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Sample records for current-driven magnetic multipole

  1. Role of magnetic shear on the electrostatic current driven ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we provide an analytical approach for the non-local treatment of current driven electrostatic waves in presence of parallel electric field. The growth rate is significantly influenced by the field aligned electron drift. The presence of electric field enhances the growth of EIC waves while magnetic shear stabilizes the.

  2. Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, Miklos; Egedal-Pedersen, Jan; Fox, William

    2010-08-31

    CMPD Final Report Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection Miklos Porkolab, PI, Jan Egedal, co-PI, William Fox, graduate student. This is the final report for Grant DE-FC02-04ER54786, MIT Participation in the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics, which was active from 8/1/2004 to 7/31/2010. This Grant supported the thesis work of one MIT graduate student, William Fox, The thesis research consisted of an experimental study of the fluctuations arising during magnetic reconnection in plasmas on the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) at MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC). The thesis was submitted and accepted by the MIT physics Department,. Fox, Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (2009). In the VTF experiment reconnection and current-sheet formation is driven by quickly changing currents in a specially arranged set of internal conductors. Previous work on this device [Egedal, et al, PRL 98, 015003, (2007)] identified a spontaneous reconnection regime. In this work fluctuations were studied using impedance-matched, high-bandwidth Langmuir probes. Strong, broadband fluctuations, with frequencies extending from near the lower-hybrid frequency [fLH = (fcefci)1/2] to the electron cyclotron frequency fce were found to arise during the reconnection events. Based on frequency and wavelength measurements, lower-hybrid waves and Trivelpiece-Gould waves were identified. The lower-hybrid waves are easiest to drive with strong perpendicular drifts or gradients which arise due to the reconnection events; an appealing possibility is strong temperature gradients. The Trivelpiece-Gould modes can result from kinetic, bump-on-tail instability of a runaway electron population energized by the reconnection events. We also observed that the turbulence is often spiky, consisting of discrete positive-potential spikes, which were identified as electron phase-space holes, a class of

  3. Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaggi, Jerry P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six

  4. Current-driven skyrmion motion along disordered magnetic tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Raposo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The motion of skyrmions along ferromagnetic strips driven by current pulses is theoretically analyzed by means of micromagnetic simulations. Analytical expressions describing the skyrmion dynamics during and after the current pulse are obtained from an extended rigid skyrmion model, and its predictions are compared with full micromagnetic simulations for perfect samples with a remarkable agreement. The dynamics along realistic samples with random disorder is also studied by both models. Our analysis describes the relevant ingredients behind the current-driven skyrmion dynamics, and it is expected to be useful to understand recent and future experimental.

  5. Micromagnetic analysis of geometrically controlled current-driven magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Alejos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetization dynamics induced by current pulses in a pair of two “S-shaped” ferromagnetic elements, each one consisting on two oppositely tilted tapered spikes at the ends of a straight section, is theoretically studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. Our results indicate that the magnetization reversal is triggered by thermal activation, which assists the current-induced domain nucleation and the propagation of domain walls. The detailed analysis of the magnetization dynamics reveals that the magnetization switching is only achieved when a single domain wall is nucleated in the correct corner of the element. In agreement with recent experimental studies, the switching is purely dictated by the shape, being independent of the current polarity. The statistical study points out that successful switching is only achieved within a narrow range of the current pulse amplitudes.

  6. Detection of current-driven magnetic domains in [Co/Pd] nanowire by tunneling magnetoresistive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mitsunobu; Miyamoto, Yasuyoshi; Miyashita, Eiichi; Saito, Nobuo; Hayashi, Naoto; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    Current-driven magnetic domain walls in magnetic nanowires have attracted a great deal of interest in terms of both physical studies and engineering applications. The anomalous Hall effect measurement is widely used for detecting the magnetization direction of current-driven magnetic domains in a magnetic nanowire. However, the problem with this measurement is that the detection point for current-driven domain wall motion is fixed at only the installed sensing wire across the specimen nanowire. A potential solution is the magnetic domain scope method, whereby the distribution of the magnetic flux leaking from the specimen can be analyzed directly by contact-scanning a tunneling magnetoresistive field sensor on a sample. In this study, we fabricated specimen nanowires consisting of [Co (0.3)/Pd (1.2)]21/Ta(3) films (units in nm) with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy on Si substrates. A tunneling magnetoresistive sensor was placed on the nanowire surface and a predetermined current pulse was applied. Real-time detection of the current-driven magnetic domain motion was successful in that the resistance of the tunneling magnetoresistive sensor was changed with the magnetization direction beneath the sensor. This demonstrates that magnetic domain detection using a tunneling magnetoresistive sensor is effective for the direct analysis of micro magnetic domain motion.

  7. Concept of multipole magnetic field rotation in ECRIS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the feasibility of achieving a rotating magnetic multipole field is discussed to some extent. And it is seen that it is not beyond the capability of the scientific community in the present scenario of the advanced technology. Presently, it can be achieved for lesser field and slightly larger size of the multipole electromagnet and ...

  8. Current-driven thermo-magnetic switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A. F.; Polishchuk, D. M.; Pashchenko, V. A.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Korenivski, V.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate switching of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) driven by the thermal effect of the transport current through the junctions. The switching occurs in a specially designed composite free layer, which acts as one of the MTJ electrodes, and is due to a current-driven ferro-to-paramagnetic Curie transition with the associated exchange decoupling within the free layer leading to magnetic reversal. We simulate the current and heat propagation through the device and show how heat focusing can be used to improve the power efficiency. The Curie-switch MTJ demonstrated in this work has the advantage of being highly tunable in terms of its operating temperature range, conveniently to or just above room temperature, which can be of technological significance and competitive with the known switching methods using spin-transfer torques.

  9. Advanced multipoles for accelerator magnets theoretical analysis and their measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Schnizer, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents research on the transversal beam dynamics of accelerators and evaluates and describes the respective magnetic field homogeneity.  The widely used cylindrical circular multipoles have disadvantages for elliptical apertures or curved trajectories, and the book also introduces new types of advanced multipole magnets, detailing their application, as well as the numerical data and measurements obtained. The research presented here provides more precise descriptions of the field and better estimates of the beam dynamics. Moreover, the effects of field inhomogeneity can be estimated with higher precision than before. These findings are further elaborated to demonstrate their usefulness for real magnets and accelerator set ups, showing their advantages over cylindrical circular multipoles. The research findings are complemented with data obtained from the new superconducting beam guiding magnet models (SIS100) for the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) project.  Lastly, the book...

  10. Current-driven magnetic domain wall motion and its real-time detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kab-Jin; Yoshimura, Yoko; Ono, Teruo

    2017-08-01

    Current-controlled magnetic domain wall motion has opened the possibility of a novel type of shift register memory device, which has been optimistically predicted to replace existing magnetic memories. Owing to this promising prospect, intensive work has been carried out during the last few decades. In this article, we first review the progress in the study of current-induced magnetic domain wall motion. Underlying mechanisms behind the domain wall motion, which have been discovered during last few decades, as well as technological achievements are presented. We then present our recent experimental results on the real-time detection of current-driven multiple magnetic domain wall motion, which directly demonstrates the operation of a magnetic domain wall shift register.

  11. Current-driven magnetic excitations in permalloy-based multilayer nanopillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urazhdin, S; Birge, Norman O; Pratt, W P; Bass, J

    2003-10-03

    We study current-driven magnetization switching in nanofabricated Ni(84)Fe(16)/Cu/Ni(84)Fe16 trilayers at 295 and 4.2 K. The shape of the hysteretic switching diagram at low magnetic field changes with temperature. The reversible behavior at higher fields involves two phenomena, a threshold current for magnetic excitations closely correlated with the switching current, and a peak in differential resistance characterized by telegraph noise, with an average period that decreases exponentially with current and shifts with temperature. We interpret both static and dynamic results at 295 and 4.2 K in terms of thermal activation over a potential barrier, with a current-dependent effective magnetic temperature.

  12. Analytical expressions for fringe fields in multipole magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Muratori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fringe fields in multipole magnets can have a variety of effects on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of particles moving along an accelerator beam line. An accurate model of an accelerator must include realistic models of the magnet fringe fields. Fringe fields for dipoles are well understood and can be modeled at an early stage of accelerator design in such codes as mad8, madx, gpt or elegant. Existing techniques for quadrupole and higher order multipoles rely either on the use of a numerical field map, or on a description of the field in the form of a series expansion about a chosen axis. Usually, it is not until the later stages of a design project that such descriptions (based on magnet modeling or measurement become available. Furthermore, series expansions rely on the assumption that the beam travels more or less on axis throughout the beam line; but in some types of machines (for example, Fixed Field Alternating Gradients or FFAGs this is not a good assumption. Furthermore, some tracking codes, such as gpt, use methods for including space charge effects that require fields to vary smoothly and continuously along a beam line: in such cases, realistic fringe field models are of significant importance. In this paper, a method for constructing analytical expressions for multipole fringe fields is presented. Such expressions allow fringe field effects to be included in beam dynamics simulations from the start of an accelerator design project, even before detailed magnet design work has been undertaken. The magnetostatic Maxwell equations are solved analytically and a solution that fits all orders of multipoles is derived. Quadrupole fringe fields are considered in detail as these are the ones that give the strongest effects. The analytic expressions for quadrupole fringe fields are compared with data obtained from numerical modeling codes in two cases: a magnet in the high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider inner triplet, and a

  13. Magnetic x-ray measurements using the elliptical multipole wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, P. A.; Li, Y.; Beno, M. A.; Jennings, G.; Kimball, C. W.

    1999-10-26

    The EMW at the BESSRC beam lines at the APS provides high photon flux at high energies with the capability of producing circular polarization on axis. The authors observe a high degree of circularly polarized x-rays at such energies. The polarization and frequency tunability of the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) is an ideal source for many magnetic measurements from X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to Compton scattering experiments. They performed Compton scattering measurements to determine the polarization and photon flux at the sample as a function of the deflection parameters K{sub y} and K{sub x}. They used for their measurements a Si (220) Laue monochromator providing simultaneous photon energies at 50 keV, 100 keV and 150 keV. Magnetic Compton Profiles were determined by either switching the magnet polarity or the photon helicity. The results obtained using Fe(110) single crystals were very similar.

