WorldWideScience

Sample records for currents coastal sea

  1. Properties of Red Sea coastal currents

    KAUST Repository

    Churchill, J.H.

    2014-02-14

    Properties of coastal flows of the central Red Sea are examined using 2 years of velocity data acquired off the coast of Saudi Arabia near 22 °N. The tidal flow is found to be very weak. The strongest tidal constituent, the M2 tide, has a magnitude of order 4 cm s−1. Energetic near-inertial and diurnal period motions are observed. These are surface-intensified currents, reaching magnitudes of >10 cm s−1. Although the diurnal currents appear to be principally wind-driven, their relationship with the surface wind stress record is complex. Less than 50% of the diurnal current variance is related to the diurnal wind stress through linear correlation. Correlation analysis reveals a classical upwelling/downwelling response to the alongshore wind stress. However, less than 30% of the overall sub-inertial variance can be accounted for by this response. The action of basin-scale eddies, impinging on the coastal zone, is implicated as a primary mechanism for driving coastal flows.

  2. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  3. Air-Sea and Lateral Exchange Processes in East Indian Coastal Current off Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    from small-scale mixing to the reversal of monsoonal currents, in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and around Sri Lanka and the role of regional air-sea...The program supports logistics of numerous US scientists operating in the Indian Ocean under ASIRI, EBOB and NASCAR projects. Capacity building is a

  4. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently...Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) code being developed in the ONR Ocean Model Development for COAMPS project. This model was first set up on the NPAC

  5. Current Land Subsidence and Sea Level Rise along the North American Coastal Region: Observations from 10-Year (2005-2014) Closely-Spaced GPS and Tide Gauge Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Yu, J.; Kearns, T.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Strong evidence has proved that the global sea-level is now rising at an increased rate and it is projected to continue to rise. However the rise of the sea-level is not uniform around the world. The local or relative sea-level rise will be of great concern to the coastal regions. The combination of the land subsidence and global sea-level rise causes the relative sea-level to rise. Relative sea-level rise increases the risk of flooding and wetland loss problems in near coastal areas, which in turn have important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important coastal region. However the role played by the coastal land subsidence is commonly absent during the discussion of sea-level rise problems. The sea-level can be measured in two ways: satellite altimetry and tide gauges. The sea-level measured by satellite is called the geocentric sea-level that is relative to earth center and the one measured by tide gauges is called local sea-level that is relative to the land. The tide gauge measurements of the local sea-level do not distinguish between whether the water is rising or the land is subsiding. In some coastal areas, land subsidence is occurring at a higher rate than the geocentric sea-level is rising. This can have a great local effect. GPS technology has proven to be efficient and accurate for measuring and tracking absolute land elevation change. There are about 300 publically available Continuously Operating Reference GPS Stations (CORS) within 15 km from the coastal line along North America. In this study, we use publicly available long-history (> 5 years) CORS data to derive current (2005-2014) coastal subsidence in North America. Absolute coastal sea-level rise will be determined by combing the land subsidence and relative sea-level measurements. This study shows that the relative sea-level of the Alaska area appears to be falling because the land is uplifting; this study also shows that the

  6. The use of current-induced transport for coastal protection in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Delpeche, Nicole; Viikmäe, Bert

    2010-05-01

    The existence of semi-persistent patterns of currents in various parts of the Baltic Sea leads to the interplay of the high variability of the surface currents with the presence of rapid pathways of the transport of adverse impacts. This variability and accompanying asymmetry of the current-driven transport opens a new way towards the use of marine dynamics for reducing the environmental risks. The key benefit is an increase of time during which an adverse impact (for example, an oil spill) reaches a vulnerable area after an accident has happened. We attempt to identify the regions that are at high and low risk in terms of current-transported coastal pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. A solution to this inverse problem is sought by means of analysis of a large pool of solutions to an associated direct problem of the current-driven transport. The basic tool is a Lagrangian trajectory model, TRACMASS that uses 3D current velocity fields calculated by the Rossby Centre global circulation model. The goal is to evaluate the basic parameters of transport that cannot be extracted directly from the velocity data, such as the average net transport rate and the ratio of average net and bulk transport. These parameters allow estimating whether or not the proposed approach would lead to substantial benefit. Trajectories of current-driven pollution for each sea point are simulated for a few weeks and the simulations are repeated over several years. The average time it takes for the pollutants to reach the coastal zone is a measure of risk associated with the starting point. A comparison of the average net transport with the velocity fields allows identifying the areas that may have very strong (or weak) flow and the direction of such flows. Similar patterns in the ratio of average net and bulk transport allows identifying both the areas of fast moving flow and the areas where mostly local eddy-driven circulation exists. The results show a substantial seasonal and

  7. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Sea Level Rise Data: Current Mean Higher High Water Inundation Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  8. Air-sea exchange of CO2 at a Northern California coastal site along the California Current upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Oechel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in the air-sea CO2 exchange (CO2 flux in coastal upwelling zones is attributed to high temporal variability, which is caused by changes in ocean currents. Upwelling transports heterotrophic, CO2 enriched water to the surface and releases CO2 to the atmosphere, whereas the presence of nutrient-rich water at the surface supports high primary production and atmospheric CO2 uptake. To quantify the effects of upwelling on CO2 fluxes, we measured CO2 flux at a coastal upwelling site off of Bodega Bay, California, during the summer of 2007 and the fall of 2008 using the eddy covariance technique and the bulk method with pCO2 measurements from November 2010 to July 2011. Variations in sea surface temperatures (SST and alongshore wind speeds suggest that the measurement period in 2007 coincided with a typical early-summer upwelling period and the measurement period in 2008 was during a typical fall relaxation period. A strong source of CO2 (~1.5 ± 7 SD (standard deviation g C m−2 day−1 from the ocean to the atmosphere during the upwelling period was concurrent with high salinity, low SST, and low chlorophyll density. In contrast, a weak source of CO2 flux (~0.2 ± 3 SD g C m−2 day−1 was observed with low salinity, high SST and high chlorophyll density during the relaxation period. Similarly, the sink and source balance of CO2flux was highly related to salinity and SST during the pCO2 measurement periods; high salinity and low SST corresponded to high pCO2, and vice versa. We estimated that the coastal area off Bodega Bay was likely a source of CO2 to the atmosphere based on the following conclusions: (1 the overall CO2 flux estimated from both eddy covariance and pCO2 measurements showed a source of CO2; (2 although the relaxation period during the 2008 measurements were favorable to CO2 uptake, CO2 flux during this period was still a slight source, (3 salinity and SST were found to be good predictors of the CO2 flux for both eddy

  9. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  10. Inhibition of mixed-layer deepening during winter in the northeastern Arabian Sea by the West India Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, D.; Remya, R.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Behera, Ambica

    2016-08-01

    Though the deep mixed layers (MLs) that form in the northeastern Arabian Sea (NEAS) during the winter monsoon (November-February) have been attributed to convective mixing driven by dry, cool northeasterly winds from the Indian subcontinent, data show that the deepest MLs occur in the northern NEAS and the maxima of latent-heat and net heat fluxes in the southern NEAS. We use an oceanic general circulation model to show that the deep MLs in the NEAS extend up to ~20°N till the end of December, but are restricted poleward of ~22°N (~23°N) in January (February). This progressive restriction of the deep mixed layers within the NEAS is due to poleward advection of water of lower salinity by the West India Coastal Current (WICC). The deep MLs are sustained till February in the northern NEAS because convective mixing deepens the ML before the waters of lower salinity reach this region and the wind stirring and convective overturning generate sufficient turbulent energy for the ML to maintain the depth attained in January. Though the atmospheric fluxes tend to cool the ML in the southern NEAS, this cooling is countered by the warming due to horizontal advection. Likewise, the cooling due to entrainment, which continues in the southern NEAS even as the ML shallows during January-February, is almost cancelled by the warming caused by a downwelling vertical velocity field. Therefore, the SST changes very little during December-February even as the ML shallows dramatically in the southern NEAS. These deep MLs of the NEAS also preclude a strong intraseasonal response to the intraseasonal variability in the fluxes. This role of horizontal advection implies that the ML depth in the NEAS is determined by an interplay of physical processes that are forced differently. The convective mixing depends on processes that are local to the region, but the advection is due to the WICC, whose seasonal cycle is primarily forced by remote winds. By inhibiting the formation of deep MLs in

  11. Waves, currents and sea level variations along the Letipea - Sillamäe coastal section of the southern Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülo Suursaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the hydrodynamic conditions were studied on the basis of 336 days of measurements with a Doppler current profiler. With wave data as a calibration reference, a semi-empirical hindcast of wave parameters is presented in the fetch-limited near-shore area for the period 1966-2008. A resultant 4-6 cm s-1 westward current dominated along the coast. Occasional fast sub-surface westward currents under modest wind forcing, as well as asymmetrical vertical profiles for westward and eastward currents indicated the influence of upwelling-related baroclinic coastal jets. The average frequency of upwelling was estimated at 17%; some of the events were identified in near-homothermic winter conditions on the basis of salinity and multi-layer flow records. While the mean sea level trend at Narva-Jõesuu roughly approximated the global estimates for 1899-2009, the annual maximum sea level increase was 5-8 mm yr-1. Both mean and maximum wave heights declined as a result of decreasing winds from the north.

  12. Satellite observations of the northeast monsoon coastal current

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Satellite Infrared observations, from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), during November 1987-February 1988 and hydrographic data from the eastern Arabian Sea are used to describe the poleward flowing coastal current in the eastern...

  13. DMI's Baltic Sea Coastal operational forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Berg, Per; Weismann Poulsen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Operational forecasting is challenged with bridging the gap between the large scales of the driving weather systems and the local, human scales of the model applications. The limit of what can be represented by local model has been continuously shifted to higher and higher spatial resolution, with the aim to better resolve the local dynamic and to make it possible to describe processes that could only be parameterised in older versions, with the ultimate goal to improve the quality of the forecast. Current hardware trends demand a str onger focus on the development of efficient, highly parallelised software and require a refactoring of the code with a solid focus on portable performance. The gained performance can be used for running high resolution model with a larger coverage. Together with the development of efficient two-way nesting routines, this has made it possible to approach the near-coastal zone with model applications that can run in a time effective way. Denmarks Meteorological Institute uses the HBM(1) ocean circulation model for applications that covers the entire Baltic Sea and North Sea with an integrated model set-up that spans the range of horizontal resolution from 1nm for the entire Baltic Sea to approx. 200m resolution in local fjords (Limfjord). For the next model generation, the high resolution set-ups are going to be extended and new high resolution domains in coastal zones are either implemented or tested for operational use. For the first time it will be possible to cover large stretches of the Baltic coastal zone with sufficiently high resolution to model the local hydrodynamic adequately. (1) HBM stands for HIROMB-BOOS-Model, whereas HIROMB stands for "High Resolution Model for the Baltic Sea" and BOOS stands for "Baltic Operational Oceanography System".

  14. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT STATE OF COASTAL MARINE WATER OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We analysed current environmental state of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources. Location. Dagestan coastal area of the Caspian SeaMethods. Concentration analysis of background contamination of chemical agents in the Dagestan coastal water from northern districts (Lopatin to southern (Sulak coastal land during the period between 2004 and 2007.Results. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources.Main conclusions. The envisaged large-scale hydrocarbon resource development requires regular monitoring of sea currents on Makhachkala, Izberbash and Derbent roads.

  15. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Sea Level Rise Data: Current Mean Higher High Water Inundation Extent (Hawaii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  16. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  17. Coastal tomographic mapping of nonlinear tidal currents and residual currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Xinyu

    2017-07-01

    Depth-averaged current data, which were obtained by coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) July 12-13, 2009 in Zhitouyang Bay on the western side of the East China Sea, are used to estimate the semidiurnal tidal current (M2) as well as its first two overtide currents (M4 and M6). Spatial mean amplitude ratios M2:M4:M6 in the bay are 1.00:0.15:0.11. The shallow-water equations are used to analyze the generation mechanisms of M4 and M6. In the deep area, where water depths are larger than 60 m, M4 velocity amplitudes measured by CAT agree well with those predicted by the advection terms in the shallow water equations, indicating that M4 in the deep area is predominantly generated by the advection terms. M6 measured by CAT and M6 predicted by the nonlinear quadratic bottom friction terms agree well in the area where water depths are less than 20 m, indicating that friction mechanisms are predominant for generating M6 in the shallow area. In addition, dynamic analysis of the residual currents using the tidally averaged momentum equation shows that spatial mean values of the horizontal pressure gradient due to residual sea level and of the advection of residual currents together contribute about 75% of the spatial mean values of the advection by the tidal currents, indicating that residual currents in this bay are induced mainly by the nonlinear effects of tidal currents. This is the first ever nonlinear tidal current study by CAT.

  18. Holocene coastal sea surface temperature changes in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K.; Kong, D.; Wei, G.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) changes in the northern South China Sea (SCS) coastal region are affected by complex factors. Previous studies have identified a long-term cooling trend, attributed to coastal mixing and intensified East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), yet spatial patterns of coastal cooling along the southern China are still not well established. Here we reconstructed a Holocene Sea Surface Temperature (SST) record, derived from long-chain alkenone unsaturation index - UK'37, in the northern SCS. Our result reveals that a gentle cooling trend dominates the mid-late Holocene. The gradual warming trend occurring during the early Holocene might have resulted from the rising sea level or the rebound of "8.2 ka cold event". Besides, the C37-content also shows an extremely-low level before 8 ka. Later, both alkenone-derived SST and C37-content reach their highest levels during approximately 7-4.5 ka, corresponding to the Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO). Consistent with previous studies, the long-term cooling trend identified in coastal regions, but not offshore ones, presumably indicates intensified EAWM toward present. Further, during the late Holocene, coastal SST changes in the northern SCS show heterogeneous responses to global climatic conditions. In the Mirs Bay, SST was warmer during the Little Ice Age (LIA) than the Medieval Warm Period (WMP) and the current warm period, interpreted as reflecting intensified coastal mixing, due to strengthened East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during warmer periods. However, SST records at other coastal sites, as well as offshore regions, show fluctuations consistent with global/northern hemisphere temperature changes, suggesting that these regions are less influenced by the EASM-induced coastal mixing, probably with the aid of Pearl River freshwater input.

  19. Wind energy input in coastal seas east of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Nan; WU Dexing

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the wind energy input,an important source of mechanical energy,in the coastal seas east of China.Using the wind field from the high-resolution sea surface meteorology dataset in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea,and East China Sea,we studied the wind energy input through surface ageostrophic currents and surface waves.Using a simple analytical formula for the Ekman Spiral with timedependent wind,the wind energy input through ageostrophic currents was estimated at ~22 GW averaged from 1960 to 2007,and through use of an empirical formula,the wind energy input through surface waves was estimated at ~169 GW.We also examined the seasonal variation and long-term tendency of mechanical energy from wind stress,and found that the wind energy input to the East China Sea decreased before the 1980s,and then subsequently increased,which is contrary to what has been found for the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea.More complicated physical processes and varying diffusivity need to be taken into account in future studies.

  20. Storminess helps coastal marshes withstand sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Rising sea levels are predicted to threaten many coastal sea marshes around the world in the coming decades as the Earth's climate warms. In addition to accelerating sea level rise, global climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of storms in many places around the world. However, few studies have taken into account how an increased storminess might affect the ability of coastal marshes to withstand sea level rise.

  1. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  2. Coastal Currents with Along-Track Interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greidanus, H.S.F.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Huising, E.J.; Vogelzang, J.; Vaessen, E.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Airborne radar along-track interferometric measurements of a coastal area with a complex tidal flow pattern are analyzed. The results are compared with a current field computed from a tidal model. Using wave-current interaction modeling, a radar backscatter image is simulated based on the measured c

  3. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  4. [Species composition and distribution characteristics of pelagic copepods in the Northern Sea of Fujian during withdraw of Zhe-Min coastal current].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Lin, Jing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Guang; Lin, Mao

    2012-06-01

    Based on oceanographic survey data in April 2009 in the north central Taiwan Strait, ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual density, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results were compared with the same area survey in spring 2007 for discuss the annual variety. The result shows that 48 pelagic copepods species have been recognized, and most of them belongs to Calanodia. The higher species number occurs in southern and eastern area. The average density of pelagic copepoda was 231.96 ind x m(-3). As to the horizontal distribution, the coast and northern areas are higher than those of eastern and southern areas of the density of pelagic copepods which are dependent on the dominant species Calanus sinicus and Euchaeta plana. The community structure of pelagic copepoda was same to the other survey result, which shows low biodiversity index with remarkable dominant species. Owing to the Zhe-Min coastal current effect, the higher density distribution is different in 2007 and 2009. As to the ecological character, all the copepoda in this paper belong to warm-water, warm-temperature and tropic oceanic groups. Warm-water and tropic oceanic groups are the dominant groups of the pelagic copepods composition. When it comes to density, warm-temperature group is the dominant. The relationship of species number, diversity index and abundance with the environment were also discussed in this paper. The result showed that the pelagic copepoda species number and diversity would increase with the temperature and salty increase.

  5. Field Observations of Coastal Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the nearshore zone wind, waves, and currents generated from different forcing mechanisms converge in shallow water. This can profoundly affect the physical nature of the ocean surface, which can significantly modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass across the air-sea interface. For decades, the focus of air-sea interaction research has been on the open ocean while the shallow water regime has been relatively under-explored. This bears implications for efforts to understand and model various coastal processes, such as mixing, surface transport, and air-sea gas flux. The results from a recent study conducted at the New River Inlet in North Carolina showed that directly measured air-sea flux parameters, such as the atmospheric drag coefficient, are strong functions of space as well as the ambient conditions (i.e. wind speed and direction). The drag is typically used to parameterize the wind stress magnitude. It is generally assumed that the wind direction is the direction of the atmospheric forcing (i.e. wind stress), however significant wind stress steering off of the azimuthal wind direction was observed and was found to be related to the horizontal surface current shear. The authors have just returned from a field campaign carried out within Monterey Bay in California. Surface observations made from two research vessels were complimented by an array of beach and inland flux stations, high-resolution wind forecasts, and satellite image acquisitions. This is a rich data set and several case studies will be analyzed to highlight the importance of various processes for understanding the air-sea fluxes. Preliminary findings show that interactions between the local wind-sea and the shoaling, incident swell can have a profound effect on the wind stress magnitude. The Monterey Bay coastline contains a variety of topographical features and the importance of land-air-sea interactions will also be investigated.

  6. NOAA Digital Coast Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer depicts potential sea level rise and its associated impacts on the nation's coastal areas. These coastal areas...

  7. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Galabov, Vasko; Kortcheva, Anna; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protect...

  8. USGS Map service: Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coastal vulnerability index (CVI)provides a preliminary overview, at a National scale, of the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise....

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  10. USGS Map service: Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coastal vulnerability index (CVI)provides a preliminary overview, at a National scale, of the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise....

  11. Evidences of a coastal current in the Campeche Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valdes, J.; Ruiz-Castillo, E.; Rioja-Nieto, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Campeche Bank is the largest continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. It is located at the north edge of the Yucatan peninsula. In this paper, we present some evidences of a coastal current that flows westward trough the bank. The analysis of the climatology of sea surface temperature obtained from a 23-year record of Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) data unveiled an alongshore cold-water band which origin is in the Yucatan Channel. The cold-water band, which is visible from May to October, is in the coastal zone where turbulence is the dominant mixing mechanism. In addition, shipboard observations were carried out in September 2002, April 2005, August 2007, and July 2009 in order to observe the temporal and spatial variability of the water mass structure in the bank. Under the assumption of geostrophy, a westward flow trough the bank is deduced from the conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data. The westward current occurs in the entire water column with a velocity of the order of 20 cm/s at 10 m depth. The most likely forcing mechanism for this coastal current is the wind. The analysis of the climatology of sea surface winds obtained from a 23-year record of cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP) data revealed a strong semiannual fluctuation of the trade winds over the bank. From May to October the trade winds are parallel to the coast and in the rest of the year its direction changes. The relationship between current and wind is examined using coastal continental shelf models. SST mean in the Campeche Bank. Solid lines indicate isobaths.

  12. Changing Coastal oceanography of the Black Sea. I: Northwestern Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmazin, D.

    This article describes the hydrography of the Northwestern Shelf (NWS), of the Black Sea emphasizing the changes induced by water management in the Dniejer and Dniester river basins. The existing literature and previously unpublished data have been reviewed and synthesized to describe water property fields and transport mechanisms of the NWS and the Dnieper and Dniester estuaries before the early 1960s, or the so-called precontrol period, when the effect of artificial river flow control upon the coastal waters was insignificant. After the hydroenergy complexes and water withdrawal and disposal systems on rivers became fully operational in the early 1970s (the so-called postcontrol period), the annual river discharge from the Dnieper and Dniester had noticeably decreased and seasonal river flow patterns had been artificially modified. Instead of a powerful and short early spring flood, typical for the natural conditions in the Dnieper river, the hydrographs in the postcontrol period exhibit two smaller peaks of river discharge of much longer period. One of them (winter-early spring) is caused by intense hydroenergy generation and weir discharges through the cascade of storage reservoirs. Another is associated with spring flood, modified by intense water consumption and storage in this period. High average river discharge in late May-early June strengthened the summer pycnocline which inhibits vertical mixing in the estuaries and coastal waters. Owing to a slow summer circulation, the rate of natural purification of the entire coastal system has been reduced. This coupled with the increased nutrient, organic and pollutant transport, decreased the dissolved-oxygen concentration and led to anoxic events and mass mortalities of marine organisms in the previously productive regions. These effects have primarily plagued the benthic communities along the entire western coast of the NWS since 1973. Winter convective overturn in the Black Sea reaches its maximum depth at the

  13. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  14. Observational evidence for remote forcing of the west India coastal current

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Suresh, I.; Shankar, D.; Sundar, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Pednekar, P.S.

    remote and local forcing in observations. Using field measurements (current, sea level, and wind) for a month during March-April 2003 off Goa in the near-coast regime of the West India Coastal Current (WICC), we show that the current was driven by local...

  15. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  16. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir; Engelbrecht, Johann P.

    2016-09-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  17. Aerosol optical thickness and spatial variability along coastal and offshore waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, H.B.; Sangekar, N.; Lotliker, A.; Moorthy, K.K.; Vethamony, P.

    quantity required for determining aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The role of aerosols in climate change remains uncertain. Although the theory behind their effect on outgoing terrestrial and incoming solar radiations is well... waters. The current study aims to formulate a technique to derive AOT from OCM 3 over coastal waters and to demonstrate the method’s potential for analysing aerosol distribution along the eastern coastal Arabian Sea. In the fisheries context, these AOT...

  18. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neumann

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential

  19. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  20. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  1. Explaining trends and variability in coastal relative sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive understanding of trends and variability in coastal mean sea level is vital for protecting shores under a changing climate. To understand the behavior of coastal relative sea level (RSL), it is crucial to identify all relevant processes. We combine data from various geophysical models and observations to determine whether the trends and decadal variability observed in relative sea level at tide gauges can be explained by the sum of all known contributors. A key contributor to RSL is vertical land motion, which is caused by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), solid earth response to surface loading, tectonics, and local effects. We explicitly model low-frequency loading effects to correct GPS records, which leads to a more consistent trend than only using GIA models. Secondly, we create sea level fingerprints based on estimates of ice melt and changes in land hydrology, which provide the RSL contribution due to large-scale mass transport. Since coastal areas are often located on shallow continental shelves, steric effects will generally be small, and a large fraction of the decadal sea level variability will have a remote steric origin. Therefore, we determine a relation between coastal sea level and deep sea steric variability. For the period 1950-2012, we find that for many locations, including the European coast, the observed and modeled RSL time series agree well on decadal and secular scales.

  2. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    WORLDWIDE APRIL 2016 REGIONAL SEA LEVEL SCENARIOS FOR COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT: COVER PHOTOS, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: - Overwash of the island of Roi-Namur on...J.A., S. Gill, J. Obeysekera, W. Sweet, K. Knuuti, and J. Marburger. 2016. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COASTAL SITES WORLDWIDE REGIONAL SEA LEVEL SCENARIOS FOR COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT: 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 17D08 Alexandria, VA

  3. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  4. Sea Extremes: Integrated impact assessment in coastal climate adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Knudsen, Per; Broge, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We investigate effects of sea level rise and a change in precipitation pattern on coastal flooding hazards. Historic and present in situ and satellite data of water and groundwater levels, precipitation, vertical ground motion, geology,and geotechnical soil properties are combined with flood...... protection measures, topography, and infrastructure to provide a more complete picture of the water-related impact from climate change at an exposed coastal location. Results show that future sea extremes evaluated from extreme value statistics may, indeed, have a large impact. The integrated effects from...

  5. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  6. Potential effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Patty; Clough, Jonathan; Polaczyk, Amy; Couvillion, Brady R.; Nunley, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands contain about 37% of the estuarine herbaceous marshes in the conterminous United States. The long-term stability of coastal wetlands is often a function of a wetland's ability to maintain elevation equilibrium with mean sea level through processes such as primary production and sediment accretion. However, Louisiana has sustained more coastal wetland loss than all other states in the continental United States combined due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, including sea-level rise. This study investigates the potential impact of current and accelerating sea-level rise rates on key coastal wetland habitats in southeastern Louisiana using the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM). Model calibration was conducted using a 1956–2007 observation period and hindcasting results predicted 35% versus observed 39% total marsh loss. Multiple sea-level-rise scenarios were then simulated for the period of 2007–2100. Results indicate a range of potential wetland losses by 2100, from an additional 2,188.97 km2 (218,897 ha, 9% of the 2007 wetland area) under the lowest sea-level-rise scenario (0.34 m), to a potential loss of 5,875.27 km2 (587,527 ha, 24% of the 2007 wetland area) in the highest sea-level-rise scenario (1.9 m). Model results suggest that one area of particular concern is the potential vulnerability of the region's baldcypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) swamp habitat, much of which is projected to become permanently flooded (affecting regeneration) under all modeled scenarios for sea-level rise. These findings will aid in the development of ecosystem management plans that support the processes and conditions that result in sustainable coastal ecosystems.

  7. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Vitousek; Patrick L. Barnard; Fletcher, Charles H.; Neil Frazer; Li Erikson; Curt D. Storlazzi

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated...

  8. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir M Zaid

    2017-06-01

    Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element geochemistry of 26 coastal dune sand samples were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic environment of two dune fields close to the beaches of Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Onshore winds generate fine, moderate, moderately-well to well-sorted, coarse-skewed to near-symmetrical dune sands with mesokurtic distributions. Winds pick up and transport grains from nearby beach sands and alluvial deposits into a wide Red Sea coastal plain at the border of the beach. The mineralogical (Qt–Ft–Lt) and geochemical composition of the sands, indicate that SF and QS coastal dune sands are mature and influenced by quartz-rich sands. The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and alluvial sand sources. The dominance of heavy minerals like amphiboles (hornblende) and biotite in the coastal dune sands also supports the effect of metamorphic-plutonic source rocks. The new tectonic discriminant-function diagrams suggest that the coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The results provide a good evidence for the extension in the Red Sea rift system during Oligocene-post Pliocene, which is consistent with the general geology of Egypt.

  9. Impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem by a severe coastal storm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanchez-Vidal

    Full Text Available Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26(th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem.

  10. Impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem by a severe coastal storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26(th) of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem.

  11. Fine Resolution Termohaline Structure Of The Yuctatan Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez-Ortiz, C.; Capurro, L.; Euan-Avila, J.

    2007-05-01

    In the Yucatan peninsula there are a variety processes that drastically affect the thermohaline structure of the coastal seas. Some of these include hyperhaline lagoons that export salt to the ocean, upwelling events that propagate to the coast, persistent submarine groundwater discharges, and very high evaporation rates caused by the intense solar radiation. On July 2006 a fine resolution oceanographic campaign was performed on the Yucatan coast to study the detailed structure of thermohaline processes and currents from the shore to the 10 m isobath. A total of sixty nine transects that cover the entire northern stretch of the Yucatan coast were made. The transects extend seven kilometers in the offshore direction and have an alongshore spacing of 5 km. The temperature and salinity characteristics of the water column were monitored with a SEABIRD SBE 19 CTD performing profiles every 500 m along each transect. Ocean currents were measures along the same transect using a 1.5 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (Sontek). The results clearly show the effects of coastal lagoons on the adjoining sea, with net salt export associated with hyperhaline lagoons (e.g. Ria Lagartos) or more estuarine influence of lagoons such as Celestun, where groundwater discharges play the role of rivers on the estuary. An assessment of this influence on the coastal ocean will be presented. It is well known the meteor impact at the end of the Cretacic era at Chicxulub, Yucatan, generated a crater with multiple rings which is evident from horizontal gravity gradients of the Yucatan mainland, and that associated with the outer ring there is a high concentration of cenotes (sinkholes) (Pope et al. 1991; Hildebrand, et al. 1995). It has also been shown that groundwater flows along this cenote ring towards the ocean, and the zones where the ring intersects the coast (Celestun and Dzilam Bravo) have impressive geologic features known as `submarine water springs' where freshwater springs as a fountain

  12. Late Quaternary faunal change in coastal Arabian sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.; Rao, K.K.; Krishnamurthy, R.V.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    Carbonate content and faunal composition of two gravity cores from the coastal Arabian Sea provide evidence of a major environmental change in surface ocean waters about 13,000 yr B.P. Radiocarbon dating indicates that deposition rates ranged from 1...

  13. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade; however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition (EMD suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the straits exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level (MSL rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  14. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade, however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the Straits, all exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  15. Sea truth validation of sea WiFS ocean colour sensor in the coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.

    In this paper we report bio-optical measurements made during an ocean colour validation cruise SK 149C in November 1999 of the research vessel Sagar Kanya in the coastal waters of the Eastern Arabian Sea. The chlorophyll concentration...

  16. Sea breeze generated waves and coastal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Savov, B.

    1999-01-01

    For the determination of the stability of coastlines, coastal erosion and the design of erosion protection studies, the “local” wave climate is the most important input parameter. For morphology, “local” means just outside the breaker line. On relatively calm days the local wave climate is strongly

  17. Freshening of the Alaska Coastal Current recorded by coralline algal Ba/Ca ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Phoebe; Halfar, Jochen; Williams, Branwen; Hetzinger, Steffen; Steneck, Robert; Zack, Thomas; Jacob, Dorrit E.

    2011-03-01

    Arctic Ocean freshening can exert a controlling influence on global climate, triggering strong feedbacks on ocean-atmospheric processes and affecting the global cycling of the world's oceans. Glacier-fed ocean currents such as the Alaska Coastal Current are important sources of freshwater for the Bering Sea shelf, and may also influence the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget. Instrumental data indicate a multiyear freshening episode of the Alaska Coastal Current in the early 21st century. It is uncertain whether this freshening is part of natural multidecadal climate variability or a unique feature of anthropogenically induced warming. In order to answer this, a better understanding of past variations in the Alaska Coastal Current is needed. However, continuous long-term high-resolution observations of the Alaska Coastal Current have only been available for the last 2 decades. In this study, specimens of the long-lived crustose coralline alga Clathromorphum nereostratum were collected within the pathway of the Alaska Coastal Current and utilized as archives of past temperature and salinity. Results indicate that coralline algal Mg/Ca ratios provide a 60 year record of sea surface temperatures and track changes of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, a pattern of decadal-to-multidecadal ocean-atmosphere climate variability centered over the North Pacific. Algal Ba/Ca ratios (used as indicators of coastal freshwater runoff) are inversely correlated to instrumentally measured Alaska Coastal Current salinity and record the period of freshening from 2001 to 2006. Similar multiyear freshening events are not evident in the earlier portion of the 60 year Ba/Ca record. This suggests that the 21st century freshening of the Alaska Coastal Current is a unique feature related to increasing glacial melt and precipitation on mainland Alaska.

  18. Sea level rise and its coastal impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Cazenave, Anny; Le Cozannet, Gonéri

    2014-01-01

    Link to the paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013EF000188/abstract; International audience; Global warming in response to accumulation of human-induced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere has already caused several visible consequences, among them increase of the Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content, melting of glaciers, and loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Ocean warming and land ice melt in turn are causing sea level to rise. Sea level ...

  19. Coastal benthic diversity in the Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative data pertaining to the composition of macrobenthic communities of soft bottoms along the coastal zones of the Black and Aegean Seas are reviewed. The study area includes one site in the Russian coastal zone, four sites in Ukraine (at depths 3-125 m, four sites in Bulgaria (at depths 12-83 m, and four sites in Greece (at depths 9-90 m. The species variety, population density and community diversity are compared between Seas, among regions and among stations. The fluctuation of these parameters in connection to anthropogenic impact (ranging from open undisturbed sites to those receiving heavy organic and chemical effluent are discussed. The low species number of benthic fauna in the Black Sea, as opposed to the richness of the Aegean Sea (three times higher a ratio well established for other marine groups, is not reflected in the overall abundance. Thus, the average population density of benthic organisms may reach 12352 ind per m2 in the Black Sea (Cocketrice sandy bank while in the Aegean it did not exceed 4,000 ind per m2 (Saronikos Gulf. Community diversity was always lower in the Black Sea than similar sites in the Aegean Sea. Within the various regions examined, the protected areas exhibited the most complex community structure.

  20. Coastal nurseries and their importance for conservation of sea kraits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Christophe; Plichon, Patrice; Fauvel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes) have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2). Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked) revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away) to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future.

  1. Coastal nurseries and their importance for conservation of sea kraits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonnet

    Full Text Available Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2. Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future.

  2. Coastal benthic diversity in the Black and Aegean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative data pertaining to the composition of macrobenthic communities of soft bottoms along the coastal zones of the Black and Aegean Seas are reviewed. The study area includes one site in the Russian coastal zone, four sites in Ukraine (at depths 3-125 m, four sites in Bulgaria (at depths 12-83 m, and four sites in Greece (at depths 9-90 m. The species variety, population density and community diversity are compared between Seas, among regions and among stations. The fluctuation of these parameters in connection to anthropogenic impact (ranging from open undisturbed sites to those receiving heavy organic and chemical effluent are discussed. The low species number of benthic fauna in the Black Sea, as opposed to the richness of the Aegean Sea (three times higher a ratio well established for other marine groups, is not reflected in the overall abundance. Thus, the average population density of benthic organisms may reach 12352 ind per m2 in the Black Sea (Cocketrice sandy bank while in the Aegean it did not exceed 4,000 ind per m2 (Saronikos Gulf. Community diversity was always lower in the Black Sea than similar sites in the Aegean Sea. Within the various regions examined, the protected areas exhibited the most complex community structure.

  3. Coastal ocean forecasting with an unstructured grid model in the southern Adriatic and northern Ionian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Ivan; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Lecci, Rita; Mossa, Michele

    2017-01-01

    SANIFS (Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System) is a coastal-ocean operational system based on the unstructured grid finite-element three-dimensional hydrodynamic SHYFEM model, providing short-term forecasts. The operational chain is based on a downscaling approach starting from the large-scale system for the entire Mediterranean Basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting System), which provides initial and boundary condition fields to the nested system. The model is configured to provide hydrodynamics and active tracer forecasts both in open ocean and coastal waters of southeastern Italy using a variable horizontal resolution from the open sea (3-4 km) to coastal areas (50-500 m). Given that the coastal fields are driven by a combination of both local (also known as coastal) and deep-ocean forcings propagating along the shelf, the performance of SANIFS was verified both in forecast and simulation mode, first (i) on the large and shelf-coastal scales by comparing with a large-scale survey CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) in the Gulf of Taranto and then (ii) on the coastal-harbour scale (Mar Grande of Taranto) by comparison with CTD, ADCP (acoustic doppler current profiler) and tide gauge data. Sensitivity tests were performed on initialization conditions (mainly focused on spin-up procedures) and on surface boundary conditions by assessing the reliability of two alternative datasets at different horizontal resolution (12.5 and 6.5 km). The SANIFS forecasts at a lead time of 1 day were compared with the MFS forecasts, highlighting that SANIFS is able to retain the large-scale dynamics of MFS. The large-scale dynamics of MFS are correctly propagated to the shelf-coastal scale, improving the forecast accuracy (+17 % for temperature and +6 % for salinity compared to MFS). Moreover, the added value of SANIFS was assessed on the coastal-harbour scale, which is not covered by the coarse resolution of MFS, where the fields forecasted by SANIFS

  4. Coastal seas as resource for Blue Growth - SmartSea project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Alvi, Kimmo; Boman, Anton; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kaskela, Anu; Rantataro, Jyrki; Vallius, Henry; Virtasalo, Joonas

    2017-04-01

    Blue growth is a long term strategy of the European Union (EU) to enhance the sustainable growth of the maritime sector. Our surrounding seas have been drivers for the European economy for a long time, but still they have great potential for further exploiting of natural resources and economic growth. Especially if the growth can be achieved in an environmentally sustainable way, benefits are obvious. It has been estimated that improvement of the state of the Baltic Sea would until 2030 create 900 000 jobs in the whole Baltic Sea area, mainly in Blue Tech, tourism, real estate and building businesses (Dahlgren et al. 2015). However, coastal seas already experience multiple stressors like off-shore construction, pollution, eutrophication, shipping, over-fishing, and climate change. In order to obtain sustainable Blue Growth, it is necessary to localize and assess the current maritime activities, estimate their growth potential, and investigate their present and future effects on each other and on the marine environment. The purpose of the SmartSea project is to support the growth of commercial marine activities in the Gulf of Bothnia region, in the northern Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Bothnia is an essential resource in terms of fish farming and wind power, for example, and it is also possible to make use of the geological resources of the gulf. Moreover, the rapid growth of the commercial marine activities and the consequences of the climate change may lead to conflicts between the different activities and harm the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia. The SmartSea project aims to identify these risks and find solutions for the sustainable use of the sea. SmartSea project is funded by the Strategic Research Council of Academy of Finland, grant No: 292 985. The project will last for six years (2015-2020) and its funding totals nearly 8 million euros. The project involves close to 40 researchers from eight different institutions: the Finnish Meteorological Institute

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 2.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  13. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  14. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 2.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  15. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service(NMDIS).It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis).The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system(POMgcs).The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations.Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational(3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework.Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature(SST),altimetry sea level anomaly(SLA),and temperature/salinity profiles.The reanalysis fields of sea surface height,temperature,salinity,and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature,salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges,temperature profiles,as well as the trajectories of Argo floats.Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations.These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  16. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  17. The Colombia Current: An Eastern Tropical Pacific Coastal Current, Early Oceanographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rubio, E.

    2007-05-01

    Newly gathered hydrographic data from the Colombia Pacific Ocean is combined with remote sensing data to reassess the properties of the costal current named Colombian Current by Wooster (1959). The Colombian Pacific Ocean is located between 84°-76°W and 1°30'-5°N (oceanic zone), 1°30'- 7°N (coastal zone): This area is well-known also like Panama Bight. New hydrographic data were occupied along the Colombian Pacific coast during March of 2006, making 41 stations with measurements of CTD until a maximum depth of 1200 m, depending on the depth of the marine bottom. On the other hand, sea surface temperatures (SST) were obtained from the MODIS-AQUA satellite and sea surface wind speed and wind direction stem from QuickScat, both averaged for March 2006. Hydrographic grid layers necessary to obtain dynamic topography variable were made with objective mapping calculating is not total dynamic height, but the dynamic height between consecutive levels or "thickness". The purpose of this methodology is that in very coastal campaigns it can have a substantial number of stations that do not arrive at the reference level. Finally geostrophic velocity was computed for the Colombian Current area at several layers. The coast was characterized by low salinities due to river runoff in the North zone. The sea surface temperature during the month of March of 2006 was especially low in the oceanic zone, reaching temperatures between 19°C and 24°C.The dynamic topography indicated the presence of a surface coastal current flowing towards the north and a crosscurrent to 400 m of depth never before described. The wind corresponded to the pattern of the wind jet of Panama. During March the ITCZ moves south, drawing the Panama jet across the Isthmus and over the Pacific. Upwelling curl associated with the left (southeast) flank of this jet generates a cyclonic eddy in the Panama Bight and SST cooling in its center. In the Panama Bight, the curl dipole produces a cyclonic circulation

  18. Observations and modeling of the ice-ocean conditions in the coastal Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meibing; WANG Jia; MIZOBATA Kohei; HU Haoguo; SHIMADA Koji

    2008-01-01

    The Chukchi and Beaufort Seas include several important hydrological features: inflow of the Pacific water, Alaska coast current (ACC), the seasonal to perennial sea ice cover, and landfast ice along the Alaskan coast. The dynamics of this coupled ice-ocean sys-tem is important for both regional scale oceanography and large-scale global climate change research. A number of moorings were de-ployed in the area by JAMSTEC since 1992, and the data revealed highly variable characteristics of the hydrological environment. A re-gional high-resolution coupled ice-ocean model of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas was established to simulate the ice-ocean environment and unique seasonal landfast ice in the coastal Beaufort Sea. The model results reproduced the Beaufort gyre and the ACC. The depth-averaged annual mean ocean currents along the Beaufort Sea coast and shelf break compared well with data from four moored ADCPs, but the simulated velocity had smaller standard deviations, which indicate small-scale eddies were frequent in the region. The model re-suits captured the seasonal variations of sea ice area as compared with remote sensing data, and the simulated sea ice velocity showed an almost stationary area along the Beaufort Sea coast that was similar to the observed landfast ice extent. It is the combined effects of the weak oceanic current near the coast, a prevailing wind with an onshore component, the opposite direction of the ocean current, and the blocking by the coastline that make the Beaufort Sea coastal areas prone to the formation of landfast ice.

