs on general curved spacetimes with and without gauge symmetry in the algebraic approach, physically meaningful quantum states on general curved spacetimes, and the backreaction of quantum fields in curved spacetimes via the semiclassical Einstein equation is also given. The reader should have a basic understanding of General Relativity and QFT on Minkowski spacetime, but no background in QFT on curved spacetimes or the algebraic approach to QFT is required.

  4. Experiments with conjugate gradient algorithms for homotopy curve tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Kashmira M.; Ribbens, Calvin J.; Watson, Layne T.; Kamat, Manohar P.; Walker, Homer F.

    1991-01-01

    There are algorithms for finding zeros or fixed points of nonlinear systems of equations that are globally convergent for almost all starting points, i.e., with probability one. The essence of all such algorithms is the construction of an appropriate homotopy map and then tracking some smooth curve in the zero set of this homotopy map. HOMPACK is a mathematical software package implementing globally convergent homotopy algorithms with three different techniques for tracking a homotopy zero curve, and has separate routines for dense and sparse Jacobian matrices. The HOMPACK algorithms for sparse Jacobian matrices use a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for the computation of the kernel of the homotopy Jacobian matrix, a required linear algebra step for homotopy curve tracking. Here, variants of the conjugate gradient algorithm are implemented in the context of homotopy curve tracking and compared with Craig's preconditioned conjugate gradient method used in HOMPACK. The test problems used include actual large scale, sparse structural mechanics problems.

  5. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  6. Theoretical foundations for environmental Kuznets curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Van

    This thesis provides a dynamic theory for analyzing the paths of aggregate output and pollution in a country over time. An infinite horizon, competitive growth-pollution model is explored in order to determine the role that economic scale, production techniques, and pollution regulations play in explaining the inverted U-shaped relationship between output and some forms of pollution (otherwise known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or EKC). Results indicate that the output-pollution relationship may follow a strictly increasing, strictly decreasing (but bounded), inverted U-shaped, or some combination of curves. While the 'scale' effect may cause output and pollution to exhibit a monotonic relationship, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may ultimately cause a de-linking of these two variables. Pollution-minimizing energy regulation policies are also investigated within this framework. It is found that the EKC may be 'flattened' or even eliminated moving from a poorly-regulated economy to one that minimizes pollution. The model is calibrated to the US economy for output (gross national product, GNP) and two pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2, and carbon dioxide, CO2) over the period 1900 to 1990. Results indicate that the model replicates the observations quite well. The predominance of 'scale' effects cause aggregate SO2 and CO2 levels to increase with GNP in the early stages of development. Then, in the case of SO 2, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may be the cause of falling SO2 levels with continued economic growth (establishing the EKC). CO2 continues to monotonically increase as output levels increase over time. The positive relationship may be due to the lack of regulations on this pollutant. If stricter regulation policies were instituted in the two case studies, an improved allocation of resources may result. While GNP may be 2.596 to 20% lower than what has been realized in the US economy (depending on the pollution variable analyzed), individual

  7. Testing the validity of stock-recruitment curve fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The utilities relied heavily on the Ricker stock-recruitment model as the basis for quantifying biological compensation in the Hudson River power case. They presented many fits of the Ricker model to data derived from striped bass catch and effort records compiled by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Based on this curve-fitting exercise, a value of 4 was chosen for the parameter alpha in the Ricker model, and this value was used to derive the utilities' estimates of the long-term impact of power plants on striped bass populations. A technique was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model were applicable to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the estimates of alpha from the curve-fitting exercise be considered reliable. The technique involved constructing a simulation model that incorporated the essential biological features of the population and simulated the characteristics of the available actual catch-per-unit-effort data through time. The ability or failure to retrieve the known parameter values underlying the simulation model via the curve-fitting exercise was a direct test of the reliability of the results of fitting stock-recruitment curves to the real data. The results demonstrated that estimates of alpha from the curve-fitting exercise were not reliable. The simulation-modeling technique provides an effective way to identify whether or not particular data are appropriate for use in fitting such models. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Novel Techniques and Their Wide Applications to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology in Relation to Policy Making on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Lozano, P; Lin, H C

    2004-01-01

    Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new markets for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing of existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, and biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated, marked impact on future markets and present policy changes that are needed for success in either Agricultural or Medical Biotechnology. The novel techniques are illustrated ...