  14. Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Velazquez-Rizo, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed magnet (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The possibility of setting the magnetization to both stable magnetization states in a controlled manner using a similar concept remains unknown, but the proposed structure poses to be a solution to this difficulty. The second cell proposed takes advantage of the multiple stable magnetic states that exist in ferromagnets with configurational anisotropy and also uses spin torques to manipulate its magnetization. It utilizes a square-shaped ferromagnet whose stable magnetization has preferred directions along the diagonals of the square, giving four stable magnetic states allowing to use the structure as a multi-bit memory cell. Both devices use spin currents generated in heavy metals by the Spin Hall effect present in these materials. Among the advantages of the structures proposed are their inherent non-volatility and the fact that there is no need for applying external magnetic fields during their operation, which drastically improves the energy efficiency of the devices. Computational simulations using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) software package were performed to study the dynamics of the magnetization process in both structures and predict their behavior. Besides, we fabricated a 4-terminal memory cell with configurational anisotropy similar to the device proposed, and found four stable resistive states on the structure, proving the feasibility of this technology for implementation of high-density, non-volatile memory cells.

  15. Current-Driven Motion of Domain Boundaries between Skyrmion Lattice and Helical Magnetic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kiyou; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Akashi, Tetsuya; Shinada, Hiroyuki; Harada, Ken; Niitsu, Kodai; Shindo, Daisuke; Kanazawa, Naoya; Tokura, Yoshinori; Arima, Taka-Hisa

    2018-02-14

    To utilize magnetic skyrmions, nanoscale vortex-like magnetic structures, experimental elucidation of their dynamics against current application in various circumstances such as in confined structure and mixture of different magnetic phases is indispensable. Here, we investigate the current-induced dynamics of the coexistence state of magnetic skyrmions and helical magnetic structure in a thin plate of B20-type helimagnet FeGe in terms of in situ real-space observation using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Current pulses with various heights and widths were applied, and the change of the magnetic domain distribution was analyzed using a machine-learning technique. The observed average driving direction of the two-magnetic-state domain boundary is opposite to the applied electric current, indicating ferromagnetic s-d exchange coupling in the spin-transfer torque mechanism. The evaluated driving distance tends to increase with increasing the pulse duration time, current density (>1 × 10 9 A/m 2 ), and sample temperature, providing valuable information about hitherto unknown current-induced dynamics of the skyrmion-lattice ensemble.

  16. On equilibria of finite pressure plasma in magnetic multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Soboleva, T. K.

    2001-07-01

    Separable solutions of finite plasma pressure equilibrium in a point multipole are found. Using the energy principle it is demonstrated that these solutions are interchange stable for quadripole and sextipole configurations. The low and high pressure forms of the solution in sextipole configuration are explicitly displayed.

  17. Tune shift effect due to the multipole longitudinal periodic structure in the superconducting dipole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Chen, S.

    1991-10-01

    Neglecting the curvature terms, the magnetic field and the vector potential which generate the multipole longitudinal periodic structure in a superconducting dipole magnet are found. Using this field and the standard Hamiltonian perturbation theory, the tune shifts due to this periodic pattern in the superconducting dipole magnets are estimated for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) machine. The results suggest that this tune shift is very small for most of the multipoles and could be ignored for the SSC. However, for the quadrupole longitudinal oscillation pattern, the tune shift relative to the amplitude of this oscillation could be of the order of 10{sup {minus}5} and may not be ignored. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Concept of multipole magnetic field rotation in ECRIS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or better rf power feeding. Till now many improvements in electric and magnetic field configura- tion and techniques of gas mixing [5–8], low energy electron supply [9] etc. have been incorporated to improve the performance of an ECRIS.

  19. Lightweight-compact variable-gap undulator with force cancellation system based on multipole monolithic magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Ryota; Kagamihata, Akihiro; Seike, Takamitsu; Kishimoto, Hikaru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tanaka, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    A lightweight-compact variable-gap undulator (LCVGU) having the force-cancellation system based on the multipole monolithic magnets (MMMs) has been developed. The LCVGU is free from the heavy mechanical frames, which is a fundamental element specific to conventional variable-gap undulators (VGUs) because of a strong attractive force, and thus the cost and time for construction and installation are expected to be significantly reduced; the MMMs counteract the strong attractive force in a cost-effective manner. Results of mechanical tests and magnetic-field measurements of two prototype LCVGUs equipped with the proposed force cancellation system have revealed the comparable performance with the conventional VGUs.

  20. Plasma confinement time in trimix-M galatea multipole magnetic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaev, A. M.; Bugrova, A. I.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sigov, A. S.; Kharchevnikov, V. K.

    2010-05-01

    The confinement time of hydrogen plasma trapped in a Trimix-M magnetic multipole galatea was studied in a range of plasma densities (1 × 1016 - 6 × 1018 m-3) and ion energies (˜100-300 eV). It is established that (i) the confinement time increases with decreasing plasma density in the trap and (ii) as the barrier magnetic field is increased, the plasma confinement time grows faster than according to a linear law. The obtained results are indicative of a collisional character of plasma diffusion through the barrier field in the trap.

  1. Manipulation of multiple 360o domain wall structures and its current-driven motion in a magnetic nanostripe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of multiple transverse walls (TWs in a magnetic nanostripe is studied by micromagnetic simulations. It shows that, when TWs are arranged in a stripe with same orientation, they will attract each other and finally annihilate. However, when adjacent TWs are arranged with opposite orientation, a metastable complex wall can be formed, e.g., two TWs lead to 360o wall. For three or more TWs, the formed complex wall includes a number of 360o substructures, which is called multiple 360o structure (M360S here. The M360S itself may be used to store multiple logical data since each 360o substructure can act as logical ”0” or ”1”. On the other hand, the M360S may behave like single TW under an applied current, namely, the M360S can be driven steadily by current like that of single TW. A parity effect of the number of 360o substructures on the critical current for the annihilation is found. Namely, when the number is odd or even, the critical current increase or decrease with the increasing of the number, respectively. The parity effect is relevant to the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the M360S.

  2. Enhancement of spin Hall effect induced torques for current-driven magnetic domain wall motion: Inner interface effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Do

    2016-05-23

    We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.

  3. Calculation of the multipole coefficients of 2-dimensional magnetic fields from the spectrum analysis computed by FLUX2D

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    Two-dimensional fields in regions with constant material properties (magnetic permeability, dielectric permittivity, heat conductivity, etc.) can be derived from a complex potential function W, where the real and imaginary parts correspond to the scalar potential function F and the stream function Y respectively. In source-free regions (no currents, electric charges, heat sinks, etc.), the field, is conservative and its complex potential W is a harmonic function where F and Y satisfy the Laplace equation. In such regions W can be expressed as a power series, the coefficients of which being the, multipole components of the field with respect to the origin of the series expansion. This note describes how these multipole coefficients are related to the amplitudes and phase angles as computed by, FLUX2D in the spectrum analysis of the magnetic vector potential. In the case of electrical or thermal problems, these same considerations apply by analogy.

  4. Multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines' grid support capability in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.

    2009-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines with a full-scale frequency converter. These wind turbines are announced to be very attractive, especially for large offshore wind farms...... and discussed by means of simulations with the use of a transmission power system generic model developed and delivered by the Danish Transmission System Operator Energinet.dk. The simulation results show how a PMSG wind farm equipped with an additional voltage control can help a nearby active stall wind farm...

  5. Investigation of Current Driven Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage...

  6. Experimental verification and analytical approach to influence stator skew on electromagnetic performance of permanent magnet generators with multipole rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Young; Jang, Seok-Myeong; Ko, Kyoung-Jin

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with experimental verification and analytical approach to influence stator skew on electromagnetic performance of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) with multipole rotor. The analytical expressions for magnetic field distributions are due to permanent magnets and the two-dimensional permeance function considering skew effects are established. On the basis of these analytical solutions, the analytical solutions for cogging torque and back-emf considering skew effects are also derived. Then, by applying estimated electrical parameters to a simple equivalent circuit of one phase for the PMG, output performances of the PMG with/without a skewed stator are investigated. Finally, by confirming that all analytical results are validated extensively by nonlinear finite element calculations and measurements, the validity of analysis methods presented in this paper is verified, and the influence stator skew on cogging torque, back-emf, and output performances of the PMG is also clearly described.

  7. High beta multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  8. Airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and multi-pole magnets towards enhanced power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, the airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively magnetized formation of 6 magnets to explore enhanced power density. In particular, the magnet array was positioned in parallel to the trajectory of the tip coil within its tip deflection span. The finite element simulations of the magnetic flux density and induced voltages at an open circuit condition were studied to find the maximum number of alternatively magnetized magnets that was required for the proposed energy harvester. Experimental results showed that the energy harvester with a pair of 6 alternatively magnetized linear magnet arrays was able to generate an induced voltage (Vo) of 20 V, with an open circuit condition, and 475 mW, under a 30 Ω optimal resistance load operating with the wind speed (U) at 7 m/s and a natural bending frequency of 3.54 Hz. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic energy harvester with a single magnet moving through a coil, the proposed energy harvester, containing multi-pole magnets and parallel array motion, enables the moving coil to accumulate a stronger magnetic flux in each period of the swinging motion. In addition to the comparison made with the airfoil-based piezoelectric energy harvester of the same size, our proposed electromagnetic energy harvester generates 11 times more power output, which is more suitable for high-power-density energy harvesting applications at regions with low environmental frequency.