  19. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  20. NOAA Tidal Current Data for the Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the timing and strength of tidal currents is extremely important for safe navigation in coastal waters. Tidal currents are almost always the strongest...

  1. NOAA Historical Tidal Current Data for the Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the timing and strength of tidal currents is extremely important for safe navigation in coastal waters. Tidal currents are almost always the strongest...

  2. Sea state monitoring using coastal GNSS-R

    CERN Document Server

    Soulat, F; Germain, O; Lopez-Dekker, P; Taani, M; Ruffini, G

    2004-01-01

    We report on a coastal experiment to study GPS L1 reflections. The campaign was carried out at the Barcelona Port breaker and dedicated to the development of sea-state retrieval algorithms. An experimental system built for this purpose collected and processed GPS data to automatically generate a times series of the interferometric complex field (ICF). The ICF was analyzed off line and compared to a simple developed model that relates ICF coherence time to the ratio of significant wave height (SWH) and mean wave period (MWP). The analysis using this model showed good consistency between the ICF coherence time and nearby oceanographic buoy data. Based on this result, preliminary conclusions are drawn on the potential of coastal GNSS-R for sea state monitoring using semi-empirical modeling to relate GNSS-R ICF coherence time to SWH.

  3. Towards a system for sea state forecasts in the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone: the case of the storm of 07-08 february 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko; Dimitrova, Marieta

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the existing operational sea state forecast system of NIMH- BAS for sea state in the Black Sea and our current progress on the implementation of an additional component for the forecasts of wind waves in the Bulgarian coastal zone. Wind Waves and especially the extreme ones, occurring during severe storms are a major hazard for the coastal zone, causing significant damages to the infrastructure, threat for the human lives and also causing significant damages to the protected areas around the coast. The numerical model WAVEWATCH III is in use for wind waves forecasts for the entire Black Sea with horizontal resolution of 1/8 degree (roughly 14 kilometers), which is sufficient for the open Sea, but not enough for a detailed coastal forecast. For the purposes of the coastal forecasts and early warnings in case of severe storms we decided to implement SWAN (Simulating the Waves Near Shore)- development of TU- DELFT. In this paper we will describe the brief details about the coastal sea state f...

  4. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  6. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  7. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  8. Spectral Classification of the Yellow Sea and Implications for Coastal Ocean Color Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huping Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs classification of coastal waters is a useful tool to monitor environmental processes and manage marine environmental resources. This study presents classification work for data sets that were collected in the Yellow Sea during six cruises (spring and autumn, 2003; summer and winter, 2006/2007; and spring and autumn, 2007. Specifically, we analyzed classification features of Rrs spectra and obtained spatio-temporal characteristics of reflectance and bio-optical properties in the coastal waters. Yellow Sea waters were classified into the following four typical regions based on their spatial distribution characteristics: middle of the Yellow Sea (MYS, north Yellow Sea (NYS, coastal Shandong (CS, and Jiangsu shoal (JS, and five water type categories consisting of Classes A–E were used to represent water colors from clear to very turbid. Application of this classification scheme to Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS imagery revealed seasonal variations in the data, which suggests that the water types have both significant temporal and spatial distributions. In particular, the area of Class E waters in the Jiangsu shoal tended to gradually shrink in summer and expand in winter. The spatio-temporal variability was due to the influence of various environmental factors such as currents, tidal activity, fresh water discharges, monsoon winds, and typhoons.

  9. Measurements of sea ice proxies from Antarctic coastal shallow cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Despite its close relationship with climate, the climatic impact of sea ice remains only partially understood: an indication of this is the Arctic sea ice which is declining at a faster rate than models predict. Thus, the need for reliable sea ice proxies is of crucial importance. Among the sea ice proxies that can be extracted from ice cores, interest has recently been shown in the halogens Iodine (I) and Bromine (Br) (Spolaor, A., et al., 2013a, 2013b). The production of sea ice is a source of Sodium and Bromine aerosols through frost flower crystal formation and sublimation of salty blowing snow, while Iodine is emitted by the algae living underneath sea ice. We present here the results of Na, Br and I measurements in Antarctic shallow cores, drilled during a traverse made in late 2013 - early 2014 from Talos Dome (72° 00'S, 159°12'E) to GV7 (70° 41'S, 158° 51'E) seeking for sea ice signature. The samples were kept frozen until the analyses, that were carried out by Sector Field Mass Spectroscopy Inductive Coupled Plasma (SFMS-ICP): special precautions and experimental steps were adopted for the detection of such elements. The coastal location of the cores allows a clear signal from the nearby sea ice masses. The multiple cores are located about 50 km from each other and can help us to infer the provenance of the sea ice that contributed to the proxy signature. Moreover, by simultaneously determining other chemical elements and compounds in the snow, it is possible to determine the relative timing of their deposition, thus helping us to understand their processes of emission and deposition.

  10. Spatial Variability of Land-Sea Carbon Exchange at a Coastal Area in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.

    2007-12-01

    Relatively cold and low salinity sea water of the Arctic Ocean was considered to be a sink for atmospheric CO2 (Takahashi et al., 1997) because the solubility of CO2 in seawater increases as temperature decreases, and the arctic sea water transports CO2 to greater depths. However, carbon exchange in the Arctic sea is not well evaluated yet, because available data is very limited (Semiletov et al., 2007). Also, terrestrial inflows, such as thawing permafrost and coastal erosion, also affect oceanic air-sea CO2 exchange especially in the Arctic (ACIA., 2004) creating a variety of regional carbon cycles (Semiletov et al., 2007). Our aim is to quantify an air-sea CO2 exchange of a spatially wide coastal sea area, in Barrow, Alaska and to extrapolate the future carbon cycle in response to climate change. Boat cruises for pCO2 measurements operated from July 29 to August 5, 2007. The surveyed area was mainly divided into three parts: Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Elson Lagoon. Conductivity of sea surface (CS) and sea surface temperature (SST) were also measured together with pCO2. The result showed distinct differences in pCO2 among three areas. Average delta pCO2 (dpCO2) (a difference between an atmospheric CO2 and pCO2), CS, and SST were -114.9 ppm, 47.0 mScm-1, and 8.0 C at Chukchi Sea, -53.1 ppm, 43.5 mScm-1, and 8.9 C at Beaufort Sea, and 43.7 ppm, 41.1 mScm-1, and 9.5 C at Elson Lagoon. Relatively high dpCO2 value in the Beaufort Sea implies a large terrestrial input from Elson Lagoon where dpCO2 value is positive. This is supported by lower CS in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Laggon than in the Chukchi Sea. Sea currents from Pacific Ocean, which continuously flow through the Chukchi Sea, are thought to carry warmer water. However, SST was lower in the Chukchi Sea than in the Beaufort Sea. This may be because a prevailing wind from north east creates Ekman transport causing an upwelling along the Chukchi Sea coast and this upwelling carries deep cold water to the

  11. An Earth's Future Special Collection: Impacts of the coastal dynamics of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David M.; Dietrich, J. Casey; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems, including altered habitats and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and recurrent inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico, where low topography, marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The ability to facilitate adaptation and mitigation measures relies, in part, on the development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics. Initiated in 2010, the 6-year Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise—Northern Gulf of Mexico project applied a transdisciplinary science approach to develop a suite of integrated modeling platforms informed by empirical data that are capable of evaluating a range of climate change scenarios. This special issue highlights resultant integrated models focused on tidal hydrodynamics, shoreline morphology, oyster ecology, coastal wetland vulnerability, and storm surges that demonstrate the need for dynamic models to incorporate feedbacks among physical and biological processes in assessments of sea level rise effects on coastal systems. Effects are projected to be significant, spatially variable and nonlinear relative to sea level rise rates. Scenarios of higher sea level rise rates are projected to exceed thresholds of wetland sustainability, and many regions will experience enhanced storm surges. Influenced by an extensive collaborative stakeholder engagement process, these assessments on the coastal dynamics of sea level rise provide a strong foundation for resilience measures in the northern Gulf of Mexico and a transferable approach for application to other coastal regions throughout the world.

  12. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Abualnaja, Yasser

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an \\'intermediate\\' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  13. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  14. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  15. Extreme sea-level events in coastal regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Simulation, Belur Campus, Bangalore 560 037, India e-mail: uns@cmmacs.ernet.in Extreme sea-level events in coastal regions A recently published report1 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made an assessment... of the extreme climate events. Their past trends, future projections and vulnerabi- lity and adaptation to such events are discussed in the report. The report was based on the efforts of both the working groups of the IPCC, WG I, which deals with the science...

  16. Microplastics in sea coastal zone: Lessons learned from the Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, Irina; Stepanova, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days. Analysis of underlying hydrophysical processes suggests that sea coastal zone under stormy winds plays a role of a mill for plastics, and negatively buoyant pieces seem to repeatedly migrate between beaches and underwater slopes until they are broken into small enough fragments that can be transported by currents to deeper areas and deposited out of reach of stormy waves. Direct observations on microplastics migrations are urged to prove the hypothesis.

  17. SAR detected river mixing and coastal wave/current difusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Margarita; Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Sekula, Emil

    2014-05-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR is an active radar which emits its energy in the centimetre frequencies. Due to the large orbital velocity of the satellite (7.5km s-1) approximately, the path of the antenna itself may be converted as a virtual antenna of a much larger size. The SAR instrument may also be installed on a plane, or on a helicopter. The SAR backscattering depends on the roughness of the small scale surface of the ocean. When the surface is rougher (mostly due to capillary waves in the surface) the intensity of the receiving signal is stronger due to Bragg resonant dispersion [1,2] and a white zone is observed in the image when the surface is very rough. Rivers and tensioactive slicks and spills are well detected as dark areas in the ocean surface. An image selection of SAR images in order to identify coastal river plumes or oil spills of more than 1000 ERS-1/2 and RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR images for the test site in the NW Mediterranean seawere clasified and stored by [2,3,7] during the "Clean Seas" International project and the "Marine pollution and surface dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea" European Spatial Agency ESA project AO-ID C1P.2240. A geometry of gray scale ranges and boundaries of spatial dynamic surface features may contain new helpful information about the turbulent structure at different distances from the coast. Already we used multi-fractal analysis techniques to investigate man-made oil spills [3-5] We apply these techniques to the analysis of ocean surface multi-fractal features (eddies, mushroom-like currents, etc.) to understand the scale to scale transport and coastal effects. (Redondo et al. 1998)(Diez et al. 2008) [4,7]. The effect of bathymetry and local currents are important in describing the ocean surface behavior. In the NW Mediterranean the maximum eddy size agrees remarkably well with the limit imposed by the local Rossby deformation radius using the usual thermocline induced stratification, the

  18. Coastal Sea-Level in Norway from Cryosat-2 Interferometric SAR Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzanovic, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole B.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional altimeters determine the sea surface height with an accuracy of a few centimeters over the open ocean. Although satellite altimetry is a mature discipline, altimeter observations collected over coastal regions suffer from numerous effects which degrade their quality. The Norwegian coast adds further complications, due to many islands, mountains, and deep, narrow fjords. The European Space Agency (ESA) CryoSat-2 satellite carries a Synthetic aperture Interferometric Radar ALtimeter (SIRAL). Due to the SIRAL instrument, CryoSat-2 is able to observe closer to the coast than conventional altimeters. This motivates the current paper, in which we investigate the potential of CryoSat-2 data to provide improved observations in the Norwegian coastal zone. We make use of CryoSat-2 SARIn mode observations and determine sea surface heights at 23 tide gauges along the coast, and compare these with independent sea-level observations. Using standard CryoSat-2 geophysical (tide + IB) corrections gives a standard deviation of differences of ˜15 cm with respect to tide-gauge observations. Replacing standard corrections with refined corrections using tide-gauge information suggests an improvement of ˜5 cm. A special case study at the Stavanger tide-gauge shows an improvement of ˜3 cm comparing CryoSat-2 sites and conventional altimeter sites with respect to the tide-gauge. These results highlight a great development of satellite altimetry in coastal zones and raises expectations for future missions such as Sentinel-3.

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  13. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  14. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  15. Preparing Coastal Parks for Future Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Peek, K.

    2012-04-01

    The United States National Park Service (NPS) manages significant stretches of shoreline along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coasts that are vulnerable to long-term sea level rise, shoreline erosion, and storm impacts. These parks have a wide variety of missions— protecting some of the nation's most important natural and cultural resources. The parks must also provide visitor access and education requiring infrastructure such as roads, visitor centers, trails, and buildings for facilities management. Planning for the likely impacts from sea level rise to both resources and infrastructure is a complex balancing act. Using coastal engineering to protect cultural resources or infrastructure may harm natural resources. At the same time, there are clearly some cultural and historical resources that are so critical that they must be protected. In an attempt to begin to attack this dilemma, the NPS Climate Change Response Program has initiated a sea level rise adaptation study that will provide a first-order tally of the park assets at risk to sea level rise and to begin to develop a plan for prioritizing those assets that must be protected, those that can be moved or abandoned, and an examination of how best to approach this without harming critical natural resources. This presentation will discuss the preliminary results of this effort along with several relevant case studies.

  16. Deriving Sea Surface Salinity and Density Variations From Satellite and Aircraft Microwave Radiometer Measurements: Application to Coastal Plumes Using STARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Deep Areas ( SALIDA )" under program element 0602435N mid- and low-latitude coastal seas). (NRL-Stennis Space Center contribution NRL/JA/7330-07-7162) and...surface velocities in 3317. the California Current System-Part I: Evaluation of TOPEX altimeter [37] J. Wesson, D. Burrage, J. Miller, W. Teague, and D

  17. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea : A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstrom, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Hakan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been s

  18. Seasonal cycle of sea level and currents along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.

    ON OCEAN RESEARCH IN INDIA Seasonal cycle of sea level and currents along the coast of India D. Shankar National institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India A framework involving long baroclinic waves, which treats the north Indian Ocean as a... to be the absence of salinity variation in these models. The large inflow of freshwater into the seas around India forces large changes in salinity, and hence, in coastal sea level. THE surface of the sea deforms continuously. Its level, measured relative...

  19. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... of geospatial data, a netCDF architecture has been defined on the basis of the Radiowave Operators Working Group (US ROWG) recommendations and compliant to the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions CF-1.6. The hourly netCDF files are automatically attached to a Thematic Real-time Environmental...... by the ISMAR HF radar network are presently used in a number of applications, ranging from oil spill and SAR to fishery and coastal management applications....

  20. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-08-24

    Global sea level is rising and may accelerate with continued fossil fuel consumption from industrial and population growth. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 30 training and feedback sessions with Federal, State, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) coastal managers and planners across the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to evaluate user needs, potential benefits, current scientific understanding, and utilization of resource aids and modeling tools focused on sea-level rise. In response to the findings from the sessions, this sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components

  1. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  2. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  3. Coastal circulation in the southwestern Yellow Sea in the summers of 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Li, Yao; Wang, Bin; He, Lei; Hirose, Naoki

    2017-07-01

    The coastal ocean circulation off the Chinese Subei (north Jiangsu Province) coasts in the southwestern Yellow Sea in summer is studied using hydrographic data from four research cruises, moored current meter data in the Lunan (south Shandong Province) trough, and Lagrangian trajectories of satellite-tracked ARGOS surface drifters in the summers of 2008 and 2009. The hydrographic data indicate a fresh water plume extending offshore in the northeastward direction from the Sheyang River mouth and a belt of relatively cold surface temperature from the surrounding areas located offshore of the Subei coasts to the south of the plume in summer. The drifter trajectories show that the Subei coastal current, which is traditionally thought to flow southward year round, flows northward in June through July under the forcing of the southerly monsoon. A northward intrusion along the submarine valley off the Changjiang mouth is indicated by the movement of the drifters, which is persistently strong and independent of the winds. Associated with the northward flow, coastal upwelling is generated offshore of the Subei coast to the south of the Sheyang River plume, below which upwelling is generated but is shut down by the buoyancy of the fresh water at the surface. Coastal upwelling is also observed off the coast of Qingdao city in middle July through early August of 2008, which is forced by the along-shore component of the southerly and southwesterly winds. The Qingdao upwelling in summer is reported for the first time in history.

  4. Environmental security of the Adriatic coastal sea floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, V.; Kollar, R. [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, D. [Institute for for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Zagreb (Croatia); Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D. [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The coastal sea floor is littered with many of man made objects and materials including a variety of ammunition. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas have increased concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in anti-fouling paints. This report presents locations within the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean as a whole, that are found to be contaminated by different ammunition. In order to be able to establish if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron sensor installed within an unmanned underwater vessel has been developed and tested. When positioned above an object such a system can inspect the object for the presence of a threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from a sealed tube d+t neutron generator and a gamma detector. The same system can also be used to inspect ship hulls, either to detect potential anomalies attached to the hull, or to determine the nature of materials within the hull, especially of sunken ships. (authors)

  5. Regional Sea Level Variation: California Coastal Subsidence (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Nerem, R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite altimetry over the last two decades has measured variations in geocentric sea level (GSL), relative to the Earth system center of mass, providing valuable data to test models of physical oceanography and the effects of global climate change. The societal impacts of sea level change however relate to variations in local sea level (LSL), relative to the land at the coast. Therefore, assessing the impacts of sea level change requires coastal measurements of vertical land motion (VLM). Indeed, ΔLSL = ΔGSL - ΔVLM, with subsidence mapping 1:1 into LSL. Measurements of secular coastal VLM also allow tide-gauge data to test models of GSL over the last century in some locations, which cannot be provided by satellite data. Here we use GPS geodetic data within 15 km of the US west coast to infer regional, secular VLM. A total of 89 GPS stations met the criteria that time series span >4.5 yr, and do not have obvious non-linear variation, as may be caused by local instability. VLM rates for the GPS stations are derived in the secular reference frame ITRF2008, which aligns with the Earth system center of mass to ×0.5 mm/yr. We find that regional VLM has different behavior north and south of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ). The California coast has a coherent regional pattern of subsidence averaging 0.5 mm/yr, with an increasing trend to the north. This trend generally matches GIA model predictions. Around San Francisco Bay, the observed coastal subsidence of 1.0 mm/yr coherently decreases moving away from the Pacific Ocean to very small subsidence on the east shores of the bay. This gradient is likely caused by San Andreas-Hayward Fault tectonics, and possibly by differential surface loading across the bay and Sacramento-San Joachim River Delta. Thus in addition to the trend in subsidence from GIA going northward along the California coast, tectonics may also play a role where the plate boundary fault system approaches the coast. In contrast, we find that VLM

  6. The Ob Estuary (Kara Sea) Coastal Dynamics Interannual Variability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopa-Ovdienko, N.; Volobueva, N.; Ogorodov, S.

    2012-04-01

    There are several promising gas fields in the Ob Estuary. For their development comprehensive research, including coastal dynamics assessment, is required. To estimate current and speak about future coastal dynamics rates we need to investigate its interannual variability connecting it with variability of major coastal dynamics factors. It is known that in this region one of the main coastal dynamics factors is wave action, which, in turn, depends on wind velocity and direction. Wind data for ice-free period were derived from nearby hydro-meteorological stations. The research was conducted for two sections of the Ob Estuary coast. One section is located on the eastern coast of the estuary (Taz peninsula); the other is located on the western one (Yamal peninsula). Each of these sections is 10 km length. For key-sites of the coast wave-dangerous rhumbs were determined. For ice-free period of each year accumulated summer storm duration (ASSD) - number of hours with strong winds (≥10 m/s) from wave-dangerous directions - was calculated for both sections of coast. Supposing that coast retreat rate is proportional to number of hours with strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs, we can approximately assess interannual variability of coast retreat rate. Our research revealed that: 1)There are significant (from hours to a few hundreds of hours) differences in ASSD from year to year due to short ice-free period and high variability of wind velocity and direction. So, we can expect sharp interannual differences in coastal retreat rate. 2)The duration of strong winds from wave-dangerous rhumbs during ice-free period is more on the eastern coast of the estuary than on the western. This goes from the predominance of northern and northwestern winds during ice-free period. These winds cause waves leading to coastal erosion on the eastern coast of estuary and don't cause such waves on the western one. However, we can't draw conclusions about the comparative rates of coastal

  7. Variability in the coupling between sea surface temperature and wind stress in the global coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuntao; Castelao, Renato M.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interaction between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress throughout the global coastal ocean was investigated using 7 years of satellite observations. Coupling coefficients between crosswind SST gradients and wind stress curl and between downwind SST gradients and wind stress divergence were used to quantify spatial and temporal variability in the strength of the interaction. The use of a consistent data set and standardized methods allow for direct comparisons between coupling coefficients in the different coastal regions. The analysis reveals that strong coupling is observed in many mid-latitude regions throughout the world, especially in regions with strong fronts like Eastern and Western Boundary Currents. Most upwelling regions in Eastern Boundary Currents are characterized by strong seasonal variability in the strength of the coupling, which generally peaks during summer in mid latitudes and during winter at low latitudes. Seasonal variability in coastal regions along Western Boundary Currents is comparatively smaller. Intraseasonal variability is especially important in regions of strong eddy activity (e.g., Western Boundary Currents), being particularly relevant for the coupling between crosswind SST gradients and wind stress curl. Results from the analysis can be used to guide modeling studies, since it allows for the a priori identification of regions in which regional models need to properly represent the ocean-atmosphere interaction to accurately represent local variability.

  8. Some observational results of sea storm current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Dr. Hollister, a marine geologist of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, first pointed out that there was ocean storm current in the ocean. He found out the wavy texture in the seabed core samples, and suggested that this wavy texture was caused by the high speed sea current in remote antiquity. He then suggested a bold hypothesis that there existed a benthic storm current near the ocean bottom, and presented this hypothesis at the IUGG conference held at San Francisco in 1963. Unfortunately, the attention was not drawn to the hypothesis at the conference, and the hypothesis was criticized as a sheer nonsense.

  9. Strategic opportunities for economic development of the Baltic Sea coastal zones and sea industrial and port complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoberidze George

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the principal dimensions in attraction of the world economy structures is coastal territories as spaces where marine potential of a state is most pronounced. In this respect, it is vital to set the priorities of development of coastal zones taking into account the changes in the strategic situation in order to maintain the components of marine potential of the Russian Federation at the level of its national interests. The article aims to develop an indicator system of assessment of coastal zone potential, and sea industrial and port facilities in order to identify the characteristic and strategic capacities of the economic development of these territories in the complex approach. The research methodology is based on the assessment of marine potential of coastal territories as an indicator of the efficacy of its marine economic complex development with using the indicator methods as a multi-factor and multi-level spatial system. The proposed system is applied to a complex analysis of coastal territories of the Russian Baltic, the estimation of a socio-economic factor of coastal zone marine potential, as well as recommendations for long-term planning of the economic development of Russia’s coastal zones of the Baltic Sea and the organization of marine activities. This methodology can help to identify a role of coastal territories in the economy and reflect perspectives and directions of strategic development of coastal zones, and sea industrial and port facilities of the Russian Federation.

  10. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  11. Characterizing the role benthos plays in large coastal seas and estuaries: A modular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, K.R.; Zajac, R.N.; Terwin, J.; Andrade, F.; Blanton, J.; Boynton, W.; Carey, D.; Diaz, R.; Holland, Austin F.; Lopez-Jamar, E.; Montagna, P.; Nichols, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Queiroga, H.; Sprung, M.; Whitlatch, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists studying coastal and estuarine benthic communities have long taken a macroecological view, by relating benthic community patterns to environmental factors across several spatial scales. Although many general ecological patterns have been established, often a significant amount of the spatial and temporal variation in soft-sediment communities within and among systems remains unexplained. Here we propose a framework that may aid in unraveling the complex influence of environmental factors associated with the different components of coastal systems (i.e. the terrestrial and benthic landscapes, and the hydrological seascape) on benthic communities, and use this information to assess the role played by benthos in coastal ecosystems. A primary component of the approach is the recognition of system modules (e.g. marshes, dendritic systems, tidal rivers, enclosed basins, open bays, lagoons). The modules may differentially interact with key forcing functions (e.g. temperature, salinity, currents) that influence system processes and in turn benthic responses and functions. Modules may also constrain benthic characteristics and related processes within certain ecological boundaries and help explain their overall spatio-temporal variation. We present an example of how benthic community characteristics are related to the modular structure of 14 coastal seas and estuaries, and show that benthic functional group composition is significantly related to the modular structure of these systems. We also propose a framework for exploring the role of benthic communities in coastal systems using this modular approach and offer predictions of how benthic communities may vary depending on the modular composition and characteristics of a coastal system. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments1, 2, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making3. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30 × 30 m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 km2 of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  13. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  14. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Maya K; Oppenheimer, Michael; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated Design Life SLR (DL-SLR) allowances. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the design life of an asset; DL-SLR allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current average probability over the design life. Given non-stationary and uncertain sea-level rise, AADLL flood levels and DL-SLR allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal area...

  15. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  16. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    property is significantly reduced with the removal of nourishment subsidies, creating a temporary bubble in coastal property value. In both models, results show the extent to which rising sea level and changing storminess impact the size of the property value bubble. The utility of the optimal control model is that it provides an empirically grounded parameterization of the coupled human coastal system. The coupled agent-based physical coastline model is more difficult to constrain with current data, however the model provides insight into the dynamics of subjective beliefs about coastal risk, which depend on the weight agents place on scientific predictions and on the way they process signals from previous climate events. Results from this model illustrate how the dynamics of the property bubble burst depend on agent beliefs about their changing environment.

  17. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Inghilesi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid, a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004–2009 were considered.

  18. Exploiting coastal altimetry to improve the surface circulation scheme over the central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, Fatma; Birol, Florence; Zakardjian, Bruno; Bouffard, Jérome; Sammari, Cherif

    2016-07-01

    This work is the first study exploiting along track altimetry data to observe and monitor coastal ocean features over the transition area between the western and eastern Mediterranean Basins. The relative performances of both the AVISO and the X-TRACK research regional altimetric data sets are compared using in situ observations. Both products are cross validated with tide gauge records. The altimeter-derived geostrophic velocities are also compared with observations from a moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results indicate the good potential of satellite altimetry to retrieve dynamic features over the area. However, X-TRACK shows a more homogenous data coverage than AVISO, with longer time series in the 50 km coastal band. The seasonal evolution of the surface circulation is therefore analyzed by conjointly using X-TRACK data and remotely sensed sea surface temperature observations. This combined data set clearly depicts different current regimes and bifurcations, which allows us to propose a new seasonal circulation scheme for the central Mediterranean. The analysis shows variations of the path and temporal behavior of the main circulation features: the Atlantic Tunisian Current, the Atlantic Ionian Stream, the Atlantic Libyan Current, and the Sidra Gyre. The resulting bifurcating veins of these currents are also discussed, and a new current branch is observed for the first time.

  19. Coastal Wetland Dynamics and Wildlife Populations: Modeling the Effects of Sea Level Rise and Landscape Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assess the potential impacts of sea level rise on coastal ecosystems and related wildlife resources. Develop a Bayesian Belief network that projects the impact of...

  20. Real-time reporting and internet-accessible cellular based coastal sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; Dabholkar, N.; Parab, A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Tengali, S.

    in communication infrastructure will further improve our capability in coastal sea-level data collection in real time and its utilization for running predictive models as well as warning and alert purposes. The architecture of the system described herein...

  1. Real-time reporting and internet-accessible coastal sea-level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Mehra, P.; Dabholkar, N.; Parab, A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Tengali, S.

    infrastructure will further improve our capability in coastal sea- level data collection in real time and its utilisation for running predictive models as well as warning and alert purposes. The architecture of the system described herein, and operational since...

  2. PACIFIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: U.S. Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to quantify, at the National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the use of a coastal...

  3. PACIFIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: U.S. Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to quantify, at the National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the use of a coastal...

  4. GULF - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: U.S. Gulf Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to quantify, at the National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the use of a coastal...

  5. Predicting Dynamic Coastal Delta Change in Response to Sea-Level Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Lageweg, W.I.; Slangen, A.B.A.

    2017-01-01

    The world’s largest deltas are densely populated, of significant economic importance and among the most valuable coastal ecosystems. Projected twenty-first century sea-level rise (SLR) poses a threat to these low-lying coastal environments with inhabitants, resources and ecology becoming

  6. Monitoring Sea Level in the Coastal Zone with Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco M.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Melet, Angelique; Prandi, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    We examine the issue of sustained measurements of sea level in the coastal zone, first by summarizing the long-term observations from tide gauges, then showing how those are now complemented by improved satellite altimetry products in the coastal ocean. We present some of the progresses in coastal altimetry, both from dedicated reprocessing of the radar waveforms and from the development of improved corrections for the atmospheric effects. This trend towards better altimetric data at the coast comes also from technological innovations such as Ka-band altimetry and SAR altimetry, and we discuss the advantages deriving from the AltiKa Ka-band altimeter and the SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat-2 that can be operated in SAR mode. A case study along the UK coast demonstrates the good agreement between coastal altimetry and tide gauge observations, with root mean square differences as low as 4 cm at many stations, allowing the characterization of the annual cycle of sea level along the UK coasts. Finally, we examine the evolution of the sea level trend from the open to the coastal ocean along the western coast of Africa, comparing standard and coastally improved products. Different products give different sea level trend profiles, so the recommendation is that additional efforts are needed to study sea level trends in the coastal zone from past and present satellite altimeters. Further improvements are expected from more refined processing and screening of data, but in particular from the constant improvements in the geophysical corrections.

  7. Monitoring Sea Level in the Coastal Zone with Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco M.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Melet, Angelique; Prandi, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine the issue of sustained measurements of sea level in the coastal zone, first by summarizing the long-term observations from tide gauges, then showing how those are now complemented by improved satellite altimetry products in the coastal ocean. We present some of the progresses in coastal altimetry, both from dedicated reprocessing of the radar waveforms and from the development of improved corrections for the atmospheric effects. This trend towards better altimetric data at the coast comes also from technological innovations such as Ka-band altimetry and SAR altimetry, and we discuss the advantages deriving from the AltiKa Ka-band altimeter and the SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat-2 that can be operated in SAR mode. A case study along the UK coast demonstrates the good agreement between coastal altimetry and tide gauge observations, with root mean square differences as low as 4 cm at many stations, allowing the characterization of the annual cycle of sea level along the UK coasts. Finally, we examine the evolution of the sea level trend from the open to the coastal ocean along the western coast of Africa, comparing standard and coastally improved products. Different products give different sea level trend profiles, so the recommendation is that additional efforts are needed to study sea level trends in the coastal zone from past and present satellite altimeters. Further improvements are expected from more refined processing and screening of data, but in particular from the constant improvements in the geophysical corrections.

  8. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  9. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-10

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  10. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L; Fletcher, Charles H; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D

    2017-05-18

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  11. Iodine content in salt sold in sea coastal province, Thailand:quality reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To call for attention that the problem of iodine deficiency and low salt quality can still be seen in sea coastal province.Methods:province of Thailand were collected. All samples were passed to the laboratory for the analysis of iodine content. The basic screening tool was I-KIT test (Mahidol University, Thailand), which was the standard test used in previous survey.Results:A total of 225 salt samples from each available marine salt shop in the sea coastal iodine content (100 mg/L). It gave the iodine content failure rate equal to 0%. Of overall 225 samples, there was no sample that could pass the acceptable criteria of Conclusions: Intensive research of the iodine content in salt sold and available in a sea coastal province of Thailand shows that the salt sold in salt shop in this sea coastal province is not locally available from marine salt field but from the dirt salt field from remote provinces because of the higher cost of marine salt. As a result, the control of salt quality in any areas is still needed. The use of iodine fortification should be applied to any areas, sea coastal or non sea coastal.

  12. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  13. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  14. THE STUDY OF THE YELLOW SEA WARM CURRENT AND ITS SEASONAL VARIABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-ling; WU De-xing; LIN Xiao-pei; MA Chao

    2009-01-01

    The Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) penetrates northward along the Yellow Sea Trough, and brings warm and saline water towards the Bohai Sea. The YSWC becomes much less intrusive in summer and is limited mostly in the southern trough, contrasting with a deep winter penetration well into the trough. The seasonal variability of the YSWC has prompted a debate regarding which controls the YSWC and its seasonal variability. In this article, the annual mean and seasonal variability of the YSWC was examined by using a 3-D ocean model together with several experiments. The results show that in the annual mean the YSWC is a compensating current firstly for the southward Korea Coastal Current (KCC), which is mainly caused by the Kuroshio Current (KC). The local wind-stress forcing plays an important but secondary role. However, the local monsoonal forcing plays a prominent role in modulating the seasonal variability. A deep northwestward intrusion of the YSWC in winter, for instance, is mainly due to a robustly developed China Coastal Current (CCC) which draws water along the Yellow Sea trough to feed a southward flow all the way from the Bohai Sea to the Taiwan Strait.

  15. Hourly changes in sea surface salinity in coastal waters recorded by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongjie; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Haiyan; Cui, Tingwei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Lingjuan; An, Jubai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we monitored hourly changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary satellite ocean color images for the first time, using the Bohai Sea as a case study. We developed a simple multi-linear statistical regression model to retrieve SSS data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) based on an in situ satellite matched-up dataset (R2 = 0.795; N = 41; Range: 26.4 to 31.9 psμ). The model was then validated using independent continuous SSS measurements from buoys, with the average percentage difference of 0.65%. The model was applied to GOCI images from the dry season during an astronomical tide to characterize hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea. We found that the model provided reasonable estimates of the hourly changes in SSS and that trends in the modeled and measured data were similar in magnitude and direction (0.43 vs 0.33 psμ, R2 = 0.51). There were clear diurnal variations in the SSS of the Bohai Sea, with a regional average of 0.455 ± 0.079 psμ (0.02-3.77 psμ). The magnitude of the diurnal variations in SSS varied spatially, with large diurnal variability in the nearshore, particularly in the estuary, and small variability in the offshore area. The model for the riverine area was based on the inverse correlation between SSS and CDOM absorption. In the offshore area, the water mass of the North Yellow Sea, characterized by high SSS and low CDOM concentrations, dominated. Analysis of the driving mechanisms showed that the tidal current was the main control on hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea.

  16. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  17. Examining Lagrangian surface transport during a coastal upwelling in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole; Mingelaitė, Toma; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-07-01

    We employ in-situ surface drifters and satellite derived sea surface temperature data to examine the impact that an upwelling event may have on mixing and Lagrangian transport of surrounding surface waters. The test area is located near the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland where easterly winds are known to trigger intense coastal upwellings. The analysis is based on the comparison of motions of three drifters that follow the currents in the uppermost layer with a thickness of 2 m with MODIS-based sea surface temperature data and high-quality open sea wind time series. The presence of an upwelling event superseded the classic Ekman-type drift of the surface layer and considerably slowed down the average speed of surface currents in the region affected by the upwelled cold water jet and its filaments. The drifters tended to stay amidst the surrounding surface waters. The properties of mixing were evaluated using the daily rate of temperature change along several transects. The upwelled cooler water largely kept its identity during almost the entire duration of the upwelling event. Intense mixing started at a later stage of the upwelling and continued after the end of the event when the winds that have driven the entire process began to subside.

  18. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  19. Adjusting altimetric sea surface height observations in coastal regions. Case study in the Greek Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mintourakis Ioannis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When processing satellite altimetry data for Mean Sea Surface (MSS modelling in coastal environments many problems arise. The degradation of the accuracy of the Sea Surface Height (SSH observations close to the coastline and the usually irregular pattern and variability of the sea surface topography are the two dominant factors which have to be addressed. In the present paper, we study the statistical behavior of the SSH observations in relation to the range from the coastline for many satellite altimetry missions and we make an effort to minimize the effects of the ocean variability. Based on the above concepts we present a process strategy for the homogenization of multi satellite altimetry data that takes advantage ofweighted SSH observations and applies high degree polynomials for the adjustment and their uniffcation at a common epoch. At each step we present the contribution of each concept to MSS modelling and then we develop a MSS, a marine geoid model and a grid of gravity Free Air Anomalies (FAA for the area under study. Finally, we evaluate the accuracy of the resulting models by comparisons to state of the art global models and other available data such as GPS/leveling points, marine GPS SSH’s and marine gravity FAA’s, in order to investigate any progress achieved by the presented strategy

  20. New estimates of potential impacts of sea level rise and coastal floods in Poland (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paprotny, D.; Terefenko, P.

    2015-01-01

    Polish coastal zone is thought to be of the most exposed to sea level rise in Europe. With climate change expected to raise mean sea levels between 26 and 200 cm by the end of the century, and storms increasing in severity, accurate estimates of those phenomena are needed. Recent advances in quality

  1. Importance of coastal change variables in determining vulnerability to sea- and lake-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, E.A.; Thieler, E.R.; Williams, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began conducting scientific assessments of coastal vulnerability to potential future sea- and lake-level changes in 22 National Park Service sea- and lakeshore units. Coastal park units chosen for the assessment included a variety of geological and physical settings along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Caribbean, and Great Lakes shorelines. This research is motivated by the need to understand and anticipate coastal changes caused by accelerating sea-level rise, as well as lake-level changes caused by climate change, over the next century. The goal of these assessments is to provide information that can be used to make long-term (decade to century) management decisions. Here we analyze the results of coastal vulnerability assessments for several coastal national park units. Index-based assessments quantify the likelihood that physical changes may occur based on analysis of the following variables: tidal range, ice cover, wave height, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, geomorphology, and historical rate of relative sea- or lake-level change. This approach seeks to combine a coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and it provides a measure of the system's potential vulnerability to the effects of sea- or lake-level change. Assessments for 22 park units are combined to evaluate relationships among the variables used to derive the index. Results indicate that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico parks have the highest vulnerability rankings relative to other park regions. A principal component analysis reveals that 99% of the index variability can be explained by four variables: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, water-level change rate, and mean significant wave height. Tidal range, ice cover, and historical shoreline change are not as important when the index is evaluated at large spatial scales (thousands of kilometers

  2. Coastal dynamics and submarine permafrost in shallow water of the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Günther, Frank; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Grosse, Guido; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang; Makarov, Aleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Coastal erosion and flooding transform terrestrial landscapes into marine environments. In the Arctic, these processes inundate terrestrial permafrost with seawater and create submarine permafrost. Permafrost begins to warm under marine conditions, which can destabilize the sea floor and may release greenhouse gases. We report on the transition of terrestrial to submarine permafrost at a site where the timing of inundation can be inferred from the rate of coastline retreat. On Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia, changes in annual coastline position have been measured for decades and vary highly spatially. We hypothesize that these rates are inversely related to the inclination of the upper surface of submarine ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) based on the consequent duration of inundation with increasing distance from the shoreline. We compared rapidly eroding and stable coastal sections of Muostakh Island and find permafrost-table inclinations, determined using direct current resistivity, of 1 and 5 %, respectively. Determinations of submarine IBP depth from a drilling transect in the early 1980s were compared to resistivity profiles from 2011. Based on borehole observations, the thickness of unfrozen sediment overlying the IBP increased from 0 to 14 m below sea level with increasing distance from the shoreline. The geoelectrical profiles showed thickening of the unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost over the 28 years since drilling took place. We use geoelectrical estimates of IBP depth to estimate permafrost degradation rates since inundation. Degradation rates decreased from over 0.4 m a-1 following inundation to around 0.1 m a-1 at the latest after 60 to 110 years and remained constant at this level as the duration of inundation increased to 250 years. We suggest that long-term rates are lower than these values, as the depth to the IBP increases and thermal and porewater solute concentration gradients over depth decrease. For the

  3. Impacts of sea-level rise on the Moroccan coastal zone: Quantifying coastal erosion and flooding in the Tangier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Khouakhi, Abdou; Niang-Diop, Isabelle

    2009-06-01

    As part of a broad assessment of climate change impacts in Morocco, an assessment of vulnerability and adaptation of coastal zones to sea-level rise was conducted. Tangier Bay which is the most important socio-economic pole in Northern Morocco represents one of the cases studies. Using a GIS-based inundation analysis and an erosion modelling approach, the potential physical vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise was investigated, and the most vulnerable socio-economic sectors were assessed. Results indicate that 10% and 24% of the area will be at risk of flooding respectively for minimum (4 m) and maximum (11 m) inundation levels. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the coastal defences and the port, the urban area, tourist coastal infrastructures, the railway, and the industrial area. Shoreline erosion would affect nearly 20% and 45% of the total beach areas respectively in 2050 and 2100. Potential response strategies and adaptation options identified include: sand dune fixation, beach nourishment and building of seawalls to protect the urban and industrial areas of high value. It was also recommended that an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for the region, including upgrading awareness, building regulation and urban growth planning should be the most appropriate tool to ensure a long-term sustainable development, while addressing the vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise.