  9. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  10. Wheelset curving guidance using H∞ control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazizadeh, Alireza; Stichel, Sebastian; Feyzmahdavian, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    This study shows how to design an active suspension system for guidance of a rail vehicle wheelset in curve. The main focus of the study is on designing the controller and afterwards studying its effect on the wheel wear behaviour. The controller is designed based on the closed-loop transfer function shaping method and ? control strategy. The study discusses designing of the controller for both nominal and uncertain plants and considers both stability and performance. The designed controllers in Simulink are then applied to the vehicle model in Simpack to study the wheel wear behaviour in curve. The vehicle type selected for this study is a two-axle rail vehicle. This is because this type of vehicle is known to have very poor curving performance and high wheel wear. On the other hand, the relative simpler structure of this type of vehicle compared to bogie vehicles make it a more economic choice. Hence, equipping this type of vehicle with the active wheelset steering is believed to show high enough benefit to cost ratio to remain attractive to rail vehicle manufacturers and operators.

  11. Parental acceptance of behaviour-management techniques used in paediatric dentistry and its relation to parental dental anxiety and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Vretos, N; Kotsanos, N

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acceptance by Greek parents of nine behaviour-management techniques and its association with several possible confounding factors. Following ethical approval, 106 parents whose 3- to 12-year-old children had been receiving treatment in a university postgraduate paediatric dental clinic, and 123 parents of children from a private paediatric dental practice agreed to participate. After being shown a video with nine behaviour-management techniques, parents rated the acceptance of each technique on a 0-10 scale. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire about demographics, their previous dental experience and dental anxiety (modified Corah dental anxiety scale). The best accepted technique was tell-show-do (9.76 ± 0.69), followed by parental presence/absence (PPA) technique (7.83 ± 3.06) and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (7.09 ± 3.02). The least accepted techniques were passive restraint (4.21 ± 3.84) and general anaesthesia (4.21 ± 4.02). No correlations were found between acceptance of any individual management technique and parental age, gender, income, education, dental experience and dental anxiety or the child's age, gender and dental experience. Parents whose children had been treated at the University clinic had lower income and educational levels, and rated passive restraint, oral sedation and general anaesthesia higher than those from the private practice. When the parents were specifically asked to choose between general anaesthesia over any of the active or passive restraint, hand-over-mouth and voice control techniques, 10% preferred general anaesthesia, and these parents reported statistically significant more negative dental experience but not higher dental anxiety. Statistical significance of differences was explored using the Tukey-Kramer method. There was no correlation between parental dental experience and dental anxiety and the acceptance of any specific behaviour-management technique

  12. Short-term Local Forecasting by Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Assess Related Social Effects from Heterogeneous Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Bing

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to use the sophisticated artificial intelligence and statistic techniques to forecast pollution and assess its social impact. To achieve the target of the research, this study is divided into several research sub-objectives as follows: First research sub-objective: propose a framework for relocating and reconfiguring the existing pollution monitoring networks by using feature selection, artificial intelligence techniques, and information theory. Second research sub-objective: c...

  13. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  14. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  15. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  16. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  17. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  18. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  19. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  20. Ergonomic factors related to drop-off detection with the long cane: effects of cane tips and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert S Wall; Curtis, Amy B

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user's ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user's characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

  1. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  2. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Vincken, Koen L; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, René M

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98-1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on "true" anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; P<0.001) and lumbar lordosis (+7.8%; P<0.001). For all primary as well as compensatory curves, we observed linear correlations between the coronal Cobb angle, axial rotation and the anterior-posterior length difference (r≥0.729 for thoracic curves; r≥0.485 for (thoraco)lumbar curves). Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is confined to the primary as well as the

  3. Manufacturability of Wood Plastic Composite Sheets on the Basis of the Post-Processing Cooling Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Matthews

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs are increasingly regarded as promising materials for future manufacturing industries. It is necessary to select and tune the post-processing methods to be able to utilize these materials fully. In this development, temperature-related material properties and the cooling rate are important indicators. This paper presents the results of natural cooling in a factory environment fit into a cooling curve function with temperature zones for forming, cutting, and packaging overlaid using a WPC material. This information is then used in the evaluation of manufacturability and productivity in terms of cost effectiveness and technical quality by comparing the curve to actual production time data derived from a prototype post-process forming line. Based on this information, speed limits for extrusion are presented. This paper also briefly analyzes techniques for controlling material cooling to counter the heat loss before post-processing.