  9. Generation of a spin-polarized electron beam by multipole magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo; Boyd, Robert W; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    The propagation of an electron beam in the presence of transverse magnetic fields possessing integer topological charges is presented. The spin-magnetic interaction introduces a nonuniform spin precession of the electrons that gains a space-variant geometrical phase in the transverse plane proportional to the field's topological charge, whose handedness depends on the input electron's spin state. A combination of our proposed device with an electron orbital angular momentum sorter can be utilized as a spin-filter of electron beams in a mid-energy range. We examine these two different configurations of a partial spin-filter generator numerically. The results of this analysis could prove useful in the design of an improved electron microscope. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental verification and analytical approach to cogging torque calculation and reduction of permanent magnet generators with multipole rotor for wind power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Young; Jang, Seok-Myeong

    2008-04-01

    This paper deals with the experimental verification and analytical approach to cogging torque calculation and reduction of permanent magnet generators (PMGs) with multipole rotor for wind power applications. Using energy methods with Fourier series expansion, cogging torque is analytically determined with air-gap flux density due to permanent magnets (PMs) and two-dimensional permeance function. The analytical results are validated extensively by nonlinear finite element (FE) results for various values of pole arc ratio (αp) of PMs. It shows that there exists optimum αp which minimizes cogging torque. However, we confirm that measured value for cogging torque of the PMG with optimum αp is twice higher than predicted value. The reason for an error between measured and predicted cogging torques is discussed fully in terms of a shape of PMs and is proved experimentally. The influence of stator skew on cogging torque is also presented using analytical, nonlinear FE and experimental methods.

  11. Current-driven phenomena in nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Seideman, Tamar

    2010-01-01

    Consisting of ten chapters written by some of the world's leaders in the field, this book combines experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of current-driven phenomena in the nanoscale. The topics covered range from single-molecule, site-specific nanochemistry induced by a scanning tunneling microscope, through inelastic tunneling spectroscopy and current-induced heating, to current-triggered molecular machines. The various chapters focus on experimental and numerical method development, the description of specific systems, and new ideas and novel phenomena.

  12. Advanced UXO Detection and Discrimination Using Magnetic Data Based on Extended Euler Deconvolution and Shape Identification Through Multipole Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    UXO (dark circles) along the south flank of the larger magnetic anomaly associated with the volcanic dyke. The second image (b) is the magnetic ...In Figure 6.5(a), the large magnetic anomaly prevalent in the image is the magnetic response of a subsurface volcanic dyke with high magnetic ...treats the UXO anomalies as the residual after removing the higher wavelength monopolar magnetic structure associated with the volcanic dyke. The

  13. Simulation of Monopole and Multipole Seismoelectric Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a fluid-saturated porous formation, acoustics and electromagnetic waves are coupled based on Pride seismoelectric theory. An exact treatment of the nonaxisymmetric seismoelectric field excited by acoustic multipole sources is presented. The frequency wavenumber domain representations of the acoustic field and associated seismoelectric field due to acoustic multipole sources are formulated. The full waveforms of acoustic waves and electric and magnetic fields in the time domain propagation in borehole are simulated by using discrete wave number integration, and frequency versus axial-wave number responses are presented and analyzed.

  14. Current driven by electromagnetic ETG turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Wang, Lu; Peng, Shuitao

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there has been intensive investigation of turbulence induced spontaneous rotation in tokamak. Naturally, current driven by turbulence has also been considered such as the electron temperature gradient (ETG) instability with a fluid mode. The electrostatic gyrokinetic simulation shows that the ETG turbulence driven current density corresponds to 20% of the local bootstrap current density. In this paper, the quasilinear version of the current evolution equation in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) ETG turbulence is presented using EM gyrokinetic equation. There are two types of current driving mechanisms. The first type is the divergence of stress, while the second type is called turbulent acceleration source. Finally, we compare the turbulent driven current to the background bootstrap current. The results demonstrate that the EM effect is important for the turbulent driven current. And the source term contributes a little to the total current. The modification of the current due to EM ETG turbulence is not dramatic in today's tokamak. However, it may play a significant role in future device.

  15. Current-driven flare and CME models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, D. B.

    2017-08-01

    Roles played by the currents in the impulsive phase of a solar flare and in a coronal mass ejection (CME) are reviewed. Solar flares are magnetic explosions: magnetic energy stored in unneutralized currents in coronal loops is released into energetic electrons in the impulsive phase and into mass motion in a CME. The energy release is due to a change in current configuration effectively reducing the net current path. A flare is driven by the electromotive force (EMF) due to the changing magnetic flux. The EMF drives a flare-associated current whose cross-field closure is achieved by redirection along field lines to the chromosphere and back. The essential roles that currents play are obscured in the "standard" model and are described incorrectly in circuit models. A semiquantitative treatment of the energy and the EMF is provided by a multicurrent model, in which the currents are constant and the change in the current paths is described by time-dependent inductances. There is no self-consistent model that includes the intrinsic time dependence, the EMF, the flare-associated current, and the internal energy transport during a flare. The current, through magnetic helicity, plays an important role in a CME, with twist converted into writhe allowing the kink instability plus reconnection to lead to a new closed loop and with the current-current force accelerating the CME through the torus instability.

  16. Creep of current-driven domain-wall lines: intrinsic versus extrinsic pinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duine, R.A.; de Morais Smith, C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a model for current-driven motion of a magnetic domain-wall line, in which the dynamics of the domain wall is equivalent to that of an overdamped vortex line in an anisotropic pinning potential. This potential has both extrinsic contributions due to, e.g., sample inhomogeneities, and an

  17. Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-05-17

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.

  18. Novel current driven domain wall dynamics in synthetic antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, See-Hun

    It was reported that the domain walls in nanowires can be moved efficiently by electrical currents by a new type of torque, chiral spin torque (CST), the combination of spin Hall effect and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Recently we domonstrated that ns-long current pulses can move domain walls at extraordinarily high speeds (up to ~750 m s -1) in synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) nanowires that have almost zero net magnetization, which is much more efficient compared with similar nanowires in which the sub-layers are coupled ferromagnetically (SF). This high speed is found to be due to a new type of powerful torque, exchange coupling torque (ECT) that is directly proportional to the strength of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two sub-layers, showing that the ECT is effective only in SAF not in SF. Moreover, it is found that the dependence of the wall velocity on the magnetic field applied along the nanowire is non-monotonic. Most recently we predict an Walker-breakdown-like domain wall precession in SAF nanowires in the presence of in-plane field based on the model we develop, and this extraordinary precession has been observed. In this talk I will discuss this in details by showing a unique characteristics of SAF sublayers' DW boost-and-drag mechanism along with CST and ECT. Novel current driven domain wall dynamics in synthetic antiferromagnets.

  19. Critical loss radius in a Penning trap subject to multipole fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fajans, J; Robicheaux, F

    2008-01-01

    When particles in a Penning trap are subject to a magnetic multipole field, those beyond a critical radius will be lost. The critical radius depends on the history by which the field is applied, and can be much smaller if the particles are injected into a preexisting multipole than if the particles are subject to a ramped multipole. Both cases are relevant to ongoing experiments designed to trap antihydrogen.

  20. Multipole expansion for transient electric and magnetic fields in an internally excited spherical cavity containing dampers of finite thickness with distributed electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B. P.

    1981-10-01

    The multipole expansion coefficients needed to calculate transient electromagnetic fields and cavity frequency response in an internally excited, damped cavity are derived for an arbitrary but centralized distribution of source currents and an arbitrary number of dampers which have finite width. A block matrix procedure is devised to solve the N damper boundary value problems, but specific solutions are presented for the cases of zero, one, and two dampers. Also, the TM wave multipole coefficients for an uncapped biconical antenna used as excitation source are obtained in closed form, with use of Schelkunoff's mode solution for the antenna currents. Finally, coupled integrodifferential equations for the current distribution in the end caps and the conical sections of a capped bicone source are presented. This entire theory will be encoded to permit analysis of AEDC experiments.

  1. Current-Driven Filament Instabilities in Relativistic Plasmas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Chuang

    2013-02-13

    This grant has supported a study of some fundamental problems in current- and flow-driven instabilities in plasmas and their applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics. It addressed current-driven instabilities and their roles in fast ignition, and flow-driven instabilities and their applications in astrophysics.

  2. Exact e-e (exchange) correlations of 2-D quantum dots in magnetic field: Size extensive N = 3 , 4 , … , ‧ n ‧ -electron systems via multi-pole expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Priyanka; Sharma, Shivalika; Singh, Sunny; Kaur, Harsimran; Hazra, Ram Kuntal

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of coulomb interaction emerges with the complexity of either convergence of integrals or separation of variables of Schrödinger equations. For an N-electron system, interaction terms grow by N(N-1)/2 factors. Therefore, 2-e system stands as fundamental basic unit for generalized N-e systems. For the first time, we have evaluated e-e correlations in very simple and absolutely terminating finite summed hypergeometric series for 2-D double carrier parabolic quantum dot in both zero and arbitrary non-zero magnetic field (symmetric gauge) and have appraised these integrals in variational methods. The competitive role among confinement strength, magnetic field, mass of the carrier and dielectric constant of the medium on energy level diagram, level-spacing statistics, heat capacities (Cv at 1 K) and magnetization (T ∼ (0-1)K) is studied on systems spanning over wide range of materials (GaAs,Ge,CdS,SiO2 and He, etc). We have also constructed an exact theory for generalized correlated N-e 2-D quantum dots via multi-pole expansion but for the sake of compactness of the article we refrain from data.