  4. A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.T.; Plant, N.G.; Thieler, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  6. Barriers to and opportunities for landward migration of coastal wetlands with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, accelerated sea-level rise and continued coastal development are expected to greatly alter coastal landscapes across the globe. Historically, many coastal ecosystems have responded to sea-level fluctuations via horizontal and vertical movement on the landscape. However, anthropogenic activities, including urbanization and the construction of flood-prevention infrastructure, can produce barriers that impede ecosystem migration. Here we show where tidal saline wetlands have the potential to migrate landward along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, one of the most sea-level rise sensitive and wetland-rich regions of the world. Our findings can be used to identify migration corridors and develop sea-level rise adaptation strategies to help ensure the continued availability of wetland-associated ecosystem goods and services.

  7. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  8. Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction: "the" beach towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahan, J. H.; Koscinski, J. S.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Thornton, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction (CLASI) experiment, an alongshore array of 6-m high towers instrumented with ultrasonic 3D anemometers and temperature-relative humidity sensors were deployed at five sandy beaches near the high-tide line in Monterey Bay, CA, in May-June 2016. A cross-shore array of towers was also deployed from within the active surfzone to the toe of the dune at one beach. In addition, waves and ocean temperature were obtained along the 10m isobath for each beach. The dissipative surfzone was O(80m) wide. The wave energy varies among the beaches owing to sheltering and refraction by the Monterey Canyon and headlands. The tides are semi-diurnal mixed, meso-tidal with a maximum tidal range of 2m. This results in a variable beach width from the tower to the tidal line. Footprint analysis for estimating the source region for the turbulent momentum fluxes, suggests that the observations represent three scenarios described as primarily ocean, mixed beach and ocean, and primarily beach. The direct-estimate of the atmospheric stability by the sonic anemometer suggest that all of the beaches are mostly unstable except for a few occurrences in the evening during low wind conditions. The onshore neutral drag coefficient (Cd) estimated at 10m heights is 3-5 times larger than open ocean estimates. Minimal variability was found in Cd based on the footprint analysis. Beach-specific spatial variability in Cd was found related to atmospheric stability and wave energy.

  9. Integrating Non-Tidal Sea Level data from altimetry and tide gauges for coastal sea level prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to integrate Non-Tidal Sea Level (NSL) from the joint TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellite altimetry with tide gauge data at the west and north coast of the United Kingdom for coastal sea level prediction. The temporal correlation coefficient between altimetric...... frequency NSL variation (i.e., every 15min) during a storm surge event at an independent tide gauge station at the Northeast of the UK (Aberdeen)....

  10. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  11. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  12. The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Davina L.; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Bilskie, Matthew V.; Alizad, Karim; Wang, Dingbao

    2015-06-01

    Coastal responses to sea level rise (SLR) include inundation of wetlands, increased shoreline erosion, and increased flooding during storm events. Hydrodynamic parameters such as tidal ranges, tidal prisms, tidal asymmetries, increased flooding depths and inundation extents during storm events respond nonadditively to SLR. Coastal morphology continually adapts toward equilibrium as sea levels rise, inducing changes in the landscape. Marshes may struggle to keep pace with SLR and rely on sediment accumulation and the availability of suitable uplands for migration. Whether hydrodynamic, morphologic, or ecologic, the impacts of SLR are interrelated. To plan for changes under future sea levels, coastal managers need information and data regarding the potential effects of SLR to make informed decisions for managing human and natural communities. This review examines previous studies that have accounted for the dynamic, nonlinear responses of hydrodynamics, coastal morphology, and marsh ecology to SLR by implementing more complex approaches rather than the simplistic "bathtub" approach. These studies provide an improved understanding of the dynamic effects of SLR on coastal environments and contribute to an overall paradigm shift in how coastal scientists and engineers approach modeling the effects of SLR, transitioning away from implementing the "bathtub" approach. However, it is recommended that future studies implement a synergetic approach that integrates the dynamic interactions between physical and ecological environments to better predict the impacts of SLR on coastal systems.

  13. Seasonal resonance of diurnal coastal trapped waves in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Stefanie; Darelius, Elin

    2017-01-01

    The summer enhancement of diurnal tidal currents at the shelf break in the southern Weddell Sea is studied using velocity measurements from 29 moorings during the period 1968 to 2014. Kinetic energy associated with diurnal tidal frequencies is largest at the shelf break and decreases rapidly with distance from it. The diurnal tidal energy increases from austral winter to summer by, on average, 50 %. The austral summer enhancement is observed in all deployments. The observations are compared to results from an idealised numerical solution of the properties of coastal trapped waves (CTWs) for a given bathymetry, stratification and an along-slope current. The frequency at which the dispersion curve for mode 1 CTWs displays a maximum (i.e. where the group velocity is zero and resonance is possible) is found within or near the diurnal frequency band, and it is sensitive to the stratification in the upper part of the water column and to the background current. The maximum of the dispersion curve is shifted towards higher frequencies, above the diurnal band, for weak stratification and a strong background current (i.e. austral winter-like conditions) and towards lower frequencies for strong upper-layer stratification and a weak background current (austral summer). The seasonal evolution of hydrography and currents in the region is inferred from available mooring data and conductivity-temperature-depth profiles. Near-resonance of diurnal tidal CTWs during austral summer can explain the observed seasonality in tidal currents.

  14. Geologic effects and coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise, erosion, and storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Gutierrez, B.T.; Thieler, E.R.; Pendleton, E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of natural and human factors are driving coastal change and making coastal regions and populations increasingly vulnerable. Sea level, a major agent of coastal erosion, has varied greatly from -120 m below present during glacial period low-stands to + 4 to 6 m above present during interglacial warm periods. Geologic and tide gauge data show that global sea level has risen about 12 to 15 cm during the past century with satellite measurements indicating an acceleration since the early 1990s due to thermal expansion and ice-sheet melting. Land subsidence due to tectonic forces and sediment compaction in regions like the mid-Atlantic and Louisiana increase the rate of relative sea-level rise to 40 cm to 100 cm per century. Sea- level rise is predicted to accelerate significantly in the near future due to climate change, resulting in pervasive impacts to coastal regions and putting populations increasingly at risk. The full implications of climate change for coastal systems need to be understood better and long-term plans are needed to manage coasts in order to protect natural resources and mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and increased storms on human infrastructure. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  15. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  16. Coastal setback line for the Kyparissiakos Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece) according to the Mediterranean ICZM protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Serafim; George, Ghionis; Karditsa, Aikaterini

    2017-04-01

    The present investigation concerns the application of the Article 8-2 of the Mediterranean ICZM protocol in the environmentally sensitive coastal dune field of the central part of the Kyparissiakos Gulf (Ionian Sea, Greece). The Kyparissiakos dune field, comprising a set of coastal ecosystems of exceptional value, needs effective ICZM and, amongst all, has to consider the issue of Sea-Level Rise (SLR). The dune field consists of "parabolic" type dunes that are stable and subjected locally to human interference. It consists of four shore-parallel dune lines: the outer (and most recently formed) 1st dune line has formed during the last 500 years, the 2nd during the last 1000 years, whilst the 3rd and 4th lines have formed not later than 1600 years BP (Poulos et al., 2012). Moreover, the four dune lines (from the youngest to the oldest) lie at distances of approximately 60 m, 100 m, 200 m and 600 m from the coastline, having maximum heights of 4 m, 6 m, 10 m, and 10-12 m, respectively. The dune field, in general, is in equilibrium with the current nearshore hydrodynamics as the width of the beach zone is greater than the maximum run-up length (not included storm surge). The maximum wave run-up height (R), relative to the mean sea level, has been calculated by applying Komar's (1998) equation: R = 0.36 ṡ g0.5 ṡ S ṡ Ho0.5 ṡ T (g: acceleration of gravity; Ho: maximum offshore wave height; T: corresponding maximum wave period; S: tangential beach slope). Thus, the wave run-up due to the highest incoming waves can reach elevations of the order of 1.6m in the case of the NW waves (Ho=6m, T=9 s) and 2m in the case of W and SW waves (Ho=6.4m, T=6.4s). These elevations correspond to 25m and 40 m of tangential distances on the beach surface, which are less than the current beach width (> 60 m). However, if the maximum wave heights coincide with the maximum storm surge (0.5 m) observed in the area, wave action can reach and erode the foot of the 1st dune line. Thus, for

  17. Implications of accelerated sea-level rise on Louisiana coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Karen E.; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and human-induced processes have combined to produce high rates of relative sea-level rise and coastal land loss in Louisiana. This paper presents historical trends in sea-level rise and the implication of predicted accelerated rise scenarios on Louisiana's coastal environments. Mean eustatic sea-level in the Gulf of Mexico is 0.23 cm/yr. In Louisiana, relative sea-level rise, which combines eustacy and subsidence, averages from 0.50 cm/yr in the chenier plain to 1.0 cm/yr in the delta plain. Subsidence due to the compaction of Holocene sediments is believed to be the major component influencing these high rates of rise. Subsidence contributes up to 80% of the observed relative sea-level rise in coastal Louisiana. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts the rate of sea-level rise to increase over the next century due to global climate change. If these predictions are accurate, a dramatic increase in the coastal land loss conditions in Louisiana can be expected.

  18. Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) to Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress; Beavers, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Padre Island National Seashore in Texas. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Padre Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, tidal flat, or grassland. The areas within Padre that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  19. 南海西北部陆架区沿岸流和上升流对中华哲水蚤分布的影响%Effects of coastal current and upwelling on the distributions of Calanus sinicus on the northwest continental shelf of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹健强; 黄良民; 李开枝; 练树民; 李超伦; 张建林

    2013-01-01

    Calanus sinicus is a planktonic copepod with wide geographical distribution on the continental shelf of the northwest Pacific It plays an important role in marine system. Four cruises were conducted from July 2006 to October 2007 in order to understand the seasonal and horizontal variations with the influences of monsoon, ocean cur-rent and temperature on its distributions on the northwest continental shelf of the South China Sea. The diel vertical migration (DVM) of C. sinicus was studied at one station located in the southeast of Hainan Island during summer. The results showed that the distribution of C. sinicus abundance varied seasonally and regionally. The mean of C. sinicus abundance was high with 23. 30±77. 78 ind. /m3 in spring, and decreased to 13. 74 + 45.10 ind. /m3 in summer. It disappeared in autumn and did not enter into the study area during the investigated period in winter. The surveyed area was divided into three sub-regions in order to further analyze the regional difference, including the east inshore waters of Leizhou Peninsula, the east inshore waters of Hainan Island and and the offshore waters from Leizhou Peninsula to Hainan Island. The average abundance of C. sinicus within the inshore waters of Leizhou Peninsula was reached to be 115. 63 (±145. 93) and 68. 12 (±84. 00) ind/m3 in spring and summer, respectively, which was higher than those of the inshore Hainan Island and the offshore from Leizhou Peninsula to Hainan Island. The behavior of C. sinicus DVM was not found in the upwelling area in summer. C. sinicus seemed to be mostly habited in the bottom layer in order to avoid the damage of high temperature in the surface layer. The study area is the seasonal distribution zone of C. sinicus. Our findings suggested that C. sinicus was transported from the East China Sea to the northwest continental shelf of South China Sea by the Guangdong Coastal Current, which was driven by the northeast monsoon in winter and spring. The presence of a

  20. Analysis of data characterizing tide and current fluxes in coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Elvira; De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal monitoring programmes have been carried out to investigate in situ hydrodynamic patterns and correlated physical processes, such as sediment transport or spreading of pollutants. The key point is the necessity to transform this growing amount of data provided by marine sensors into information for users. The present paper aims to outline that it is possible to recognize the recurring and typical hydrodynamic processes of a coastal basin, by conveniently processing some selected marine field data. The illustrated framework is made up of two steps. Firstly, a sequence of analysis with classic methods characterized by low computational cost was executed in both time and frequency domains on detailed field measurements of waves, tides, and currents. After this, some indicators of the hydrodynamic state of the basin were identified and evaluated. Namely, the assessment of the net flow through a connecting channel, the time delay of current peaks between upper and bottom layers, the ratio of peak ebb and peak flood currents and the tidal asymmetry factor exemplify results on the vertical structure of the flow, on the correlation between currents and tide and flood/ebb dominance. To demonstrate how this simple and generic framework could be applied, a case study is presented, referring to Mar Piccolo, a shallow water basin located in the inner part of the Ionian Sea (southern Italy).

  1. Coastal geosystems of Azov-Black sea coast of Krasnodar region: vulnerability sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOVA TATIANA ALEKSANDROVNA; FILOBOK ANATOLY ANATOLYEVICH; BELIKOV MIKHAIL YURYEVICH; MINENKOVA VERA VLADIMIROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Development of coastal geosystems is one of the leading and promising directions of the activity of the regional economy; hence, it is required to plan the development taking into account the existing system of population settlement, transformation of functional structure of towns and ecological safety. The increase of anthropogenic load on the ecosystems of the Black and Azov seas related to the enhancement of recreational activity in coastal districts has negative effect on the condition of...

  2. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  3. Evolution of the Rømø barrier island in the Wadden Sea: Impacts of sea-level change on coastal morphodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter

    Sandy coastal barriers are abundant along most continents, and they are often intensively engineered to prevent erosion. Therefore, it is important to develop projections of the evolution of this coastal type in periods with changing climate and sea-level. We have used a multidisciplinary approach......, and falling sea-level, whereas wash-over sedimentation was promoted during periods of rapid sea-level rise when shoreface, beach and coastal dune deposits were reworked. In contrast, lagoonal sedimentation has been relatively continuous and kept pace with the long-term Holocene sea-level rise. Our findings...

  4. Global Projection of Coastal Exposure Associated with Sea-level Rise beyond Tipping Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatari, R.; Miyazaki, C.; Iseri, Y.; Kiguchi, M.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise due to global warming becomes a great matter of concern for global coastal area. Additionally, it has reported in fifth report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) that deglaciation of Greenland ice sheet and Antarctic ice sheet would occur rapidly and enhance sea-level rise if temperature passes certain "Tipping point". In terms of projecting damage induced by sea-level rise globally, some previous studies focused on duration until mainly 2100. Furthermore long-term estimations on centuries to millennial climatic response of the ice sheets which are supposed to be triggered within this or next century would be also important to think about future climate and lifestyle in coastal . In this study, I estimated the long term sea-level which take into account the tipping points of Greenland ice sheet (1.4℃) as sum of 4 factors (thermal expansion, glacier and ice cap, Greenland ice sheet, Antarctic ice sheet). The sea-level follows 4 representative concentration pathways up to 3000 obtained through literature reviewing since there were limited available sea-level projections up to 3000. I also estimated a number of affected population lives in coastal area up to 3000 with using the estimated sea-level. The cost for damage, adaptation and mitigation would be also discussed. These estimations would be useful when decision-makers propose policies for construction of dikes and proposing mitigation plans for sustainable future. The result indicates there would be large and relatively rapid increases in both sea-level rise and coastal exposure if global mean temperature passes the tipping point of Greenland ice sheet. However the tipping points, melting rate and timescale of response are highly uncertain and still discussed among experts. Thus more precise and credible information is required for further accurate estimation of long-term sea-level rise and population exposure in the future.

  5. Coastal zone: Shelf-EEZ and land sea interface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and non-renewable resources, is one of the most vulnerable regions of ecological disturbances. A logical approach towards the development and monitoring of the coastal zone involves sustainable management of natural resources...

  6. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  7. Methane in coastal and offshore waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, D.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Narvekar, P.V.; George, M.D.

    , revealed high spatial and temporal variability in surface saturation (110-2521%). The highest values were observed during the SWM in the inner shelf where coastal upwelling combined with freshwater runoff to produce very strong near-surface stratification...

  8. Coastal Bathymetry of the Bering, Chuckhi, and Beaufort Seas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric contours were generated from soundings collected by National Ocean Service vessels from ~1900 to ~1971. The 1:250,000 maps are available for U.S. coastal...

  9. A procedure for mapping vulnerability of sea-coastal zones to oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavykin, A. A.; Matishov, G. G.; Karnatov, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    An algorithm for mapping the vulnerability of sea-coastal zones is described. Normalization of the distribution densities of the biotic groups to the annual average abundance for presenting these data in identical measurement units is offered. Sensitivity of biota to oil should be normalized to the maximum permissible concentrations for the species inhabiting the water column and to the maximum permissible thickness of the film that has contacted with the water surface. All parameters should be estimated by the metric scale. The proposed algorithm makes it possible to calculate the vulnerability of a sea-coastal zone to oil pollution caused by oil spills.

  10. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems.

  11. Decadal-scale sea level rise acceleration along the Florida Atlantic coast and its relations to sea level variability along the Florida Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Thompson, P. R.; Mitchum, G. T.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US Atlantic coast is one of the most vulnerable areas to sea level rise (SLR) due to its low elevation, large population concentrations, and economic importance. Further vulnerability arises from accelerating rates of SLR, which began in the early 2000's and caused a significant increase in flooding frequency in several coastal communities. Several studies have suggested that the accelerating SLR rates are due to the slowing down of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, in particular, a weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS). However, there are no direct observations that link the GS conditions and high sea levels along the coast. In this study we use satellite altimetry, tide gauge, and Florida Current (FC) cable data to explore possible relations between the recent SLR rate increase along the Florida Atlantic coast and various dynamical processes in the GS/FC system. Preliminary calculations indicate a good agreement between coastal sea level and nearshore altimetry series (R = 0.76-0.8) suggesting that SSH gradients from altimetry may be useful for assessing the dynamics associated with the coastal sea level change. Here we focus on spatio-temporal SSH changes along the two satellite passes located closest to the Florida Atlantic coast. Our results indicate an intriguing transition in SSH behavior around 2004-5. Prior to 2004, anomalous low coastal SSH events (strong FC) occurred every 3-5 years in correlation with warm ENSO events. After 2004, the strong relationship between ENSO and the gradient across the FC vanishes, while the mean sea level across the current increases. The observed SSH anomaly transition around 2004-5 correlates well with the initiation of accelerated rates of coastal SLR, suggesting that the decadal scale SLR acceleration has occurred during weak FC conditions. However, the forcing of this transition and the role of mean sea level variability, which is of comparable magnitude to variability in the gradient, remain unexplained.

  12. Projecting the Current & Future Impact of Storm Surges on Coastal Flood Extent at Pigeon Point, South-West Tobago, through Hydrodynamic Modelling Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenath, Avidesh; Wilson, Matthew; Miller, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Under climate change, sea levels will continue to rise and the intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes will amplify. Consequently, the incidence rate of high magnitude storm surges may increase which will enhance the probability of coastal flood events in low lying coastal communities. The purpose of this study is to determine the current and potential future areas that may be at risk of flooding from storm surges, of different magnitudes, for the low lying Pigeon Point area of south-west Tobago. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the extent of flooding that these events can ensue on low lying coastal areas that are widespread through the Caribbean under current and future sea level conditions. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood model was created for Pigeon Point using the model code LISFLOOD-FP by incorporating topographic data of the terrain and sea bed referenced to mean sea level together with tides. This was used to assess the impact of different storm surge levels on the study area. Storm surge scenarios were computed using information acquired from the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale which provides an estimate of storm surge height based on the category of hurricane, existing projections of global sea level rise and recorded values of high tide for Pigeon Point. Results indicate that the quantity of area likely to flood, in each surge scenario, increases significantly under future projected global sea level conditions compared to current conditions. The potential implications of this on the local population, island's economy and beach geomorphology are examined. Results obtained were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to produce current and future flood maps indicating potential inundation extent based on storm surge height to guide coastal flood management programmes in south-west Tobago. We conclude that greater focus should be placed on implementing flood mitigation measures to protect our coasts and

  13. Coastal management plan in the south of the Black Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oylum Gkkurt Baki; Osman Nuri Ergun; Levent Bat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the environmental factors that effect to the shoreline and how they interact with tourism development. Methods: In the study, both the existing problems of the coastal area of Sinop and the probable solutions to these problems are stated. The system of the coast area of the province was examined with all details and the system was examined in 3 sections, namely anthropogenic components, natural components and tourism components. Results: Tourism which is also referred as smokeless industry provides a tremendous potential for the coastal cities. This sector is a considerable resource of income for coastal cities, so long as environmental factors are also paid attention. Otherwise, it is a mistake to expect sustainable proceeds from tourism. Coastal management is a dynamic, multi-disciplinary process. It includes a complete cycle such as collecting information, planning and decision making and the monitoring management and application, and revealing the problems for the purpose of ensuring a sustainable tourism. Conclusions: This study examines the environmental factors that have driven new approaches to shoreline management and how they interact with tourism development. Then, the integrated coastal zone management study procedure and its prospected outcomes are explained, and importance of the findings on Sinop’s integrated coastal zone management is emphasized.

  14. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... standard on coastal engineering practice....

  15. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  16. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  17. How much do diurnal land-sea circulations contribute to coastal wind power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. L.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Wind power is a renewable and underused energy source that can help meet energy demands sustainably. However, estimates of coastal wind power potential often rely on measurements that under-sample the diurnal increase in wind speed due to local land/sea circulations. In situ measurements show that the diurnal sea breeze explains a majority of wind power in coastal Southern California. Satellite-retrieved winds overestimate the amount of wind power available by about 15 percent relative to half-hourly measurements of wind speed at Crystal Cove State Park over four years, from 2008-2012. This is because twice-per-day polar satellite overflights (e.g., QuikSCAT) can over-represent the sea breeze component of the wind power potential. Using gridded NASA MERRA analyses, our study quantifies globally the fraction of coastal wind power attributable to land/sea breezes, and shows where wind power based on satellite retrieved wind speeds is most likely biased by these local circulations. Finally, we demonstrate how coastal wind power may change in the 21st century based on IPCC CMIP5 climate change simulations. Future simulations (RCP 8.5) are rescaled by the difference between present day simulations and MERRA analyses. These results highlight the importance of land/sea breezes in potential present day and future wind power.

  18. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Young, Robert S.; Bush, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Leatherman et al. [2000] (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55) affirm that global eustatic sea-level rise is driving coastal erosion. Furthermore, they argue that the long-term average rate of shoreline retreat is 150 times the rate of sea-level rise. This rate, they say, is more than a magnitude greater than would be expected from a simple response to sea-level rise through inundation of the shoreline. We agree that sea-level rise is the primary factor causing shoreline retreat in stable coastal areas.This is intuitive. We also believe, however, that the Leatherman et al. [2000] study has greatly underestimated the rate of coastal recession along most low slope shorelines. Slopes along the North Carolina continental shelf/coastal plain approach 10,000:1. To us, this suggests that we should expect rates of shoreline recession 10,000 times the rate of sea-level rise through simple inundation of the shoreline.

  19. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  2. Low-Frequency Variability of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass Identified from the China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Seas Reanalysis ( CORA ) data to investigate the interannual and decadal variability of the Yellow Sea cold watermass (YSCWM) and its relationship to...Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis ( CORA ) data to investigate the interannual and decadal variability of the Yellow Sea cold water mass (YSCWM) and...China Coastal Waters and Adjacent Seas Reanalysis ( CORA ) data. CORA assimi- lated the in situ observed temperature and salinity profiles collected by the

  3. Integrated Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current Using HF Ocean Radars, Satellite Altimeters, Coastal Tide Gauges, and a Bottom-Mounted ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuchi, N.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.; Wakatsuchi, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soya Warm Current (SWC) is a coastal boundary current, which flows along the coast of Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The SWC flows into the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan through the Soya/La Perouse Strait, which is located between Hokkaido, Japan, and Sakhalin, Russia. It supplies warm, saline water in the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk and largely affects the ocean circulation and water mass formation in the Sea of Okhotsk, and local climate, environment and fishery in the region. However, the SWC has never been continuously monitored due to the difficulties involved in field observations related to, for example, severe weather conditions in the winter, political issues at the border strait, and conflicts with fishing activities in the strait. Detailed features of the SWC and its variations have not yet been clarified. In order to monitor variations in the SWC, three HF ocean radar stations were installed around the strait. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. It is shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and subinertial variations of the SWC. The velocity of the SWC reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m/s, in summer, and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 50 km. The surface transport by the Soya Warm Current shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records. The cross-current sea level difference, which is estimated from the sea level anomalies observed by the Jason-1 altimeter and a coastal tide gauge, also exhibits variation in concert with the surface transport and along-current sea level difference.

  4. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants.

  5. Operative forecast of hydrophysical fields in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone within the ECOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kordzadze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area, which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic regional model of the Black Sea dynamics developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (RM-IG. This model is nested in the basin-scale model (BSM of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI, Sevastopol/Ukraine. The regional area is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with a meridian 39.36° E. Since June 2010 we regularly compute 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea with 1 km spacing. In this study results of two forecasts are presented. The first forecast corresponds to Summer season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 6 August to 00:00 h, 9 August 2010. The second one corresponds to Autumn season and covers the prognostic interval from 00:00 h, 26 October to 00:00 h, 29 October 2010. Data needed for the forecasts – the 3-D initial and prognostic hydrophysical fields, also 2-D prognostic meteorological fields at the sea surface, wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates for the our regional area are placing on the MHI server every day and we are available to use these data operatively. Prognostic hydrophysical fields are results of forecast by BSM of MHI and 2-D meteorological boundary fields represent results of forecast by regional atmospheric model ALADIN. All these fields are given on the grid of BSM with 5 km spacing and with one-hour time step frequency for the integration period. The analysis of predicted fields shows that to use the model with high resolution is very important factor for identification of nearshore eddies of small sizes. It should be noted very

  6. Phase I for the Use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozen, Madeline; Batina, Matthew; Parker, Stephen; Brooks, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the first phase of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying satellite altimetry data to monitor sea level rise and inundation within coastal Louisiana. Global sea level is rising, and coastal Louisiana is subsiding. Therefore, there is a need to monitor these trends over time for coastal restoration and hazard mitigation efforts. TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-data are used for global sea level estimates and have also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. To employ TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-1 data in coastal regions, the numerous steps involved in processing the data over non-open ocean areas must be assessed. This project outlined the appropriate methodology for processing non-open ocean data, including retracking and atmospheric corrections. It also inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence, sea level rise, coastal geomorphology, and salinity levels, among others, through a review of remote sensing and field methods. In addition, the project analyzed the socioeconomic factors within the Coastal Zone as compared to the rest of Louisiana. While sensor data uncertainty must be addressed, it was determined that it is feasible to apply radar altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason 1 to see trends in change within Coastal Louisiana since

  7. Projecting future wave climates and corresponding shoreline changes along the differently exposed coastal sections of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suursaar, Ülo; Tõnisson, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the recently observed and projected future coastal changes in differently exposed Estonian coastal sections as a result of changing wind and wave climates. Along the shoreline of the practically tideless Baltic Sea, the increase in storminess has already impacted the coastal environment over the last 50 years. However, the number of storms, as well as their pathways, has been fluctuating considerably over the last decades. Furthermore, forecasting future hydrodynamic conditions and corresponding coastal changes is a rather mixed, yet crucial task. A number of Estonian study sites have been regularly examined by coastal scientists since the 1960s. Six coastal sections have been chosen for this study: Harilaid Peninsula (exposed to SW), Letipea-Sillamäe (N), Kõiguste-Nasva (SE), Kihnu-Pärnu (S), and two sides of the Osmussaar Island (W, N). Since the 2000s, use of GPS instruments and GIS software has enabled year-to-year changes in the shoreline to be tracked and the calculation of the corresponding areas or volumes due to accumulation and erosion. Recently digitized aerial photographs, as well as orthophotos and old topographic maps, enable the calculation of changes over longer sub-periods. Based on recorded and hindcasted changes in wind-driven hydrodynamic conditions, we found relationships between forcing conditions and the rates at which shorelines were changing. For future changes, wave climates were projected for the selected coastal sections of special geomorphic interest, where also a series of hydrodynamic surveys (waves, currents, sea level) were carried out using ADCP-s in 2006-2014. Wave parameters were consecutively hindcasted using a site-dependently calibrated fetch-based wave model. As the full calculation period (1966-2013) might suffer from inhomogeneity of wind input data, a confidently homogeneous time cut (2004-2013; 10 full years with hourly resolution) was chosen as a baseline (or control) period. An

  8. Wave-current interactions in the southern North Sea: The impact on salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloen, Julia; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    The interplay between wind waves and currents in the coastal zone of the southern North Sea along with the resulting changes in the salinity distribution are quantified using simulations with the unstructured-grid ocean model SCHISM coupled with the wind wave model WWM III. Several sensitivity runs, which are carried out to estimate the individual contributions of different physical mechanisms and forcing, demonstrated that the density gradients in the coastal zone reduce tidal current by 18%, whereas the wind waves enhance the circulation in some cases. The latter happens when along-shore wind speed approaches ∼10 m s-1 resulting in long-shore currents following the western Dutch coast and the German Wadden Sea islands. The wave-induced transport of salt leads to changes in the horizontal salinity distribution. These are most pronounced in front of barrier islands where coherent patterns caused by the coupling between tides, surface drift, and wind waves reveal salinity changes up to 0.5. The weak stratification of salinity in the coastal zone is mostly destroyed by wind waves. Thus, effects created by wind waves tend to substantially modify the estuarine circulation. An explanation of these important processes in the coastal zone has been given based on an analysis of the ratio between significant wave height and tidal range. This control-parameter, which is relatively small under mild weather conditions, can exceed unity under strong wind conditions in the coastal zone, thus mixing due to waves becomes dominant. The effect of fresh water fluxes from subterranean estuaries is relatively small and confined only in the vicinity of corresponding sources.

  9. Coastal sea level variability in the US West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapov, Alexander L.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Myers, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Sea level variability along the US West Coast is analyzed using multi-year time series records from tide gauges and a high-resolution regional ocean model, the base of the West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS). One of the metrics utilized is the frequency of occurrences when model prediction is within 0.15 m from the observed sea level, F. A target level of F = 90% is set by an operational agency. A combination of the tidal sea level from a shallow water inverse model, inverted barometer (IB) term computed using surface air pressure from a mesoscale atmospheric model, and low-pass filtered sea level from WCOFS representing the effect of coastal ocean dynamics (DYN) provides the most straightforward approach to reaching levels F>80%. The IB and DYN components each add between 5 and 15% to F. Given the importance of the DYN term bringing F closer to the operational requirement and its role as an indicator of the coastal ocean processes on scales from days to interannual, additional verification of the WCOFS subtidal sea level is provided in terms of the model-data correlation, standard deviation of the band-pass filtered (2-60 days) time series, the annual cycle amplitude, and alongshore sea level coherence in the range of 5-120-day periods. Model-data correlation in sea level increases from south to north along the US coast. The rms amplitude of model sea level variability in the 2-60-day band and its annual amplitude are weaker than observed north of 42 N, in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast region. The alongshore coherence amplitude and phase patterns are similar in the model and observations. Availability of the multi-year model solution allows computation and analysis of spatial maps of the coherence amplitude. For a reference location in the Southern California Bight, relatively short-period sea level motions (near 10 days) are incoherent with those north of the Santa Barbara Channel (in part, due to coastal trapped wave scattering and/or dissipation). At a

  10. A global map of suitability for coastal Vibrio cholerae under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Ryan, Sadie J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L; King, Christine A; Qiao, Huijie; Polhemus, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to target surveillance of cholera and other climate and water-sensitive diseases. We used an ecological niche model (ENM) to identify environmental variables associated with V. cholerae presence in marine environments, to project a global model of V. cholerae distribution in ocean waters under current and future climate scenarios. We generated an ENM using published reports of V. cholerae in seawater and freely available remotely sensed imagery. Models indicated that factors associated with V. cholerae presence included chlorophyll-a, pH, and sea surface temperature (SST), with chlorophyll-a demonstrating the greatest explanatory power from variables selected for model calibration. We identified specific geographic areas for potential V. cholerae distribution. Coastal Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, was found to be environmentally similar to coastal areas in Latin America. In a conservative climate change scenario, we observed a predicted increase in areas with environmental conditions suitable for V. cholerae. Findings highlight the potential for vulnerability maps to inform cholera surveillance, early warning systems, and disease prevention and control.

  11. Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Robert; Anderson, Donald; Cloern, James; Elfring, Chris; Hopkinson, Charles; Lapointe, Brian; Malone, Tom; Marcus, Nancy; McGlathery, Karen; Sharpley , Andrew; Walker, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, antipollution laws have greatly reduced discharges of toxic substances into our coastal waters. This effort, however, has focused largely on point-source pollution of industrial and municipal effluent. No comparable effort has been made to restrict the input of nitrogen (N) from municipal effluent, nor to control the flows of N and phosphorus (P) that enter waterways from dispersed or nonpoint sources such as agricultural and urban runoff or as airborne pollutants. As a result, inputs of nonpoint pollutants, particularly N, have increased dramatically. Nonpoint pollution from N and P now represents the largest pollution problem facing the vital coastal waters of the United States.

  12. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Sea Level Rise Data: Coastal Flood Threshold Inundation Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  13. Coastal dynamics of Garabogazköl bay of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep

    2016-04-01

    Garabogazköl is extremely interesting object for the study of coastal evolution and Caspian sea paleogeography. Bay plays an important role in evolution of the Caspian basin, as a major area of permanent loss of sea water, the volume of which varies in different years from 17 to 23 km3/year, averaging about 20.3 km3/year. Termination of runoff into the bay would provide annual Caspian Sea level rise of about 3 cm. Despite the large-scale research of the coast of the Caspian Sea during the Soviet era, Garabogazköl was generally poorly studied, mostly describing sedimentation patterns of salt deposits (associated with the production of sulfates). The basis of our study was the materials of remote sensing (satellite imagery), supported by field research, description of geomorphological structure of coasts. As known, the Caspian Sea level was at the lowest elevations from 1970 to 1985, ranging from -28.6 to -29.01 m. The creation of the dam in 1980 completely blocked Caspian water inflow into the Gulf, resulting even more drastic reduction in its area, which decreased by 3 times (from 18 to 6 thousand. km2), with depth less than 50 cm. In mid-1992, when the level of the Caspian Sea has risen by more than 2 meters over the level of 1978, the dam was destroyed. The obtained data allowed characterizing the peculiarities of the coast of the Gulf in these conditions. During the start of the coastal retreat first appeared drained relatively shallow northern and western parts. During this period the processes of accumulation were predominate. There was the deposition of thick (up to 1 m) salt horizon. Dominating wind-surge processes resulted relatively smoothed surface, filling rugged topography by terrigenous material and salt. After the explosion of the dam in 1992, the bay was quickly filled with water and in the next 3-4 years is completely covered the Gara-Bogaz depression. In general, a high stability of the coastline of the Gulf observed through analysis of the last

  14. Coastal sea-level in Norway from CryoSat-2 SAR altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idžanović, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    Conventional spaceborne altimeters determine the sea surface height with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Although satellite altimetry may be regarded as a mature technology, altimeter observations collected over coastal regions suffer from numerous effects which degrade their quality. For examp...

  15. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  16. Coastal seas in a changing world: Anthropogenic impact and environmental responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Gao, Xuelu; Ishizaka, Joji; Lebel, Louis

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, human-driven environmental change caused by the modification of river discharges, the exploitation of marine resources, the burning of fossil fuels, and various shoreline developments and engineering activities, has accelerated; and evidence of this is seen around the world. Linking continents with open oceans, coastal seas trap most land-based discharge and consequently face varying degrees of anthropogenic change.

  17. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  18. Vulnerability of coastal areas to sea-level rise: some global results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, F.M.J.; Marchand, M.; Pennekamp, H.; Misdorp, R.; Bijlsma, L.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of the various resources of the world's coastal zones to an acceleration of sea-level rise (ASLR) and related climate change effects requires detailed global information on the distribution, density and state of the resources and on the impacting hazardous events. For

  19. Impact of currents on surface fluxes computation and their feedback on coastal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A twin numerical experiment was conducted in the seas of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean to assess the impact, at coastal scales, of the use of relative winds (i.e. taking into account ocean surface currents in the computation of heat and momentum fluxes through bulk formulas. The model, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, was implemented at 2 km of resolution in order to well resolve (sub-mesoscale dynamics. Small changes (1–2% in terms of spatially-averaged fluxes correspond to quite large spatial differences of such quantities (up to 15–20% and to comparably significant differences in terms of mean velocities of the surface currents. Wind power input of the wind stress to the ocean surface P results also reduced by a 15%, especially where surface currents are stronger. Quantitative validation with satellite SST suggests that such a modification on the fluxes improves the model solution especially in areas of cyclonic circulation, where the heat fluxes correction is predominant in respect to the dynamical correction. Surface currents changes above all in their fluctuating part, while the stable part of the flow show changes mainly in magnitude and less in its path. Both total and eddy kinetic energies of the surface current field results reduced in the experiment where fluxes took into account for surface currents. Dynamically, the largest correction is observed in the SW area where anticyclonic eddies approach the continental slope. This reduction also impacts the vertical dynamics and specifically the local upwelling that results diminished both in spatial extension as well in magnitude. Simulations suggest that, even at local scales and in temperate regions, it is preferable to take into account for such a component in fluxes computation. Results also confirm the tight relationship between local coastal upwelling and eddy-slope interactions in the area.

  20. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  1. Reconstructing the history of euxinia in a coastal sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Areas of the coastal ocean where oxygen is low or absent in bottom waters, so-called dead zones, are expanding worldwide (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Increased inputs of nutrients from land are enhancing algal blooms, and the sinking of this organic matter to the seafl oor and subsequent decay

  2. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  3. Coastal Erosion and Flooding Hazards on the North Sea Coast at Thyboron, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Nielsen, Peter

    Since a breach of the coastal barrier in 1862, the Thyboron Channel connecting the North Sea and the Lim Fiord has been artificially maintained by construction of breakwaters and groins on the North Sea coast and inside the channel, respectively. Sand nourishment schemes have since the 1980s...... counteracted the natural erosion in the upper profile on the North Sea coast where the alongshore sediment transport converges towards the channel and deposits up to 1 million m3/y on the flood tidal delta inside the fiord, Figure 1....

  4. 21st-Century Sea Level Rise, Economic Growth, and Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiciga, H. A.; Pingel, T.

    2008-12-01

    21st-century sea-level rise predictions for California's coastal waters range from 0.10 m to 0.80 m. In coastal semiarid aquifers of California with low topographic relief and heavy groundwater pumping this might lead to pervasive landward migration of seawater plumes. In other coastal aquifers with pronounced seaward hydraulic gradient, the effect of sea-level rise might not be as pronounced. This paper implements a variable- fluid-density, 3-D, finite element numerical flow and transport model to assess the evolution of coastal aquifer salinity during the 21st century due to sea level rise by ice melting and oceanic thermal expansion, and by extraction driven by economic and population growth in semiarid coastal regions of California. The paper focuses on contrasting two different hydrogeologic settings in two heavily mined coastal aquifer with a state- of-the-art numerical simulation model.

  5. Top 10 principles for designing healthy coastal ecosystems like the Salish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Dierauf, Leslie; Kirby, Grant; Brosnan, Deborah; Gilardi, Kirsten; Davis, Gary E

    2008-12-01

    Like other coastal zones around the world, the inland sea ecosystem of Washington (USA) and British Columbia (Canada), an area known as the Salish Sea, is changing under pressure from a growing human population, conversion of native forest and shoreline habitat to urban development, toxic contamination of sediments and species, and overharvest of resources. While billions of dollars have been spent trying to restore other coastal ecosystems around the world, there still is no successful model for restoring estuarine or marine ecosystems like the Salish Sea. Despite the lack of a guiding model, major ecological principles do exist that should be applied as people work to design the Salish Sea and other large marine ecosystems for the future. We suggest that the following 10 ecological principles serve as a foundation for educating the public and for designing a healthy Salish Sea and other coastal ecosystems for future generations: (1) Think ecosystem: political boundaries are arbitrary; (2) Account for ecosystem connectivity; (3) Understand the food web; (4) Avoid fragmentation; (5) Respect ecosystem integrity; (6) Support nature's resilience; (7) Value nature: it's money in your pocket; (8) Watch wildlife health; (9) Plan for extremes; and (10) Share the knowledge.