  4. Melting curve of materials: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfe, D; Vocadlo, L; Price, G D; Gillan, M J

    2004-01-01

    A number of melting curves of various materials have recently been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically, but the agreement between different groups is not always good. We discuss here some of the problems which may arise in both experiments and theory. We also report the melting curves of Fe and Al calculated recently using quantum mechanics techniques, based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximations. For Al our results are in very good agreement with both low pressure diamond-anvil-cell experiments (Boehler and Ross 1997 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153 223, Haenstroem and Lazor 2000 J. Alloys Compounds 305 209) and high pressure shock wave experiments (Shaner et al 1984 High Pressure in Science and Technology ed Homan et al (Amsterdam: North-Holland) p 137). For Fe our results agree with the shock wave experiments of Brown and McQueen (1986 J. Geophys. Res. 91 7485) and Nguyen and Holmes (2000 AIP Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 505 81) and the recent diamond-anvil-cell experiments of Shen et al (1998 Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 373). Our results are at variance with the recent calculations of Laio et al (2000 Science 287 1027) and, to a lesser extent, with the calculations of Belonoshko et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3638). The reasons for these disagreements are discussed

  5. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  6. Estimating daily flow duration curves from monthly streamflow data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes two techniques by which to establish 1-day (1d) flow duration curves at an ungauged site where only a simulated or calculated monthly flow time series is available. Both methods employ the straightforward relationships between...

  7. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  8. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem and in this case localized excitations are found to persist. We found also interesting relaxational dynamics. Analogies of the present problem in context related to atomic physics and particularly to Bose–Einstein condensation are discussed.......Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...

  9. Establishment of Accurate Calibration Curve for National Verification at a Large Scale Input Accountability Tank in RRP - For Strengthening State System for Meeting Safeguards Obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Y.; Kato, T.; Nidaira, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tanks are installed in a reprocessing plant for spent fuel in order to account solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is crucial to implement accurate accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve related with the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes in tanks. More than one calibration curves depending on the height are commonly applied for each tank, but it's not explicitly decided how many segments are used, where to select segment, or what order of polynomial curve. Here we present the rational construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. The tank calibration work has been conducted in the course of contract with Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO) about safeguards information treatment. (author)

  10. Curve fitting for RHB Islamic Bank annual net profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Dineswary; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd

    2015-05-01

    The RHB Islamic Bank net profit data are obtained from 2004 to 2012. Curve fitting is done by assuming the data are exact or experimental due to smoothing process. Higher order Lagrange polynomial and cubic spline with curve fitting procedure are constructed using Maple software. Normality test is performed to check the data adequacy. Regression analysis with curve estimation is conducted in SPSS environment. All the eleven models are found to be acceptable at 10% significant level of ANOVA. Residual error and absolute relative true error are calculated and compared. The optimal model based on the minimum average error is proposed.

  11. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotationon the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail, The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without ro-tation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis foree to centrifugal foree and the axial pressure gradient.

  12. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotation on the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail. The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without rotation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis force to centrifugal force and the axial pressure gradient.

  13. Training in different brushing techniques in relation to efficacy of oral hygiene in young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Stein, Kathrin; Stein, Patrick; Margraf-Stiksrud, Jutta; Deinzer, Renate

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess plaque scores after oral hygiene in an unselected sample of young German adults and to compare the effects of computer-based training of the Fones versus the modified Bass technique on these scores. Seventy 18- to 19-year olds received computer-based training of the Fones technique, the modified Bass technique or basic instructions of oral hygiene alone (control group). The marginal plaque index (MPI; percentage of sections adjacent to the gingiva showing plaque) and BOP were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12 and 28 weeks. MPI was assessed immediately after participants had been asked to perform oral hygiene to the best of their abilities. At baseline, MPI levels of 83.3% ± 12.5 (mean ± SD) were observed. After 12 weeks, groups differed significantly (p group: 70.3% ± 14.7; Bass group: 77.91 ± 14.37; control group: 79.3% ± 9.2. No differences in BOP were found. High plaque levels at gingival margins after oral hygiene were observed in an unselected sample of young German adults. After 12 weeks, plaque levels after oral hygiene were slightly reduced in the group who had received training of the Fones technique but effects trailed off afterwards. The study failed to prove effects of the training on signs of gingival inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Modelling stochastic chances in curve shape, with an application to cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, A; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    2000-01-01

    Often, the statistical analysis of the shape of a random planar curve is based on a model for a polygonal approximation to the curve. In the present paper, we instead describe the curve as a continuous stochastic deformation of a template curve. The advantage of this continuous approach is that t......Often, the statistical analysis of the shape of a random planar curve is based on a model for a polygonal approximation to the curve. In the present paper, we instead describe the curve as a continuous stochastic deformation of a template curve. The advantage of this continuous approach...... is that the parameters in the model do not relate to a particular polygonal approximation. A somewhat similar approach has been used by Kent et al. (1996), who describe the limiting behaviour of a model with a first-order Markov property as the landmarks on the curve become closely spaced; see also Grenander(1993...

  15. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  18. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-10

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  19. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  20. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.