  3. HPAM: Hirshfeld partitioned atomic multipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2012-02-01

    An implementation of the Hirshfeld (HD) and Hirshfeld-Iterated (HD-I) atomic charge density partitioning schemes is described. Atomic charges and atomic multipoles are calculated from the HD and HD-I atomic charge densities for arbitrary atomic multipole rank l on molecules of arbitrary shape and size. The HD and HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are tested by comparing molecular multipole moments and the electrostatic potential (ESP) surrounding a molecule with their reference ab initio values. In general, the HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are found to better reproduce ab initio electrostatic properties over HD atomic charges/multipoles. A systematic increase in precision for reproducing ab initio electrostatic properties is demonstrated by increasing the atomic multipole rank from l=0 (atomic charges) to l=4 (atomic hexadecapoles). Both HD and HD-I atomic multipoles up to rank l are shown to exactly reproduce ab initio molecular multipole moments of rank L for L⩽l. In addition, molecular dipole moments calculated by HD, HD-I, and ChelpG atomic charges only ( l=0) are compared with reference ab initio values. Significant errors in reproducing ab initio molecular dipole moments are found if only HD or HD-I atomic charges used. Program summaryProgram title: HPAM Catalogue identifier: AEKP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 500 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 424 494 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: Linux RAM: Typically, a few hundred megabytes Classification: 16.13 External routines: The program requires 'formatted checkpoint' files obtained from the Gaussian 03 or Gaussian 09 quantum chemistry program. Nature of problem: An ab initio

  4. Propagation of electromagnetic soliton in a spin polarized current driven weak ferromagnetic nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, V.; Kavitha, L.; Gopi, D.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear spin dynamics of a spin polarized current driven anisotropic ferromagnetic nanowire with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) under the influence of electromagnetic wave (EMW) propagating along the axis of the nanowire. The magnetization dynamics and electromagnetic wave propagation in the ferromagnetic nanowire with weak anti-symmetric interaction is governed by a coupled vector Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and Maxwell's equations. These coupled nonlinear vector equations are recasted into the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (EDNLS) equation in the framework of reductive perturbation method. As it is well known, the modulational instability is a precursor for the emergence of localized envelope structures of various kinds, we compute the instability criteria for the weak ferromagnetic nanowire through linear stability analysis. Further, we invoke the homogeneous balance method to construct kink and anti-solitonic like electromagnetic (EM) soliton profiles for the EDNLS equation. We also explore the appreciable effect of the anti-symmetric weak interaction on the magnetization components of the propagating EM soliton. We find that the combination of spin-polarized current and the anti-symmetric DMI have a profound effect on the propagating EMW in a weak ferromagnetic nanowire. Thus, the anti-symmetric DMI in a spin polarized current driven ferromagnetic nanowire supports the lossless propagation of EM solitons, which may have potential applications in magnetic data storage devices.

  5. Current-driven magnetohydrodynamic thermal instabilities in sheared fields. [of solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions are sought for the dispersion relation for the MHD stability of magnetized medium in current-driven filamentation modes such as those observed in the solar atmosphere. The magnetic field is assumed to have a self-consistent sheared equilibrium structure. The analysis is carried out in the small wavenumber regime, where shear length is similar to the mode wavelength. Instability is found to depend on the ratio between the thermal and magnetic diffusivities, i.e., the Prandtl number, which identifies the unstable transverse wavenumbers. The instability conditions are expressed in an algebraic equation amenable to numerical solution. Results are provided from use of the model to determine the maximum growth rate and typical scale lengths of instabilities in a precoronal atmosphere and the lower transition region.

  6. Experimental Observation of a Current-Driven Instability in a Neutral Electron-Positron Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, J; Dzelzainis, T; Dieckmann, M E; Schumaker, W; Doria, D; Romagnani, L; Poder, K; Cole, J M; Alejo, A; Yeung, M; Krushelnick, K; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z; Reville, B; Samarin, G M; Symes, D D; Thomas, A G R; Borghesi, M; Sarri, G

    2017-11-03

    We report on the first experimental observation of a current-driven instability developing in a quasineutral matter-antimatter beam. Strong magnetic fields (≥1  T) are measured, via means of a proton radiography technique, after the propagation of a neutral electron-positron beam through a background electron-ion plasma. The experimentally determined equipartition parameter of ε_{B}≈10^{-3} is typical of values inferred from models of astrophysical gamma-ray bursts, in which the relativistic flows are also expected to be pair dominated. The data, supported by particle-in-cell simulations and simple analytical estimates, indicate that these magnetic fields persist in the background plasma for thousands of inverse plasma frequencies. The existence of such long-lived magnetic fields can be related to analog astrophysical systems, such as those prevalent in lepton-dominated jets.

  7. 3D Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Current-Driven Instability. 1; Instability of a Static Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the non-linear regime the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depends moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and the non-linear regime is reached at a later time than for constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the non-linear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.

  8. The Multipole Plasma Trap-PIC Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Nathaniel; Bowman, Amanda; Godden, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) multipole structure is studied via particle-in-cell computer modeling, to assess the response of quasi-neutral plasma to the imposed RF fields. Several regimes, such as pair plasma, antimatter plasma, and conventional (ion-electron) plasma are considered. In the case of equal charge-to-mass ratio of plasma species, the effects of the multipole field are symmetric between positive and negative particles. In the case of a charge-to-mass disparity, the multipole RF parameters (frequency, voltage, structure size) may be chosen such that the light species (e.g. electrons) is strongly confined, while the heavy species (e.g. positive ions) does not respond to the RF field. In this case, the trapped negative space charge creates a potential well that then traps the positive species. 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of this concept are presented, to assess plasma response and trapping dependences on multipole order, consequences of the formation of an RF plasma sheath, and the effects of an axial magnetic field. The scalings of trapped plasma parameters are explored in each of the mentioned regimes, to guide the design of prospective experiments investigating each. Supported by U.S. NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering Grant PHY-1619615.

  9. Highly Parallel Demagnetization Field Calculation Using the Fast Multipole Method on Tetrahedral Meshes with Continuous Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Palmesi, Pietro; Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The long-range magnetic field is the most time-consuming part in micromagnetic simulations. Improvements both on a numerical and computational basis can relief problems related to this bottleneck. This work presents an efficient implementation of the Fast Multipole Method [FMM] for the magnetic scalar potential as used in micromagnetics. We assume linearly magnetized tetrahedral sources, treat the near field directly and use analytical integration on the multipole expansion in the far field. This approach tackles important issues like the vectorial and continuous nature of the magnetic field. By using FMM the calculations scale linearly in time and memory.

  10. Highly parallel demagnetization field calculation using the fast multipole method on tetrahedral meshes with continuous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Exl, L.; Bruckner, F.; Abert, C.; Suess, D.

    2017-11-01

    The long-range magnetic field is the most time-consuming part in micromagnetic simulations. Computational improvements can relieve problems related to this bottleneck. This work presents an efficient implementation of the Fast Multipole Method [FMM] for the magnetic scalar potential as used in micromagnetics. The novelty lies in extending FMM to linearly magnetized tetrahedral sources making it interesting also for other areas of computational physics. We treat the near field directly and in use (exact) numerical integration on the multipole expansion in the far field. This approach tackles important issues like the vectorial and continuous nature of the magnetic field. By using FMM the calculations scale linearly in time and memory.

  11. Description of complex time series by multipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewkowicz, M.; Levitan, J.; Puzanov, N.

    2002-01-01

    We present a new method to describe time series with a highly complex time evolution. The time series is projected onto a two-dimensional phase-space plot which is quantified in terms of a multipole expansion where every data point is assigned a unit mass. The multipoles provide an efficient char...

  12. Current-driven electromagnetic soliton collision in a ferromagnetic nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.

    2015-07-01

    The propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a uniaxial ferromagnetic nanowire under the spin transfer torque effect is widely investigated in the soliton frame. The magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic nanowire is governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation coupled to the Maxwell equation for the electromagnetic wave propagation. A nonuniform multiscale analysis is invoked for the coupled LLG-Maxwell equations and obtains the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation for the magnetization and external magnetic field. The effect of electric current is explored by constructing multisoliton solutions to the extended DNLS equation and the possibility of the soliton collision is exploited using the Hirota bilinearization procedure.

  13. Influence of shell structure on multipole pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mühlhans

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the surface delta interaction as the generating two-body force, we investigate the interdependence between the composition of the multipole pair field and the multipole moments of the relevant single-particle states. A decrease of the quadrupole pair field is found in going from light to heavy rare earth nuclei. The inclusion of higher multipole moments shifts an existing backbend to higher frequency but when the force parameters are readjusted to reproduce the experimental odd-even mass difference the shift is strongly reduced.

  14. Cluster multipole theory for anomalous Hall effect in antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.-T.; Koretsune, T.; Ochi, M.; Arita, R.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a cluster extension of multipole moments to discuss the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in both ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) states in a unified framework. We first derive general symmetry requirements for the AHE in the presence or absence of the spin-orbit coupling by considering the symmetry of the Berry curvature in k space. The cluster multipole (CMP) moments are then defined to quantify the macroscopic magnetization in noncollinear AFM states as a natural generalization of the magnetization in FM states. We identify the macroscopic CMP order which induces the AHE. The theoretical framework is applied to the noncollinear AFM states of Mn3Ir , for which an AHE was predicted in a first-principles calculation, and Mn3Z (Z =Sn ,Ge ), for which a large AHE was recently discovered experimentally. We further compare the AHE in Mn3Z and bcc Fe in terms of the CMP. We show that the AHE in Mn3Z is characterized by the magnetization of a cluster octupole moment in the same manner as that in bcc Fe characterized by the magnetization of the dipole moment.

  15. Statistical multipole formulations for shielding problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Körber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A multipole-based method is presented for modelling an electromagnetic field with small statistical variations inside an arbitrary enclosure. The accurate computation of the statistics of the field components from the statistical moments of the multipole amplitudes is demonstrated for two- and three-dimensional examples. To obtain the statistics of quantities which depend non-linearly on the field components, higher-order statistical moments of the latter are required.