  6. Impact of sea level rise in coastal systems - Ria de Aveiro case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, A.; Mendes, R.; Vaz, N.; Dias, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The mean sea level rising is an important consequence of climate change because of its impact on society and coastal ecosystems. Tide gauge information evidences that global mean sea level has increased in the 20th century, and it is expected that its rise will continue during the 21th century. However, the sea levels are not changing uniformly around the world, as both tide gauge and satellite data confirm. Sea level rise can have a wide variety of impacts on worldwide coastal areas, causing flooding, land loss, the salinization of groundwater and the destruction of built property and infrastructures. In Portugal, the region's most affected by the sea level rise are probably the Aveiro and Formosa coastal lagoons as well as the Tagus and Sado estuaries. A good understanding of the sea level rise influence in the estuarine tidal dynamics is crucial to mitigate these problems. However, the response of each coastal region to sea level rise depends on the physical features of the coastal system, and therefore their effects should be locally assessed. Thus, this work aims to investigate the potential impacts of the mean sea level rise in coastal regions, analysing the particular case of Ria de Aveiro, which is in risk of flooding. To assess these changes the numerical model Mohid was implemented in Ria de Aveiro. Mohid is a finite volume model, designed for coastal and estuarine shallow water applications. Although Mohid is a 3D baroclinic model, it was used herein in baratropic mode with a single vertical layer, considering that due to its shallow depths, Ria de Aveiro circulation can be simulated with a depth integrated model. The model was used initially to characterize the lagoons hydrodynamic under the actual sea level, through the determination of the amplitude and phase of the main tidal constituents, maximum levels and velocities, tidal asymmetry, as well as the tidal prism in the main sections of the lagoon. After, a realistic regional sea level rise scenario

  7. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  8. Global Coastal Exposure due to Sea-level Rise beyond Tipping Points with Multiple Warming Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatari, R.; Iseri, Y.; Kiguchi, M.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sea-level is observed and estimated to continue rising. In the future, the rise could be abrupt and irreversible in century to millennial timescale even if we conduct strong reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Greenland ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet are considered as attributable climate systems which would significantly enhance presently-projected sea-level rise by several meters if global mean temperature passes certain "Tipping points" which would exist around +1-5 degree Celsius above present temperature (1980-1999 average). Therefore, vulnerable coastal low-lying area, especially small islands, deltas or poor developing countries, would suffer from semi-permanent inundation and forced to counteract due to the enhanced sea-level rise. This study estimate range of sea-level rise until the year 2300 and 3000 considering excess of tipping points with using multiple levels of temperature scenarios which consist of excess tipping points and non-excess tipping points pathways. We extract state-of-the-art knowledge of tipping elements from paper reviewing to express reasonable relationship between temperature and abruptly-changing sea-level transition across the ages. This study also calculate coastal exposure globally as affected population, area and asset below the estimated sea-level for each countries with overlaying 30 arc-second gridded topography, population distribution and the sea-level. The result indicates which country would be critically affected if we follow overshooting pathways. Furthermore, this study visualize uncertain coastal exposure due to sea-level rise in the future from the multiple warming pathways. This estimation of possible future beyond tipping point would be useful information for decision-makers to establish new planning of defense, migration or mitigation for the future societies.

  9. Three-dimensional calculations of the currents in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea during June of 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqun Wang; Yaochu Yuan; Yonggang Liu; Mingyu Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Based on the wind and hydrographic data obtained by R/V Xiangyanghong 14 duringJune of 1999, the currents in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea are computed by the three dimen-sional non-linear diagnostic, semidiagnostic models and prognostic in the σ coordinate. The computed re-sults show that the density and velocity fields and so on have been adjusted when time is about 3 days,namely the solution of semidiagnostic calculation is obtained. In the northwest part of the computed re-gion, the Huanghai coastal current flows southeastward, and then it flows out the computed region southof Cheju Island. In the west side of the southern part of the computed region, there is other current,which is mainly inshore branch of Taiwan Warm Current, and it flows cyclonically and turns to thenortheast. In the region north of the above two currents, there is a cyclonic eddy southwest of Cheju Is-land, and it has characteristics of high density and low temperature. There is an offshore branch of Tai-wan Warm Current in the west side of the Kuroshio, and it makes a cyclonic meander, then flows north-eastward. The Kuroshio in the East China Sea is stronger, and flows northeastward. Its maximum hori-zontal velocity is 108.5 cm/s at the sea surface, which is located at the northern boundary, and it is106.1 cm/s at 30 m level, 102.2 cm/s at 75 m level and 85.1 cm/s at 200 m level, respectively, whichare all located at the southern boundary. Comparing the results of diagnostic calculation with those ofsemidiagnostic and prognostic calculations indicates that the horizontal velocity field agrees qualitatively,and there is a little difference between them in quantity. The comparison between the computed veloci-ties and the obeered velocities at the mooring station show that they agree each other.

  10. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  11. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities: what are the limits to adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Reeder, T.; Brown, S.; Haigh, I. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period raising important challenges for the future. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). City abandonment due to sea-level rise is widely discussed in the media, but most of the discussion is speculative. The limits to adaptation and abandonment of cities are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment or a defence upgrade. Several types of potential adaptation limits can be recognised: (1) physical/engineering limits; (2) economic/financial limits; and (3) socio-political limits. The latter two types of limits are much less understood, and yet issues such as loss of confidence rather than a simple engineering failure may be instrumental in the future of a coastal city. There are few studies which quantify the sea-level rise threshold at which cities will be challenged, especially for large rises exceeding a metre or more. Exceptions include London and the Thames Estuary and the Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) where adaptation to a rise of sea level of up to 4 m or more appears feasible. This lack of knowledge on sea-level rise thresholds for coastal cities is of concern, and similar

  12. Coastal lagoons and beach ridges as complementary sedimentary archives for the reconstruction of Holocene relative sea-level changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    , Denmark. The reconstruction of the initial mid-Holocene sea-level rise is based on the sedimentary infill from topography-confined coastal lagoons (Sander et al., Boreas, 2015b). Sea-level index points over the mid- to late Holocene period of sea-level stability and fall are retrieved from the internal......Coastal lagoons and beach ridges are genetically independent, though non-continuous, sedimentary archives. We here combine the results from two recently published studies in order to produce an 8000-year-long record of Holocene relative sea-level changes on the island of Samsø, southern Kattegat...... proximate occurrence of coastal lagoons and beach ridges allows us to produce seamless time series of relative sea-level changes from field sites in SW Scandinavia and in similar coastal environments....

  13. Coastal management plan in the south of the Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Oylum Gökkurt Baki; Osman Nuri Ergun; *(1), Levent Bat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the environmental factors that effect to the shoreline and how they interact with tourism development. Methods: In the study, both the existing problems of the coastal area of Sinop and the probable solutions to these problems are stated. The system of the coast area of the province was examined with all details and the system was examined in 3 sections, namely anthropogenic components, natural components and tourism components. Results: Tourism which ...

  14. Current plate motions across the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dezhi; Gordon, Richard G.

    1998-11-01

    A new objective method is used to estimate precisely 64 rates of seafloor spreading since chron 2A (3.2 Ma) from all the Red Sea magnetic profiles available from 15.9° to 26°N. The fastest spreading rate, ~16 mm yr-1, occurs near 18°N, whereas the slowest rate, 10 mm yr-1, occurs at 25.5°N and is consistent with the rate predicted from Arabia-Nubia data to the south. The standard deviation of the spreading rates is 0.8 mm yr-1, much smaller than the median standard deviation of 4 mm yr-1 previously assigned to spreading rates in the global plate-motion model NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al. 1990). The fit to the spreading rates, as well as the locations of earthquakes in and near the Red Sea, indicate that spreading south of approximately 17.7°N is less than the full rate of spreading between the Arabian and Nubian plates. The Red Sea spreading centre is instead usefully interpreted as the boundary between the Arabian Plate and a Danakil microplate that includes the subaerial Danakil block and a larger oceanic portion of lithosphere. Despite the absence of reliable azimuths of transform faults in the Red Sea, all components of the angular velocity of Arabia relative to Nubia are usefully constrained from just the 45 relevant spreading rates. The new compact 95 per cent confidence region of the angular velocity excludes prior estimates based on only four and two spreading rates by Chase (1978) and Jestin et al. (1994), respectively. 19 spreading rates in the southern Red Sea are used to estimate the angular velocity between the Danakil microplate and Arabia. An approach based on singular value decomposition shows that without slip vectors only two of the three components of the angular velocity of the Danakil microplate relative to Arabia or Nubia are usefully constrained, but that all three components are usefully constrained if one earthquake slip vector is included.

  15. Comment on "current separation and upwelling over the southeast shelf of Vietnam in the South China Sea" by Chen et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippner, Joachim W.; Bombar, Deniz; Loick-Wilde, Natalie;

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Chen et al. (2012) showed that the offshore current in front of the Vietnamese upwelling area in the South China Sea (SCS) is caused by an encounter of southward buoyancy-driven coastal current and tidal rectified currents from the southwest. These findings seem not in agreemen...

  16. Northwestern Black Sea coastal zone environmental changes detection by satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.

    2004-02-01

    The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, climatic change effects. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR ERS-1 images was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection of coastal area. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent in situ and remote sensing data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development, increasing erosion and diminishing of beaches and related coastal zone harmful phenomena.

  17. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Jonathan D; Irish, Jennifer L; Camargo, Suzana J

    2013-12-05

    The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient to storm impacts. Society must learn to live with a rapidly evolving shoreline that is increasingly prone to flooding from tropical cyclones. These impacts can be mitigated partly with adaptive strategies, which include careful stewardship of sediments and reductions in human-induced land subsidence.

  18. Evolution of the Rømø barrier island in the Wadden Sea: Impacts of sea-level change on coastal morphodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter

    Sandy coastal barriers are abundant along most continents, and they are often intensively engineered to prevent erosion. Therefore, it is important to develop projections of the evolution of this coastal type in periods with changing climate and sea-level. We have used a multidisciplinary approach...... of the barrier island system, and to interpret it in relation to sea-level changes. We found that the various subsystems constituting the barrier system responded differently to Holocene sea-level variations. Beach and shoreface deposition took place during periods of slowly rising sea-level, still stand...

  19. Impacts of Antarctic fast dynamics on sea-level projections and coastal flood defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Strategies to manage the risks posed by future sea-level rise hinge on a sound characterization of the inherent uncertainties. One of the major uncertainties is the possible rapid disintegration of large fractions of the Antarctic ice sheet in response to rising global temperatures. This could potentially lead to several meters of sea-level rise during the next few centuries. Previous studies have typically been silent on two coupled questions: (i) What are probabilistic estimates of this "fast dynamics" contribution to sea-level rise? (ii) What are the implications for strategies to manage coastal flooding risks? Here, we present probabilistic hindcasts and projections of sea-level rise to 2100. The fast dynamics mechanism is approximated by a simple parameterization, designed to allow for a careful quantification of the uncertainty in its contribution to sea-level rise. We estimate that global temperature increases ranging from 1.9 to 3.1{\\deg}C coincide with fast Antarctic disintegration, and these contributions account for sea-level rise of 21-74 centimeters this century (5-95% range, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). We use a simple cost-benefit analysis of coastal defense to demonstrate in a didactic exercise how neglecting this mechanism and associated uncertainty can (i) lead to strategies which fall sizably short of protection targets and (ii) increase the expected net costs.

  20. CALYPSO: a new HF RADAR network to monitor sea surface currents in the Malta-Sicily channel (Mediterranean sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosoli, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Drago, A.; Capodici, F.; Maltese, A.; Gauci, A.; Galea, A.; Azzopardi, J.; Buscaino, G.; Raffa, F.; Mazzola, S.; Sinatra, R.

    2016-12-01

    Located in one of the main shipping lanes in the Mediterranean Sea, and in a strategic region for oil extraction platforms, the Malta-Sicily channel is exposed to significant oil spill risks. Shipping and extraction activities constitute a major threat for marine areas of relevant ecological value in the area, and impacts of oil spills on the local ecosystems and the economic activities, including tourism and fisheries, can be dramatic. Damages would be even more devastating for the Maltese archipelago, where marine resources represent important economic assets. Additionally, North Africa coastal areas are also under threat, due to their proximity to the Malta-Sicily Channel. Prevention and mitigation measures, together with rapid-response and decision-making in case of emergency situations, are fundamental steps that help accomplishing the tasks of minimizing risks and reducing impacts to the various compartments. Thanks to state-of-art technology for the monitoring of sea-surface currents in real-time under all sea-state conditions, the CALYPSO network of High-Frequency Radars represents an essential and invaluable tool for the specific purpose. HF radars technology provide a unique tool to track surface currents in near-real time, and as such the dispersion of pollutants can be monitored and forecasted and their origin backtracked, for instance through data assimilation into ocean circulation models or through short-term data-driven statistical forecasts of ocean currents. The network is constituted of four SeaSonde systems that work in the 13.5MHz frequency band. The network is operative since August 2012 and has been extensively validated using a variety of independent platforms and devices, including current meter data and drifting buoys. The latter provided clear evidences of the reliability of the collected data as for tracking the drifting objects. Additionally, data have provided a new insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the region

  1. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  2. Sea-level rise induced amplification of coastal protection design heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, Arne; Dangendorf, Sönke; Jensen, Jürgen; Bender, Jens; Talke, Stefan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2017-04-01

    Coastal protection design heights typically consider the superimposed effects of tides, surges, waves, and relative sea-level rise (SLR), neglecting non-linear feedbacks between these forcing factors. Here, we use hydrodynamic modelling and multivariate statistics to show that shallow coastal areas are extremely sensitive to changing non-linear interactions between individual components caused by SLR. As sea-level increases, the depth-limitation of waves relaxes, resulting in waves with larger periods, greater amplitudes, and higher run-up; moreover, depth and frictional changes affect tide, surge, and wave characteristics, altering the relative importance of other risk factors. Consequently, sea-level driven changes in wave characteristics, and to a lesser extent, tides, amplify the resulting design heights by an average of 48-56%, relative to design changes caused by SLR alone. Since many of the world's most vulnerable coastlines are impacted by depth-limited waves, our results suggest that the overall influence of SLR may be greatly underestimated in many regions. Reference: Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S., Jensen, J., Talke, S., Bender, J., Pattiaratchi, C.: Sea-level rise induced amplification of coastal protection design heights. Sci. Rep. 6, 40171; doi: 10.1038/srep40171 (2016).

  3. Assessment on the Vulnerability of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Guangxi Coastal Zone under Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on coastal zone. The mangrove ecosystems occur at the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical coasts and are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, assess the impacts of sea level rise on mangrove ecosystem and formulate the feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal ecosystems. In this research, taking the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi province, China as a case study, the potential impacts of sea level rise on the mangrove ecosystems were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway- Receptor- Consequence) model. An index system for vulnerability assessment on coastal mangrove ecosystems under sea level rise was worked out, in which rate of sea level rise, subsidence/uplift rate, habitat elevation, daily inundation duration, intertidal slope and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment based on the sea-level rise rates of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.27 cm/a, the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi was within the EVI score of 0 in the projections of 2030s, 2050s and 2100s, respectively. As the sedimentation and land uplift could offset the rate of sea level rise and the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of mangrove ecosystems was negligible. While at the A1F1 scenario with a sea level rise rate of 0

  4. Effects of Sea Level-Rise on Carbon Accretion in Coastal Wetlands (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term storage of organic carbon in sediment is one of the key functions of coastal wetlands. Owing to the rise of sea level, a fraction of their primary production is buried annually. However, the productivity of tidelands and, hence, carbon accretion depend on their relative elevation within the tidal frame. It has been shown empirically that there is an optimum relative elevation for maximum primary production. The equilibrium elevation is a function of the rate of sea-level rise. Hence, productivity and carbon accretion are also affected by the rate of sea-level rise. Mathematically it can be shown that tidelands maintain their elevation relative to the ocean through feedbacks among primary production, flooding, and sedimentation. At the low end of the sea-level-rise spectrum, a rising sea increases the flooding of marshes, decreasing sediment salinity, stimulating primary production and increasing sedimentation. At the high end, marshes cannot keep pace with sea level and convert to tidal mud flats or open water. Consequently, the long-term storage of carbon by tidelands will depend on the future trajectory of sea-level. In general, cumulative carbon accretion of existing marshes decreases as the forecasted rise in sea level increases. Other important variables include tide range and concentration of suspended sediments. Carbon accretion will be lower in microtidal than macrotidal estuaries, particularly at high rates of sea-level rise. Sensitivity of carbon accretion to tide range decreases as the concentration of suspended sediments increases. These results indicate that future carbon accretion by coastal wetlands will not be uniform in space or time.

  5. Coastal SAR and PLRM Altimetry in German Bight and West Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Buchhaupt, Christopher; Scharroo, Remko; Fernandes, M. Joana; Benveniste, Jerome; Becker, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The CryoSat-2 altimeter (SIRAL) features a novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode that allows higher resolution and more accurate altimeter-derived parameters in the coastal zone, thanks to the reduced along-track footprint.This study is a regional analysis and validation of CryoSat-2 SAR altimeter products along the German coasts at distance to shore smaller than 10 km. The validation in performed against regional models and an in-situ network of tide gauges and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations. The goal is an assessment of the geophysical altimeter parameters sea surface height above the ellipsoid (SSH), significant sea wave height (SWH) and wind speed (U10), all estimated at 20 Hz over the time interval from October 2010 to July 2015.We have carried out from FBR (L1a) data a Delay- Doppler processing and waveform retracking tailored to coastal zone by a dedicated SAMOSA-based coastal retracker (SAMOSA+). SAMOSA+ accepts mean square slope as free parameter and the epoch's first guess fitting value is decided according to the peak in correlation between 20 consecutive waveforms to reduce land off-ranging effects.Since the remaining uncertainty in the altimeter products for coastal shallow waters arises mainly from residual errors in the applied corrections, we use the regional model TPXO8 for tides, EGM 2008 for geoid and DTU13 for mean sea surface and the regionally improved wet tropospheric correction GNSS-based Path Delay Plus (GPD+) computed at University of Porto.To quantify the improvement with respect to pulse- limited altimetry, we build 20 Hz PLRM (pseudo-LRM) data from FBR as a proxy for real pulse-limited products (LRM). They are retracked with a numerical Brown-based retracker. The L2 SAR ocean data products are generated and extracted from ESA-ESRIN GPOD service (named SARvatore) while the PLRM data are built and retracked by Technical University of Darmstadt (TUDa).The validation shows that the accuracy of sea level in coastal

  6. Organic carbon sequestration in coastal sediments across the Baltic Sea over the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryves, David; Lewis, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Peter; Weckström, Kaarina; Andrén, Elinor; Clarke, Annemarie; Andersen, Thorbjørn; Yang, Handong; Hietanen, Susanah; Jilbert, Tom; Aigars, Juris; Anderson, N. John

    2017-04-01

    Coastal areas are extremely vulnerable to impacts from changing marine conditions, which are increasingly being driven by human activity (e.g. nutrient cycling, salinity, hydrography, sea level, climate change). Recent research into the complex and dynamic cycling of carbon in many increasingly nutrient-enriched coastal systems has suggested that they have switched from being net C sources to net C sinks over the last 150 years. This study seeks to explore carbon sequestration rates over the last 150 years from several key regions across the coastal Baltic Sea by synthesising organic carbon (OC) inventories from multiple well-dated sedimentary records from Baltic coasts. Such data will provide insight into long-term coastal change and how terrestrial human impact is influencing the ecology and biogeochemistry of the Baltic Sea. To examine past and present rates of carbon burial in key coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, a synthesis of 30-40 sediment cores from across the Baltic Sea is presented here from Baltic Denmark, Germany, Latvia, western Sweden and southern Finland, and are primarily from near-shore and shallow fjord/estuarine sites. The majority of sites span the last 100-150 years and the majority (>75%) are independently dated using 210Pb. Unsupported 210Pb inventories also allow raw sedimentation rates to be corrected for sediment focussing, permitting regionally reliable estimates of OC accumulation rates to be calculated and provide a plausible basis for upscaling OC accumulation rates within these key regions of the Baltic. Preliminary data analyses suggest a major step-change in system behaviour during the 20th century following low, stable ( 10 g OC m-2 yr-1 focussing corrected, OCFC) rates pre-1900. The initial rise in burial rates occurs early in the 1900s though is punctuated by a slight fall during the 1930s/1940s. After 1950, burial rates dramatically rise (consistently up to 45 g OCFC m-2 yr-1; 4 x pre-1900 rates), a pattern which is repeated

  7. Constraining coastal change: A morpho-sedimentological concept to infer sea-level oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Barbara; Shen, Zhixiong

    2016-04-01

    One of the responders to Milankovitch-scale climate changes is sea level which, in turn, is a driver of coastal change. In literature, the sedimentary sequences representing the coastal change are often linked to high sea-level stands, to intermediate sea-level positions or to regressive shorelines. We note apparent contradictions that indicate a lack of concept and inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. To overcome this, we combine an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for microtidal, mid-latitudinal coasts with chronologies based on Bayesian statistics. The concept regards the coastal sedimentary system as a depositional complex consisting of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies. These facies are in juxtaposition and respond simultaneously to external forcing. Bayesian statistics constrains the timing of the sequence based on optical or radiocarbon ages. Here, we present the site Hergla located on the North African coast of the central Mediterranean Sea as a case study to illustrate how the approach helps eliminating contradictions. The site has been cited frequently for confirming the hypothesis of a global two peak sea-level highstand during the last interglacial (MIS 5e). The ~2 km cliff exposure at Hergla was surveyed, mapped, logged and sampled for further describing the sediments and their depositional environment through thin section and Bayesian modelling of optical ages. Using our concept based on sequence stratigraphy tools, the section is interpreted as representing a coastal barrier with two bounding surfaces in the succession. Both surfaces mark the falling sea level of, first, MIS 5e and, second, MIS 5a and hence bound the falling stage system tract of a forced regression. Part of the deposits between the two surfaces are pulled up onto the shoulder of a small rising horst and the associated tectonic event coincided with the MIS 5a sea-level rise enhancing locally the accommodation space for a second foreshore environment. Our

  8. Fine-resolution simulation of surface current and sea ice in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Rucong; LIU Hailong; LI Wei

    2007-01-01

    A fine-resolution model is developed for ocean circulation simulation in the National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG),Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is applied to simulate surface current and sea ice variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. A dynamic sea ice model in elastic-viscous-plastic rheology and a thermodynamic sea ice model are employed. A 200-year simulation is performed and a dimatological average of a 10-year period (141 st-150 th) is presented with focus on sea ice concentration and surface current variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. The model is able to simulate well the East Greenland Current, Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift, but the simulated West Spitsbergen Current is small and weak. In the March climatology, the sea ice coverage can be simulated well except for a bit more ice in east of Spitsbergen Island. The result is also good for the September scenario except for less ice concentration east of Greenland and greater ice concentration near the ice margin. The extra ice east of Spitsbergen Island is caused by sea ice current convergence forced by atmospheric wind stress.

  9. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Freidoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Freidoonkenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year that performs motive force in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, are dominating the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  10. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations in the southern Caspian Sea: shelf currents and flow field off Feridoonkenar Bay, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghaffari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Feridoon-kenar Bay (FB in the south Caspian Sea (CS are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed basin and absence of the astronomical tide, the atmospheric forcing plays an important role in the flow field of the CS. The lasting regular sea breeze system is present almost throughout the year. This system performs the forcing in diurnal and semi-diurnal bands similar to tides in other regions. In general, current field in the continental shelf could be separated into two distinguishable schemes, which in cross-shelf direction is dominated by high frequencies (1 cpd and higher frequencies, and in along-shelf orientation mostly proportional to lower frequencies in synoptic weather bands. Long-period wave currents, whose velocities are much greater than those of direct wind-induced currents, dominates the current field in the continental shelf off FB. The propagation of the latter could be described in terms of shore-controlled waves that are remotely generated and travel across the shelf in the southern CS. It has also been shown that long term displacements in this area follow the classic cyclonic, circulation pattern in the southern CS.

  11. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  12. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  13. Observations of Active Submarine Groundwater Discharge on a Shallow Coastal Sea in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Vera, I.; Enriquez, C.; Capurro, L.; Kantun, C.

    2008-12-01

    This contribution presents detailed measurements of fresh water fluxes from an energetic submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) located on the coastal ocean on Dzilam Bravo, Yucatan, Mexico. Due to the geologic characteristics of the site (karstic geology), inland groundwater flows through karstic conduits and exits at sea. Time series of fluxes measured by an acoustic velocimeter (VECTOR), temperature and salinity are correlated to the variability imposed by tides, currents, waves and rainfall. The contribution of SGD is a determining factor in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because it provides fresh water, nutrients, contaminants and other solutes. For this reason it is important to increase the knowledge about its dynamics and mixing processes that take place in these kind of environments. To study the spacial variability of thermohaline conditions, an area of 1 by 1 km (which includes five freshwater springs) was measured with a vessel towed CTD during drough and rainfall seasons. The results reveal that the flow conditions for the main spring (X'buya-Ha) is controlled by sea level variations, which include tides and weather effects. The outflow velocity is about 0.5 m/s during dry season when the discharge is weak, and about 3 m/s during periods of intense rainfall, when the discharge is strong. Also, it was noted that outflow direction changes as a result of high and low tides along a day. Results will be presented on the spatial influence as well, showing that the effect of the springs is very localised during high tide, but expands considerably during low tides.

  14. Coastal barrier stratigraphy for Holocene high-resolution sea-level reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Leorri, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The uncertainties surrounding present and future sea-level rise have revived the debate around sea-level changes through the deglaciation and mid- to late Holocene, from which arises a need for high-quality reconstructions of regional sea level. Here, we explore the stratigraphy of a sandy barrier to identify the best sea-level indicators and provide a new sea-level reconstruction for the central Portuguese coast over the past 6.5 ka. The selected indicators represent morphological features extracted from coastal barrier stratigraphy, beach berm and dune-beach contact. These features were mapped from high-resolution ground penetrating radar images of the subsurface and transformed into sea-level indicators through comparison with modern analogs and a chronology based on optically stimulated luminescence ages. Our reconstructions document a continuous but slow sea-level rise after 6.5 ka with an accumulated change in elevation of about 2 m. In the context of SW Europe, our results show good agreement with previous studies, including the Tagus isostatic model, with minor discrepancies that demand further improvement of regional models. This work reinforces the potential of barrier indicators to accurately reconstruct high-resolution mid- to late Holocene sea-level changes through simple approaches.

  15. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  16. Potential vulnerability implications of sea level rise for the coastal zones of Cochin, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P K Dinesh

    2006-12-01

    This study presents the results of the impact assessment analysis of the coastal zones of Cochin along the southwest coast of India. The climatological cycle of sea level derived for the region for the period 1939-2003 has shown a range of about 17 cm. From the results obtained on the coastal sedimentary environments, it is found that climate-induced sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects. It is also revealed that the mean beach slope and relief play a vital role in land loss of the region. The local relief of coastal zone will decrease as sea level rises, thus increasing the percentage of land above mean sea level subjected to episodic inundations. Results of the yearly probability of damages indicated the urgency to upgrade the existing designs of coastal protection structures. A brief characterisation of the issues on infrastructure and uncertainties in policy planning also are attempted.

  17. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke P; Riva, Riccardo E M; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C

    2016-11-22

    Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This "2 °C" threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age.

  18. Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, John S.

    2011-03-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above -75 m human populations were isolated for periods of 360-3400 25-yr generations on the SCP by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt, climate and vegetation barriers. The SCP expands five-fold as sea level falls from -75 to -120 m during glacial maxima to form a continuous, unobstructed coastal plain accessible to the interior. An expanded and wet glacial SCP may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds and resulted in the mixing of previously isolated groups. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Successful adaptations developed on an isolated SCP are predicted to widely disperse during glacial terminations when the SCP rapidly contracts or during the initial opening of the SCP in the transition to glacial maxima. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the SCP, as well as the coastal plain of North Africa, contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years (kyr) is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records. These records generally support the hypothesis, but more complete and well dated records are required to resolve the extent to which sea-level fluctuations influenced the complex history of human evolution.

  19. Recent hydrographic measurements in the Lake Issyk Kul: Coastal currents, thermohaline structure, water quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter; Osadchiev, Alexander; Pelevin, Vadim; Konovalov, Boris; Goncharenko, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Issyk Kul is a deep (670 m) terminal lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume, and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. The lake is a Ramsar site of globally significant biodiversity. We report preliminary results of a field survey undertaken in the northern coastal part of the lake, off Cholpon-Ata township, on September 10-13, 2014. A fishery boat was used to carry out CTD profiling and water sampling at 16 stations. An UV fluorescent lidar working continuosly throughout the survey yielded surface concentrations of chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, and dissolved organic substances. In addition, we deployed 3 mooring stations equipped with current meters, all at approximately 15 m isobath, recording the velocity and direction of the near-bottom currents with 10 min sampling intervals. During the experiment, the coastal waters of the lake were fully mixed down to the depth of 15-20 m and nearly uniform vertically at salinity about 5 g/kg. The only exception referred to the areas adjacent to the mouths of small river and creeks, where stable salinity stratification developed at 0.01-0.03 g/kg per 1 m of depth. The temperature stratification generally followed the diurnal pattern. The dominant coastal currents were directed westward, which agrees with the established notion about the cyclonic character of the basin-scale circulation. Superimposed on this general cyclonic pattern, there was a persistent variability of currents at the periods of 17 to 24 hours, likely associated with the interplay between the inertial oscillation and signal of breeze in the wind forcing. There was an evidence of mesoscale eddies, possibly, associated with topographic features of the shoreline. The observed velocity in the near-bottom layer was about 9 cm/s on the average, with the maximum values exceeding 25 cm/s. The Issyk Kul lake is ultra-oligotrophic - the concentrations of chlorophyll-a were

  20. Extraction of Internal Tidal Currents from A Portion of Sea Current Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春明; 潘增弟; 范典

    2002-01-01

    Internal tide is one of the major oceanic phenomena. Determination of internal tide is important for theoretical studyand for ocean engineering research. As an inverse problem, extraction of internal tidal currents from sea currents is diffi-cult. In this paper, a method is developed to extract internal tidal currents from a portion of the sea current profile basedon the fact that the directions of internal tidal currents above and below the thermocline are inverse. Sea current data col-lected from the South China Sea is processed with this method. The internal tidal currents and the depth of the thermo-cline are successfully extracted. The depth of the thermocline determined is in good agreement with that measured in 1959.

  1. Data-Informed Large-Eddy Simulation of Coastal Land-Air-Sea Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderer, A.; Hao, X.; Fernando, H. J.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Shen, L.

    2016-12-01

    The study of atmospheric flows in coastal areas has not been fully addressed due to the complex processes emerging from the land-air-sea interactions, e.g., abrupt change in land topography, strong current shear, wave shoaling, and depth-limited wave breaking. The available computational tools that have been applied to study such littoral regions are mostly based on open-ocean assumptions, which most times do not lead to reliable solutions. The goal of the present study is to better understand some of these near-shore processes, employing the advanced computational tools, developed in our research group. Our computational framework combines a large-eddy simulation (LES) flow solver for atmospheric flows, a sharp-interface immersed boundary method that can deal with real complex topographies (Calderer et al., J. Comp. Physics 2014), and a phase-resolved, depth-dependent, wave model (Yang and Shen, J. Comp. Physics 2011). Using real measured data taken in the FRF station in Duck, North Carolina, we validate and demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the present computational framework, which are shown to be in overall good agreement with the measured data under different wind-wave scenarios. We also analyse the effects of some of the complex processes captured by our simulation tools.

  2. Improving the Accuracy of Coastal Sea Surface Heights by Retracking Decontaminated Radar Altimetry Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengkai; Wang, Haihong; Luo, Zhicai

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complex coastal topography and energetic ocean dynamics effect, the return echoes are contaminated while the satellite footprint approaches or leaves the coastline. Specular peaks are often induced in the trailing edges of contaminated waveforms, thus leading the error in the determination of the leading edge and associated track offset in the waveform retracking process. We propose an improved algorithm base on Tseng's modification method to decontaminated coastal (0-7 km from coastline) waveforms, thus improving both the utilization and precision of coastal sea surface height (SSH). Using the Envisat/Jason-2 SGDR data, the shortcoming of Tseng's method is pointed out and the novel algorithm is proposed by revising the strategy of selecting reference waveform and determining weight for removing outlier. The reference waveform of the decontaminated technology is closer to the real waveform of the offshore area, which avoids the over-modification problem of Tseng method. The sea-level measurements from tide gauge station and geoid height from EGM2008 model were used to validate the retracking strategy. Experimental results show that decontaminated waveform was more suitable than original and Tseng modified waveform and has uniform performance in both compare to the tide gauge and geoid. The retrieved altimetry data in the 0-1km and 1-7km coastal zone indicate that threshold retracker with decontaminated waveform have STD of 73.8cm and 33cm as compared with in situ gauge data,which correspond to 62.1% and 58% in precession compared to the unretracked altimetry measurements. The retracked SSHs are better in two coastal (0-1 km and 1-7km) zones, which have STD of 11.9cm and 22.7cm as compared with geoid height. Furthermore, the comparisons shows that the precision of decontaminated technology improve 0.3cm and 3.3cm than the best result of PISTACH product in coastal sea. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos

  3. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, K. Narasimha; Sarma, Nittala S.; Pandi, Sudarsana Rao; Chiranjeevulu, Gundala; Kiran, Rayaprolu; Muralikrishna, R.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of hydrodynamics on phytoplankton bloom occurrence/formation has not been adequately reported. Here, we document diurnal observations in the tropical Bay of Bengal's mid-western shelf region which reveal microphytoplankton cell density maxima in association with neap tide many times more than what could be accounted for by solar insolation and nutrient levels. When in summer, phytoplankton cells were abundant and the cell density of Guinardia delicatula reached critical value by tide caused zonation, aggregation happened to an intense bloom. Mucilaginous exudates from the alga due to heat and silicate stress likely promoted and stable water column and weak winds left undisturbed, the transient bloom. The phytoplankton aggregates have implication as food resource in the benthic region implying higher fishery potential, in carbon dioxide sequestration (carbon burial) and in efforts towards improving remote sensing algorithms for chlorophyll in the coastal region.

  4. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Narasimha Murty; Nittala S Sarma; Sudarsana Rao Pandi; Gundala Chiranjeevulu; Rayaprolu Kiran; R Muralikrishna

    2017-08-01

    The influence of hydrodynamics on phytoplankton bloom occurrence/formation has not been adequately reported. Here, we document diurnal observations in the tropical Bay of Bengal’s mid-western shelf region which reveal microphytoplankton cell density maxima in association with neap tide many times more than what could be accounted for by solar insolation and nutrient levels. When in summer, phytoplankton cells were abundant and the cell density of Guinardia delicatula reached critical value by tide caused zonation, aggregation happened to an intense bloom. Mucilaginous exudates from the alga due to heat and silicate stress likely promoted and stable water column and weak winds left undisturbed, the transient bloom. The phytoplankton aggregates have implication as food resource in the benthic region implying higher fishery potential, in carbon dioxide sequestration (carbon burial) and in efforts towards improving remote sensing algorithms for chlorophyll in the coastal region.

  5. How sea level rise affects sedimentation, plant growth, and carbon accumulation on coastal salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, S. M.; Howell, S. M.; Morris, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of accretion on coastal salt marshes depends on feedbacks between flow, macrophyte growth, and sedimentation. Under favourable conditions, marsh accretion rates will keep pace with the local rate of sea level rise. Marsh accretion is driven by both organic and inorganic sedimentation; mineral rich marshes will need less organic sedimentation to keep pace with sea level rise. Here we use a numerical model of marsh accretion, calibrated by sediment cores, to explore the relationship between sea level rise and carbon sequestration on salt marshes in the face of differing supplies of inorganic sediment. The model predicts that changes in carbon storage resulting from changing sediment supply or sea-level rise are strongly dependant on the background sediment supply: if inorganic sediment supply is reduced in an already sediment poor marsh the storage of organic carbon will increase to a far greater extent than in a sediment-rich marsh, provided that the rate of sea-level rise does not exceed a threshold. These results imply that altering sediment supply to estuaries (e.g., by damming upstream rivers or altering littoral sediment transport) could lead to significant changes in the carbon budgets of coastal salt marshes.

  6. Mangrove coservation in coastal areas Samas beach lagoon for controlling sea water abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati, A.P.; Siwi, B.R.F. Raka; Muzoffar, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lagoon is a puddle of water (like a lake/pond) near the beach that was once a part of the (united with) the sea, but because of geological events, apart from the sea and coastal wetland ecosystems forming new ones. Samas beach lagoon is one of the lagoons are located in Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. From the perspective of the Environment, lagoon is a unique ecosystem that consists of a body of water (lagoon) is brackish, mangrove forests and land affected low tide. Ecosyste...

  7. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity in Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Mexico Using Visible Channels on SNPP-VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    surface salinity estimates for the Northern Gulf of Mexico . In situ salinity data collected from six coastal moorings were compared to calibrated, geo...34Geographic and hydrodynamic characteristics of shallow coastal lagoons ," Marine Geology 88, 187-199 (1989) [3] Gordon, H.R., and Wang, M., "Retrieval...1. HEPORJ OI\\JE (DD-MM-YYYY) 30-07-2014 REPORT TYPE Conference Proceeding 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estimating Sea Surface Salinity in Coastal

  8. New phylogenetically distinct cyanophages found in the coastal Yellow Sea by Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q; Wang, M; Bai, X; Sun, J; Liang, Y; Wang, F; Yang, L; Liu, G; Lu, L

    2010-01-01

    Genetic composition of natural cyanophage population in the coastal Yellow Sea area near Qingdao was investigated using the g20 gene as a genetic marker. Amplification of this gene by PCR yielded sequences, which were cloned and subjected to the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Sixteen clones exhibiting different RFLP patterns were sequenced and analyzed. The sequence analysis indicated a diversity of cyanophages covering sixteen g20 genotypes. Their phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct phylogenetic groups. One group (7clones) localized with the cyanophage P77 in the cluster III described before. Second group (9 clones) did not localize with any of the cyanophage described so far and was designated as a novel W cluster. The study revealed a genetic diversity of cyanophages in the coastal Yellow Sea and confirmed the genetic differences between cyanophage populations in Western and Eastern Pacific.

  9. Potential vulnerability implications of sea level rise for the coastal zones of Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    of the issues on infrastructure and uncertainties in policy planning also are attempted. Keywords: sea level rise, vulnerability, tides, coastal zone, erosion, inundation, Cochin, southwest coast of India 1. Introduction In addition to all the stresses...). By the end of this century, anticipated increases in sea level rise of two to five times the present rates could lead to inundation of low lying coastal regions, more frequent flooding episodes and worsening beach erosion (Houghton et al., 1996; Watson et al...

  10. Coastal environmental gradients – Key to reproduction habitat mapping of freshwater fish in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Kallasvuo, Meri

    2010-01-01

    Habitat requirements of fish are most strict during the early life stages, and the quality and quantity of reproduction habitats lays the basis for fish production. A considerable number of fish species in the northern Baltic Sea reproduce in the shallow coastal areas, which are also the most heavily exploited parts of the brackish marine area. However, the coastal fish reproduction habitats in the northern Baltic Sea are poorly known. The studies presented in this thesis focused on the ...

  11. Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINU P; SHAJU S S; MUHAMED ASHRAF P; MEENAKUMARI B

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing applications are important in the fisheries sector and efforts were on to improve the predic-tions of potential fishing zones using ocean color. The present study was aimed to investigate the phyto-plankton dynamics and their absorption properties in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea in different seasons during the year 2010 to 2011. The region exhibited 73 genera of phytoplankton from 19 orders and 41 families. The numerical abundance of phytoplankton varied from 14.235×103 to 55.075×106 cells/L. Centric diatoms dominated in the region and the largest family identified was Thalassiosiraceae with main genera asSkeletonemaspp.,Planktionellaspp.andThalassiosiraspp. Annual variations in abun-dance of phytoplankton showed a typical one-peak cycle, with the highest recorded during premonsoon season and the lowest during monsoon season. The species diversity index of phytoplankton exhibited low diversity during monsoon season. Phytoplankton with pigments Chlorophylla, Chlorophyllb, Chlorophyll c, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin,β-carotene and phycoerythrobilin dominated in these waters. The knowledge on phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea forms a key parameter in bio-optical models of pigments and productivity and for the interpretation of remotely sensed ocean color data.

  12. PRIAMO project: a feasibility study on Sicilian sites for sea power plants in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; Borghini, M.; Cucco, A.; De Domenico, E.; Dibenedetto, V.; Fazioli, L.; Genovese, L.; Iaria, G.; Olita, A.; Raffa, F.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.; Spanò, N.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy sources has recently favoured the exploitation of wind energy and photovoltaic, with strong repercussions on the landscape due to the visual impact of wind turbines and of the photovoltaic panels. A policy protecting the landscape suggests to focus on innovative solutions that enable the use of renewable energy and a low visual impact. This can be done with extensive offshore diving equipment installed in the sea, formed by turbines that use ocean currents to produce electric energy. The accommodation at sea, as well as offering greater availability of sites, has the advantage of giving a better and relatively constant resource with maximum efficiency and productivity. The international scenario suggests the need to identify sites potentially suitable and safe for energy use, placed at a distance from the coast at depths with bathymetric characteristics that make the power plant installation safe and technologically and economically feasible. In this context, the project PRIAMO (Planning, Research and Innovation in a Oriented Marine Environment), funded by the European Commission through the Sicilian Regional Operational Programme (POR), aims to verify the potential suitability of two Sicilian coastal sites, i.e. the Strait of Messina and a stretch of coast near Capo Granitola (Strait of Sicily). The work is realised with a view to the exploitation of marine currents that will be studied through the use of existing or new numerical models from the open sea to the coastal scale, then evaluating its cost-effectiveness in collaboration with Atlantis Resources Corp. Pte. Ltd (UK), European manufacturer of underwater turbines. An environmental study is done through monitoring and remediation techniques to assess the potential size of the foundation structure: sedimentological and morpho-bathymetric characteristics of the bottom, depth, steepness of the seabed, benthic biocoenoses, and load-bearing capacity of the area affected

  13. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    relatively calm periods. Such short seaward-dipped layers refer to low sea levels during their formation. More extensive layers reflect stronger storm events with higher water levels. Large amounts of sand in nearshore zone contribute to the formation of larger ridges. We have found at least three periods with high cyclonic activity and two relatively calm periods punctuated by few intense storms along the Estonian coast. In addition, a comparative study of the erosional palaeo-surfaces and recent storm monitoring data is currently underway for a better understanding, and thus a reliable reconstruction of the past storm parameters. Further studies are required for a better chronology of coastal events to clarify the periodicity of storminess in this part of the Baltic Sea region. The findings of the current study will contribute to the forecast of future scenarios in regional storm risk assessment of the coastal areas. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This work has been funded by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research and by the Estonian Science Foundation grants No. 7564, 8549, 9191, 9011, IUT18-9, PUT456, the BONUS project BaltCoast and Doctoral School of Earth Sciences and Ecology (EU Structural Support).

  14. The influence of sea-level changes on tropical coastal lowlands; the Pleistocene Coropina Formation, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Th. E.; de Kramer, R.; de Boer, P. L.; Langereis, C.; Sew-A-Tjon, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pleistocene Coropina Formation largely constitutes the Old Coastal Plain of Suriname. It is exposed fully only in open-pit bauxite mines in the central coastal plain as part of the unconsolidated overburden of Paleocene-Eocene bauxites. This study deals with the stratigraphy, sedimentology and chronology of this formation, and is based on a study in the recently closed Lelydorp-III bauxite mine operated by N.V. BHP Billiton Maatschappij Suriname. The Coropina Formation consists of the Para and Lelydorp Members. We present a detailed lithological subdivision of these members. In the Para Member, four units are discerned which are grouped in two transgressive cycles, both ranging upward from terrestrial towards chenier and coastal mudflat deposits reflecting glacio-eustatic sea-level changes. The sandy sediments represent fluviatile and beach-bar (chenier) deposits, and were supplied by rivers from the Precambrian basement and to a lesser extent by westward longshore coastal drift. Clays, largely derived from the Amazon River and transported alongshore over the shelf, were deposited in extensive coastal mudflats. The Lelydorp Member, also comprising four units, represents a depositional system that is closely comparable to the recent Suriname coastal setting, i.e., a lateral and vertical alternation of mudflat and chenier deposits formed over a period characterised by more or less constant sea level. Palaeomagnetic data indicate a dominantly reversed magnetic polarity in the Para Member, whereas the Lelydorp Member shows a normal magnetic polarity with a minor reversed polarity overprint. The reversed polarities of the Para Member exclude a Brunhes Chron (0.78-0.0 Ma) age, and thus assign it to the Matuyama Chron (2.58-0.78 Ma). This implies that the Coropina Formation is much older than hitherto assumed, and that one or more (long-term) hiatuses are not recognizable in the lithological succession.

  15. Mesoscale process-induced variation of the West India coastal current during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jineesh, V.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Lix, J.K.; Revichandran, C.; HareeshKumar, P.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    , propagation of coastal Kelvin and Rossby waves, etc We hypothesize that the mesoscale (spatial scales of 10�500 km and temporal scale of 10�100 days) features in ocean are also competent to alter the characteristics of coastal currents to a large extent...

  16. Sea-level rise in Hawaii: Implications for future shoreline locations and Hawaii coastal management

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlander, Andrew; Conger, Chris; Eversole, Dolan

    2010-01-01

    Management of coastal development in Hawaii is based on the location of the certified shoreline, which is representative of the upper limit of marine inundation within the last several years. Though the certified shoreline location is significantly more variable than long-term erosion indicators, its migration will still follow the coastline's general trend. The long-term migration of Hawaii’s coasts will be significantly controlled by rising sea level. However, land use decisions adjacent to...

  17. Ocean acidification impacts on nitrogen fixation in the coastal western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, AP; Turk-Kubo, KA; Al-Moosawi, L; Alliouane, S.; F. Gazeau; Hogan, ME; Zehr, JP

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ocean acidification on nitrogen (N2) fixation rates and on the community composition of N2-fixing microbes (diazotrophs) were examined in coastal waters of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Nine experimental mesocosm enclosures of ∼50 m3 each were deployed for 20 days during June-July 2012 in the Bay of Calvi, Corsica, France. Three control mesocosms were maintained under ambient conditions of carbonate chemistry. The remainder were manipulated with CO2 saturated seawater to...

  18. Nitrification and growth of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria and Thaumarchaeota in the coastal North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification and the associated growth of autotrophic nitrifiers, as well as the contributions of bacteria and Thaumarchaeota to total autotrophic C-fixation by nitrifiers were investigated in the Dutch coastal North Sea from October 2007 to March 2008. Rates of nitrification were determined by incubation of water samples with 15N-ammonium and growth of autotrophic nitrifiers was measured by incubation with 13C-DIC in the presence and absen...

  19. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  20. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel K.; Moore, Clinton T.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species ( n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  1. Sea breezes and coastal jets in southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Palacio-Sese, Pablo; Kalthoff, Norbert; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Fiedler, Franz

    2000-11-01

    Sea breezes and low-level jet (LLJ) streams are studied in the region between the Eastern Castilla-La Mancha and the Mediterranean coast of southeastern Spain. The simplified concept of two-dimensional terrain and meteorological conditions explains the spatially and diurnally varying wind system consistently. The changes, as a function of time, height and distance to the coast, of temperature, pressure and wind as well as of certain observed phenomena, such as LLJs and strongly baroclinic zones, result from the response of the mesoscale flow to differential heating. Wind changes are generally found to be consistent with mesoscale changes in geostrophic winds as estimated from station pressure measurements. The LLJs mark the penetration depth of the sea breeze during daytime, where a baroclinic zone develops at the transition between continental air masses and marine air masses, typically at a distance of 150 km from the coast. The analysis is based on aerological data and ground-based measurements from the European Field Experiment in a Desertification Threatened Area (EFEDA) experiments in 1991 and 1994 as well as on 3-hourly data from three synoptic stations of the Spanish meteorological network for April-October in 1991 and 1994. After corrections were made for instrument errors and atmospheric tides, diurnal pressure variations document vertically integrated mass fluxes perpendicular to the coast. Amplitudes of diurnal pressure and temperature changes scatter significantly and are largest in midsummer. They are weakly correlated and pressure amplitudes remain large in spring and autumn when diurnal temperature changes are reduced. With about 6 h delay to the regular development of onshore winds at the coast during daytime, pronounced wind peaks are observed over the eastern plateau at Albacete and Barrax in the late afternoon. Case studies show that they are accompanied by development of baroclinically driven LLJs, whereas winds at Tomelloso, 220-km inland

  2. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Bier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  3. Assessing the impact of sea-level rise on a vulnerable coastal community in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated sea-level rise are expected to significantly affect vulnerable coastal communities. Although the extent of the impact will be localised, its assessment will adopt a monitoring approach that applies globally. The topography of the beach, the type of geological material and the level of human intervention will determine the extent of the area to be flooded and the rate at which the shoreline will move inland. Gleefe, a coastal community in Ghana, has experienced frequent flooding in recent times due to the increasing occurrence of storm surge and sea-level rise. This study used available geospatial data and field measurements to determine how the beach topography has contributed to the incidence of flooding at Gleefe. The topography is generally low-lying. Sections of the beach have elevations of around 1 m, which allows seawater to move inland during very high tide. Accelerated sea-level rise as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC will destroy homes of the inhabitants and inundate the Densu wetlands behind the beach. Destruction of infrastructure will render the inhabitants homeless, whilst flooding of the wetlands will destroy the habitats of migratory birds and some endangered wildlife species such as marine turtle. Effective adaptation measures should be adopted to protect this very important coastal environment, the ecology of the wetlands and the livelihoods of the community dwellers.

  4. Impacts of sea level rise and climate change on coastal plant species in the central California coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L. Garner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Local increases in sea level caused by global climate change pose a significant threat to the persistence of many coastal plant species through exacerbating inundation, flooding, and erosion. In addition to sea level rise (SLR, climate changes in the form of air temperature and precipitation regimes will also alter habitats of coastal plant species. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats through species distribution models (SDMs, none have incorporated the threat of exposure to SLR. We developed a model that quantified the effect of both SLR and climate change on habitat for 88 rare coastal plant species in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura Counties, California, USA (an area of 23,948 km2. Our SLR model projects that by the year 2100, 60 of the 88 species will be threatened by SLR. We found that the probability of being threatened by SLR strongly correlates with a species’ area, elevation, and distance from the coast, and that 10 species could lose their entire current habitat in the study region. We modeled the habitat suitability of these 10 species under future climate using a species distribution model (SDM. Our SDM projects that 4 of the 10 species will lose all suitable current habitats in the region as a result of climate change. While SLR accounts for up to 9.2 km2 loss in habitat, climate change accounts for habitat suitability changes ranging from a loss of 1,439 km2 for one species to a gain of 9,795 km2 for another species. For three species, SLR is projected to reduce future suitable area by as much as 28% of total area. This suggests that while SLR poses a higher risk, climate changes in precipitation and air temperature represents a lesser known but potentially larger risk and a small cumulative effect from both.

  5. Quantifying Boundary Currents in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    existing HRX transect data, currently maintained by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO DMAR. In particular, the focus will be on transect...All XBT data from 1986 through 2014 along IX12 have now been obtained from the Bureau of Meteorology . Initial efforts have concentrated on quality

  6. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  7. Modeling Coastal Erosion, Passive Inundation, and Dynamic Wave Inundation under Higher Sea Level in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii State legislators recently formed the Interagency Committee on Climate Adaptation to investigate community vulnerability to sea level rise. We developed modeling to provide the committee with assessments of exposure to coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding based on the IPCC RCP 8.5 model of sea level rise over the 21st Century. We model the exposure to coastal erosion using a hybrid equilibrium profile model (Anderson et al., 2015) that combines historical rates of shoreline change with a Bruun-type model of beach profile translation. Results are mapped in a GIS showing the 80th percentile probability of potential erosion at years 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2100. Wave inundation is modeled using XBeach. We use a 3 m significant wave height to represent a seasonal high swell event. A separate simulation was run for each heightened sea level (corresponding to the years previously mentioned); which accounts for changes in wave dynamics due to the change in water level over the reef platform. We use a bare earth topo/bathy LiDAR DEM derived from data collected during the 2013 JBLTX survey of the Hawaiian Islands. XBeach modeling is done along one-dimensional profiles spaced 20 m apart. From this, we develop a gridded product of water depth and velocity for use in a vulnerability analysis. Passive inundation due to sea level rise, the so-called "bath tub" method, provide estimates of storm drain flooding and groundwater inundation. Our analysis of these three impacts of sea level rise, combined - coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding - are used with other available data in the FEMA Hazus software to estimate exposure and loss of upland assets.

  8. Dynamics of sand ridges in coastal seas: the effect of storms, tides and grain sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walgreen, M.

    2003-10-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the dynamics of shoreface-connected ridges and tidal sand ridges. These large-scale bedforms are observed on the inner and outer shelf of coastal seas in water depths of 10-20m. The motivation of this work is to improve the understanding of the mechanisms related to their formation and the processes that determine their main characteristics. This is done with the use of idealised morphodynamic models. The basic assumption underlying these models is that large-scale sand ridges can solely form as free instabilities on a flat sea bottom. Mathematical methods based on a stability analysis are applied, whereas analytical and numerical methods are used to solve the equations. Existing models are extended with new physical processes, in particular including the role of grain sorting. An important part of this thesis concerns the unresolved question about the origin of the observed mean grain size pattern over the ridges. It explores the hydrodynamic processes that can lead to sediment sorting and the formation of large-scale sand ridges. The model results indicate that the dynamics for different forcing conditions strongly differ. Shoreface-connected sand ridges mainly form during storm conditions, whereas if fair weather conditions prevail the more offshore located tidal sand ridges develop. A probabilistic formulation of these two realisation of the model is used to find conditions for which both types of large-scale bedforms occur simultaneously, as is the case in the southern North Sea. These conditions turn out to be a low storm fraction and the presence of both tidal and storm-driven currents. The transport of non-uniform sediment is described by formulations for both bed load and suspended load, both of which account for dynamic hiding effects. A one-layer model for the bed evolution is used and two grain size classes (fine and coarse sand) are considered. The results of the model for storm conditions indicate that the

  9. Long term changes in the status of coastal fish in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, L.; Heikinheimo, O.; Svirgsden, R.; Kruze, E.; Ložys, L.; Lappalainen, A.; Saks, L.; Minde, A.; Dainys, J.; Jakubavičiūtė, E.; Ådjers, K.; Olsson, J.

    2016-02-01

    Management for sustainable coastal ecosystems is benefited by coherent large scale status assessments to support the identification of measures, but these efforts may be challenged by both data availability and natural biogeographical variation. Coastal fish are a resource for commercial and recreational fisheries as well as significant contributors to coastal ecosystem functioning, by linking lower and higher levels of the food web. This study addresses long term changes in coastal fish communities at Baltic Sea regional scale, in order to identify overall trends and support the operationalization of large scale status assessments of marine biota. The study was focused on two indicators representing the functional groups of Piscivores, which are attributed to changes in food web processes including predation/fisheries, and Cyprinids, which are associated with eutrophication. The indicators were assessed for trends within ten-year intervals, using data combined from national monitoring programs during 1991-2013. The results showed predominantly declining trends in Piscivores and of increases in Cyprinids during the studied three decades, both indicative of a deteriorating status. The pattern was however reversed in the most recent years. Similar results among adjacent areas were identified in some cases, but overall differences at local scale were high, indicating strong influence of local processes. The results suggest that coordinated local measures in order to abate cumulative effects are a preferred way of improving the overall status of coastal fish. The latest studied time intervals were the overall most stable and could be considered as potential baseline years for upcoming regional assessments.

  10. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  11. 210Pb and 137Cs measurements in the Circum Bohai Sea coastal region: sedimentation rates and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu WANG; Hong WANG; Jianfen LI; Yandong PEI; Changfu FAN; Lizhu TIAN; Zhiwen SHANG; Meiyu SONG; Yan GENG

    2008-01-01

    The representative 210Pb and 137Cs age-depth profiles were selected from more than 100 sites in the Circum Bohai Sea (CBS)coastal region to examine the sedimentation rates and associated environmental changes.There are three unique 210Pbexc distribution patterns:1)ideal-decaying type,representing relatively constant sediment supply and quieter environmental setting;2)wiggling type,but with approximately equivalent amplitude,representing coarser sediments and associated stronger flow current environment;and 3) episodic-eventinfluencing type,each representing typhoon storm-influenced depositional environment.Our results also show that there is a lower sedimentation rate(ca.0.1 cm/a)in the coastal lowlands,a higher sedimentation rate(ca.0.53 cm/a)in the intertidal flat and an intermediate rate of ca.0.58 cm/a in the subtidal zone near the Huanghua Harbor.The interbedded silt layer occurring in the core sediment reveals lower 210Pb activities,indicating a discontinuous sedimentation mostly due to typhoon events which dwarfs against 210Pb and 137Cs applicability.Overall,the 210Pb and 137Cs measurements of the present study provide physical insight into the evaluation of the coastal-marine ecological environment and associated management.

  12. The effects of the accuracy of the atmospheric forcings on the prediction of the sea surface transport in coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Satta, Andrea; Antognarelli, Fabio; della Valle, Antonio; De Biasio, Francesco; Cadau, Enrico; Zecchetto, Stefano; Umgiesser, Georg

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the Italian flagship project RITMARE (http://www.ritmare.it/en/) an Operational Oceanography Systems (OOS hereafter) based on high resolution 3D hydrodynamic model has been developed for the Oristano Gulf (Sardinia, Italy), with the aim of making short term predictions of water currents and pollutant transport. Atmospheric data provided by the SKIRON meteorological model system (http://forecast.uoa.gr/) were used to make the predictions. In order to asses the quality of the wind field adopted to force the hydrodynamic model, a coastal wind measuring system (WMS hereafter) was developed. The WMS is composed by five three-components anemometers located along the Gulf coasts, which provide hourly and operationally wind measurements. These data are then used operationally to derive high resolution wind fields over the entire Gulf and surrounding coastal areas. The modelled wind data have been compared with the measured ones and the meteorological model accuracy estimated. A set of lagrangian buoys were deployed within the Gulf to measure the sea surface transport due to the main local wind regimes. The OOS were used to reproduce the paths followed by each lagrangian buoy using as forcing conditions both the wind fields measured by the local WMS and the predicted ones. Therefore the effects of the atmospheric forcing quality on predicting the surface hydrodynamics at coastal scale were determined.

  13. [Hydrolytic activity of microorganisms of the Dead Sea coastal ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanets', L D; Matseliukh, O V; Avdiiuk, K V; Hudzenko, O V; Nidialkova, N A; Romanovs'ka, V O; Tashirev, O B

    2014-01-01

    All strains tested are characterized by proteolytic (caseinolytic) activity, while elastase one was revealed only in two Gracilibacillus strains 6T2 and 7Tl. The activity was high enough (23.1 and 34.7 E/Ml, respectively). These values are at the level of bacterial producers which are described in literature: Bacillus mesentericus 316 M (6 E/Ml), Bacillus thuringiensis IMB B-7324 (50-55 E/Ml). The ability of two strains tested to synthesize enzyme, active against elastine, is important, so far as microbial enzyme may be perspective for using in medicine: elastases are able to dissociation of elastin fibres of connective tissues. These two strains display also fibrinolytic activity, however it was insignificant. Six of eight strains studied manifested alpha-amylase activity (0.01 - 1.173 E/Ml). It was shown that no strains, isolated from the Dead Sea costal ecosystems are able to manifest alpha-L-rhamnosidase activity.

  14. The program of coastal ecosystem monitoring of Kola peninsula (Barents Sea) and the problem of introduced red king crab influence on nearshore communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shtrik, V.A; Sokolov, V.I

    2003-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are very vulnerable to any kind of influence. That is why all kinds of human activities held in the coastal zone of Barents Sea should be considering from both fishery and environmental points of view...

  15. Vulnerability assessment of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Ge, Zhenming; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on the low-lying coastal zone. The coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, with their low elevation, are particularly sensitive to SLR. In this study, the potential impacts of SLR on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence) model. Based on the SPRC model and IPCC vulnerability definition, an indicator system for vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands to SLR was developed, in which the rate of SLR, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, mean daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A spatial assessment method based on a GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. Vulnerability assessment, based on the projection of SLR rates from the present trend (0.26 cm/yr) and IPCC's A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm/yr), were performed for three time periods: short-term (2030s), medium-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results indicated that in the 2030s, 6.6% and 9.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2050s, the percentage of coastal wetlands within the grades of low and moderate vulnerability increases to 9.8% and 0.2%, 9.5% and 1.0% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2100s, 8.1% and 3.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability, 0.8% and 2.8% were within the grade of moderate vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The percentage of coastal wetlands within the grade of high vulnerability increases significantly, amounting to 2.3% and 6.9% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The application of the SPRC model, the methodology developed and the results could assist

  16. Mesozooplankton biomass and abundance in Cyprus coastal waters and comparison with the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C.S. HANNIDES

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we conduct the first comprehensive assessment of mesozooplankton abundance, biomass, and taxa composition in Cyprus coastal waters (Levantine Sea.  Mesozooplankton abundance and biomass sampled at several locations around the island ranged from 153 – 498 individuals m-3 and 0.7 – 5.2 mg dry weight m-3, respectively, with significantly larger biomass observed in winter-early spring (March than in summer (September.  The community was dominated by calanoid and cyclopoid copepods throughout the year (80% of total numbers, with higher abundances of predatory taxa (chaetognaths and medusae in winter and cladocerans in summer.  Overall, we find that coastal mesozooplankton communities around Cyprus appear to be more similar to communities in offshore waters or those around the island of Rhodes than to communities along the mainland Levantine coast.  We further highlight regional differences in the eastern Mediterranean by comparing our data with mesozooplankton in the western Aegean (Saronikos Gulf and northeastern Aegean Sea (NEA.  Distinct spatial differences were observed, for example anthropogenic influences in the Saronikos Gulf and the outflow of Modified Black Sea Water in the NEA drove generally greater biomass and abundance in these regions.  Overall, our comparison supports the concept of a latitudinal gradient in oligotrophy in the eastern Mediterranean, with ultra-oligotrophic conditions found in the Levantine Sea.

  17. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Tool for Local-Scale Flood Risk Assessments in Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Local decision makers in coastal cities require accurate, accessible, and thorough assessments of flood exposure risk within their individual municipality, in their efforts to mitigate against damage due to future sea level rise. To fill this need, we have developed Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, an interactive data toolkit which presents our sea level rise and storm surge analysis for every coastal town, city, county, and state within the USA. Using this tool, policy makers can easily zoom in on their local place of interest to receive a detailed flood risk assessment, which synthesizes a wide range of features including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and many other critical facilities. Risk Finder can also be used to identify specific points of interest in danger of exposure at different flood levels. Additionally, this tool provides localized storm surge probabilities and sea level rise projections at tidal gauges along the coast, so that users can quickly understand the risk of flooding in their area over the coming decades.

  18. Global coastal wetland change under sea-level rise and related stresses: The DIVA Wetland Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas; Schuerch, Mark; Nicholls, Robert J.; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, A. T.; Reef, Ruth; McFadden, Loraine; Brown, Sally

    2016-04-01

    The Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment Wetland Change Model (DIVA_WCM) comprises a dataset of contemporary global coastal wetland stocks (estimated at 756 × 103 km2 (in 2011)), mapped to a one-dimensional global database, and a model of the macro-scale controls on wetland response to sea-level rise. Three key drivers of wetland response to sea-level rise are considered: 1) rate of sea-level rise relative to tidal range; 2) lateral accommodation space; and 3) sediment supply. The model is tuned by expert knowledge, parameterised with quantitative data where possible, and validated against mapping associated with two large-scale mangrove and saltmarsh vulnerability studies. It is applied across 12,148 coastal segments (mean length 85 km) to the year 2100. The model provides better-informed macro-scale projections of likely patterns of future coastal wetland losses across a range of sea-level rise scenarios and varying assumptions about the construction of coastal dikes to prevent sea flooding (as dikes limit lateral accommodation space and cause coastal squeeze). With 50 cm of sea-level rise by 2100, the model predicts a loss of 46-59% of global coastal wetland stocks. A global coastal wetland loss of 78% is estimated under high sea-level rise (110 cm by 2100) accompanied by maximum dike construction. The primary driver for high vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is coastal squeeze, a consequence of long-term coastal protection strategies. Under low sea-level rise (29 cm by 2100) losses do not exceed ca. 50% of the total stock, even for the same adverse dike construction assumptions. The model results confirm that the widespread paradigm that wetlands subject to a micro-tidal regime are likely to be more vulnerable to loss than macro-tidal environments. Countering these potential losses will require both climate mitigation (a global response) to minimise sea-level rise and maximisation of accommodation space and sediment supply (a regional

  19. Coastal sea level variability in the eastern English Channel: Potentialities for future SWOT applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    Scientists and engineers need to understand the sea level variability in order to provide better estimates of the sea level rise for coastal defense using tide gauges and radar altimetry missions. The natural limitation of the tide gauge records is their geographical sparsity and confinement to coastlines. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will be launched in 2015 over a period of 5 years and will be designated to address this issue. This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Using a series of statistical analyses, we point to characterize the sea level variability in the eastern English Channel (western France) from four tide gauges in Dunkirk, Dieppe, Le Havre and Cherbourg for the period 1964-2012. To assess the extent to which tide gauge point observations represent tide gauge data, we compare tide gauge records to SWOT measurements in their vicinity. Results have shown that the bimodality of the sea level, provided by the distribution analysis, can be reproduced by SWOT measurements with an overestimation of both modes and also the extreme values. The rate of the linear regression was also overestimated from 1.7-4 mm/yr to 2.6-5.4 mm/yr. The continuous wavelet transform of sea level records has shown the large-scale variability of annual (1-year band) and interannual cycles (2-6- and 6-12-year bands) in sea level, which can be explained by oceanographic and hydrological factors. High frequency dynamics of the sea level variability at short time-scales were extracted from SWOT measurements. They provide a good survey of the surge events (band of 3-4 months) and the spring-neap tidal cycle (band of 28 days). Then, tide gauges should be used in conjunction with satellite data to infer the full time-scale variability. Further studies are needed to refine the SWOT applicability in coastal areas. Key words: coastal zone, sea level

  20. Five years of coastal sea level monitoring in the Bay of Bengal with CryoSat-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    A continuous monitoring of sea level is particularly necessary along the coastal zones as these areas are the most exposed to flooding and storm surges that dramatically affect local economy and society. The aim of this project is to study the annual sea level variability in the Bay of Bengal...

  1. Legal Authority of Coastal States on the Interdiction of Foreign Vessels on the High Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaso, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The terror attacks of 11 September 2001 dramatically changed the course of world events. It is observed that they have led to a re-definition of the threat to US, Europe and indeed the global security as the nexus between terrorism and weapons of mass destruction (WMD, and the possibility of access to such weapons through failed states or 'rouge regimes'. Accordingly, this report examines the legal authorities or otherwise of coastal states to engage in the interdiction of foreign vessels on the high seas. The reporter used a descriptive research design method. The findings indicate that in the wake of 9/11, Washington initiated its Global War on Terrorism (GWOT, first in Afghanistan and then in Iraq. The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI proposal to establish a comprehensive enforcement mechanism which aims to restrict WMD trafficking in the air, on land and at sea. The threat to international community through the proliferation of WMD has been recognized by both individual coastal states and the wider international community; but the methods available to deal with the threat have not enjoyed the same degree of international consensus. Any coastal state sanctioning action directed at interdicting foreign ships on the high seas would be running the risk of breaching international law and may leave the authorizing state liable to a claim in compensation. Although the PSI maritime interdiction activities breach international law, a coastal state intent on pursuing such interdiction activities has an array of options available in which to chart a course around the heavy rocks of illegality of such activities.

  2. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro

    2017-09-12

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  3. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  4. Examining coastal upwellings from a Lagrangian perspective in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole; Mingelaitė, Toma; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-04-01

    This study examines from a Lagrangian perspective the impact that an upwelling event may have on mixing and the Lagrangian transport of surrounding surface waters. To accomplish this we employ in-situ surface drifters (that follow the currents in the uppermost layer with a thickness of 2 m), satellite derived sea surface temperature data (obtained from the MODIS Aqua satellite), and high-quality open sea wind time series. The study area is located near the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland where easterly winds are known to trigger intense coastal upwellings. The properties of mixing were evaluated using the daily rate of temperature change along several transects. Results show that unlike classical upwelling events that normally show cooler water hugging the coastline in a longitudinal direction, this upwelling event instead took the form of transverse jets that protruded as much as 40-45 km from the coastline at distinct locations. Interestingly, the surface drifters show that the presence of the upwelling event superseded classic Ekman-type drift of the surface layer and in effect slowed down the average speed of surface currents in the surrounding waters. It was discovered that intense and long-lasting upwelling events may contain three distinct stages, which was clearly influenced by the wind intensity: During the first stage (strong winds) the cooler water is brought to the surface. The second stage (strong winds) is characterized by the presence of coherent cooler water transverse jets that protrude some distance from the coast at two distinct locations and that lasted 5 days, during this stage very little mixing took place it was mainly the advection of colder water to the open sea. Whilst the third stage encompasses the presence of filaments/squirts and eventually the disintegration of these structures and intense mixing of upwelled and surrounding waters under weaker winds. Thus the upwelled cooler water largely kept its identity during almost the

  5. Estimation of Design Wave Heights for Coastal Sea Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Luping; HUANG Peiji; CHEN Xueying

    2000-01-01

    Based on historical wind fields in the Bohai Sea, a sequence of annual extremal wave heightsis produced with numerical wave models for deep-water and shallow water. The design wave heights with different return periods for the nearest deep-water point and for the shallow water point are estimated on the basis of p-Ⅲ type, Weibull distribution, and Gumbel distribution; and the corresponding values for the shallow water point are also estimated based on the HISWA model with the input of design wave heightsfor the nearest deep-water point. Comparisons between design wave heights for the shallow water point estimated on the basis of both distribution functions are HISWA model show that the results from differentdistribution functions scatter considerably, and influenced strongly by return periods; however, the results from the HISWA model are convergent, that is, the influence of the design wave heights estimated with different distribution functions for deep water is weakened, and the estimated values decrease for long returnperiods and increase for short return periods. Therefore, the numerical wave model gives a more stable result in shallow water design wave estimation because of the consideration of the effect of physical processes which occur in shallow water.

  6. Numerical simulation of the observed near-surface East India Coastal Current on the continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2017-08-01

    We simulate the East India Coastal Current (EICC) using two numerical models (resolution 0.1° × 0.1°), an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) called Modular Ocean Model and a simpler, linear, continuously stratified (LCS) model, and compare the simulated current with observations from moorings equipped with acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed on the continental slope in the western Bay of Bengal (BoB). We also carry out numerical experiments to analyse the processes. Both models simulate well the annual cycle of the EICC, but the performance degrades for the intra-annual and intraseasonal components. In a model-resolution experiment, both models (run at a coarser resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° ) simulate well the currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO), but the performance of the high-resolution LCS model as well as the coarse-resolution OGCM, which is good in the EICC regime, degrades in the eastern and northern BoB. An experiment on forcing mechanisms shows that the annual EICC is largely forced by the local alongshore winds in the western BoB and remote forcing due to Ekman pumping over the BoB, but forcing from the EIO has a strong impact on the intra-annual EICC. At intraseasonal periods, local (equatorial) forcing dominates in the south (north) because the Kelvin wave propagates equatorward in the western BoB. A stratification experiment with the LCS model shows that changing the background stratification from EIO to BoB leads to a stronger surface EICC owing to strong coupling of higher order vertical modes with wind forcing for the BoB profiles. These high-order modes, which lead to energy propagating down into the ocean in the form of beams, are important only for the current and do not contribute significantly to the sea level.

  7. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, Liangjun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, Fengfu

    2016-09-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb2+, and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb2+ and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb2+. Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb2+, the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future.

  8. Holocene coastal morphologies and shoreline reconstruction for the southwestern coast of the Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Huang, Haijun; Qi, Yali; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Xiguang

    2016-09-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection profiles were interpreted and combined with sedimentological data to highlight the morpho-evolutionary history of the southwestern sector of the Bohai Sea. The internal structures in GPR images obtained near the Holocene maximum transgression boundary revealed concave-upward and onlap types of transgressive paleo-topography. The relationship between historical courses of the Yellow River and the distribution of shell ridges at three periods (6 ka, 2 ka, and recent times) showed that the concave-upward types derived from the marine sediments overlap the fluvial sediments, and the onlap types from the marine sediments cover the coastal lagoon sediments. Based on the above paleo-geographical setting, previous sea-level markers were corrected, taking into account uncertainties of their relationship to former water levels. The rates of vertical tectonic displacement, evaluated through comparison of the relative sea level (RSL) data from the GPR images and the Holocene predicted sea-level elevation, markedly affected RSL changes. The fitted RSL curves from the corrected sea-level indicators showed that the accuracy of former sea-level determinations can be improved by comparing with the maximum transgressive position of GPR detection. A topographic digital elevation model (DEM) for 6 ka is reconstructed based on the corrected data.

  9. Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising sea level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative sea-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to sea-level rise.

  10. Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Piwosz

    Full Text Available Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02 to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea. Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment, or prefiltered and subsequently 1∶10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

  11. A portable UAV LIDAR system for coastal topographic surveys and sea surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Yeh, Sunny

    2017-04-01

    A light-weight UAV system for coastal topography and coastal sea surface measurements is developed. This system is based on techniques of a multirotor UAV, a light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an inertial measurement unit, and a real-time kinematic global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS). The synchronization and data recording are achieved using Labview. This system can be operated in a very low attitude flight within a range of 10m that can provide very high resolution of point cloud data. The performance of this system has been tested and calibrated with known targets. The vertical root-mean-square error is less than about 10 cm, depending on the flight height. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, tidal elevation measurement, wave measurements, and bottom roughness measurements are presented and discussed. The tide and wave measurements are compared with in-situ measurements using pressure sensors. The results of comparison suggest that this system is a useful tool to measure the sea surface elevation and topography. The challenges of applying this system are also discussed.

  12. Improved threshold retracker for satellite altimeter waveform retracking over coastal sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jinyun; HWANG Cheiway; CHANG Xiaotao; LIU Yuting

    2006-01-01

    Data quality is a key factor for the application of satellite altimetry to geodesy and oceanography. Accuracy of altimetry is limited in the coastal area because the altimeter waveforms are seriously contaminated by topography and environmental pollution. So waveform retracking is needed to compute the range correction of geophysical data records (GDRs) for better accuracy. In this paper, a new waveform retracker named the improved threshold retracker (ITR) is put forward. The retracker first builds sub-waveforms based on leading edges detected in a waveform, then determines the middle point of each leading edge to compute the retracking range correction,finally calculates the referenced sea surface heights according to the geoid undulation from a local geopotential model and tide heights from an ocean tide model, and compares it with all retracking ranges to determine the best one. As a test, altimeter waveforms of Geosat/GM are retracked around the Taiwan coastal area. The result shows that accuracy of ITR method is two times better than that of theβ-5-parameter function-fitting method and threshold method, and three times better than that of GDRs. ITR can efficiently improve the altimetry accuracy of the coastal sea area.

  13. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Nel

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or1700 nests pa (index area especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area, but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality. Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  14. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  15. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  16. Implications of multi-scale sea level and climate variability for coastal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamperidou, Christina; Engel, Victor; Lall, Upmanu; Stabenau, Erik; Smith, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    While secular changes in regional sea levels and their implications for coastal zone management have been studied extensively, less attention is being paid to natural fluctuations in sea levels, whose interaction with a higher mean level could have significant impacts on low-lying areas, such as wetlands. Here, the long record of sea level at Key West, FL is studied in terms of both the secular trend and the multi-scale sea level variations. This analysis is then used to explore implications for the Everglades National Park (ENP), which is recognized internationally for its ecological significance, and is the site of the largest wetland restoration project in the world. Very shallow topographic gradients (3–6 cm per km) make the region susceptible to small changes in sea level. Observations of surface water levels from a monitoring network within ENP exhibit both the long-term trends and the interannual-to-(multi)decadal variability that are observed in the Key West record. Water levels recorded at four long-term monitoring stations within ENP exhibit increasing trends approximately equal to or larger than the long-term trend at Key West. Time- and frequency-domain analyses highlight the potential influence of climate mechanisms, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on Key West sea levels and marsh water levels, and the potential modulation of their influence by the background state of the North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures. In particular, the Key West sea levels are found to be positively correlated with the NAO index, while the two series exhibit high spectral power during the transition to a cold Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The correlation between the Key West sea levels and the NINO3 Index reverses its sign in coincidence with a reversal of the AMO phase. Water levels in ENP are also influenced by precipitation and freshwater releases from the northern boundary of the Park. The analysis of both

  17. West India coastal current and Lakshadweep High/Low

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    ), forms off southwestern India, and migrates westward across the Arabian Sea. The annual cycle of the WICC and that of the Lakshadweep High/Low arise from a set of circumstances that are special to the North India Ocean. This relatively small tropical...

  18. Assessing satellite sea surface salinity from ocean color radiometric measurements for coastal hydrodynamic model data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ronald L.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-07-01

    Improving forecasts of salinity from coastal hydrodynamic models would further our predictive capacity of physical, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal ocean. However, salinity is difficult to estimate in coastal and estuarine waters at the temporal and spatial resolution required. Retrieving sea surface salinity (SSS) using satellite ocean color radiometry may provide estimates with reasonable accuracy and resolution for coastal waters that could be assimilated into hydrodynamic models to improve SSS forecasts. We evaluated the applicability of satellite SSS retrievals from two algorithms for potential assimilation into National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS) hydrodynamic model. Of the two satellite algorithms, a generalized additive model (GAM) outperformed that of an artificial neural network (ANN), with mean bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.27 and 3.71 for the GAM and 3.44 and 5.01 for the ANN. However, the RMSE for the SSS predicted by CBOFS (2.47) was lower than that of both satellite algorithms. Given the better precision of the CBOFS model, assimilation of satellite ocean color SSS retrievals will not improve CBOFS forecasts of SSS in Chesapeake Bay. The bias in the GAM SSS retrievals suggests that adding a variable related to precipitation may improve its performance.

  19. Prediction of Ozone Concentrations over the Sea of Japan Coastal Area Using WRF/Chem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model is used to simulate air quality over the Sea of Japan coastal area. Anthropogenic surface emissions database used as input for this model are mainly based on Global hourly emissions data (dust, sea salt, biomass burning, RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition, GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity and POET (Precursors of ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere. Climatologic concentrations of particulate matters derived from Regional acid Deposition Model (RADM2 chemical mechanism and Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM with aqueous reaction were used to deduce the corresponding aerosols fluxes for input to the WRF/Chem. The model was firstly integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 00:00 UTC of 14 March 2008 to evaluate ozone concentrations and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. WPS meteorological data were used for the simulation of WRF/Chem model in this study. Despite the low resolution of the area global emissions and the weak density of the local point emissions, it has been found that WRF/Chem simulates quite well with the diurnal variation of the chemical species concentrations over the Sea of Japan coastal area. The simulations conducted in this study showed that due to the geographical and climatologically characteristics, it is still environmentally friendly by the transported pollutants in this region.

  20. Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xianqiang; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    A practical algorithm of atmospheric correction for turbid coastal and inland waters is provided. The present algorithm uses the property that the water-leaving radiance at 412 nm increases very little with the increasing of water turbidity. Thus, in very turbid coastal and inland waters, the radiance at 412 nm can be used to estimate the aerosol scattering radiance at 865 nm. The performance of the new algorithm is validated with simulation for several cases. It is found that the retrieved remotely sensed reflectance is usually with error less than 10% for the first six bands of SeaWiFS. This new algorithm is also tested under various atmospheric conditions in the Changjiang River Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay where the sediment concentration is very high and the standard SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm creates a mask due to atmospheric correction failure. The result proves the efficiency of this simple algorithm in reducing the errors of the water-leaving radiance retrieving using SeaWiFS satellite data.