  16. Atomic forces for geometry-dependent point multipole and gaussian multipole models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M; Perera, Lalith; Duke, Robert; Darden, Thomas; Pedersen, Lee G

    2010-11-30

    In standard treatments of atomic multipole models, interaction energies, total molecular forces, and total molecular torques are given for multipolar interactions between rigid molecules. However, if the molecules are assumed to be flexible, two additional multipolar atomic forces arise because of (1) the transfer of torque between neighboring atoms and (2) the dependence of multipole moment on internal geometry (bond lengths, bond angles, etc.) for geometry-dependent multipole models. In this study, atomic force expressions for geometry-dependent multipoles are presented for use in simulations of flexible molecules. The atomic forces are derived by first proposing a new general expression for Wigner function derivatives partial derivative D(m'm)(l)/partial derivative Omega. The force equations can be applied to electrostatic models based on atomic point multipoles or gaussian multipole charge density. Hydrogen-bonded dimers are used to test the intermolecular electrostatic energies and atomic forces calculated by geometry-dependent multipoles fit to the ab initio electrostatic potential. The electrostatic energies and forces are compared with their reference ab initio values. It is shown that both static and geometry-dependent multipole models are able to reproduce total molecular forces and torques with respect to ab initio, whereas geometry-dependent multipoles are needed to reproduce ab initio atomic forces. The expressions for atomic force can be used in simulations of flexible molecules with atomic multipoles. In addition, the results presented in this work should lead to further development of next generation force fields composed of geometry-dependent multipole models. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Verification of gyrokinetic particle simulation of current-driven instability in fusion plasmas. I. Internal kink mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.

  18. Multipole plasmons in graphene nanoellipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihua; Song, Zhengyong

    2018-02-01

    We study multipole plasmons in graphene nanoellipses under the quasi-static approximation. The graphene is characterized by a homogeneous surface conductivity, and two coupled differential and integral equations are solved self-consistently to investigate the plasmonic modes in nanoellipses with a fixed area. With respect to the major axis, the symmetric and antisymmetric modes originally doubly degenerate in nanodisks will show different behavior as the semi-major axis increases. The eigen frequencies of the symmetric modes decrease, while those of the antisymmetric modes increase. At the edges, the phase changes of the symmetric dipole modes are linear and independent on structural changes; the phase changes of antisymmetric modes deviate from linear relationship, and the deviation depends on the semi-major axis. As a very large aspect ratio, they exhibit sharp peaks at the endpoints of the minor axis and zero phase changes at the endpoints of the major axis. The non-degenerate breathing mode shows its hot spots at the endpoints of the minor axis, and its eigen frequency gradually increases as the semi-major axis increases.

  19. Dynamical Aperture Control in Accelerator Lattices With Multipole Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, I

    2017-01-01

    We develop tools for symbolic representation of a non-linear accelerator model and analytical methods for description of non-linear dynamics. Information relevant to the dynamic aperture (DA) is then obtained from this model and can be used for indirect DA control or as a complement to direct numerical optimization. We apply two analytical methods and use multipole magnets to satisfy derived analytical constraints. The accelerator model is represented as a product of unperturbed and perturbed exponential operators with the exponent of the perturbed operator given as a power series in the perturbation parameter. Normal forms can be applied to this representation and the lattice parameters are used to control the normal form Hamiltonian and normal form transformation. Hamiltonian control is used to compute a control term or controlled operator. Lattice parameters are then fitted to satisfy the imposed control constraints. Theoretical results, as well as illustrative examples, are presented.

  20. Multipole Traps as Tools in Environmental Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Giurgiu, Liviu C; Groza, Andreea; Surmeian, Agavni; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry; Deputatova, Lidiya; Vasilyak, Leonid; Pecherkin, Vladimir; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Syrovatka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Trapping of microparticles, nanoparticles and aerosols is an issue of major interest for physics and chemistry. We present a setup intended for microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. A 16-electrode linear trap geometry has been designed and tested, with an aim to confine a larger number of particles with respect to quadrupole traps and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio, as well as to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. Experimental tests and numerical simulations suggest that multipole traps are very suited for high precision mass spectrometry measurements in case of different microparticle species or to identify the presence of certain aerosols and polluting agents in the atmosphere. Particle traps represent versatile tools for environment monitoring or for the study of many-body Coulomb systems and dusty plasmas.

  1. Current-driven and field-driven domain walls at nonzero temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406913; van Driel, H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315885114; de Morais Smith, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836346; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for the dynamics of current-driven and field-driven domain-wall lines at nonzero temperature. We compute thermally averaged drift velocities from the Fokker-Planck equation that describes the nonzero-temperature dynamics of the domain wall. As special limits of this general

  2. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Rainer

    2013-08-20

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  3. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Rainer

    2016-05-24

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  4. Photon decay of giant multipole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of the excitation of giant multipole resonances via Coulomb excitation is given which emphasizes the very large cross sections that can be realized through this reaction for both isoscalar and isovector resonances. Discussion and results where available, are provided for the measurement of the photon decay of one and two phonon giant resonances. It is pointed out throughout the presentation that the use of E1 photons as a tag'' provides a means to observe weakly excited resonances that cannot be observed in the shingles spectra. 26 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Electric multipole moments, topological multipole moment pumping, and chiral hinge states in crystalline insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-12-01

    We extend the theory of dipole moments in crystalline insulators to higher multipole moments. As first formulated in Benalcazar et al. [Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442], we show that bulk quadrupole and octupole moments can be realized in crystalline insulators. In this paper, we expand in great detail the theory presented previously [Benalcazar et al., Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442] and extend it to cover associated topological pumping phenomena, and a class of three-dimensional (3D) insulator with chiral hinge states. We start by deriving the boundary properties of continuous classical dielectrics hosting only bulk dipole, quadrupole, or octupole moments. In quantum mechanical crystalline insulators, these higher multipole bulk moments manifest themselves by the presence of boundary-localized moments of lower dimension, in exact correspondence with the electromagnetic theory of classical continuous dielectrics. In the presence of certain symmetries, these moments are quantized, and their boundary signatures are fractionalized. These multipole moments then correspond to new symmetry-protected topological phases. The topological structure of these phases is described by "nested" Wilson loops, which we define. These Wilson loops reflect the bulk-boundary correspondence in a way that makes evident a hierarchical classification of the multipole moments. Just as a varying dipole generates charge pumping, a varying quadrupole generates dipole pumping, and a varying octupole generates quadrupole pumping. For nontrivial adiabatic cycles, the transport of these moments is quantized. An analysis of these interconnected phenomena leads to the conclusion that a new kind of Chern-type insulator exists, which has chiral, hinge-localized modes in 3D. We provide the minimal models for the quantized multipole moments, the nontrivial pumping processes, and the hinge Chern insulator, and describe the topological invariants that protect them.

  6. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  7. Microscopic Theory of Multipole Ordering in f-Electron Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microscopic framework to determine multipole ordering in f-electron systems is provided on the basis of the standard quantum field theory. For the construction of the framework, a seven-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian with strong spin-orbit coupling is adopted as a prototype model. A type of multipole and ordering vector is determined from the divergence of multipole susceptibility, which is evaluated in a random phase approximation. As an example of the application of the present framework, a multipole phase diagram on a three-dimensional simple cubic lattice is discussed for the case of n=2, where n denotes the average f-electron number per site. Finally, future problems concerning multipole ordering and fluctuations are briefly discussed.

  8. Multipole charge conservation and implications on electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraj, Ali

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that conserved charges associated with a specific subclass of gauge symmetries of Maxwell electrodynamics are proportional to the well known electric mul-tipole moments. The symmetries are residual gauge transformations surviving the Lorenz gauge, with nontrivial conserved charge at spatial infinity. These "Multipole charges" receive contributions both from the charged matter and electromagnetic fields. The former is nothing but the electric multipole moment of the source. In a stationary configuration, there is a novel equipartition relation between the two contributions. The multipole charge, while conserved, can freely interpolate between the source and the electromagnetic field, and therefore can be propagated with the radiation. Using the multipole charge conservation, we obtain infinite number of constraints over the radiation produced by the dynamics of charged matter.

  9. Multipole Stack for the 800 MeV PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The 800 MeV PS Booster had seen first beam in its 4 superposed rings in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. In the strive for ever higher beam intensities, the need for additional multipole lenses became evident. After detailed studies, the manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974. Each stack consists of 4 superposed multipoles and each multipole has 4 concentric shells. From the innermost to the outermost shell, Type A contains octupole, skew-octupole, sextupole, skew-sextupole. Type B contains skew-octupole, skew-sextupole, vertical dipole, horizontal dipole. Completion of installation in 1976 opened the way to higher beam intensities. M. Battiaz is seen here with a multipole stack and its many electrical connections.

  10. Multipole modes and spin features in the Raman spectrum of nanoscopic quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperador, Agustí; Pi, Martí; Barranco, Manuel; Lipparini, Enrico

    2001-10-01

    We present a systematic study of ground state and spectroscopic properties of many-electron nanoscopic quantum rings. Addition energies at zero magnetic field (B) and electrochemical potentials as a function of B are given for a ring hosting up to 24 electrons. We find discontinuities in the excitation energies of multipole spin and charge density modes, and a coupling between the charge and spin density responses that allow to identify the formation of ferromagnetic ground states in narrow magnetic field regions. These effects can be observed in Raman experiments, and are related to the fractional Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the energy and of the persistent current in the ring.

  11. Multipole-bound molecular negative ions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Karim, H; Desfrançois, C

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple electrostatic model, as compared to recent experimental results, we here discuss the stability of very weakly bound molecular negative ions. In contrast with the case of conventional valence anions, the excess electron is then located in a very diffuse orbital and is mainly bound by electrostatic dipolar, quadrupolar, and polarization forces, at large distances from the neutral molecular core. By fitting a single repulsion parameter of the model to the available experimental data, it is possible to make quantitative predictions of the excess-electron binding energies in these species. Critical values of the dipole moment, quadrupole moment or polarizability required for the observation of stable multipole-bound negative ions are predicted and compared to available experimental data and ab initio calculations. Refs. 26 (author)

  12. Transferable Atomic Multipole Machine Learning Models for Small Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; Andrienko, Denis; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2015-07-14

    Accurate representation of the molecular electrostatic potential, which is often expanded in distributed multipole moments, is crucial for an efficient evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Here we introduce a machine learning model for multipole coefficients of atom types H, C, O, N, S, F, and Cl in any molecular conformation. The model is trained on quantum-chemical results for atoms in varying chemical environments drawn from thousands of organic molecules. Multipoles in systems with neutral, cationic, and anionic molecular charge states are treated with individual models. The models' predictive accuracy and applicability are illustrated by evaluating intermolecular interaction energies of nearly 1,000 dimers and the cohesive energy of the benzene crystal.