  1. Sea-level rise induced amplification of coastal protection design heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, Arne; Dangendorf, Sönke; Jensen, Jürgen; Talke, Stefan; Bender, Jens; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2017-01-01

    Coastal protection design heights typically consider the superimposed effects of tides, surges, waves, and relative sea-level rise (SLR), neglecting non-linear feedbacks between these forcing factors. Here, we use hydrodynamic modelling and multivariate statistics to show that shallow coastal areas are extremely sensitive to changing non-linear interactions between individual components caused by SLR. As sea-level increases, the depth-limitation of waves relaxes, resulting in waves with larger periods, greater amplitudes, and higher run-up; moreover, depth and frictional changes affect tide, surge, and wave characteristics, altering the relative importance of other risk factors. Consequently, sea-level driven changes in wave characteristics, and to a lesser extent, tides, amplify the resulting design heights by an average of 48–56%, relative to design changes caused by SLR alone. Since many of the world’s most vulnerable coastlines are impacted by depth-limited waves, our results suggest that the overall influence of SLR may be greatly underestimated in many regions.

  2. Assessment of the impact of sea-level rise due to climate change on coastal groundwater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciopinto, Costantino; Liso, Isabella Serena

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of sea intrusion into coastal aquifers as a consequence of local sea-level rise (LSLR) due to climate change was carried out at Murgia and Salento in southern Italy. The interpolation of sea-level measurements at three tide-gauge stations was performed during the period of 2000 to 2014. The best fit of measurements shows an increasing rate of LSLR ranging from 4.4mm/y to 8.8mm/y, which will result in a maximum LSLR of approximately 2m during the 22nd century. The local rate of sea-level rise matches recent 21st and 22nd century projections of mean global sea-level rise determined by other researchers, which include increased melting rates of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, the effect of ocean thermal expansion, the melting of glaciers and ice caps, and changes in the quantity of stored land water. Subsequently, Ghyben-Herzberg's equation for the freshwater/saltwater interface was rewritten in order to determine the decrease in groundwater discharge due to the maximum LSLR. Groundwater flow simulations and ArcGIS elaborations of digital elevation models of the coast provided input data for the Ghyben-Herzberg calculation under the assumption of head-controlled systems. The progression of seawater intrusion due to LSLR suggests an impressive depletion of available groundwater discharge during the 22nd century, perhaps as much as 16.1% of current groundwater pumping for potable water in Salento. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  4. Video system for monitoring sea-surface characteristics in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Oleg G.; Pavlov, Andrey N.

    2012-11-01

    A method of investigation sea surface roughness by analysis polarization images is suggested. Equipment and software were developed and tested at the Pacific Oceanological Institute (POI) It is shown a possibility to study surface manifestations of hydrodynamic processes in coastal zone, such as the dynamics of vortex structures, internal waves, spatio-temporal properties of surface waves by using the panoramic video system for a sea surface control and by the imaging polarimeter. Analysis of a time sequence of transformed to the plane panoramic images obtained using the system allows to estimate a velocity field of vortex structure, phase velocity of surface manifestations of internal waves, intensity and dynamics of surface films of oil pollution. It is shown an ability of sea surface reconstruction by analyzing time sequence of the imaging polarimeter pictures. The results are compared with the height difference of the floats located on the vertical guides that are in the imaging polarimeter field of view. The float heights obtained from its image coordinates. Field experiments were conducted at the POI marine station in the Japan Sea. Moreover, the developed methods and equipment may be used as a source of unique in situ information on the sea surface roughness during satellite optical and radar sensing.

  5. Global DEM Errors Underpredict Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Scott; Strauss, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Elevation data based on NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have been widely used to evaluate threats from global sea level rise, storm surge, and coastal floods. However, SRTM data are known to include large vertical errors in densely urban or densely vegetated areas. The errors may propagate to derived land and population exposure assessments. We compare assessments based on SRTM data against references employing high-accuracy bare-earth elevation data generated from lidar data available for coastal areas of the United States. We find that both 1-arcsecond and 3-arcsecond horizontal resolution SRTM data systemically underestimate exposure across all assessed spatial scales and up to at least 10m above the high tide line. At 3m, 1-arcsecond SRTM underestimates U.S. population exposure by more than 60%, and under-predicts population exposure in 90% of coastal states, 87% of counties, and 83% of municipalities. These fractions increase with elevation, but error medians and variability fall to lower levels, with national exposure underestimated by just 24% at 10m. Results using 3-arcsecond SRTM are extremely similar. Coastal analyses based on SRTM data thus appear to greatly underestimate sea level and flood threats, especially at lower elevations. However, SRTM-based estimates may usefully be regarded as providing lower bounds to actual threats. We additionally assess the performance of NOAA's Global Land One-km Base Elevation Project (GLOBE), another publicly-available global DEM, but do not reach any definitive conclusion because of the spatial heterogeneity in its quality.

  6. Characteristic Features of Sea Level Series Analysis in the World Ocean Current Climatic Eustasy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, G.; Tsivtsivadze, N.; Tavartqiladze, K.; Dokhnadze, G.; Lagidze, L.; Motsonelidze, N.

    2012-04-01

    Climatic eustasy - sea level long-term rise or decrease, is the result of ocean waters thermal expansion and the freshwater balance between land and ocean. This phenomenon accompanies climate change with some delay and like air temperature changes is an ongoing process. It is positive in warm climatic cycles and vice versa. The global climate warming, has provoked current climatic eustasy, which is started in high Northern latitudes in second part of 1890 's, and in secondary ones (basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas)- in 1915-1923. In 2010 it caused the sea level raise at these latitudes at 0.3-0.4 m, but in the basins of these seas at 0.15 -0.20 m respectively. Climatic eustasy cycles and their continuity significantly influence on the comfortable environment forming process for living organisms in the sea and the coast. Therefore, the study of fundamental characteristics of this phenomena and its forecast in the near future (2025-2030) is highly topical issues. The solution of mentioned problems, with high precision and accuracy, is possible using "sea levels' long statistic series", combined with similar series of air and sea temperatures. The "long" is referred to as levels series if they are composed by two fragments of statistically sufficient length. First one contains information covering the period of negative eustasy, but the second- positive one. Before the using, from the fragments, the "noises", accompanying climatic fluctuations, various short-term trials and errors associated with data collection and processing have to be excluded. With special care the geological trend, caused by the altitude displacement of the coast, carried a data collection system, also should be excluded from them. Out of processed fragments, by the relevant methods, the amount of negative (Hn) and positive (Hp) eustasies, with precision of mm/year is determined. The sum of the absolute value of latter ones is the absolute eustasy (Ha), representing the local rate of

  7. Simulation of coastal floodings during a typhoon event with the consideration of future sea-level rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Huei, Jhang; Chih-Chung, Wen; Dong-Jiing, Doong; Cheng-Han, Tsai

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan is an Island in the western Pacific Ocean and experienced more than 3 typhoons in a year. Typhoons bring intense rainfall, high waves, and storm surges, which often resulted in coastal flooding. The flooding can be aggravated by the sea level rise due to the global warming, which may subject Taiwan's coastal areas to more serious damage in the future than present. The objectives of this study are to investigate the flooding caused by typhoons in the Annan District, Tainan, a city on the southwest coast of Taiwan by numerical simulations, considering the effects of sea-level rises according to the level suggested by the 5th Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The simulations were carried out by using MIKE21 HD (a hydrodynamic model) and MIKE21 SW (a spectral wave model). In our simulation, we used an intense typhoon, named Soudelor, as our base typhoon, which made its landfall on the east coast of Taiwan in the summer of 2015, traveled through the width of the island, and exited the island to the north of Tainan. The reasons we pick this typhoon are that it passed near our objective area, wind field data for this typhoon are available, and we have well documented coastal wave and water level measurements during the passage of Typhoon Soudelor. We firstly used ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) wind field data to reconstruct typhoon waves and storm surges for this typhoon by using coupled MIKE21 SW and MIKE21 HD in a regional model. The resultant simulated wave height and sea-level height matched satisfactorily with the measured data. The wave height and storm surge calculated by the regional model provided the boundary conditions for our fine-grid domain. Then different sea-level rises suggested by the IPCC were incorporated into the fine-grid model. Since river discharge due to intense rainfall has also to be considered for coastal flooding, our fine-grid models

  8. Cross-calibrating ALES Envisat and CryoSat-2 Delay-Doppler: A coastal altimetry study in the Indonesian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Marcello; Dinardo, Salvatore; Quartly, Graham D.; Snaith, Helen M.; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Lucas, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    A regional cross-calibration between the first Delay-Doppler altimetry dataset from CryoSat-2 and a retracked Envisat dataset is here presented, in order to test the benefits of the Delay-Doppler processing and to expand the Envisat time series in the coastal ocean. The Indonesian Seas are chosen for the calibration, since the availability of altimetry data in this region is particularly beneficial due to the lack of in situ measurements and its importance for global ocean circulation. The Envisat data in the region are retracked with the Adaptive Leading Edge Subwaveform (ALES) retracker, which has been previously validated and applied successfully to coastal sea level research. The study demonstrates that CryoSat-2 is able to decrease the 1-Hz noise of sea level estimations by 0.3 cm within 50 km of the coast, when compared to the ALES-reprocessed Envisat dataset. It also shows that Envisat can be confidently used for detailed oceanographic research after the orbit change of October 2010. Cross-calibration at the crossover points indicates that in the region of study a sea state bias correction equal to 5% of the significant wave height is an acceptable approximation for Delay-Doppler altimetry. The analysis of the joint sea level time series reveals the geographic extent of the semiannual signal caused by Kelvin waves during the monsoon transitions, the larger amplitudes of the annual signal due to the Java Coastal Current and the impact of the strong La Niña event of 2010 on rising sea level trends.

  9. How Shall We Tell Our People? The Art and Science of Communicating Sea-Level Rise to Coastal Audiences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Improved sea-level rise projections and translation into decision-relevant information (e.g., changed flood frequencies and elevations, increased rates in coastal erosion, salinity changes in coastal aquifers) are critical for coastal managers, planners, and local elected officials to feel more confident in bringing climate change and its related coastal impacts to the attention of their communities. Those who have done so or are considering doing so, however, are not just concerned with “getting the science right” or getting the most credible and relevant information. They immediately, and sometimes primarily, are concerned with the reactions of coastal residents, developers, and business interests to the prospects of potentially difficult and substantial changes in coastal land use, their property rights, and the potential loss of their homes and establishments. How to engage the public constructively in developing adaptation strategies is a largely unmet challenge for most coastal managers. Similarly, they have not been trained in how to effectively communicate an issue that is ripe with the potential for loss, danger, and social and legal conflict - more so than they already face. Better physical science on sea-level rise alone will not meet these needs. Meanwhile, the social sciences have only begun to study public attitudes toward local impacts and adaptation responses. This paper will summarize key insights available at this time and point to important research and education/training needs to better assist practitioners faced with developing and implementing coastal adaptation strategies.

  10. A LARGE EDDY SIMULATION TURBULENCE MODEL FOR COASTAL SEAS AND SHALLOW WATER PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In large scale motions of circulations in coastal seas and shallow-water problems, different characteristics of flow in the horizontal plane and in the vertical direction are expected. In this paper, a new large eddy simulation model was proposed. There are some differences between the present method and the other LES models. The philosophy of the large eddy simulation and the directional eddy viscosity method were applied in the horizontal plane and in the vertical direction, respectively. Comparied with the other LES models in which there is no difference between horizontal viscosity and vertical viscosity, the proposed method is resonable.

  11. Modelling nutrient retention in the coastal zone of an eutrophic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Markus Meier, H. E.; Sahlberg, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    The Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM) was used at a test site, the Stockholm archipelago, located in the northern part of the central Baltic Sea, to study the retention capacity of the coastal filter on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads from land and atmosphere. The efficiency of the coastal filter to permanently retain nutrients determines how much of the local nutrient loads actually reach the open sea. The SCM system is a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus-type model coupled to a horizontally integrated, physical model in particular suitable for estuaries. In this study the Stockholm Archipelago, consisting of 86 sub-basins, was divided into three sub-areas: the inner, the intermediate and the outer archipelago. An evaluation of model results showed that the modelled freshwater supply agrees well with observations. The nutrient, salinity and temperature dynamics simulated by the SCM are also found to be in good or acceptable agreement with observations. The analysis showed that the Stockholm Archipelago works as a filter for nutrients that enter the coastal zone from land, but the filter efficiency is not effective enough to retain all the supplied nutrients. However, at least 65 and 72 % of the P and N, respectively, are retained during the studied period (1990-2012). A major part of the retention is permanent, which for P means burial. For N, almost 92 % of the permanent retention is represented by benthic denitrification, less than 8 % by burial, while pelagic denitrification is below 1 %. Highest total amounts of P and N are retained in the outer archipelago, where the surface area is largest. The area-specific retention of P and N, however, is highest in the smaller inner archipelago and decreases towards the open sea. A reduction scenario of the land loads of N and P showed that the filter efficiencies of N and P increase and the export of N from the archipelago decreases. About 15 years after the reduction, the export of P changes into an

  12. Dynamics of sea-ice biogeochemistry in the coastal Antarctica during transition from summer to winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Shetye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2, air-sea CO2 fluxes and associated environmental parameters were investigated in the Antarctic coastal waters. The in-situ survey was carried out from the austral summer till the onset of winter (January 2012, February 2010 and March 2009 in the Enderby Basin. Rapid decrease in pCO2 was evident under the sea-ice cover in January, when both water column and sea-ice algal activity resulted in the removal of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and increase in pH. The major highlight of this study is the shift in the dominant biogeochemical factors from summer to early winter. Nutrient limitation (low Si/N, sea-ice cover, low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, deep mixed layer and high upwelling velocity contributed towards higher pCO2 during March (early winter. CO2 fluxes suggest that the Enderby Basin acts as a strong CO2 sink during January (−81 mmol m−2 d−1, however it acts as a weak sink of CO2 with −2.4 and −1.7 mmol m−2 d−1 during February and March, respectively. The present work, concludes that sea ice plays a dual role towards climate change, by decreasing sea surface pCO2 in summer and enhancing in early winter. Our observations emphasize the need to address seasonal sea-ice driven CO2 flux dynamics in assessing Antarctic contributions to the global oceanic CO2 budget.

  13. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Mondal

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP. This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change.

  14. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change.

  15. Effects of hydrogeological properties on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ci; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations on quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of coastal environment factors, including tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradients on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers. A hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal behaviors of the density flow and benzene transport for various hydrogeological conditions. Simulation results indicated that the tidal fluctuations lead to upper saline plumes (USPs) near the groundwater and seawater interfaces. Such local circulation zones trapped the seaward benzene plumes and carried them down in aquifers to the depth depending on the tide amplitudes and beach slopes across the coastal lines. Comparisons based on different tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient were systematically conducted and quantified. The results indicated that areas with USPs increased with the tidal amplitude and decreased with the increasing beach slope. However, the variation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient has relatively small influence on the patterns of flow fields in the study. The increase of the USP depths was linearly correlated with the increase of the tidal amplitudes. The benzene reactive transport simulations revealed that the plume migrations are mainly controlled by the local flow dynamics and constrained in the USP circulation zones. The self-cleaning process of a coastal aquifer is time-consuming, typically requiring double the time of the contamination process that the benzene plume reach the bottom of a USP circulation zone. The presented systematic analysis can provide useful information for rapidly evaluating seaward contaminants along a coastal line with available hydrogeological properties.

  16. Sedimentary history of the eastern Bohai Sea, China since the deglacial and implications for paleo-tidal current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhengquan; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulation suggests that the Holocene sediments re-suspension and distribution in the Bohai Sea was mainly controlled by tidal current regime, which was closely related with sea-level change. Study on sediments in the Bohai Sea thus can provide insights into the evolution of tidal-influenced sedimentary environment and its links with sea-level change. Our understanding of this issue remains incomplete, however, owing to the lack of comprehensive study on sediment core with high-resolution proxies to test such inference. In this study, analyses of sedimentary facies, proxies (grain size, total organic carbon and total nitrogen, X-ray fluorescence scanning Sulfur and Chlorine ratio) and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates of a sediment core recovered from the eastern Bohai Sea were carried out to clarify the Holocene sedimentary environment, tidal current change and its relation to the sea-level. The results indicate that the eastern Bohai Sea was dominated by fluvial-coastal environment prior to 12400 cal. a BP due to the sea-level lowstand and changed to tidal-influenced environment from 12400 to 6700 cal. a BP following the rapid sea-level rising. Thereafter shelf environment with minor tidal influence dominated the eastern Bohai Sea under the condition of a deceleration of sea-level rise. The significant change at ~6700 cal. a BP both in sedimentary environment and sediment proxies, indicating an environmental transition from strong tidal-influenced to less tidal-influenced setting. With the sea-level rising from the early Holocene to the mid-Holocene, tidal-current was much strong due to the low sea-level stand and became weak after the maximum transgression at ~6700 cal. a BP. These results are consistent with the numerical simulation, which suggested that less strong tidal current were the consequence of the most highstand sea-level since the mid-Holocene. Our study thus provides a sedimentary record to support the interpretation of numerical

  17. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S J; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-03-04

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2-4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25-123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3-9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12-71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure.

  18. Coastal lagoon sediments and benthic foraminifera as indicator for Holocene sea-level change: Samsø, southern Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Morigi, Caterina; Pejrup, Morten

    relative sea-level to drop. Originally, two Pleistocene elevations existed as separated islands, which were high enough to reach above sea-level during the transgressions. Proceeding coastal erosion produced material that was transported longshore and that was successively accommodated in a shallow sound....... Over time, an extensive beach ridge system formed, which eventually connected the islands, giving Samsø its characteristic shape. Ephemeral shallow-water lagoons evolved in topographic depressions along the shores of the island, most of which became inactive until today. A semi-enclosed coastal lagoon...... remained in the NE part of the island, which developed around an archipelago of submerged moraine hills. In the scope of this project we will study the evolution of the coastal landscape from the mid-Holocene to present day. We use a multi-proxy approach to resolve local variations in sea...

  19. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    .... Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four...

  20. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change hazards at the regional scale: the case study of the North Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise, changes in storms and wave climate as a consequence of global climate change are expected to increase the size and magnitude of flooded and eroding coastal areas, thus having profound impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems. River deltas, beaches, estuaries and lagoons are considered particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, which should be studied at the regional/local scale. This paper presents a regional vulnerability assessment (RVA methodology developed to analyse site-specific spatial information on coastal vulnerability to the envisaged effects of global climate change, and assist coastal communities in operational coastal management and conservation. The main aim of the RVA is to identify key vulnerable receptors (i.e. natural and human ecosystems in the considered region and localize vulnerable hot spot areas, which could be considered as homogeneous geographic sites for the definition of adaptation strategies. The application of the RVA methodology is based on a heterogeneous subset of bio-geophysical and socio-economic vulnerability indicators (e.g. coastal topography, geomorphology, presence and distribution of vegetation cover, location of artificial protection, which are a measure of the potential harm from a range of climate-related impacts (e.g. sea level rise inundation, storm surge flooding, coastal erosion. Based on a system of numerical weights and scores, the RVA provides relative vulnerability maps that allow to prioritize more vulnerable areas and targets of different climate-related impacts in the examined region and to support the identification of suitable areas for human settlements, infrastructures and economic activities, providing a basis for coastal zoning and land use planning. The implementation, performance and results of the methodology for the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy are fully described in the paper.

  1. An Improved Ocean Observing System for Coastal Louisiana: WAVCIS (WAVE-CURRENT-SURGE Information System )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Stone, G. W.; Gibson, W. J.; Braud, D.

    2005-05-01

    WAVCIS is a regional ocean observing and forecasting system. It was designed to measure, process, forecast, and distribute oceanographic and meteorological information. WAVCIS was developed and is maintained by the Coastal Studies Institute at Louisiana State University. The in-situ observing stations are distributed along the central Louisiana and Mississippi coast. The forecast region covers the entire Gulf of Mexico with emphasis on offshore Louisiana. By using state-of-the-art instrumentation, WAVCIS measures directional waves, currents, temperature, water level, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, Meteorological parameters include wind speed and direction, air pressure and temperature visibility and humidity. Through satellite communication links, the measured data are transmitted to the WAVCIS laboratory. After processing, they are available to the public via the internet on a near real-time basis. WAVCIS also includes a forecasting capability. Waves, tides, currents, and winds are forecast daily for up to 80 hours in advance. There are a number of numerical wave and surge models that can be used for forecasts. WAM and SWAN are used for operational purposes to forecast sea state. Tides at each station are predicted based on the harmonic constants calculated from past in-situ observations at respective sites. Interpolated winds from the ETA model are used as input forcing for waves. Both in-situ and forecast information are available online to the users through WWW. Interactive GIS web mapping is implemented on the WAVCIS webpage to visualize the model output and in-situ observational data. WAVCIS data can be queried, retrieved, downloaded, and analyzed through the web page. Near real-time numerical model skill assessment can also be performed by using the data from in-situ observing stations.

  2. Beyond just sea-level rise: considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas M; Day, Richard H; Gabler, Christopher A; Stagg, Camille L; Grace, James B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate change-related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Beyond just sea-level rise: Considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Day, Richard H.; Gabler, Christopher A.; Stagg, Camille L.; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate-change related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands.

  4. The Possible Physical Barrier and Coastal Dispersal Strategy for Japanese Grenadier Anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: Evidence from AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA and pairwise fixation index (FST revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  5. The possible physical barrier and coastal dispersal strategy for Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: evidence from AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-03

    In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%). Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) and pairwise fixation index (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ) cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy.

  6. Recent Increases in Snow Accumulation and Decreases in Sea-Ice Concentration Recorded in a Coastal NW Greenland Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J. T.; Wong, G. J.; Hawley, R. L.; Kelly, M. A.; Lutz, E.; Howley, J.; Ferris, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    A significant rise in summer temperatures over the past several decades has led to widespread retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) margin and surrounding sea ice. Recent observations from geodetic stations and GRACE show that ice mass loss progressed from South Greenland up to Northwest Greenland by 2005 (Khan et al., 2010). Observations from meteorological stations at the U.S. Thule Air Force Base, remote sensing platforms, and climate reanalyses indicate a 3.5C mean annual warming in the Thule region and a 44% decrease in summer (JJAS) sea-ice concentrations in Baffin Bay from 1980-2010. Mean annual precipitation near Thule increased by 12% over this interval, with the majority of the increase occurring in fall (SON). To improve projections of future ice loss and sea-level rise in a warming climate, we are currently developing multi-proxy records (lake sediment cores, ice cores, glacial geologic data, glaciological models) of Holocene climate variability and cryospheric response in NW Greenland, with a focus on past warm periods. As part of our efforts to develop a millennial-length ice core paleoclimate record from the Thule region, we collected and analyzed snow pit samples and short firn cores (up to 20 m) from the coastal region of the GIS (2Barrel site; 76.9317 N, 63.1467 W) and the summit of North Ice Cap (76.938 N, 67.671 W) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The 2Barrel ice core was sampled using a continuous ice core melting system at Dartmouth, and subsequently analyzed for major anion and trace element concentrations and stable water isotope ratios. Here we show that the 2Barrel ice core spanning 1990-2010 records a 25% increase in mean annual snow accumulation, and is positively correlated (r = 0.52, p<0.01) with ERA-Interim precipitation. The 2Barrel annual sea-salt Na concentration is strongly correlated (r = 0.5-0.8, p<0.05) with summer and fall sea-ice concentrations in northern Baffin Bay near Thule (Figure 1). We hypothesize that the positive

  7. An operational coupled wave-current forecasting system for the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A.; Coluccelli, A.; Deserti, M.; Valentini, A.; Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2005 an Adriatic implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (AdriaROMS) is being producing operational short-term forecasts (72 hours) of some hydrodynamic properties (currents, sea level, temperature, salinity) of the Adriatic Sea at 2 km horizontal resolution and 20 vertical s-levels, on a daily basis. The main objective of AdriaROMS, which is managed by the Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service (SIMC) of ARPA Emilia Romagna, is to provide useful products for civil protection purposes (sea level forecasts, outputs to run other forecasting models as for saline wedge, oil spills and coastal erosion). In order to improve the forecasts in the coastal area, where most of the attention is focused, a higher resolution model (0.5 km, again with 20 vertical s-levels) has been implemented for the northern Adriatic domain. The new implementation is based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST)and adopts ROMS for the hydrodynamic and Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for the wave module, respectively. Air-sea fluxes are computed using forecasts produced by the COSMO-I7 operational atmospheric model. At the open boundary of the high resolution model, temperature, salinity and velocity fields are provided by AdriaROMS while the wave characteristics are provided by an operational SWAN implementation (also managed by SIMC). Main tidal components are imposed as well, derived from a tidal model. Work in progress is oriented now on the validation of model results by means of extensive comparisons with acquired hydrographic measurements (such as CTDs or XBTs from sea-truth campaigns), currents and waves acquired at observational sites (including those of SIMC, CNR-ISMAR network and its oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral) and satellite-derived wave-heights data. Preliminary results on the forecast waves denote how, especially during intense storms, the effect of coupling can lead to significant variations in the wave

  8. Air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Gernot E.; Ledesma, Jesus; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2008-10-01

    Comprehensive sea surface surveys of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2) have been made in the upwelling system of the coastal (0-200 km from shore) southeastern tropical Pacific since 2004. The shipboard data have been supplemented by mooring and drifter based observations. Air-sea flux estimates were made by combining satellite derived wind fields with the direct sea surface pCO 2 measurements. While there was considerable spatial heterogeneity, there was a significant flux of CO 2 from the ocean to the atmosphere during all survey periods in the region between 4° and 20° south latitude. During periods of strong upwelling the average flux out of the ocean exceeded 10 moles of CO 2 per square meter per year. During periods of weaker upwelling and high productivity the CO 2 evasion rate was near 2.5 mol/m 2/yr. The average annual fluxes exceed 5 mol/m 2/yr. These findings are in sharp contrast to results obtained in mid-latitude upwelling systems along the west coast of North America where the average air-sea CO 2 flux is low and can often be from the atmosphere into the ocean. In the Peruvian upwelling system there are several likely factors that contribute to sea surface pCO 2 levels that are well above those of the atmosphere in spite of elevated primary productivity: (1) the upwelling source waters contain little pre-formed nitrate and are affected by denitrification, (2) iron limitation of primary production enhanced by offshore upwelling driven by the curl of the wind stress and (3) rapid sea surface warming. The combined carbon, nutrient and oxygen dynamics of this region make it a candidate site for studies of global change.

  9. Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

    2013-08-01

    Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios.

  10. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem.The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  11. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem. The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  12. The Temporal Dynamics of Coastal Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofrat Raveh

    Full Text Available This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world-the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of two years. Heterotrophic bacteria were abundant mostly during late summer and midwinter, and were positively correlated with bacterial production and with N2 fixation. Based on size fractionating, picophytoplankton was abundant during the summer, whereas nano-microphytoplankton predominated during the winter and early spring, which were also evident in the size-fractionated primary production rates. Autotrophic abundance and production correlated negatively with temperature, but did not correlate with inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, a comparison of our results with results from the open Levantine Basin demonstrates that autotrophic and heterotrophic production, as well as N2 fixation rates, are considerably higher in the coastal habitat than in the open sea, while nutrient levels or cell abundance are not different. These findings have important ecological implications for food web dynamics and for biological carbon sequestration in this understudied region.

  13. Winter Phytoplankton Assemblages of Coastal Yellow Sea Connected to Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Lixia; SUN Jun; HE Qing; WANG Dan; WANG Min

    2007-01-01

    The daily species variation of phytoplankton assemblage of coastal Yellow Sea connected to Jiaozhou Bay in the seawater around the Xiaoqingdao Island was studied for the three months of winter, 2003. A total of 79 taxa from four phyla, Bacillariophyta (52 species), Pyrrophyta (25 species), Chrysophyta (1 species), and Cyanophyta (1 species) were determined. In general,the most important groups were Bacillariophyta and Pyrrophyta on cell abundance and species richness. In January, the dominant species was mainly composed of cosmopolitan species such as Skeletonema costatum, then it changed to cosmopolitan species Thalassiosira nordenskiodii in February, and finally, it recovered to Skeletonema costatum again in March. Cell abundance ranged from 1.02 to 130.71 ×103 cells L-1 with a single peak on 6th Feb., and the average abundance was 28.11 ± 26.01 × 103 cells L-1 (n= 90) during the winter time. The trends of Shannon-Weiner diversity index and Pielou's evenness index were contrary to cell abundance, whereas the species diversity and evenness were the lowest in February. Temperature and salinity were closely correlated to phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance. According to the variations of temperature and salinity, species sequence was obvious at the studied site. This implies that the phytoplankton community of inner Jiaozhou Bay would be influenced heavily by the coastal Yellow Sea phytoplankton assemblages.

  14. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  15. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Parameters for Modeling Coastal Marsh Response to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Warzecha, B.; Crowe, R.; Vasey, M. C.; Ferner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal planners are seeking ways to prepare for the potential impacts of future climate change, particularly sea level rise though management of future risks is complicated by uncertainty in the timing, distribution and extent of these impacts. Sea level rise impacts will be most evident at the regional level where decisions related to climate change adaptation including those related to land use planning and habitat management typically occur. To aid coastal managers with decision-making we are integrating remote sensing data with the marsh equilibrium model (MEM3) to project coastal marsh habitat response to future sea level rise. MEM3 is a 1-dimentional, calibrated Excel-based model that incorporates both physical and biological feedbacks to changing relative elevations. Modeled future elevations are then distributed at the regional scale with LiDAR DEMs to project changes to coastal habitats and dependent wildlife. Because plant biomass and structure influence both organic and inorganic accretion, MEM3 includes multiple vegetation input variables. Deriving these variables, including maximum and minimum elevations of marsh vegetation, peak aboveground biomass, and elevation at peak biomass from remote sensing will enable the model to have spatially variable inputs across sites. We are evaluating 30m Landsat 8 and 2m World View-2 (WV2) satellite data for mapping peak biomass at Rush Ranch, a highly diverse brackish marsh in the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The high spatial resolution of WV2 produces greater variability in plant reflectance at the pixel scale than Landsat 8. Initial results show the need for plant community-specific biomass models with WV2 to account for differences in plant structure and canopy architecture. When removing plots dominated by Salicornia pacifica and Lepidium latifolium, peak biomass is best estimated with an NDVI-type vegetation index based on WV2 near infrared bands 7 and 8 (R2 = 0.21, RMSE = 318 g/m2

  16. Coastal ocean acidification and increasing total alkalinity in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Alliouane, Samir; Gazeau, Frédéric; Mousseau, Laure; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Coastal time series of ocean carbonate chemistry are critical for understanding how global anthropogenic change manifests in near-shore ecosystems. Yet, they are few and have low temporal resolution. At the time series station Point B in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, seawater was sampled weekly from 2007 through 2015, at 1 and 50 m, and analyzed for total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and total alkalinity (AT). Parameters of the carbonate system such as pH (pHT, total hydrogen ion scale) were calculated and a deconvolution analysis was performed to identify drivers of change. The rate of surface ocean acidification was -0.0028 ± 0.0003 units pHT yr-1. This rate is larger than previously identified open-ocean trends due to rapid warming that occurred over the study period (0.072 ± 0.022 °C yr-1). The total pHT change over the study period was of similar magnitude as the diel pHT variability at this site. The acidification trend can be attributed to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) forcing (59 %, 2.08 ± 0.01 ppm CO2 yr-1) and warming (41 %). Similar trends were observed at 50 m but rates were generally slower. At 1 m depth, the increase in atmospheric CO2 accounted for approximately 40 % of the observed increase in CT (2.97 ± 0.20 µmol kg-1 yr-1). The remaining increase in CT may have been driven by the same unidentified process that caused an increase in AT (2.08 ± 0.19 µmol kg-1 yr-1). Based on the analysis of monthly trends, synchronous increases in CT and AT were fastest in the spring-summer transition. The driving process of the interannual increase in AT has a seasonal and shallow component, which may indicate riverine or groundwater influence. This study exemplifies the importance of understanding changes in coastal carbonate chemistry through the lens of biogeochemical cycling at the land-sea interface. This is the first coastal acidification time series providing multiyear data at high temporal resolution. The data confirm rapid warming in

  17. Five years of coastal sea level monitoring in the Bay of Bengal with CryoSat-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    A continuous monitoring of sea level is particularly necessary along the coastal zones as these areas are the most exposed to flooding and storm surges that dramatically affect local economy and society. The aim of this project is to study the annual sea level variability in the Bay of Bengal...... exploiting five years of CryoSat-2 data. The work is focused on the analysis of CryoSat’s performances over coastal areas with using 20Hz SAR data from SARvatore online processing toolbox. This research is also an opportunity for comparing SIRAL’s LRM and SAR modes, which have covered the same area...

  18. Method of estimation of sea-shelf water exchange using information on differential coastal cooling above underwater slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Physics of formation of differential coastal cooling in areas with sloping bottom, as well as the associated water dynamics, is already quite well investigated. This allows for using this knowledge for quantitative estimation of deep sea - coastal area (cross-shore) water-exchange. It is especially effective during periods of seasonal autumnal cooling, when vertical gravitational convection reaches bottom in shallower coastal areas. Then, the water temperature in sloping area (the picture of differential coastal cooling) is formed by combined effect of the heat exchange with the cooler atmosphere and horizontal heat transport due to water-exchange with the warmer sea. If the heat loss to the atmosphere in the open area and in coastal region can be taken approximately the same, then time rate of decrease of water temperature in deep-sea surface layer provides its measure, which can be applied also in sloping area. Thus, the heat transport by horizontal (cross-shore) exchange can be estimated. Theoretical considerations were checked using the results of original laboratory experiments, 3D numerical modeling in basins with sloping bottom, comparison with field measurement and satellite data for the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. Analytical expressions for cross-shore temperature variations during periods of the developed vertical convection were obtained for several flow regimes (e.g., no exchange with the sea, quasi-steady-state exchange due to the cross-shore density gradients). Series of laboratory experiments have demonstrated the particular features of the coast-sea temperature profiles in different flow regimes (see poster EGU2013-502). Three-dimensional non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model MIKE3-FlowModel (DHI Water & Environment) was applied to reproduce both the laboratory experiments and the results of field measurements in the Gdansk bay of the Baltic Sea (74 cruise of r/v 'Prof. Stockman', October, 2005). Data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua for October

  19. Extreme sea-levels, coastal risks and climate changes: lost in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo; Castro Carneiro, Juliane; Cintra, Márcio; Ribeiro, Andréa; Cardoso, Denis; Stellfeld, Carol

    2014-05-01

    Occurring commonly in Brazilian coastal (and continental) areas, floods are probably the most devastating natural hazards our local society faces nowadays. With the expected sea-level rise and tropical storms becoming stronger and more frequents, the scenarios of local impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges; causing loss of lives, environmental damages and socio-economic stress; need to be addressed and properly communicated. We present results related to the sea-level setups accordingly to IPCC's scenarios and the expected coastal floods in the Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The outcomes are displayed in scientific language accompanied by "translations" with the objective of showing the need of a different language approach to communicate with the players affected by coastal hazards. To create the "translation" of the "scientific" text we used the Up-Goer Five Text Editor, which allows writing texts using only the ten hundred most used English words. We allowed ourselves to use a maximum of five other words per box not present at this dictionary, not considering geographical names or units in the count, provided there were simple. That was necessary because words as sea, beach, sand, storm, etc., are not among the one thousand present at the Up-Goer, and they are simple enough anyhow. On the other hand, the not scientific public we targeted speaks Portuguese, not English, and we do not have an Up-Goer tool for that language. Anyhow, each Box was also produced in Portuguese, as much simple as possible, to disseminate our results to the local community. To illustrate the need of "translation", it is worthy to mention a real case of a troublesome misunderstanding caused by us, scientists, in our coastal society. Some years ago, one of our colleagues at the university, a much-respected scientist, informed through a press release that, on a given day, "we will experience the highest astronomical tide of the century". That statement (scientifically true and

  20. Currents in the Dead Sea: Lagrangian and Eulerian observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Tal; Gertman, Isaac; Katsenelson, Boris; Bodzin, Raanan; Lensly, Nadav

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal hypersaline lake located in the lowest surface on Earth (currently -429 m bsl). The physical properties of the brine are significantly different than in common marine systems: the DS brine density is ~1.24 gr/cc and its viscosity ~3 times higher than marine systems. We present observational data on wind and currents in the Dead Sea. The observation setup includes a few fixed (Eulerian) stations which are equipped with wind meter and current meter profiler that covers the entire water column (ADCP). Thermal stratification is continuously measured in some of the stations using a thermistor chain. Lagrangian drifters that record the shallow water currents were released in liner array of single drifters between the fixed stations, and also in triplets (15 m triangle). The results include the measured time series data of wind (atmospheric forcing) and the measured current profiles from the fixed stations. Data of the Lagrangian drifters is presented as trajectories along with vector time series. Quality control check included comparison of drifter data and ADCP data whenever the drifters passed by the fixed stations; a very good agreement was found between the different measuring approaches. We discuss the following issues : (i) the relation between the wind and current data, (ii) the Lagrangian trajectories and transport aspects.

  1. Modeling of random wave transformation with strong wave-induced coastal currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jinhai; H. Mase; Li Tongfei

    2008-01-01

    The propagation and transformation of multi-directional and uni-directional random waves over a coast with complicated bathymetric and geometric features are studied experimentally and numerically. Laboratory investigation indicates that wave energy convergence and divergence cause strong coastal currents to develop and inversely modify the wave fields. A coastal spectral wave model, based on the wave action balance equation with diffraction effect (WABED), is used to simulate the transformation of random waves over the complicated bathymetry. The diffraction effect in the wave model is derived from a parabolic approximation of wave theory, and the mean energy dissipation rate per unit horizontal area due to wave breaking is parameterized by the bore-based formulation with a breaker index of 0.73. The numerically simulated wave field without considering coastal currents is different from that of experiments, whereas model results considering currents clearly reproduce the intensification of wave height in front of concave shorelines.

  2. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Ulloa, a highly productive area off the western coast of Baja California Peninsula, is examined for five successive years (2003–2007 by using satellite data and seasonal net primary productivity estimates obtained by a vertical generalized production model. The results clearly identify a seasonal signal of coastal upwelling in productivity estimates. Highest values occur from May to June and sometimes July. We also find influence of an equatorward coastal current able of transporting water from neighboring north upwelling areas to the Gulf of Ulloa in winter–spring. This flow contributes to increase the seasonal net primary productivity. The opposite occurs in summer, when a warm poleward current of tropical characteristics arrives to the region. Our findings reveal that such warm coastal current suppressed the productivity in the whole.

  3. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  4. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionable European beach resort right next to a medieval fishing village with a Kurhaus Spa and Casino accessible to the general public. At the end of the 20th century the bathing resort lost its image and most of the fishing industry moved away leaving the coastal zone in a crisis. The municipality decided to give the coastline an economic impulse. Not only that, their ambitions were grandiose. In 2005 they got the idea to make Scheveningen the Second International Center of The Hague with impressive architecture and town planning. The beach, the old fishing village, and the fishery at the harbor were connected into a close urban ensemble by the North Sea by a splendid boulevard. However, the financial crisis in 2008 put an end to extravagant developmental plans, to the great relief of coastal residents. They especially feared the expansion of tourism into the residential areas even though tourism had brought and would continue to bring prosperity to the area. The old fishing village was kept intact while the harbor transformed quite differently than sketched and the seaside decayed, losing to its rival the First International Center: the old town of The Hague. How could this have happened to the Pearl on the Sea? Was it the crisis or the stubbornness of residents and entrepreneurs? Or was it the unworldliness of administrators?  

  5. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  6. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  7. Understanding salt dynamics for a restored coastal wetland at the Baltic Sea in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Benny; Gräff, Thomas; Salzmann, Thomas; Oswald, Sascha; Walther, Marc; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal fens like the nature reserve „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee"(north-eastern Germany) are important landscape elements along the southern Baltic coast, which exchange fresh water and brackish water with the Baltic Sea. These exchange processes can be understood as experiments with a natural tracer, which may be used to investigate the hydrologic behaviour of these fen systems. With the establishment of coastal protection measures such as dunes and dikes, the installation of surface drainage and, more recently, also nature conservation measures, the hydrologic regime of these coastal wetlands constantly altered over the last centuries. The rehabilitated wetland „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" is suitable for an analysis of hydrologic change as it was monitored over the time period since nature conservation measures started in the 1990s. Collected data sets include observation of groundwater levels and electrical conductivities, weather data as well as discharge at the outlet of the drainage catchment. In this study, we identifed processes and quantify process magnitudes that govern the salt balance of the study area including its variability in space and time. We found that - over the period of rehabilitation - salt water entered the catchment with episodic storm surges by wave overtopping of dunes. The intruded brackish water was then diluted, which is a slow process occurring over decades. It is governed by local groundwater recharge from precipitation and the inflow of relatively fresh groundwater from the hinterland. It is concluded that salt inputs from the Baltic Sea provide a natural tracer of hydrological processes, which can be readily monitored via electrical conductivity measurements.