  13. Using Huygens Multipole Arrays to Realize Unidirectional Needle-Like Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Ziolkowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century, the concept of needle radiation has captured the attention of the electromagnetics communities in both physics and engineering, with various types of contributions reoccurring every decade. With the near-term needs for highly directive, electrically small radiators and scatterers for a variety of communications and sensor applications, superdirectivity has again become a topic of interest. While it is well known that superdirective solutions exist and suffer ill-posedness issues in principle, a detailed needle solution has not been reported previously. We demonstrate explicitly, for the first time, how needle radiation can be obtained theoretically from currents driven on an arbitrary spherical surface, and we explain why such a result can only be attained in practice with electrically large spheres. On the other hand, we also demonstrate, more practically, how broadside radiating Huygens source multipoles can be combined into an end-fire array configuration to achieve needle-like radiation performance without suffering the traditional problems that have previously plagued superdirectivity.

  14. Using Huygens Multipole Arrays to Realize Unidirectional Needle-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2017-07-01

    For nearly a century, the concept of needle radiation has captured the attention of the electromagnetics communities in both physics and engineering, with various types of contributions reoccurring every decade. With the near-term needs for highly directive, electrically small radiators and scatterers for a variety of communications and sensor applications, superdirectivity has again become a topic of interest. While it is well known that superdirective solutions exist and suffer ill-posedness issues in principle, a detailed needle solution has not been reported previously. We demonstrate explicitly, for the first time, how needle radiation can be obtained theoretically from currents driven on an arbitrary spherical surface, and we explain why such a result can only be attained in practice with electrically large spheres. On the other hand, we also demonstrate, more practically, how broadside radiating Huygens source multipoles can be combined into an end-fire array configuration to achieve needle-like radiation performance without suffering the traditional problems that have previously plagued superdirectivity.

  15. Design, simulation and testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xuezheng; Yao, Jin

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with design, simulation and experimental testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological (MR) brake. This MR brake has an innovative structural design with superposition principle of two magnetic fields generated by the inner coils and the outer coils. The MR brake has several media layers of magnetorheological (MR) fluid located between the inner coils and the outer coils, and it can provide higher torque and higher torque density than conventional single-disk or multi-disk or multi-pole single-layer MR brakes can. In this paper, a brief introduction to the structure of the proposed MR brake was given first. Then, theoretical analysis of the magnetic circuit and the braking torque was conducted. In addition, a 3D electromagnetic model of the MR brake was developed to simulate and examine the magnetic flux intensity and corresponding braking torque. A prototype of the brake was fabricated and several tests were carried out to validate its torque capacity. The results show that the proposed MR brake can produce a maximum braking torque of 133 N m and achieve a high torque density of 25.0 kN m‑2, a high torque range of 42 and a high torque-to-power ratio of 0.95 N m W‑1.

  16. Scalable fast multipole accelerated vortex methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2014-05-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) is often used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions in particle-based methods to simulate incompressible flows. To evaluate the most time-consuming kernels - the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equation, we mathematically reformulated it so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six. This automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, we developed a new FMM-based vortex method on heterogeneous architectures, which distributed the work between multicore CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently, with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching calculation for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s.

  17. Atom-partitioned multipole expansions for electrostatic potential boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M., E-mail: michael.s.lee131.civ@mail.mil [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Leiter, K. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Eisner, C. [Secure Mission Solutions, a Parsons Company (United States); Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Knap, J. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Applications such as grid-based real-space density functional theory (DFT) use the Poisson equation to compute electrostatics. However, the expected long tail of the electrostatic potential requires either the use of a large and costly outer domain or Dirichlet boundary conditions estimated via multipole expansion. We find that the oft-used single-center spherical multipole expansion is only appropriate for isotropic mesh domains such as spheres and cubes. In this work, we introduce a method suitable for high aspect ratio meshes whereby the charge density is partitioned into atomic domains and multipoles are computed for each domain. While this approach is moderately more expensive than a single-center expansion, it is numerically stable and still a small fraction of the overall cost of a DFT calculation. The net result is that when high aspect ratio systems are being studied, form-fitted meshes can now be used in lieu of cubic meshes to gain computational speedup.

  18. Geometry-dependent atomic multipole models for the water molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, O; Millot, C

    2017-10-28

    Models of atomic electric multipoles for the water molecule have been optimized in order to reproduce the electric potential around the molecule computed by ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with up to noniterative triple excitations in an augmented triple-zeta quality basis set. Different models of increasing complexity, from atomic charges up to models containing atomic charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles, have been obtained. The geometry dependence of these atomic multipole models has been investigated by changing bond lengths and HOH angle to generate 125 molecular structures (reduced to 75 symmetry-unique ones). For several models, the atomic multipole components have been fitted as a function of the geometry by a Taylor series of fourth order in monomer coordinate displacements.

  19. Report of the SSC workshop on distributed multipole correction coils. Task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, R. [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The SSC Workshop on Distributed Multipole Correction Coils was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on October 13 and 14, 1987. This Workshop was organized by the SSC Central Design Group, and its purpose was to discuss the present status of specifications, designs, and R&D plans for distributed, actively-powered multipole correction coils for the SSC. The Workshop was organized into four consecutive sessions to discuss the following topics: requirements for distributed correction coils, distributed connection coil designs, materials issues, and plans for future R&D. The following conclusions were drawn from the workshop: Accelerator physics considerations indicate that distributed multipole correction coils represent a feasible and flexible method to correct magnetic field errors in the SSC. Considerable progress has been made by Brookhaven National Laboratory in collaboration with industry to develop a possible fabrication technique for distributed correction coils. This technique consists of imbedding superconducting wire in a flexible plastic substrate. Its feasibility for the SSC still needs to be demonstrated. BNL has presented a preliminary plan for the necessary R&D. A successful technique has been developed to manufacture distributed correction coils for HERA. The coil performance is excellent. As yet, no plan has been proposed to study this type of correction coil for the SSC. The results from an experiment to study radiation damage to organic materials, although still preliminary, am providing guidance in selecting the most radiation resistant materials to use in correction coils. The test samples in this experiment were subjected to much larger radiation doses than expected at the SSC. Considerable information on radiation damage is available in the literature.

  20. Gaussian translation operator for Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Hansen, Per Christian; Sorensen, Stig B.

    2014-01-01

    Results using a new translation operator for the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method are presented. Based on Gaussian beams, the translation operator allows a significant portion of the plane-wave directions to be neglected, resulting in a much faster translation step.......Results using a new translation operator for the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method are presented. Based on Gaussian beams, the translation operator allows a significant portion of the plane-wave directions to be neglected, resulting in a much faster translation step....

  1. Performance Benchmarking of Fast Multipole Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harthi, Noha A.

    2013-06-01

    The current trends in computer architecture are shifting towards smaller byte/flop ratios, while available parallelism is increasing at all levels of granularity – vector length, core count, and MPI process. Intel’s Xeon Phi coprocessor, NVIDIA’s Kepler GPU, and IBM’s BlueGene/Q all have a Byte/flop ratio close to 0.2, which makes it very difficult for most algorithms to extract a high percentage of the theoretical peak flop/s from these architectures. Popular algorithms in scientific computing such as FFT are continuously evolving to keep up with this trend in hardware. In the meantime it is also necessary to invest in novel algorithms that are more suitable for computer architectures of the future. The fast multipole method (FMM) was originally developed as a fast algorithm for ap- proximating the N-body interactions that appear in astrophysics, molecular dynamics, and vortex based fluid dynamics simulations. The FMM possesses have a unique combination of being an efficient O(N) algorithm, while having an operational intensity that is higher than a matrix-matrix multiplication. In fact, the FMM can reduce the requirement of Byte/flop to around 0.01, which means that it will remain compute bound until 2020 even if the cur- rent trend in microprocessors continues. Despite these advantages, there have not been any benchmarks of FMM codes on modern architectures such as Xeon Phi, Kepler, and Blue- Gene/Q. This study aims to provide a comprehensive benchmark of a state of the art FMM code “exaFMM” on the latest architectures, in hopes of providing a useful reference for deciding when the FMM will become useful as the computational engine in a given application code. It may also serve as a warning to certain problem size domains areas where the FMM will exhibit insignificant performance improvements. Such issues depend strongly on the asymptotic constants rather than the asymptotics themselves, and therefore are strongly implementation and hardware

  2. A Comment on Interaction of Lower Hybrid Waves with the Current-Driven Ion-Acoustic Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Majeski et al. (1984) have investigated the interaction between the current-driven 'ion-acoustic' instability and high frequency lower hybrid waves. The 'ion-acoustic' instability was excited by drawing an electron current through the plasma column of a single-ended Q-machine by means...