  8. Hydrological character and sea-current structure in the front of Amery Ice Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongxia; Pan Zengdi; Jiao Yutian; Xiang Baoqiang

    2005-01-01

    Hydrological character and Sea-current profiles structure are studied and analyzed in sea-area of the front of Amery Ice Shelf, Prydz Bay with LADCP, CTD dana. These LADCP, CTD data were acquired during the 19th Chinese Antarctic Scientific Expedition. Results of this study agree with that, there exist four different kinds of water masses in the area of the front of Amery Ice Shelf in the summer of Antarctica. Current distribution presents a semi-circumfluence which flows in at the east and flows out in the west. Moreover, clockwise andd anti -clockwise vortices were found in upper layer and mid-layer in the Prydz Bay. Western areas of these anticlockwise vortices are positions of inflows from Prydz Bay to Amery Ice Shelf. The source of these inflows is the coastal westward current originated in the east of Prydz Bay. All these characteristics come down to the pattern of circumfluence, ice melt rate under Ice Shelf, scale of Ice Shelf water production and form of water exchanges between area of Ice Shelf and area of Prydz Bay.

  9. Deep oceanic currents and sea floor interactions offshore SE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisson, François; Cazzola, Carlo; Ferry, Jean-Noel

    2016-04-01

    The Pamela Research program, which involves Total and Ifremer and their associated partners (French Universities, CNRS, IFPEN), is currently working to acquire new multidisciplinary data in the Mozambique Channel, in order to improve our knowledge and use this area as "laboratory" for comprehension of sedimentary/stratigraphical/geodynamical/structural and biological processes. The area comprised between the austral ocean and the southern tip of the African continent is a major place for Atlantic and Indian waters exchange, with high impact on the global climate (de Rujiter et al., 1999, Beal et al., 2011). Its prolongation toward the Mozambique Channel is a great playground to study effects of bottom currents on the sea floor. In this synthesis, we compile information about the major oceanic currents that occur at different water depth in the area, and we started listing the main published or ongoing studies, some of them in the scope of the Pamela project, related to sea floor interactions with bottom currents. These interactions are characterized by erosional features: submarine erosions, truncations, stratigraphic hiatuses, associated to depositional features: various types of contouritic drifts, sediment waves, asymmetric turbiditic levees etc. (Simpson et al., 1974, Uenzelmann-Neben et al., 2007, Uenzelmann-Neben & Huhn, 2009, Palermo et al., 2014). Movements of the main water masses in the Mozambique basin are strongly driven by thermohaline circulation but also sea floor topography and coast configuration: the Mozambique Current is not a persistent current but composed by southward moving anticyclonic eddies (De Rujiter et al., 2002, Ridderinkhof & de Rujiter, 2003, Swart et al., 2010, Halo et al., 2014). Deep currents flow northward along the western edge of the Mozambique basin: the North Atlantic Deep Waters (NADW) and the Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) flow along the Mozambican continental slope and form the Mozambique Undercurrent. A portion of

  10. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  11. Effects of Tamarisk shrub on physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland of the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiuping; WANG Baodong; XIE Linping; XIN Ming; WANG Wei; WANG Zicheng; ZHANG Wenquan; WEI Qinsheng

    2016-01-01

    There are many different and even controversial results concerning the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil. A year-round monitoring of soil salinity, pH and moisture is conducted beneath the Tamarisk shrub in a coastal wetland in the Bohai Sea in China, to ascertain the effects of Tamarisk on the physicochemical properties of soil in coastal wetland. Compared with the control area, the soil moisture content is lower around the area of the taproot when there is less precipitation in the growing season because of water consumption by Tamarisk shrub. However, the soil moisture content is higher around the taproot when there is more precipitation in the growing season or in the non-growing period because of water conservation by the rhizosphere. The absorption of salt by the Tamarisk shrub reduces the soil salinity temporarily, but eventually salt returns to the soil by the leaching of salt on leaves by rainfall or by fallen leaves. The annual average soil moisture content beneath the Tamarisk shrub is lower than the control area by only 6.4%, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub has little effect on drought or water conservation in soils in the temperate coastal wetland with moderate annual precipitation. The annual average salinity beneath the Tamarisk shrub is 18% greater than that of the control area, indicating that Tamarisk does have an effect of rising soil salinity around Tamarisk shrubs. The soil pH value is as low as 7.3 in summer and as high as 10.2 in winter. The pH of soil near the taproot of the Tamarisk shrubs is one pH unit lower than that in the control area during the growing season. The difference in pH is less different from the control area in the non-growing season, indicating that the Tamarisk shrub does have the effect of reducing the alkalinity of soil in coastal wetland.

  12. Exploitation survey of sea water in agriculture of coastal deserts in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nasar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of exploitation sea water in the agriculture of coastal deserts in Libya, some of which salt-tolerant plants (Halophyte, especially that used to feed animals, and convert marshes coastal useless life to nature reserves attract many kinds of migratory birds and marine lives after the cultivation of these marshes by type of plants, which grow in saltwater. In other words this paper will present a study of how to use the seawater as a renewable resource for agriculture in Libya and how this will contribute in sustainable development in this sprawling country. The advantage of this resource can be taken to fill up the gap of natural grassland and the growing demand for animal feed which has caused rising prices of livestock and meats, not to mention the tribal conflicts that occur because of the dispute over grasslands. The most significant reasons that force us to exploit the seawater are: (1 Lack of inventory of underground water in the coastal areas and overlapping with seawater in several areas. In contrast, Libya has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean with a length of more than 1,900 kilometers; (2 Fluctuation rate of the amount of rainfall, which has affected negatively on the natural grassland; (3 More than 90% of the country's population in the coastal areas, that causing a large drain of groundwater which already meager in this region, for this reason the government has worked to establish Artificial River project, which delivers water from the south to the northern areas to reduce this problem, and (4 Depletion and degradation of natural grassland is largely due to overgrazing.

  13. Numerical simulation of sediment transport in coastal waves and wave-induced currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; LYU Yigang; SHEN Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of coastal sediment transport is of particularly importance for analyzing coast erosion accurately and solving the corresponding coast protection engineering problems. The present study provided a numerical scheme for sediment transport in coastal waves and wave-induced currents. In the scheme, the sand transport model was implemented with wave refraction-diffraction model and near-shore current model. Coastal water wave was simulated by using the parabolic mild-slope equation in which wave refraction, diffraction and breaking effects are considered. Wave-induced current was simulated by using the nonlinear shallow water equations in which wave provides radiation stresses for driving current. Then, sediment transport in waves and wave-induced currents was simulated by using the two-dimensional suspended sediment transport equations for suspended sediment and the bed-load transport equation for bed load. The numerical scheme was validated by experiment results from the Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility at the US Army Corps of Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg. The numerical results showed that the present scheme is an effective tool for modeling coastal sediment transport in waves and near-shore currents.

  14. Development 3D model of adaptation of the Azerbaijan coastal zone at the various levels of Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Ramiz

    2013-04-01

    The most characteristic feature of the Caspian Sea which difference it on relation other seas is its periodical fluctuating in its level. In many coastal regions of the world the problem of influence of change of a sea level on activities of the human is a problem of the long-term future, but in region of Caspian Sea, especially in its Azerbaijan sector, it is already actual. Also experience accumulated here, can be use at the decision of problems of optimization of wildlife management in conditions of significant change of a sea level as model of potential consequences of warming of a climate. Changeableness of the level of the Caspian sea over many years can be observed better on the basis of natural observations, a systematic basis of which has been put by the academician E. Lents in 1830 year in Baku coastal line. According these data in 1882 the average level has reached its level -25.2 m. the highest point over the observations, i.e. by 1.8 m. higher than today's level. The average level over 1830-1930 was about -25.83 m. In 1960 some stabilization in the level, about 28,4 meters, in 1970 was a sharp drop, in 1977 - sharp drop reached -29.00 rn. The drop over the whole period of observations totaled 3.8 m within diapason -25.2 -29.0 m. In 1978 the level of the sea began to increase and in 1995 its average yearly mark reach -26,62 rn. Intensiveness of the rise of the level ever that period totaled in average about 14 cm per year. As a result of this rise of a sea level about 800 km2 of a coastal zone it has been flooded, the ecological situation has worsened, and there were ecological refugees. The damage to a coastal zone of Azerbaijan was 2 billion USA dollars. Caspian sea also has within-year (seasonal) variability equal 32 sm and sleeve and pileup change of level. Its estimate in Azerbaijan coastal zone is 0.8-1.0 m. In the coastal zone also necessary take into height of the wave which in these coasts can be 3.0 m height. All these means that in the

  15. Uncertainty In Greenhouse Gas Emissions On Carbon Sequestration In Coastal and Freshwater Wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta: A Subsiding Coastline as a Proxy for Future Global Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. R.; DeLaune, R. D.; Roy, E. D.; Corstanje, R.

    2014-12-01

    The highly visible phenomenon of wetland loss in coastal Louisiana (LA) is examined through the prism of carbon accumulation, wetland loss and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Mississippi River Deltaic region experiences higher relative sea level rise due to coupled subsidence and eustatic sea level rise allowing this region to serve as a proxy for future projected golbal sea level rise. Carbon storage or sequestration in rapidly subsiding LA coastal marsh soils is based on vertical marsh accretion and areal change data. While coastal marshes sequester significant amount of carbon through vertical accretion, large amounts of carbon, previously sequested in the soil profile is lost through annual deterioration of these coastal marshes as well as through GHG emissions. Efforts are underway in Louisiana to access the carbon credit market in order to provide significant funding for coastal restoration projects. However, there is very large uncertainty on GHG emission rates related to both marsh type and temporal (daily and seasonal) effects. Very little data currently exists which addresses this uncertainty which can significantly affect the carbon credit value of a particular wetland system. We provide an analysis of GHG emission rates for coastal freshwater, brackish and and salt marshes compared to the net soil carbon sequestration rate. Results demonstrate that there is very high uncertainty on GHG emissions which can substantially alter the carbon credit value of a particular wetland system.

  16. [Resistance of microorganisms of coastal ecosystems of the Dead Sea to extremal factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Avdeeva, L V; Gladka, G V; Pritula, I R; Kharkhota, M A; Tashirev, A B

    2013-01-01

    Such extreme factors as UV radiation, high temperature and salinity, and also the small amount of accessible water have an influence on microorganisms of coastal ecosystems of the Dead Sea. Resistance to these factors of the microorganisms isolated from ecosystems of this region (vertical steep gorge around the Dead Sea, clay-salt plain and black highly mineralized muds) is studied. Aerobic, chemoorganotrophic, thermotolerant, moderately halophilic bacteria which, according to their morphological and physiological properties, are similar to species Gracilibacillus halotolerans, Salimicrobium album and genus Caryophanon have been isolated from these ecosystems. All strains grew at 0-10% of NaCl in the medium (one strain--at 15% of NaCl), in the range of 30-50 degrees C. Resistance to UV radiation has been revealed in all the investigated bacteria Lethal doses of UV (LD90 and LD99.99) for spore-forming strains of genus Gracilibacillus were 100-170 and 1100-1500 J/m2, respectively; for strain Salimicrobium 6t1 (does not form spores)--70 and 400 J/m2; for the strain lt4 (genus Caryophanon), forming filamentous (or trychomes)--150 and 1400 J/m2. Some strains of genus Gracilibacillus had strong antagonistic effect on conditionally pathogenic test cultures Staphylococcus aureus 209p and Candida albicans UCM Y-690. It is conceivable that resistance of microorganisms of coastal ecosystems of the Dead Sea to extreme factors was generated under the influence of abiotic (physical and chemical) factors typical of this region.

  17. Eddies on the boundary between the Kuroshio current and coastal waters observed by HF ocean surface radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadai, A.

    2016-02-01

    The HF ocean surface radar (HFOSR) is one of the powerful tools to measure the ocean current parameters like surface currents. Three observations of the Kuroshio current in the Tokara straight using HFOSR had done by the National Institute of Information and Comunications Technology (NICT: the former name is the Communications Research Laboratory). The first-order echoes on Doppler spectra of HFOSR shows broaden and splitting shape in the region of the border between the Kuroshio currents and coastal waters. The surface velocity maps show the existence of eddy on the border. The investigation of the mechanism of broadening first order-echoes by Nadai (2006) revealed that the modulation of wave fields from surface currents like eddy is the cause of broadening and the measured current fields also influenced the modulated wave fields. Moreover, Nadai (2006) also suggested that the influence is able to reduce using the average of two radial velocities extracted by the first-order echoes. In this paper, the results of current field observation around the border between the Kuroshio current and coastal waters are presented. Many small scale eddies are observed at the border of the Kuroshio current and coastal waters. The typical radius of the eddies is about 10km. Usury the observation of such a small scale eddy is difficult, but the eddies with same scale are observed by airborne synthetic aperture radar in the same area at different time. The eddies shows strong rotation as the typical tangential speed is about 1m/s. While the typical speed of the Kuroshio current is about 1.5m/s, the typical speed of the eddy movements is about 0.7m/s. No eddies generated in the radar coverage, but one or two eddies entered in the radar coverage a day. Therefore the origin of these eddies will exist in the upstream area of the radar coverage. Using the compensation method for the influence of the modulated wave field suggested by Nadai (2006), the eddies shows weak divergence. It is

  18. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  19. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  20. Current components, water pressure, physical, and other data from moored current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from CHARTER/FISHING BOATS and other platforms from the Bering Sea - Coastal Waters of Western Alaska and other locations from 14 May 1989 to 06 October 1989 (NCEI Accession 9000278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current components, water pressure, physical, and other data were collected from moored current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from CHARTER/FISHING BOATS and...

  1. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  2. The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic

  3. Supporting Coastal Management Decisions in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: Case Study for the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, A. C.; Glick, P.; Clough, J. S.; Nunley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sea-level rise needs to be a major consideration in regional coastal management and ecological restoration plans. The National Wildlife Federation has initiated a multi-pronged strategy for assisting decision makers at government agencies that manage near-shore ecosystems in several vulnerable coastal regions. Results from our work in the Chesapeake Bay region will be presented. This strategy involves: (1) Detailed modeling of how coastal habitats will migrate in response to a range of sea-level rise scenarios. For this work, we used the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates the dominant processes involved in wetland conversions and shoreline modifications during long-term sea-level rise and takes into consideration localized changes in land elevation due to geological and ecological factors. These model results provide specific information about the locations that are likely to experience shifts in coastal marshes, swamps, beaches, and other habitats due to sea-level rise at a scale that is relevant to regional decision making. (2) Extensive literature review and analysis of habitat, fish, and wildlife impacts potentially resulting from expected sea-level rise and other local climate changes. Synthesizing the available research is an important service for natural resource agencies that are only beginning to consider climate impacts on ecosystems and natural resources. (3) Analysis of government programs and policies relevant to coastal management and identification of opportunities to revise these policies in light of projected climate changes. An important aspect of this analysis is meeting with key decision makers at relevant state fish and wildlife agencies to better understand the factors that affect their abilities to effect policy changes. (4) Proactive campaign to share our results with diverse audiences. We have developed different research products, ranging from a technical report of the modeling results to short report briefs, to

  4. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  5. Interactions between wind and tidally induced currents in coastal and shelf basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Benjamin; Stanev, Emil Vassilev

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses the impact of atmospheric variability on ocean circulation in tidal and non-tidal basins. The data are generated by an unstructured-grid numerical model resolving the dynamics in the coastal area, as well as in the straits connecting the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model response to atmospheric forcing in different frequency intervals is quantified. The results demonstrate that the effects of the two mechanical drivers, tides and wind, are not additive, yet non-linear interactions play an important role. There is a tendency for tidally and wind-driven circulations to be coupled, in particular in the coastal areas and straits. High-frequency atmospheric variability tends to amplify the mean circulation and modify the exchange between the North and the Baltic Sea. The ocean response to different frequency ranges in the wind forcing is area-selective depending on specific local dynamics. The work done by wind on the oceanic circulation depends strongly upon whether the regional circulation is tidally or predominantly wind-driven. It has been demonstrated that the atmospheric variability affects the spring-neap variability very strongly.

  6. Upper layer current variability in the Central Ligurian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Picco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-time series of surface currents and meteorological parameters were analysed to estimate the variability of the upper layer circulation as a preliminary study of the Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE07. Current meter data were collected by an upward-looking RDI Sentinel 300 kHz ADCP deployed in the Central Ligurian Sea (43°47.77' N; 9°02.85' E near the meteo-oceanographic buoy ODAS ITALIA1 for over eight months. The ADCP sampled the upper 50 m of water column at 8 m vertical resolution and 1 h time interval; surface marine and atmospheric hourly data were provided by the buoy. Currents were mainly barotropic and directed NW, according to the general circulation of the area, had a mean velocity of about 18 cm s−1 and hourly mean peaks up to 80 m s−1. Most of the observed variability in the upper thermocline was determined by inertial currents and mesoscale activity due to the presence of the Ligurian Front. Local wind had a minor role in the near-surface circulation but induced internal waves propagating downward in the water column.

  7. Inter-model analysis of tsunami-induced coastal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick J.; Gately, Kara; Wilson, Rick; Montoya, Luis; Arcas, Diego; Aytore, Betul; Bai, Yefei; Bricker, Jeremy D.; Castro, Manuel J.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; David, C. Gabriel; Dogan, Gozde Guney; Escalante, Cipriano; González-Vida, José Manuel; Grilli, Stephan T.; Heitmann, Troy W.; Horrillo, Juan; Kânoğlu, Utku; Kian, Rozita; Kirby, James T.; Li, Wenwen; Macías, Jorge; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Ortega, Sergio; Pampell-Manis, Alyssa; Park, Yong Sung; Roeber, Volker; Sharghivand, Naeimeh; Shelby, Michael; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Tolkova, Elena; Thio, Hong Kie; Velioğlu, Deniz; Yalçıner, Ahmet Cevdet; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zhang, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    To help produce accurate and consistent maritime hazard products, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program organized a benchmarking workshop to evaluate the numerical modeling of tsunami currents. Thirteen teams of international researchers, using a set of tsunami models currently utilized for hazard mitigation studies, presented results for a series of benchmarking problems; these results are summarized in this paper. Comparisons focus on physical situations where the currents are shear and separation driven, and are thus de-coupled from the incident tsunami waveform. In general, we find that models of increasing physical complexity provide better accuracy, and that low-order three-dimensional models are superior to high-order two-dimensional models. Inside separation zones and in areas strongly affected by eddies, the magnitude of both model-data errors and inter-model differences can be the same as the magnitude of the mean flow. Thus, we make arguments for the need of an ensemble modeling approach for areas affected by large-scale turbulent eddies, where deterministic simulation may be misleading. As a result of the analyses presented herein, we expect that tsunami modelers now have a better awareness of their ability to accurately capture the physics of tsunami currents, and therefore a better understanding of how to use these simulation tools for hazard assessment and mitigation efforts.

  8. The coastal current off western India during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.; Almeida, A; Santanam, K.

    was restricted mainly to the vicinity of the continental slope; the current was a narrow (100 km), 400m deep jet with a transport of about 7 x 106 m3 s-1. Along most of the coastline, a southward moving undercurrent was inferred from the distribution of salinity...

  9. Global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability respect to Sea Water Intrusion. Application to several Mediterranean Coastal Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Leticia; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Morell, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    In this research we propose a method for a global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability to Sea Water Intrusion (SWI). It is based on two indices, the MART index, which summarize the global significance of the SWI phenomenon, and the L_GALDIT for a lumped assessment of the vulnerability to SWI. Both of them can be useful as a tool to assess coastal groundwater bodies in risk of not achieving good status in accordance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000) and to identify possible management alternative to reduce existing impacts. They can be obtained even from a reduced number of data (in the MART case only depend on the geometry and available aquifer state data) with simple calculations, which have been implemented in a general GIS tool that can be easily applied to other case studies. The MART index in an aquifer is related with the total mass of chloride in the aquifer due to sea water intrusion and can be obtained by simple linear operations of volume and concentrations that can be deduced from a schematic conceptual cross-section approach (orthogonal to the shore line) defined to summarize the intrusion volume in the aquifer. At a certain historical time, this representative aquifer cross-section can be defined in a systhematic way from the aquifer geometry, the specific yield, and the hydraulic head and chloride concentration fields that can be deduced from the available information by using appropriate interpolation methods. Following the proposed procedure we will finally obtain a summary of the historical significance of the SWI in an aquifer at different spatial resolution: 3D salinity concentration maps, 2D representative conceptual cross-section of intrusion and the MART lumped significance index. The historical evolution of the MART can be employed to perform a global assessment of the resilience and trends of global significance of the SWI in an aquifer. It can be useful to compare the significance of intrusion problems in

  10. Alkenones, alkenoates, and organic matter in coastal environments of NW Scotland: Assessment of potential application for sea level reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendle, James A. P.; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Cox, Nicholas J.; Shennan, Ian

    2009-12-01

    Reconstruction of late Quaternary sea level history in areas of glacioisostatic uplift often relies on sediment archives from coastal isolation basins, natural coastal rock depressions previously isolated from or connected to the sea at different times. Proxy indicators for marine, brackish, or lacustrine conditions combined with precise dating can constrain the time when the sea crossed the sill threshold and isolated (or connected) the basin. The utility of isolation basins in investigations of sea level change is well known, but investigations have been mostly limited to microfossil proxies, the application of which can be limited by preservation and nonanalog problems. Here we investigate the potential of long-chain alkenones, alkenoates, and bulk organic parameters (TOC, Corg/N) for reconstructing past sea level changes in isolation basins in NW Scotland. We analyze organic biomarkers and bulk parameters from both modern basins (at different stages of isolation from the sea) and fossil basins (with sea level histories reconstructed from established proxies). Logit regression analysis was employed to find which of the biomarker metrics or bulk organic measurements could reliably characterize the sediment samples in terms of a marine/brackish or isolated/lacustrine origin. The results suggested a good efficiency for the alkenone index %C37:4 at predicting the depositional origin of the sediments. This study suggests that alkenones could be used as a novel proxy for sea level change in fossil isolation basins especially when microfossil preservation is poor.

  11. New estimates of potential impacts of sea level rise and coastal floods in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Paprotny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polish coastal zone is thought to be of the most exposed to sea level rise in Europe. With climate change expected to raise mean sea levels between 26 and 200 cm by the end of the century, and storms increasing in severity, accurate estimates of those phenomena are needed. Recent advances in quality and availability of spatial data in Poland made in possible to revisit previous estimates. Up-to-date detailed information on land use, population and buildings were used to calculate inundation risk at a broad range of scenarios. Inclusion, though imperfect, of flood defences from a high-resolution digital elevation model contributes to a further improvement of estimates. The results revealed that even by using a static "bathtub fill" approach the amount of land, population or assets at risk has been significantly revised down. Sea level rise or storm surges are unlikely to reach intensity required to cause significant damage to the economy or endanger the population. The exposure of different kinds of assets and sectors of the economy varies to a large extent, though the structural breakdown of potential losses is remarkably stable between scenarios.

  12. New estimates of potential impacts of sea level rise and coastal floods in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, D.; Terefenko, P.

    2015-04-01

    Polish coastal zone is thought to be of the most exposed to sea level rise in Europe. With climate change expected to raise mean sea levels between 26 and 200 cm by the end of the century, and storms increasing in severity, accurate estimates of those phenomena are needed. Recent advances in quality and availability of spatial data in Poland made in possible to revisit previous estimates. Up-to-date detailed information on land use, population and buildings were used to calculate inundation risk at a broad range of scenarios. Inclusion, though imperfect, of flood defences from a high-resolution digital elevation model contributes to a further improvement of estimates. The results revealed that even by using a static "bathtub fill" approach the amount of land, population or assets at risk has been significantly revised down. Sea level rise or storm surges are unlikely to reach intensity required to cause significant damage to the economy or endanger the population. The exposure of different kinds of assets and sectors of the economy varies to a large extent, though the structural breakdown of potential losses is remarkably stable between scenarios.

  13. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  14. Air–sea exchanges of CO2 in the world's coastal seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-T. A. Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The air–sea exchanges of CO2 in the world's 165 estuaries and 87 continental shelves are evaluated. Generally and in all seasons, upper estuaries with salinities of less than two are strong sources of CO2 (39 ± 56 mol C m−2 yr−1, positive flux indicates that the water is losing CO2 to the atmosphere; mid-estuaries with salinities of between 2 and 25 are moderate sources (17.5 ± 34 mol C m−2 yr−1 and lower estuaries with salinities of more than 25 are weak sources (8.4 ± 14 mol C m−2 yr−1. With respect to latitude, estuaries between 23.5 and 50° N have the largest flux per unit area (63 ± 101 mmol C m−2 d−1; these are followed by lower-latitude estuaries (23.5–0° S: 44 ± 29 mmol C m−2 d−1; 0–23.5° N: 39 ± 55 mmol C m−2 d−1, and then regions north of 50° N (36 ± 91 mmol C m−2 d−1. Estuaries south of 50° S have the smallest flux per unit area (9.5 ± 12 mmol C m−2 d−1. Mixing with low-pCO2 shelf waters, water temperature, residence time and the complexity of the biogeochemistry are major factors that govern the pCO2 in estuaries, but wind speed, seldom discussed, is critical to controlling the air–water exchanges of CO2. The total annual release of CO2 from the world's estuaries is now estimated to be 0.10 Pg C yr−1, which is much lower than published values mainly because of the contribution of a considerable amount of heretofore unpublished or new data from Asia and the Arctic. The Asian data, although indicating high pCO2, are low in sea-to-air fluxes because of low wind speeds. Previously determined flux values rely heavily on data from Europe and North America, where pCO2 is lower but wind speeds are much higher, such that the CO2 fluxes are higher than in Asia. Newly emerged CO2 flux data in the Arctic reveal that estuaries there mostly absorb rather than release CO2. Most continental shelves, and especially those at high latitude, are undersaturated in terms of CO2 and absorb CO2 from the

  15. Nitrification and growth of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria and Thaumarchaeota in the coastal North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuger, Bart; Pitcher, Angela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2013-04-01

    A dual stable isotope (15N and 13C) tracer approach in combination with compound-specific stable isotope analysis of bacterial and Thaumarchaeotal lipid biomarkers was used to investigate nitrification and the associated growth of autotrophic nitrifiers in the Dutch coastal North Sea. This study focusses on the stoichiometry between nitrification and DIC fixation by autotrophic nitrifiers as well as on the contributions of bacteria versus Thaumarchaeota to total autotrophic DIC-fixation by nitrifiers. Water from the dutch coastal North Sea was collected at weekly to biweekly intervals during the winter of 2007-2008. Watersamples were incubated with 15N-labeled ammonium and 15N was traced into nitrate and suspended material to quantify rates of nitrification and ammonium assimilation respectively. Growth of autotrophic nitrifiers was measured by incubating water samples with 13C-DIC in the presence and absence of nitrification inhibitors (nitrapyrin and chlorate) and subsequent analysis of 13C in bacterial phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) and the Thaumarchaeotal biomarker crenarchaeol. Results revealed high nitrification rates with nitrification being the primary sink for ammonium. 13C-DIC fixation into bacterial and Thaumarchaeotal lipids was strongly reduced by the nitrification inhibitors (27-95%). The ratio between rates of nitrification versus DIC fixation by nitrifiers was higher or even much higher than typical values for autotrophic nitrifiers, indicating that little DIC was fixed relative to the amount of energy that was generated by nitrification, and hence that other other processes for C acquisition may have been relevant as well. The inhibitor-sensitive 13C-PLFA pool was dominated by the common PLFAs 16:0, 16:1ω7c and 18:1ω7c throughout the whole sampling period and occasionally also included the polyunsaturated fatty acids 18:2ω6c and 18:3ω3. Cell-specific 13C-DIC fixation activity of the nitrifying bacteria was much higher than that of the

  16. A Short-review: Semi-enclosed Coastal Seas in the Southeast Asia : From the Viewpoint of Water Mass Residence Time

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of remnant function and residence time are reviewd. Then, the characteristics of semi-enclosed coastal seas in the Southeast Asia such as Hurun Bay in Indonesia, the Banpakong estuary in Thailand, and the Sulu Sea in the Philippines are discussed based on the concept of water mass residence time. The concept of residence time is very useful to investigate the environmental problems such as eutrophication in the semi-enclosed coastal sea.

  17. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

  18. Coastal Flood Risks in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Combined Impacts of Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangyiwa, C.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.; Aobpaet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the fast-changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions at coastal regions, many coastal mega-cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to internal and external risks. The risk is particularly high for low-lying coastal cities in developing nations, with Southeast Asia recognized as a hotspot of vulnerability due to the increasing population density, rapid change of natural landscape associated with urbanization and intensified hydrological and atmospheric conditions at the coastal front in an uncertain climate future. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region is one of the largest coastal megacities in Southeast Asia that are challenged by the potential impacts due to climate change and anthropological variability in the coming decades. Climate-related risks in this region are associated with its relatively low-lying nature of the terrain and adjacency to the coast. Coastal inundation due to high tides from the sea occurs annually in the area close to the seashore. This is set to increase given a projected rising sea level and the sinking landscape due to groundwater extraction and urbanization. The aim of this research is, therefore, to evaluate the vulnerability of the city to sea level rise, land subsidence and storm surge. Distributed land subsidence rate, projected sea level rise and existing structural features such as flood defences are taken into account. The 2011 flood in Thailand is used as a baseline event. Scenarios were designed with projections of land subsidence and sea level rise to 2050s, 2080s, and 2100s. A two-dimensional flood inundation model (FloodMap, Yu and Lane 2006) is used to derive inundation depth and velocity associated with each scenario. The impacts of coastal flood risk on critical infrastructures (e.g. power supply, transportation network, rescue centers, hospitals, schools and key government buildings) are evaluated (e.g. Figure 1). Results suggest progressively increase but non-linear risks of coastal flooding to key coastal

  19. Recruitment failure of coastal predatory fish in the Baltic Sea coincident with an offshore ecosystem regime shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljunggren, Lars; Sandstrom, Alfred; Bergstrom, Ulf; Mattila, Johanna; Lappalainen, Antti; Johansson, Gustav; Sundblad, Goran; Casini, Michele; Kaljuste, Olavi; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2010-01-01

    Ljunggren, L., Sandstrom, A., Bergstrom, U., Mattila, J., Lappalainen, A., Johansson, G., Sundblad, G., Casini, M., Kaljuste, O., and Eriksson, B. K. 2010. Recruitment failure of coastal predatory fish in the Baltic Sea coincident with an offshore ecosystem regime shift. - ICES Journal of Marine Sci

  20. Low temporal variation in the intact polar lipid composition of North Sea coastal marine water reveals limited chemotaxonomic value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Veldhuis, M.J.W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abu

  1. Corrosion of metals and alloys in the coastal and deep waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Corrosion rate of mild steel (MS), stainless steel (SS), copper, brass and cupro-nickel has been determinEd. by exposing metallic coupons in coastal and oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Amongst the metals and alloys under study...

  2. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  3. Upper Cretaceous sequences and sea-level history, New Jersey Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.A.; Olsson, R.K.; Feigenson, M.D.; Hernandez, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a Late Cretaceous sealevel estimate from Upper Cretaceous sequences at Bass River and Ancora, New Jersey (ODP [Ocean Drilling Program] Leg 174AX). We dated 11-14 sequences by integrating Sr isotope and biostratigraphy (age resolution ??0.5 m.y.) and then estimated paleoenvironmental changes within the sequences from lithofacies and biofacies analyses. Sequences generally shallow upsection from middle-neritic to inner-neritic paleodepths, as shown by the transition from thin basal glauconite shelf sands (transgressive systems tracts [TST]), to medial-prodelta silty clays (highstand systems tracts [HST]), and finally to upper-delta-front quartz sands (HST). Sea-level estimates obtained by backstripping (accounting for paleodepth variations, sediment loading, compaction, and basin subsidence) indicate that large (>25 m) and rapid (???1 m.y.) sea-level variations occurred during the Late Cretaceous greenhouse world. The fact that the timing of Upper Cretaceous sequence boundaries in New Jersey is similar to the sea-level lowering records of Exxon Production Research Company (EPR), northwest European sections, and Russian platform outcrops points to a global cause. Because backstripping, seismicity, seismic stratigraphic data, and sediment-distribution patterns all indicate minimal tectonic effects on the New Jersey Coastal Plain, we interpret that we have isolated a eustatic signature. The only known mechanism that can explain such global changes-glacio-eustasy-is consistent with foraminiferal ??18O data. Either continental ice sheets paced sea-level changes during the Late Cretaceous, or our understanding of causal mechanisms for global sea-level change is fundamentally flawed. Comparison of our eustatic history with published ice-sheet models and Milankovitch predictions suggests that small (5-10 ?? 106 km3), ephemeral, and areally restricted Antarctic ice sheets paced the Late Cretaceous global sea-level change. New Jersey and Russian eustatic estimates

  4. Factors controlling sea salt abundances in the urban atmosphere of a coastal South American megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marina Dos; Dawidowski, Laura; Smichowski, Patricia; Ulke, Ana Graciela; Gómez, Darío

    2012-11-01

    The South Atlantic oceanic influence in the ambient air of Buenos Aires was studied on the basis of the measured concentrations of Cl-, Mg2+ and Na+, as chemical markers of marine aerosols. A total of 113 fine (PM2.5) and 113 coarse (PM2.5-10) samples were collected over a one-year period in an inland sampling site located ˜250 km from the open sea and ˜7.5 km from the shore of the La Plata River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The ratio rion-PM between the added concentrations of the three ions and the corresponding aerosol mass concentration was also used as a sea salt indicator. The behavior of these indicators under various meteorological conditions was used to identify and characterize the presence of sea salt in the urban aerosol. The influence of regional meteorological conditions was assessed by means of the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) while that of local conditions was assessed by categorized percentile distributions analysis. The pattern of the PSCF for different ranges of the four sea salt indicators, exhibiting a transition from lowest values under continental influence to highest values under oceanic influence, provided robust evidence that the marine aerosol from the South Atlantic Ocean reaches the city of Buenos Aires. The rion-PM ratio, which combines the opposite effects of wind speed on the aerosol mass and ion concentrations, was identified as the most sensitive indicator of sea salt aerosol variations. Percentile distributions of the rion-PM ratio, disaggregated according to onshore (NE, E, SE, S) and offshore (N, NW, W, SW) winds and speeds above and below the median (4.3 m s-1), clearly indicated that the highest levels of marine aerosol occurred under onshore winds and wind speeds > 4.3 m s-1. In addition to characterizing the oceanic influence in Buenos Aires, we reported the expected sea salt levels under different conditions and estimated the magnitude of chloride depletion. This is the first study on sea salt

  5. Increased freshwater discharge shifts the trophic balance in the coastal zone of the northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, Johan; Andersson, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Increased precipitation is one projected outcome of climate change that may enhance the discharge of freshwater to the coastal zone. The resulting lower salinity, and associated discharge of both nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, may influence food web functioning. The scope of this study was to determine the net outcome of increased freshwater discharge on the balance between auto- and heterotrophic processes in the coastal zone. By using long-term ecological time series data covering 13 years, we show that increased river discharge suppresses phytoplankton biomass production and shifts the carbon flow towards microbial heterotrophy. A 76% increase in freshwater discharge resulted in a 2.2 times higher ratio of bacterio- to phytoplankton production (Pb:Pp). The level of Pb:Pp is a function of riverine total organic carbon supply to the coastal zone. This is mainly due to the negative effect of freshwater and total organic carbon discharge on phytoplankton growth, despite a concomitant increase in discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus. With a time lag of 2 years the bacterial production recovered after an initial decline, further synergistically elevating the microbial heterotrophy. Current climate change projections suggesting increased precipitation may therefore lead to increased microbial heterotrophy, thereby decreasing the transfer efficiency of biomass to higher trophic levels. This prognosis would suggest reduced fish production and lower sedimentation rates of phytoplankton, a factor of detriment to benthic fauna. Our findings show that discharge of freshwater and total organic carbon significantly contributes to the balance of coastal processes at large spatial and temporal scales, and that model's would be greatly augmented by the inclusion of these environmental drivers as regulators of coastal productivity.

  6. Extreme storms, sea level rise, and coastal change: implications for infrastructure reliability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarde, K.; Kameshwar, S.; Irza, N.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Padgett, J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting coastal infrastructure reliability during hurricane events is important for risk-based design and disaster planning, such as delineating viable emergency response routes. Previous research has focused on either infrastructure vulnerability to coastal flooding or the impact of changing sea level and landforms on surge dynamics. Here we investigate the combined impact of sea level, morphology, and coastal flooding on the reliability of highway bridges - the only access points between barrier islands and mainland communities - during future extreme storms. We forward model coastal flooding for static projections of geomorphic change using ADCIRC+SWAN. First-order parameters that are adjusted include sea level and elevation. These are varied for each storm simulation to evaluate relative impact on the reliability of bridges surrounding Freeport, TX. Simulated storms include both synthetic and historical events, which are classified by intensity using the storm's integrated kinetic energy, a metric for surge generation potential. Reliability is estimated through probability of failure - given wave and surge loads - and time inundated. Findings include that: 1) bridge reliability scales inversely with surge height, and 2) sea level rise reduces bridge reliability due to a monotonic increase in surge height. The impact of a shifting landscape on bridge reliability is more complex: barrier island rollback can increase or decrease inundation times for storms of different intensity due to changes in wind-setup and back-barrier bay interactions. Initial storm surge readily inundates the coastal landscape during large intensity storms, however the draining of inland bays following storm passage is significantly impeded by the barrier. From a coastal engineering standpoint, we determine that to protect critical infrastructure, efforts now implemented that nourish low-lying barriers may be enhanced by also armoring back-bay coastlines and elevating bridge approach

  7. Integration of CASI data and sea-truth measurements in the coastal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, K.P. [Plymouth Marine Lab., Wellington (New Zealand); Robinson, M.C.; Youngs, K.J. [Univ. of Plymouth, Wellington (New Zealand)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Land-Ocean Interaction Study project aims to quantify the exchange, transformation and storage of materials at the land-ocean boundary. Airborne remote sensing is a central part of the project, providing products including chlorophyll and suspended particulate matter which can be input into models of the coastal zone, which in turn will improve our understanding of this environment. Other data acquired within LOIS include sea-truth data from research vessels and fixed moorings. These can be used as further inputs to models and as validation of image product algorithms. This paper highlight some of the ways in which the two types of data may be integrated and the problems that are involved. Unfortunately, the poor geometric correction that is achievable is presently a major stumbling block, although GPS data acquired on-board the aircraft will hopefully overcome this problem for 1995-6 images of the LOIS study area. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Coccolithophore diversity and dynamics at a coastal site in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Fornasaro, Daniela; Kralj, Martina; Cabrini, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Two years-data (May 2011-February 2013) obtained from a monthly sampling carried out at the coastal long term Ecological Research station C1-LTER in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) were analysed to describe the seasonal dynamics and diversity of coccolithophore assemblages and to assess their relationship with environmental forcing. Coccolithophores represented 10.7% of the total Utermöhl phytoplankton that were mainly dominated by small (Statistical analyses recognized four distinct groups, corresponding to seasonal variations of environmental conditions. Considering the two years, some species displayed a recurrent seasonal pattern highlighting possible species-specific ecological requirements, while others showed an interannual variability probably due to local factors.

  9. Integrated carbon budget models for the Everglades terrestrial-coastal-oceanic gradient: Current status and needs for inter-site comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Troxler; E. Gaiser; J. Barr; J. D. Fuentes; R. Jaffe; D. L. Childers; L. Collado-Vides; V. H. Rivera-Monroy; E. Castaneda-Moya; W. Anderson; R. Chambers; M. Chen; C. Coronado-Molina; S. E. Davis; V. Engel; C. Fitz; J. Fourqurean; T. Frankovich; J. Kominoski; C. Madden; S. L. Malone; S. F. Oberbauer; P. Olivas; J. Richards; C. Saunders; J. Schedlbauer; L. J. Scinto; F. Sklar; T. Smith; J. M. Smoak; G. Starr; R. R. Twilley; K. Whelan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that coastal ecosystems can bury significantly more C than tropical forests, indicating that continued coastal development and exposure to sea level rise and storms will have global biogeochemical consequences. The Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research (FCE LTER) site provides an excellent subtropical system for examining...

  10. Coastal response to simultaneous mid-Holocene climate and sea-level changes: Lessons from ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; FitzGerald, D. M.; Milne, G. A.; Bard, K. A.; Fattovich, R.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal evolution during the Holocene has been driven by complex interactions between changes in sea level, climate, and sedimentation processes. Along the Egyptian Red Sea coast, a post-glacial marine transgression drowned a series of wadi channels, flooding their lower reaches to create shallow lagoons. Archeological investigations at one such site, Mersa / Wadi Gawasis, have uncovered the existence of an ancient Egyptian harbor along a carbonate / conglomerate terrace located 600 m landward of the modern shoreline; this discovery documented the world's earliest (3.5 - 4.0 ka) archaeological evidence of long-distance seafaring. This site is interpreted to have been a harbor servicing trade routes along the African Red Sea coast. Sedimentological, malacological, chorological, and foraminiferal analyses indicate that this harbor was located within a low energy, 6 - 8 m deep, tidal embayment that once extended ~1 km inland of the modern shore. A buried coral-beach rock platform and tidal flat sediments are found ubiquitously along the periphery of the paleo-bay and at elevations of up to 1 m above modern mean sea level. Wave-cut notches and erosional terraces observed at 1.1 - 1.8 m above modern sea level along the modern shoreline provide additional evidence of a higher-than-present stand of sea-level during the mid-Holocene. Sea-level predictions generated using a site-specific isostatic model for the northern the Red Sea confirm the presence of 0.5 - 2 m highstand at 5 ka. Reconstructions indicate that the bay at Mersa / Wadi Gawasis reached its maximum surface area prior to the highstand. Preliminary closure was driven by sediment inputs from the adjacent wadi, enhanced by the wetter climate of the African Humid Period, combined with a slowing rate of sea-level rise, thus demonstrating the dominance of sedimentary processes during this period. Following the highstand, slowly falling sea level coincidental with climatic aridization allowed for the establishment

  11. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas K.; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-04-01

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species.

  12. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Buck, Kristen N; Casey, John R; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity.

  13. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Beltrán-Abaunza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http://vattenkvalitet.se. The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improves the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors. Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18–26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (−3, data dispersion dominated in the retrievals with the MEGS (MERIS ground segment processor processor. The lowest bias and data dispersion were obtained with MEGS for suspended particulate matter, for which overestimations in the range of 8–16% were found. Only the FUB retrieved CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter correlate with in situ values. However, a large systematic underestimation appears in the estimates that nevertheless may be corrected for by using a local correction factor. The MEGS has the potential to be used as an operational processing algorithm for the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in the presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  14. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel in the incubation water. Over the three-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon (POC increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived cobalt (Co, manganese, and nickel were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Copper (Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1 atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2 these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3 growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic

  15. Increase California-Oregon Coastal Summer Sea Level Fog from 1950 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis is presented of the marine fog distribution based upon the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) ship observations taken during 1950-2007. Deep fog occurrence is reported in routine weather reports that are encoded in an ICOADS ship observation. Occurrence is estimated by the number of deep fog observations divided by the total present weather observations in a one-degree area centered on latitude and longitude grid point intersections. The mean fog occurrence for the summer (June-July-August) 1950-2007 was computed for each one degree point. There is a long term, deep fog occurrence maximum on the California-Oregon coast with its highest value of 16.6 % at 38° N 123° W. This fog maximum is coincident with coldest June-July-August sea surface temperatures (SST) along the coast. To compute annual averages of the maximum, a block average was based on the 19 over water grid points with the deep fog occurrences generally greater than 0.6 times the highest long term maximum value that extended along the California-Oregon coast from 37° N to 44° N. The June-July-August block averaged, annual value computed for each of the 58 summers for the period 1950-2007 has a distinct positive trend. A line fitted to the data has a deep fog percent occurrence increase of +7.4 % from 1950 through 2007 or a trend of +0.13 % per year. The Mann-Kendall test was applied and the trend is significant at the 0.05 level. The increase in long term coastal fog is coincident with a decrease in the California-Oregon coastal SST. The SST decrease is consistent with interior California land temperatures increasing, increasing the cross shore sea level pressure gradient, and increasing the along coast winds creating a positive feedback that causes more upwelling and lower SST.

  16. Relationships between coastal processes and properties of the nearshore sea bed dynamic layer:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Ostrowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the notion of a layer of sandy sediments overlying a substratum of cohesive deposits in the coastal zone. This layer of sand is generally more mobile and is therefore conventionally referred to as the dynamic layer. Its parameters are important to coastal lithodynamic and morphodynamic processes caused by waves and currents. On the other hand, the dynamic layer is formed by nearshore hydrodynamic impact. The variability of the features of the dynamic layer on the southern Baltic dune and cliff shores in Poland is analysed on the basis of selected geological data supported by local seismo-acoustic field investigations. It appears that the conventional notion of the dynamic layer makes sense only in specific geomorphologic conditions. In such cases, mostly related to cliff shores, theoretical modelling of sediment transport should take the properties of the dynamic layer into account.

  17. An Unprecedented Aggregation of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican Coastal Waters of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Parra Venegas, Rafael; Hueter, Robert; González Cano, Jaime; Tyminski, John; Gregorio Remolina, José; Maslanka, Mike; Ormos, Andrea; Weigt, Lee; Carlson, Bruce; Dove, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed “the Afuera”) that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts. PMID:21559508

  18. Vulnerability of Louisiana's coastal wetlands to present-day rates of relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Krista L.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Fernandes, Anjali M.

    2017-03-01

    Coastal Louisiana has lost about 5,000 km2 of wetlands over the past century and concern exists whether remaining wetlands will persist while facing some of the world's highest rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Here we analyse an unprecedented data set derived from 274 rod surface-elevation table-marker horizon stations, to determine present-day surface-elevation change, vertical accretion and shallow subsidence rates. Comparison of vertical accretion rates with RSLR rates at the land surface (present-day RSLR rates are 12+/-8 mm per year) shows that 65% of wetlands in the Mississippi Delta (SE Louisiana) may keep pace with RSLR, whereas 58% of the sites in the Chenier Plain (SW Louisiana) do not, rendering much of this area highly vulnerable to RLSR. At least 60% of the total subsidence rate occurs within the uppermost 5-10 m, which may account for the higher vulnerability of coastal Louisiana wetlands compared to their counterparts elsewhere.

  19. Advancing Sentinel-1 use in Coastal Climate Impact Assessments and Adaptation – A Case Study from the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Marinkovic, Petar; Larsen, Yngvar

    Low-lying coastal communities face increasing challenges from rise in sea level, more extreme storm surge levels and floods. In addition, changing groundwater levels and precipitation patterns may further exacerbate the water-related impacts of climate change on society. Approximately 40,000 km2...... of Europe’s North Sea region is already flood prone. Storm surges pose a real and substantial risk to this area, especially the densely populated areas. Climate and sea level research seek to provide robust regional projections of change and to address uncertainties and errors inherent in climate models....... It is a challenge for coastal communities to transform this information in order to provide for local impact assessments and to implement adaptive measures. To this end, information about potential subsidence, its magnitudes and causes is important: subsidence may adversely affect the probability, extent and depths...

  20. Eastern Mediterranean sea levels through the last interglacial from a coastal-marine sequence in northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, D.; Sisma-Ventura, G.; Greenbaum, N.; Bialik, O. M.; Williams, F. H.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Rohling, E. J.; Frumkin, A.; Avnaim-Katav, S.; Shtienberg, G.; Stein, M.

    2016-08-01

    A last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS5e) marine-coastal sequence has been identified along the Galilee coast of Israel, with the type section located at Rosh Hanikra (RH). The microtidal regime and tectonic stability, along with the detailed stratigraphy of the RH shore, make the study region ideally suited for determining relative sea level (RSL) through the MIS5e interval in the eastern Mediterranean. The sequence contains fossilized microtidal subunits at a few meters above the current sea level. Unfortunately, all fossils were found to be altered, so that U-Th datings cannot be considered to represent initial deposition. We contend that U-Th dating of Strombus bubonius shells (recrystallized to calcite) suffices to indicate a lower limit of ∼110 ± 8 ka for the time sea level dropped below the RH sedimentary sequence. The RH-section comprises three main subunits of a previously determined member (the Yasaf Member): (a) a gravelly unit containing the diagnostic gastropod Strombus bubonius Lamarck (Persististrombus latus), which was deposited in the intertidal to super-tidal stormy zone; (b) Vermetidae reef domes indicating a shallow-water depositional environment; and (c) coarse to medium-sized, bioclastic sandstone, probably deposited in the shallow sub-tidal zone. The sequence overlies three abrasion platforms that are cut by tidal channels at elevations of +0.8 m, +2.6 m and +3.4 m, and which are filled with MIS5e sediments. We present a detailed study of the sequence, with emphasis on stratigraphic, sedimentological, and palaeontological characteristics that indicate sea-level changes. Although without precise absolute dating, the stratigraphic sequence of RH through MIS5e allows us to identify a time-series of RSL positions, using the elevations of three stratigraphic subunits. Reconstructed RSL values range from +1.0 m to +7 m (with uncertainly GIA) modelling using multiple ice histories suggests that GIA corrections range between about -1.8 m

  1. Long-term observations of Alaska Coastal Current in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Bell, Shaun; Cheng, Wei; Danielson, Seth; Kachel, Nancy B.; Mordy, Calvin W.

    2016-10-01

    The Alaska Coastal Current is a continuous, well-defined system extending for ~1700 km along the coast of Alaska from Seward, Alaska to Samalga Pass in the Aleutian Islands. The currents in this region are examined using data collected at >20 mooring sites and from >400 satellite-tracked drifters. While not continuous, the mooring data span a 30 year period (1984-2014). Using current meter data collected at a dozen mooring sites spread over four lines (Seward, Gore Point, Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances, and the exit to Shelikof Strait) total transport was calculated. Transport was significantly correlated with alongshore winds, although the correlation at the Seward Line was weak. The largest mean transport in the Alaska Coastal Current occurred at Gore Point (1.4×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer), with the transport at the exit to Shelikof Strait (1.3×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer) only slightly less. The transport was modified at the Seward Line in late summer and fall by frontal undulations associated with strong river discharge that enters onto the shelf at that time of year. The interaction of the Alaska Coastal Current and tidal currents with shallow banks in the vicinity of Kodiak Archipeligo and in Kennedy-Stevenson Entrance results in mixing and prolonged primary production throughout the summer.

  2. Evaluating coastal landscape response to sea-level rise in the northeastern United States: approach and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Gesch, Dean B.; Horton, Radley M.

    2014-02-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey is examining effects of future sea-level rise on the coastal landscape from Maine to Virginia by producing spatially explicit, probabilistic predictions using sea-level projections, vertical land movement rates (due to isostacy), elevation data, and land-cover data. Sea-level-rise scenarios used as model inputs are generated by using multiple sources of information, including Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models following representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. A Bayesian network is used to develop a predictive coastal response model that integrates the sea-level, elevation, and land-cover data with assigned probabilities that account for interactions with coastal geomorphology as well as the corresponding ecological and societal systems it supports. The effects of sea-level rise are presented as (1) level of landscape submergence and (2) coastal response type characterized as either static (that is, inundation) or dynamic (that is, landform or landscape change). Results are produced at a spatial scale of 30 meters for four decades (the 2020s, 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). The probabilistic predictions can be applied to landscape management decisions based on sea-level-rise effects as well as on assessments of the prediction uncertainty and need for improved data or fundamental understanding. This report describes the methods used to produce predictions, including information on input datasets; the modeling approach; model outputs; data-quality-control procedures; and information on how to access the data and metadata online.

  3. Evaluating Coastal Landscape Response to Sea-Level Rise in the Northeastern United States - Approach and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Gesch, Dean B.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is examining effects of future sea-level rise on the coastal landscape from Maine to Virginia by producing spatially explicit, probabilistic predictions using sea-level projections, vertical land movement rates (due to isostacy), elevation data, and land-cover data. Sea-level-rise scenarios used as model inputs are generated by using multiple sources of information, including Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models following representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. A Bayesian network is used to develop a predictive coastal response model that integrates the sea-level, elevation, and land-cover data with assigned probabilities that account for interactions with coastal geomorphology as well as the corresponding ecological and societal systems it supports. The effects of sea-level rise are presented as (1) level of landscape submergence and (2) coastal response type characterized as either static (that is, inundation) or dynamic (that is, landform or landscape change). Results are produced at a spatial scale of 30 meters for four decades (the 2020s, 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). The probabilistic predictions can be applied to landscape management decisions based on sea-level-rise effects as well as on assessments of the prediction uncertainty and need for improved data or fundamental understanding. This report describes the methods used to produce predictions, including information on input datasets; the modeling approach; model outputs; data-quality-control procedures; and information on how to access the data and metadata online.

  4. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from 12 April 1981 - 01 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8400159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from April 12, 1981 to April 1, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  7. Mapping and assessing variability in the Antarctic marginal ice zone, pack ice and coastal polynyas in two sea ice algorithms with implications on breeding success of snow petrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Campbell, G. Garrett; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore, mapping their spatial extent as well as seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biologically active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas in the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent record for assessing the proportion of the sea ice cover that is covered by each of these ice categories. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depend strongly on which sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap, and applies the same thresholds to the sea ice concentrations to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal that the seasonal cycle in the MIZ and pack ice is generally similar between both algorithms, yet the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Trends also differ, with the Bootstrap algorithm suggesting statistically significant trends towards increased pack ice area and no statistically significant trends in the MIZ. The NASA Team algorithm on the other hand indicates statistically significant positive trends in the MIZ during spring. Potential coastal polynya area and amount of broken ice within the consolidated ice pack are also larger in the NASA Team algorithm. The timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These

  8. Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the sites. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea sites, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and sites. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging

  9. Prospects for improving the representation of coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jason; Hyder, Patrick; Ashworth, Mike; Harle, James; Hewitt, Helene T.; Liu, Hedong; New, Adrian L.; Pickles, Stephen; Porter, Andrew; Popova, Ekaterina; Icarus Allen, J.; Siddorn, John; Wood, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Accurately representing coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models represents one of the grand challenges of Earth system science. They are regions of immense societal importance through the goods and services they provide, hazards they pose and their role in global-scale processes and cycles, e.g. carbon fluxes and dense water formation. However, they are poorly represented in the current generation of global ocean models. In this contribution, we aim to briefly characterise the problem, and then to identify the important physical processes, and their scales, needed to address this issue in the context of the options available to resolve these scales globally and the evolving computational landscape.We find barotropic and topographic scales are well resolved by the current state-of-the-art model resolutions, e.g. nominal 1/12°, and still reasonably well resolved at 1/4°; here, the focus is on process representation. We identify tides, vertical coordinates, river inflows and mixing schemes as four areas where modelling approaches can readily be transferred from regional to global modelling with substantial benefit. In terms of finer-scale processes, we find that a 1/12° global model resolves the first baroclinic Rossby radius for only ˜ 8 % of regions state of the art.We quantify the benefit of improved resolution and process representation using 1/12° global- and basin-scale northern North Atlantic nucleus for a European model of the ocean (NEMO) simulations; the latter includes tides and a k-ɛ vertical mixing scheme. These are compared with global stratification observations and 19 models from CMIP5. In terms of correlation and basin-wide rms error, the high-resolution models outperform all these CMIP5 models. The model with tides shows improved seasonal cycles compared to the high-resolution model without tides. The benefits of resolution are particularly apparent in eastern boundary upwelling zones.To explore the balance between the size of a globally

  10. The system of wind-driven seasonal coastal currents around the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    implies that to understand the current at any location along the coast of India, one has to take into account wind-driving over the whole basin. The framework above applies to both seasonal currents as well as currents with periods ranging from... Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 The System of Wind-Driven Seasonal Coastal Currents Around the Indian Subcontinent Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004 shetye@darya.nio.org As one...

  11. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  12. Prediction of China's Submerged Coastal Areas by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; YANG Yiqiu; ZHANG Jianli; CHEN Meixiang; XU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the simulation with the Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model CCSM and Ocean Model POP under the greenhouse gas emission scenario of the IPCC SRES A2 (IPCC,2001),and on the earth crust subsidence and glacier melting data,the relative sea level change is obtained along the coast of China in the 21 st century.Using the SRTM elevation data the submergence of coastal low land is calculated under the extreme water level with a 100-year return period.The total flooding areas are 98.3× 103 and 104.9× 103 km2 for 2050 and 2080,respectively.For the three regions most vulnerable to extreme sea level rise,i.e.,the coast of Bohai Bay,the Yangtze River Delta together with neighboring Jiangsu Province and northern Zhejiang Province,and the Pearl River Delta,the flooded areas are 5.0 × 103,64.1 × 103 and 15.3 × 103 km2 in 2050 and 5.2 × 103,67.8 × 103 and 17.2 × 103 km2 in 2080,respectively.

  13. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  14. Dioxin and dioxin-like activity in sediments of the Belgian coastal area (Southern North Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctorum, Hermes; Windal, Isabelle; Hanot, Vincent; Goeyens, Leo; Baeyens, Willy

    2007-04-01

    Dioxin and dioxin-like activity in sediments of the North Sea, along the Belgian coast, was assessed with the bioassay CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression). Crude extracts of the samples as well as the dioxin fraction (PCDD/Fs) obtained after a thorough clean-up procedure were analyzed with the CALUX method. When analyzing the cleaned extract, a general low contamination level is observed (around 0.1 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment), except at the mouth of the two main rivers-the Yser and the Scheldt-where concentrations measured are about 100 times higher (10-42 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment). Much higher potencies are measured for the crude extracts compared to the cleaned ones. In the crude extracts, the highest dioxin-like activities were again observed at the mouth and outflow of the two rivers (600-7200 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment). These activities are at least two orders of magnitude higher than the ones found at the coastal and sea stations (1.3-45 pg CALUX-TEQ/g sediment). The difference in activity between cleaned and crude sediment extracts is due to the presence of dioxin-like compounds such as, for example, non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated dioxins, but also to PAHs. The percentage of five major PAHs in the crude samples at the river mouths, when using the average activities in those samples, varies between 25% and 50%.

  15. Numerical simulation of sea breeze characteristics observed at tropical coastal site, Kalpakkam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Jamima; J Lakshminarasimhan

    2004-06-01

    Sea breeze characteristics around Kalpakkam tropical coastal site are studied using an Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) mesoscale model, which is non-hydrostatic, compressible atmospheric prediction model following the terrain coordinate system. Various options such as surface physics, atmospheric radiation physics, Coriolis force, microphysics, cumulus parameterization and 1.5 level TKE closure scheme for diffusion are included in the model. A joint meteorological field experiment was carried out by IITM-Pune and IGCAR at Kalpakkam by deploying state-of-the-art sensors and tether balloon systems for observing the height profiles of meteorological parameters. The data obtained from the field experiment are used here to compare the results from numerical simulations. From the simulated results, it is seen that duration of the sea breeze is 6 hours which agrees well with the observations. The height of the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) is also simulated from the vertical profiles of potential temperature. Simulated wind speed and wind directions are compared with the 50m tower data and potential temperature profiles are compared with the kytoon data. Results are in good agreement with the observed values except during night time wherein a small difference is seen in the wind speed.

  16. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Prime

    Full Text Available Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  17. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  18. Short-term variability in particle flux: Storms, blooms and river discharge in a coastal sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Sophia C.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Wright, Cynthia A.; Spear, David J.

    2017-07-01

    The flux and composition of particles sinking in the surface ocean vary on a wide range of time scales. This variability is a component of underwater weather that is analogous to rain. The rain of particles in the coastal ocean is affected by atmospheric events, such as rainstorms and windstorms; by events on land, such as peaks in river discharge or coastal erosion; and by events within the surface ocean, such as phytoplankton blooms. Here, we use a four-year record of sinking particles collected using sediment traps moored at 50 m depth at two locations in the Strait of Georgia, a coastal sea off the west coast of Canada, to determine the relative importance of short-term events to particle flux. We identify four dominant types of particle-flux events: those associated with 1) summer freshet of the Fraser River, 2) rainstorms, 3) phytoplankton blooms, and 4) a jellyfish bloom. The relative importance of these events differs between the southern Strait, where the Fraser River freshet dominates flux and variability, and the northern Strait, where the effects of phytoplankton blooms, rainstorms and small local rivers are more evident. During 2008-2012, half of each year's total flux accumulated over 10-26% of the year in the southern Strait, mainly during the Fraser River freshet. In the northern Strait half of the annual flux accumulated over 22-36% of the year, distributed among small events during spring to fall. The composition of the sinking particulate matter also varied widely, with organic carbon and biogenic silica ranging over 0.70-5.7% (excluding one event) and 0.4-14%, respectively, in the south, compared with 0.17-22% and 0.31-33% in the north. Windstorms had no immediate effect on particle flux in either basin. A large phytoplankton bloom in April 2011, in the northern Strait contributed 25% of the year's organic carbon at that site and 53% of the biogenic silica. A jellyfish bloom in July 2008 contributed 16% of the year's nitrogen and 12% of the year

  19. Marine habitat mapping, classification and monitoring in the coastal North Sea: Scientific vs. stakeholder interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Papenmeier, Svenja; Fiorentino, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Producing detailed maps of the seafloor that include both, water depth and simple textural characteristics has always been a challenge to scientists. In this context, marine habitat maps are an essential tool to comprehend the complexity, the spatial distribution and the ecological status of different seafloor types. The increasing need for more detail demands additional information on the texture of the sediment, bedforms and information on benthic sessile life. For long time, taking samples and videos/photographs followed by interpolation over larger distances was the only feasible way to gain information about sedimentary features such as grain-size distribution and bedforms. While ground truthing is still necessary, swath systems such as multibeam echo sounders (MBES) and sidescan sonars (SSS), as well as single beam acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) became available to map the seafloor area-wide (MBES, SSS), fast and in great detail. Where area-wide measurements are impossible or unavailable point measurements are interpolated, classified and modeled. To keep pace with environmental change in the highly dynamic coastal areas of the North Sea (here: German Bight) monitoring that utilizes all of the mentioned techniques is a necessity. Since monitoring of larger areas is quite expensive, concepts for monitoring strategies were developed in scientific projects such as "WIMO" ("Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight, SE North Sea"). While instrumentation becomes better and better and interdisciplinary methods are being developed, the gap between basic scientific interests and stakeholder needs often seem to move in opposite directions. There are two main tendencies: the need to better understand nature systems (for theoretical purposes) and the one to simplify nature (for applied purposes). Science trends to resolve the most detail in highest precision employing soft gradients and/or fuzzy borders instead of crisp demarcations and

  20. Coastal morphodynamic impacts induced by main storm phenomena on the Central East Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Bonamano, Simone; Scanu, Sergio; Martellucci, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The coastal area is a major dynamic systems of the Earth and in particular the sandy beaches are very sensitive to waves energy variation which mainly force morphological changes. Waves drive beaches morphological changes particularly when they exceed a determined threshold. In a short term (from hours to days) of storm conditions, intense erosion phenomena occur. They generate overwash, dunal erosion, loss of lands, damage to engineering structures and coastal ownerships. Several hazardous weather events take place every year in the Mediterranean region and cause relevant economic losses. The western Mediterranean Sea is an area subjected to cyclonic activity. In winter and during the negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), cyclonic activity generates extreme events as intense precipitation, the highest waves, landslides and surges. The study area is the Latium coast, eastern side of Central Tyrrhenian Sea.Wave data were measured by three wave buoys. In order to obtain a better spatial coverage useful to take into account the waves variability over the study area, wave data also has been calculated by WAM model. On the basis of storms events selected by a threshold criteria of events greater than 2 m for a period more than 6 hour, the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) field was analysed through Empirical Orthogonal Function and cluster analysis obtaining 3 classes of barometric events. The storms are always induced by the lows of Gulf of Genoa to be formed in the Mediterranean region triggered from the middle latitude storms which center is located in the northern atlantic and scandinavian region. The different classes, with a probability of 28%, 23% and 49%, generate different circulation driving waves from different directions. The classes of storms show spatial differences in terms of main directions but show similar behavior in terms of distribution of wave direction. In this study the wave and wind field induced by the different barometric condition

  1. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection.

  2. Hydrogeologic controls on chemical transport at Malibu Lagoon, CA: Implications for land to sea exchange in coastal lagoon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dimova

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Nearshore lagoons that are seasonally disconnected from the coastal ocean occupy about 10% of coastal areas worldwide. Lagoon systems often are poorly flushed and thus sensitive to nutrient over-enrichment that can lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, and/or pervasive algal blooms. This sensitivity is exacerbated in lagoons that are intermittently closed to surface water exchange with the sea and occur in populous coastal areas. Such estuarine systems are disconnected from the sea during most of the year by wave-built barriers, but during the rainy season these berms can breach, enabling direct water exchange. Using naturally-occurring 222Rn as groundwater tracer, we estimate that groundwater discharge to Malibu Lagoon during open berm conditions was one order of magnitude higher (21 ± 17 cm/day than during closed berm conditions (1.8 ± 1.4 cm/day. The SGD (submarine groundwater discharge into nearshore coastal waters at the SurferRider and Colony Malibu was 4.2 cm/day on average. The exported total dissolved nitrogen (TDN through the berm during closed berm was 1.6 × 10−3 mol/day, whereas during open berm (exported by the Creek was 3.5 × 103 mol/day. Although these evaluations are specific to the collection campaigns the 2009 and 2010 hydro years, these two distinct hydrologic scenarios play an important role in the seasonality and geochemical impact of land/sea exchange, and highlight the sensitivity of such systems to future impacts such as sea level rise and increasing coastal populations.

  3. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  4. Insight into Generation and Evolution of Sea-Salt Aerosols from Field Measurements in Diversified Marine and Coastal Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Limin; Shen, Hengqing; Zhu, Yujiao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on studying generation and/or evolution of sea-salt aerosols (SSA) on basis of measurements in the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO), the marginal seas of China, at sea-beach sites and a semi-urban coastal site in 2012–2015. From measurements in the NWPO, we obtained the smallest generation function of the super-micron SSA mass ([MSSA]) by the local wind comparing to those previously reported. Vessel-caused wave-breaking was found to greatly enhance generation of SSA and increase [MSSA], which was subject to non-natural generation of SSA. However, naturally enhanced generation of SSA was indeed observed in the marginal seas and at the sea-beach site. The two enhancement mechanisms may explain the difference among this and previous studies. Size distributions of super-micron SSA exhibited two modes, i.e., 1–2 μm mode and ~5 μm mode. The 1–2 μm mode of SSA was enhanced more and comparable to the ~5 μm mode under the wind speed >7 m/s. However, the smaller mode SSA was largely reduced from open oceans to sea-beach sites with reducing wind speed. The two super-micron modes were comparable again at a semi-urban coastal site, suggesting that the smaller super-micron mode SSA may play more important roles in atmospheres.

  5. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  6. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Engelbrecht

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse and PM2. 5 (fine particle size fractions in the dust deposits.X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from

  7. Coastal marsh response to rising sea levels in the Grand Bay, MS estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Medeiros, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Bay estuary, situated along the border of Alabama and Mississippi, is a marine dominant estuary. Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora cover approximately 49% of the estuary (Eleuterius and Criss, 1991); However, this marsh system is prone to erosion more than other marsh systems in the state (Mississippi Department of Marine Resources 1999). Water level and wind-driven waves are critical factors that cause erosion in the Grand Bay estuary. Sediment transport induced by wave forces from the Gulf of Mexico and sea level rise force salt marshes to migrate landward (Schmid 2000). Understanding projected variations in vegetation can aid in productive restoration planning and coastal management decisions. An integrated hydro-marsh model was developed to incorporate the dynamic interaction between tidal hydrodynamics and salt marsh system. This model projects salt marsh productivity by coupling a two-dimensional, depth-integrated ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) finite element model and a parametric marsh model (Morris et al., 2002). The model calculates marsh productivity as a function of mean low water (MLW), mean high water (MHW), and the elevation of the marsh platform. The coupling exchange process is divided into several time intervals that capture the rate of sea level rise, and update the elevation and bottom friction from the computed marsh productivity. Accurate description of salt marsh platform is necessary for calculating accurate biomass results (Hagen et al. 2013). Lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEM) over-estimate marsh platform elevations, but can be corrected with Real Time Kinematic (RTK) survey data (Medeiros et al., 2015). Using RTK data, the salt marsh platform was updated and included in a high resolution hydrodynamic model. Four projections of sea level rise (Parris et al., 2012) were used to project salt marsh productivity for the year 2100 for the Grand Bay, MS estuary. The results showed a higher productivity under low sea

  8. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  9. Sea-level rise and potential drowning of the Italian coastal plains: Flooding risk scenarios for 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, F.; Anzidei, M.; Amorosi, A.; Lo Presti, V.; Mastronuzzi, G.; Deiana, G.; De Falco, G.; Fontana, A.; Fontolan, G.; Lisco, S.; Marsico, A.; Moretti, M.; Orrù, P. E.; Sannino, G. M.; Serpelloni, E.; Vecchio, A.

    2017-02-01

    We depict the relative sea-level rise scenarios for the year 2100 from four areas of the Italian peninsula. Our estimates are based on the Rahmstorf (2007) and IPCC-AR5 reports 2013 for the RCP-8.5 scenarios (http://www.ipcc.ch) The subsequent loss of land will impact the environment and local infrastructures, suggesting land planners and decision makers to take into account these scenarios for a cognizant coastal management. Our method developed for the Italian coast can be applied worldwide in other coastal areas expected to be affected by marine ingression due to global climate change.

  10. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  12. Study on interaction between the coastal water,shelf water and Kuroshio water in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binghuo Guo; Xiaomin Hu; Xuejun Xiong; Renfeng Ge

    2003-01-01

    The main processes of interaction between the coastal water, shelf water and Kuroshiowater in the Huanghai Sea (HS) and East China Sea (ECS) are analyzed based on the observation andstudy results in recent years. These processes include the intrusion of the Kuroshio water into the shelfarea of the ECS, the entrainment of the shelf water into the Kuroshio, the seasonal process in the south-em shelf area of the ECS controlled alternatively by the Taiwan Strait water and the Kuroshio water in-truding into the shelf area, the interaction between the Kuroshio branch water, shelf mixed water andmodified coastal water in the northeastern ECS, the water-exchange between the HS and ECS and thespread of the Changjiang diluted water.

  13. GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENT IN THE NORTHERN EAST CHINA SEA AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SEA CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kun; YANG Zuosheng; GUO Zhigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the grain size distribution of sediment and currents in the northern East China Sea on the basis of the grain size analysis. The results show that grain size distribution of suspended sediment is controlled by the currents. Suspended sediment in the littoral water is finer than those in the open sea currents. Grain size distribution of surface sediment is affected by the sea currents to some extent. And the grain size of suspended sediment and surface sediment do not agree with each other in positions.

  14. An approach to developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters using the SeaWiFS Satellite Data Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Blake A; Hagy, James D; Conmy, Robyn N; Lehrter, John C; Stumpf, Richard P

    2012-01-17

    Human activities on land increase nutrient loads to coastal waters, which can increase phytoplankton production and biomass and associated ecological impacts. Numeric nutrient water quality standards are needed to protect coastal waters from eutrophication impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency determined that numeric nutrient criteria were necessary to protect designated uses of Florida's waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate a reference condition approach for developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters, using data from Florida. Florida's coastal waters have not been monitored comprehensively via field sampling to support numeric criteria development. However, satellite remote sensing had the potential to provide adequate data. Spatial and temporal measures of SeaWiFS OC4 chlorophyll-a (Chl(RS)-a, mg m(-3)) were resolved across Florida's coastal waters between 1997 and 2010 and compared with in situ measurements. Statistical distributions of Chl(RS)-a were evaluated to determine a quantitative reference baseline. A binomial approach was implemented to consider how new data could be assessed against the criteria. The proposed satellite remote sensing approach to derive numeric criteria may be generally applicable to other coastal waters.

  15. Coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: a preliminary database for the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of coastal evolution is not straightforward. There is no standard methodology, and even the kind of data required to make such predictions are the subject of much scientific debate. Since a viable, quantitative predictive model for coastal evolution is not available. The relative susceptibility of the Nation's coastline to sea-level rise is quantified here at a regional to national scale using basic information on coastal geomorphology, rate of sea-level rise, past shoreline evolution and other factors. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental and conditions, and yields a relative measure of the system's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. This information has immediate application to many of the decisions our society will be making regarding coastal development in both the short- and long-term.

  16. Characterisation of coastal counter-currents on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, E.; Laiz, I.; Drago, T.; Relvas, P.

    2016-03-01

    At the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), poleward currents leaning along the coast alternate with coastal upwelling jets of opposite direction. Here the patterns of these coastal countercurrents (CCCs) are derived from ADCP data collected during 7 deployments at a single location on the inner shelf. The multiyear (2008-2014) time-series, constituting ~ 18 months of hourly records, are further analysed together with wind data from several sources representing local and basin-scale conditions. During one deployment, temperature sensors were also installed near the mooring site to examine the vertical thermal stratification associated with periods of poleward flow. These observations indicate that the coastal circulation is mainly alongshore and barotropic. However, a baroclinic flow is often observed shortly at the time of flow inversion to poleward. CCCs develop all year-round and exclusively control the occurrence of warm coastal water during the upwelling season. On average, one poleward flow lasting 3 days was observed every week, corresponding to CCCs during ~ 40% of the time without seasonal variability. Thus, the studied region is distinct from typical upwelling systems where equatorward coastal upwelling jets largely predominate. CCCs often start to develop near the bed and are frequently associated with 2-layer cross-shore flows characteristic of downwelling conditions (offshore near the bed). In general, the action of alongshore wind stress alone does not justify the development of CCCs. The coastal circulation is best correlated and shows the highest coherence with south-eastward wind in the basin that proceeds from the rotation of southward wind at the West coast of Portugal, hence suggesting a dominant control of large-scale wind conditions. In agreement, wavelet analyses indicate that CCCs are best correlated with alongshore wind occurring in a band period characteristic of the upwelling system (8-32 days). Furthermore, in the absence of wind coastal currents tend

  17. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Simple Search-Based Web Tool for Local Sea Level Rise Projections, Coastal Flood Risk Forecasts, and Inundation Exposure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B.; Dodson, D.; Kulp, S. A.; Rizza, D. H.

    2016-12-01

    Surging Seas Risk Finder (riskfinder.org) is an online tool for accessing extensive local projections and analysis of sea level rise; coastal floods; and land, populations, contamination sources, and infrastructure and other assets that may be exposed to inundation. Risk Finder was first published in 2013 for Florida, New York and New Jersey, expanding to all states in the contiguous U.S. by 2016, when a major new version of the tool was released with a completely new interface. The revised tool was informed by hundreds of survey responses from and conversations with planners, local officials and other coastal stakeholders, plus consideration of modern best practices for responsive web design and user interfaces, and social science-based principles for science communication. Overarching design principles include simplicity and ease of navigation, leading to a landing page with Google-like sparsity and focus on search, and to an architecture based on search, so that each coastal zip code, city, county, state or other place type has its own webpage gathering all relevant analysis in modular, scrollable units. Millions of users have visited the Surging Seas suite of tools to date, and downloaded thousands of files, for stated purposes ranging from planning to business to education to personal decisions; and from institutions ranging from local to federal government agencies, to businesses, to NGOs, and to academia.

  18. The Current Status of the Tiger Beetle Species of the Coastal Habitats of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Dangalle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The species of tiger beetles inhabiting coastal habitats of Sri Lanka have not been studied for nearly three decades. We report the tiger beetle species currently occupying the coastal habitats of the island, their distribution, microhabitats and habitat preferences. Species and distributions reported nearly three decades from similar previous studies are also recorded. Southern, North-Western and Western coastal belts (n=22 of Sri Lanka were investigated for the presence of tiger beetles. Three species, Hypaetha biramosa, Lophyra (Lophyra catena, Myriochila (Monelica fastidiosa, were recorded from eleven locations. M. (Monelica fastidiosa was reported for the first time, in a single location of the Southern coastal belt. Habitat parameters of the locations and the length of the body and mandible between H. biramosa and L. (Lophyra catena, were statistically compared to determine specific habitat preferences of the two species. Analysis of Variance using Minitab 16.0 revealed that H. biramosa occupy habitats with high solar radiation (438-1023 w/m2 and soil salinity (0.0-0.1ppt while L. (Lophyra catena occupy habitats with low solar radiation (132-402 and non-saline soils (0.0 ppt. Similar length of mandibles of these two species indicated that habitat selection of the species was not based on prey utilization, but may depend on the intensity of solar radiation and the level of soil salinity of the locations.

  19. Vulnerability assessment of southern coastal areas of Iran to sea level rise: evaluation of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Goharnejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have demonstrated global sea level rise as being due to climate change impact. Probable changes in sea level rise need to be evaluated so that appropriate adaptive strategies can be implemented. This study evaluates the impact of climate change on sea level rise along the Iranian south coast. Climatic data simulated by a GCM (General Circulation Model named CGCM3 under two-climate change scenarios A1b and A2 are used to investigate the impact of climate change. Among the different variables simulated by this model, those of maximum correlation with sea level changes in the study region and least redundancy among themselves are selected for predicting sea level rise by using stepwise regression. Two Discrete Wavelet artificial Neural Network (DWNN models and a Discrete Wavelet Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system (DWANFIS are developed to explore the relationship between selected climatic variables and sea level changes. In these models, wavelets are used to disaggregate the time series of input and output data into different components. ANFIS/ANN are then used to relate the disaggregated components of predictors and predictand (sea level to each other. The results show a significant rise in sea level in the study region under climate change impact, which should be incorporated into coastal area management.

  20. Migratory bird use of the coastal lagoon system of the Beaufort Sea coastline within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migratory bird use of the coastal lagoon system of the Beaufort Sea coastline within the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Aerial...

  1. ANWR progress report number FY84-6: Movement of molting oldsquaws within the Beaufort Sea coastal lagoons of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the movement of molting oldsquaw within the Beaufort Sea Coastal lagoons of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. During August, 1983, 16...

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) (NODC Accession 0014158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses...

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Tim; Wohlrab, Sylke; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe; Bach, Lennart T.; Riebesell, Ulf; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in five mesocosms to reach average CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) of 760 μatm. The remaining five mesocosms were used as control at ambient pCO2 of 380 μatm. Our paper is part of a PLOS collection on this long-term mesocosm experiment. Here, we here tested the effect of OA on total primary production (PPT) by performing 14C-based bottle incubations for 24 h. Furthermore, photoacclimation was assessed by conducting 14C-based photosynthesis-irradiance response (P/I) curves. Changes in chlorophyll a concentrations over time were reflected in the development of PPT, and showed higher phytoplankton biomass build-up under OA. We observed two subsequent phytoplankton blooms in all mesocosms, with peaks in PPT around day 33 and day 56. OA had no significant effect on PPT, except for a marginal increase during the second phytoplankton bloom when inorganic nutrients were already depleted. Maximum light use efficiencies and light saturation indices calculated from the P/I curves changed simultaneously in all mesocosms, and suggest that OA did not alter phytoplankton photoacclimation. Despite large variability in time-integrated productivity estimates among replicates, our overall results indicate that coastal phytoplankton communities can be affected by OA at certain times of the seasonal succession with potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. PMID:28273107

  4. Coastal wetland response to sea-level rise in a fluvial estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizad, Karim; Hagen, Scott C.; Morris, James T.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Bilskie, Matthew V.; Weishampel, John F.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal wetlands are likely to lose productivity under increasing rates of sea-level rise (SLR). This study assessed a fluvial estuarine salt marsh system using the Hydro-MEM model under four SLR scenarios. The Hydro-MEM model was developed to apply the dynamics of SLR as well as capture the effects associated with the rate of SLR in the simulation. Additionally, the model uses constants derived from a 2-year bioassay in the Apalachicola marsh system. In order to increase accuracy, the lidar-based marsh platform topography was adjusted using Real Time Kinematic survey data. A river inflow boundary condition was also imposed to simulate freshwater flows from the watershed. The biomass density results produced by the Hydro-MEM model were validated with satellite imagery. The results of the Hydro-MEM simulations showed greater variation of water levels in the low (20 cm) and intermediate-low (50 cm) SLR scenarios and lower variation with an extended bay under higher SLR scenarios. The low SLR scenario increased biomass density in some regions and created a more uniform marsh platform in others. Under intermediate-low SLR scenario, more flooded area and lower marsh productivity were projected. Higher SLR scenarios resulted in complete inundation of marsh areas with fringe migration of wetlands to higher land. This study demonstrated the capability of Hydro-MEM model to simulate coupled physical/biological processes across a large estuarine system with the ability to project marsh migration regions and produce results that can aid in coastal resource management, monitoring, and restoration efforts.