  3. Influence of Azimuthal Coil Size on Skew Multipoles in the LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Vanenkov, I

    2003-01-01

    The field quality in superconducting accelerator magnets is strongly influenced by the azimuthal dimension of the superconducting coil. Asymmetries between the upper and lower poles steer skew harmonics that can endanger the beam dynamics stability. We present dimensional measurements of a large number of coils that have been carried out in one of the three manufacturers of the main LHC dipoles. A magneto-static model is then used to work out the influence of coil non-nominalites on field harmonics. Comparison to magnetic measurements carried out at room temperature shows that skew harmonics can be partly traced back to azimuthal coil dimensions. We focus on harmonics, which are more critical with respect to the beam dynamics limits (a2 and a4). Finally some strategies are presented, like the sorting of individual coil poles in order to reduce the detrimental effects on these multipoles.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Ari

    2005-03-01

    `Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin! `It canÂ't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where everything seems to work well with the `old

  5. Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihvola, Ari [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)

    2005-03-11

    'Good reasons must, of force, give place to better', observes Brutus to Cassius, according to William Shakespeare in Julius Caesar. Roger Raab and Owen de Lange seem to agree, as they cite this sentence in the concluding chapter of their new book on the importance of exact multipole analysis in macroscopic electromagnetics. Very true and essential to remember in our daily research work. The two scientists from the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (presently University of KwaZulu-Natal) have been working for a very long time on the accurate description of electric and magnetic response of matter and have published much of their findings in various physics journals. The present book gives us a clear and coherent exposition of many of these results. The important message of Raab and de Lange is that in the macroscopic description of matter, a correct balance between the various orders of electric and magnetic multipole terms has to be respected. If the inclusion of magnetic dipole terms is not complemented with electric quadrupoles, there is a risk of losing the translational invariance of certain important quantities. This means that the values of these quantities depend on the choice of the origin{exclamation_point} 'It can't be Nature, for it is not sense' is another of the apt literary citations in the book. Often monographs written by researchers look like they have been produced using a cut-and-paste technique; earlier published articles are included in the same book but, unfortunately, too little additional effort is expended into moulding the totality into a unified story. This is not the case with Raab and de Lange. The structure and the text flow of the book serve perfectly its important message. After the obligatory introduction of material response to electromagnetic fields, constitutive relations, basic quantum theory and spacetime properties, a chapter follows with transmission and scattering effects where

  6. Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments ℓ up to rank 10 and of the linear polarizability of the H2 molecule in the condensed phase have been computed taking into account the effect of the intermolecular potential. Comparison with gas phase matrix elements shows that the effect of solid state interactions is ...

  7. Spiralling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two different...

  8. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the local structural information has also been obtained by analyzing the atomic pair distribution function. An attempt has been made in the present work to utilize the X-ray powder data sets to refine the structure and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile methods, MEM, multipole ...

  9. Instability of reconstruction of the low CMB multipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naselsky, Pavel D.; Verkhodanov, Oleg V.; Nielsen, Mikkel T. B.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the bias of the Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB map and show that it is closely related to the coefficient of cross-correlation K(l) of the true CMB and the foreground for each multipole l. We present analysis of the cross-correlation for the WMAP ILC quadrupole an...

  10. Predicting K0Λ photoproduction observables by using the multipole approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, T.; Rusli, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present an isobar model for kaon photoproduction on the proton γ p\\to K^+Λ that can nicely reproduce the available experimental data from threshold up to W=2.0 GeV. The background amplitude of the model is constructed from a covariant Feynman diagrammatic method, whereas the resonance one is formulated by using the multipole approach. All unknown parameters in both background and resonance amplitudes are extracted by adjusting the calculated observables to experimental data. With the help of SU(3) isospin symmetry and some information obtained from the Particle Data Group we estimate the cross section and polarization observables for the neutral kaon photoproduction on the neutron γ n\\to K^0Λ. The result indicates no sharp peak in the K^0Λ total cross section. The predicted differential cross section exhibits resonance structures only at cosθ=-1. To obtain sizable observables the present work recommends measurement of the K^0Λ cross section with W≳ 1.70 GeV, whereas for the recoiled Λ polarization measurement with W≈ 1.65-1.90 GeV would be advised, since the predictions of existing models show a large variance at this kinematics. The predicted electric and magnetic multipoles are found to be mostly different from those obtained in previous works. For W=1.75 and 1.95 GeV it is found that most of the single and double polarization observables demonstrate large asymmetries.

  11. Current-driven domain wall ratchet in a nanomagnet with functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri; Saxena, Avadh

    We develop a concept of functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which provides novel ways of efficient control of the magnetization dynamics. Using this approach we realize the ratchet motion of the domain wall in a magnetic nanowire driven by spin polarized current with potential applications in magnetic devices such as race-track memory and magnetic logical devices. By engineering the spatial profile of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya parameters we provide a unidirectional motion of the domain wall along the wire. We base our study on phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations using a collective variable approach. In effective equations of motion the functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction appears as a driving force, which can either suppress the action of the pumping by the current or can reinforce it. All analytical predictions are well confirmed by numerical simulations.

  12. Biskyrmion states and their current-driven motion in a layered manganite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X Z; Tokunaga, Y; Kaneko, Y; Zhang, W Z; Kimoto, K; Matsui, Y; Taguchi, Y; Tokura, Y

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic skyrmion is a topologically stable spin texture in which the constituent spins point to all the directions wrapping a sphere. Generation and control of nanometric magnetic skyrmions have large potential, for example, reduced power consumption, in spintronics device applications. Here we show the real-space observation of a biskyrmion, as defined by a molecular form of two bound skyrmions with the total topological charge of 2, realized under magnetic field applied normal to a thin plate of a bilayered manganite with centrosymmetric structure. In terms of a Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have observed a distorted-triangle lattice of biskyrmion crystal, each composed of two bound skyrmions with oppositely swirling spins (magnetic helicities). Furthermore, we demonstrate that these biskyrmions can be electrically driven with orders of magnitude lower current density (<10(8) A m(-2)) than that for the conventional ferromagnetic domain walls.

  13. An all-metallic logic gate based on current-driven domain wall motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xia, Ke; Gu, Changzhi; Tang, Ling; Yang, Haifang; Li, Junjie

    2008-02-01

    The walls of magnetic domains can become trapped in a ferromagnetic metallic point contact when the thickness of the film and the width of the contact are less than their critical values. The discovery that domain walls can be moved from such constrictions by a sufficiently large current has attracted considerable attention from researchers working on both fundamental research and potential applications. Here we show that Invar nanocontacts fabricated on silica substrates exhibit a sharp drop in resistance with increasing bias voltage at room temperature in the absence of an applied magnetic field. Moreover, when two nanocontacts are combined in an all-metallic comparison circuit, it is possible to perform logical NOT operations. The use of electrical currents rather than applied magnetic fields to control the domain walls also reduces energy consumption and the risk of crosstalk in devices.

  14. Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-10-01

    Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Multipole expansion in the quantum hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    The effective action for low-energy excitations of Laughlin’s states is obtained by systematic expansion in inverse powers of the magnetic field. It is based on the W-infinity symmetry of quantum incompressible fluids and the associated higher-spin fields. Besides reproducing the Wen and Wen-Zee actions and the Hall viscosity, this approach further indicates that the low-energy excitations are extended objects with dipolar and multipolar moments.

  16. Coherent Excitation-Selective Spectroscopy of Multipole Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu; Tseng, Ming Lun; Tsai, Din Ping; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of functional materials, from graphene to semiconductor heterostructures, and from nanomembranes to Langmuir-Blodgett films play key roles in modern technologies. For such films optical interrogation is the main and often the only practical method of characterization. Here, we show that characterization of the optical response of thin films can be greatly improved with a type of coherent spectroscopy using two counterpropagating beams of light. The spectroscopy is selective to particular types of multipole resonances that form the absorption spectrum of the film, and therefore can reveal lines that are hidden in conventional absorption spectroscopy. We explicitly demonstrate selectivity of this spectroscopy in a series of proof-of-principle experiments with plasmonic metamaterial arrays designed to exhibit different multipole resonances. We further demonstrate the analytic potential of this spectroscopy by extracting the hidden resonance from the spectrum of a complex nanostructure.

  17. Extension of the Multipole Approach to Random Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chipouline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the short-range lateral disorder in the meta-atoms positioning on the effective parameters of the metamaterials is investigated theoretically using the multipole approach. Random variation of the near field quasi-static interaction between metaatoms in form of double wires is shown to be the reason for the effective permittivity and permeability changes. The obtained analytical results are compared with the known experimental ones.

  18. OptiDis: A parallel Fast Multipole Dislocation Dynamics code

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCHARD, Pierre; Etcheverry, Arnaud; Coulaud, Olivier; Dupuy, Laurent; Bletry, Marc; Darve, Eric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Among all the steps involved in DD simulations, the computation of the internal elastic forces and energy are by far the most resources consuming. However, since these are long-ranged and fast decreasing interactions, hierarchical algorithms like the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) are well suited for their fast evaluation. The relatively low accuracy required for the interaction forces between dislocations brought us to develop a more efficient approximation method for th...

  19. Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-12-15

    The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving dielectric objects with the parallel multilevel fast multipole algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Özgür

    2011-11-01

    Fast and accurate solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving homogeneous dielectric objects are considered. Problems are formulated with the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation and discretized with the Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions. Solutions are performed iteratively by using the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). For the solution of large-scale problems discretized with millions of unknowns, MLFMA is parallelized on distributed-memory architectures using a rigorous technique, namely, the hierarchical partitioning strategy. Efficiency and accuracy of the developed implementation are demonstrated on very large problems involving as many as 100 million unknowns.

  1. Cluster-Based Multipolling Sequencing Algorithm for Collecting RFID Data in Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong; Chatterjee, Mainak

    2015-03-01

    With the growing use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), it is becoming important to devise ways to read RFID tags in real time. Access points (APs) of IEEE 802.11-based wireless Local Area Networks (LANs) are being integrated with RFID networks that can efficiently collect real-time RFID data. Several schemes, such as multipolling methods based on the dynamic search algorithm and random sequencing, have been proposed. However, as the number of RFID readers associated with an AP increases, it becomes difficult for the dynamic search algorithm to derive the multipolling sequence in real time. Though multipolling methods can eliminate the polling overhead, we still need to enhance the performance of the multipolling methods based on random sequencing. To that extent, we propose a real-time cluster-based multipolling sequencing algorithm that drastically eliminates more than 90% of the polling overhead, particularly so when the dynamic search algorithm fails to derive the multipolling sequence in real time.

  2. Challenges in Measuring External Currents Driven by the Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, James A.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    In studying the Earth's geomagnetism, it has always been a challenge to separate magnetic fields from external currents originating from the ionosphere and magnetosphere. While the internal magnetic field changes very slowly in time scales of years and more, the ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems driven by the solar wind -magnetosphere interaction are very dynamic. They are intimately controlled by the ionospheric electrodynamics and ionospheremagnetosphere coupling. Single spacecraft observations are not able to separate their spatial and temporal variations, and thus to accurately describe their configurations. To characterize and understand the external currents, satellite observations require both good spatial and temporal resolutions. This paper reviews our observations of the external currents from two recent LEO satellite missions: Space Technology 5 (ST-5), NASA's first three-satellite constellation mission in LEO polar orbit, and Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS), an equatorial satellite developed by US Air Force Research Laboratory. We present recommendations for future geomagnetism missions based on these observations.

  3. Conceptual design of a 14 cm period multipole wiggler at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D E; Suh, H S; Jung, Y G; Park, K H; Bak, J S

    2001-01-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) is developing a Multipole Wiggler (MPW14) to utilize high-energy (approx 30 keV) synchrotron radiation at Pohang Light Source (PLS). The MPW14 is a hybrid type device to achieve maximum peak flux density and wide beam fan that can serve two beamlines. PLS MPW14-features period of 14 cm, minimum gap of 14 mm, 20 full field periods, maximum flux density of 2.06 T, 3036 mm total magnetic structure length. The peak flux density is very high compared to the other wigglers of similar pole gap and the period. The high peak flux density was possible using advanced new magnetic material and optimized magnetic geometry. The MPW14 will be used in hard X-ray region of 10-30 keV at 2.5 GeV electron energy. The total photon power is 6.19 kW and the peak power density is 5.27 kW/mrad sup 2 at 2.5 GeV, 150 mA. To withstand the big magnetic loads with minimum deflections, C-type support structure is designed with detailed FEM structural analysis. In this article, all the conceptual design e...

  4. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  5. Current-driven domain wall motion enhanced by the microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Li, Zhi-xiong; Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-07-14

    The magnetic domain wall (DW) motion driven by a spin-polarized current opens a new concept for memory and logic devices. However, the critical current density required to overcome the intrinsic and/or extrinsic pinning of DW remains too large for practical applications. Here, we show, by using micromagnetic simulations and analytical approaches, that the application of a microwave field offers an effective solution to this problem. When a transverse microwave field is applied, the adiabatic spin-transfer torque (STT) alone can sustain a steady-state DW motion without the sign of Walker breakdown, meaning that the intrinsic pinning disappears. The extrinsic pinning can also be effectively reduced. Moreover, the DW velocity is increased greatly for the microwave-assisted DW motion. This provides a new way to manipulate the DW motion at low current densities.

  6. Ion temperature anisotropy effects on threshold conditions of a shear-modified current driven electrostatic ion-acoustic instability in the topside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. G. Perron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature anisotropies may be encountered in space plasmas when there is a preferred direction, for instance, a strong magnetic or electric field. In this paper, we study how ion temperature anisotropy can affect the threshold conditions of a shear-modified current driven electrostatic ion-acoustic (CDEIA instability. In particular, this communication focuses on instabilities in the context of topside auroral F-region situations and in the limit where finite Larmor radius corrections are small. We derived a new fluid-like expression for the critical drift which depends explicitly on ion anisotropy. More importantly, for ion to electron temperature ratios typical of F-region, solutions of the kinetic dispersion relation show that ion temperature anisotropy may significantly lower the drift threshold required for instability. In some cases, a perpendicular to parallel ion temperature ratio of 2 and may reduce the relative drift required for the onset of instability by a factor of approximately 30, assuming the ion-acoustic speed of the medium remains constant. Therefore, the ion temperature anisotropy should be considered in future studies of ion-acoustic waves and instabilities in the high-latitude ionospheric F-region.

  7. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  8. Improved Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher-Order discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) allows for a reduced computational complexity when solving electromagnetic scattering problems. Combining this with the reduced number of unknowns provided by Higher-Order discretizations has proven to be a difficult task, with the general conclusion...... being that going above 2nd order is not worthwhile. In this paper, we challenge this conclusion, providing results that demonstrate the potential performance gains with Higher-Order MLFMM and showing some modifications to the traditional MLFMM that can benefit both Higher-Order and standard...

  9. Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher Order Discretizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) for a higher order (HO) discretization is demonstrated on high-frequency (HF) problems, illustrating for the first time how an efficient MLFMM for HO can be achieved even for very large groups. Applying several novel ideas, beneficial to both lower...... order and higher order discretizations, results from a low-memory, high-speed MLFMM implementation of a HO hierarchical discretization are shown. These results challenge the general view that the benefits of HO and HF-MLFMM cannot be combined....

  10. Multipole plasmon excitations of C{sub 60} dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-14

    We study the multipole plasmon mode frequencies of a pair of C{sub 60} molecules by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory for electronic excitations on the each C{sub 60} surface. We apply the two-center spherical coordinate system for mathematical convenience and find an explicit form of the surface plasmon energies. Numerical result shows when approaching the two C{sub 60} molecules, the coupling between the bare plasmon modes leads to the appearance of additional modes having energies that are different from those of the isolated C{sub 60} molecules.

  11. The Formation of Multipoles during the High-Temperature Creep of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, J.; Nielsson, O.; Horsewell, Andy

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that multipole dislocation configurations can arise during power-law creep of certain austenitic stainless steels. These multipoles have been analysed in some detail for two particular steels (Alloy 800 and a modified AISI 316L) and it is suggested that they arise either during...

  12. Transformerless High-Quality Electrocardiogram and Body Impedance Recording by an Amplifier with Current-Driven Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and recording of changes in bioelectrical impedance in vivo has become a widely used method with various clinical applications. It includes basal impedance Zo, relative changes ΔZ or its derivative dZ. Many applications related to cardiac and respiratory function require simultaneous electrocardiogram, impedance cardiogram and/or respiration signals recording and analysis. Accurate recording of body impedance is limited by high common mode voltages at the amplifier inputs combined with the influence of the output impedance of the used current source. A circuit concept for a simultaneous high-quality electrocardiogram and bioimpedance acquisition is proposed, profiting from advantages offered by a previously specially designed amplifier with current-driven inputs, yielding to low common mode and high differential mode input impedances.

  13. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Calculation of persistent currents in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Völlinger

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semianalytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors. The model is based on the critical state model considering the dependency of the critical current density on the varying local field in the superconducting filaments. By combining this hysteresis model with numerical field computation methods, it is possible to calculate the persistent current multipole errors in the magnet taking local saturation effects in the magnetic iron parts into consideration. As an application of the method, the use of soft magnetic iron sheets (coil protection sheets mounted between the coils and the collars for partial compensation of the multipole errors during the ramping of the magnets is investigated.

  15. Fourier-Based Fast Multipole Method for the Helmholtz Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Cecka, Cris

    2013-01-01

    The fast multipole method (FMM) has had great success in reducing the computational complexity of solving the boundary integral form of the Helmholtz equation. We present a formulation of the Helmholtz FMM that uses Fourier basis functions rather than spherical harmonics. By modifying the transfer function in the precomputation stage of the FMM, time-critical stages of the algorithm are accelerated by causing the interpolation operators to become straightforward applications of fast Fourier transforms, retaining the diagonality of the transfer function, and providing a simplified error analysis. Using Fourier analysis, constructive algorithms are derived to a priori determine an integration quadrature for a given error tolerance. Sharp error bounds are derived and verified numerically. Various optimizations are considered to reduce the number of quadrature points and reduce the cost of computing the transfer function. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Real space electrostatics for multipoles. III. Dielectric Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lamichhane, Madan; Newman, Kathie E; Gezelter, J Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In the first two papers in this series, we developed new shifted potential (SP), gradient shifted force (GSF), and Taylor shifted force (TSF) real-space methods for multipole interactions in condensed phase simulations. Here, we discuss the dielectric properties of fluids that emerge from simulations using these methods. Most electrostatic methods (including the Ewald sum) require correction to the conducting boundary fluctuation formula for the static dielectric constants, and we discuss the derivation of these corrections for the new real space methods. For quadrupolar fluids, the analogous material property is the quadrupolar susceptibility. As in the dipolar case, the fluctuation formula for the quadrupolar susceptibility has corrections that depend on the electrostatic method being utilized. One of the most important effects measured by both the static dielectric and quadrupolar susceptibility is the ability to screen charges embedded in the fluid. We use potentials of mean force between solvated ions to...

  17. Point sources and multipoles in inverse scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Potthast, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, the growing availability of computing power has had an enormous impact on the classical fields of direct and inverse scattering. The study of inverse scattering, in particular, has developed rapidly with the ability to perform computational simulations of scattering processes and led to remarkable advances in a range of applications, from medical imaging and radar to remote sensing and seismic exploration. Point Sources and Multipoles in Inverse Scattering Theory provides a survey of recent developments in inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. Focusing on methods developed over the last six years by Colton, Kirsch, and the author, this treatment uses point sources combined with several far-reaching techniques to obtain qualitative reconstruction methods. The author addresses questions of uniqueness, stability, and reconstructions for both two-and three-dimensional problems.With interest in extracting information about an object through scattered waves at an all-ti...

  18. Fast Multipole-Based Preconditioner for Sparse Iterative Solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2014-05-04

    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxed global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Compared with multilevel methods, it is capable of comparable algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE, and it has superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers.

  19. An adaptive fast multipole accelerated Poisson solver for complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askham, T.; Cerfon, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a fast, direct and adaptive Poisson solver for complex two-dimensional geometries based on potential theory and fast multipole acceleration. More precisely, the solver relies on the standard decomposition of the solution as the sum of a volume integral to account for the source distribution and a layer potential to enforce the desired boundary condition. The volume integral is computed by applying the FMM on a square box that encloses the domain of interest. For the sake of efficiency and convergence acceleration, we first extend the source distribution (the right-hand side in the Poisson equation) to the enclosing box as a C0 function using a fast, boundary integral-based method. We demonstrate on multiply connected domains with irregular boundaries that this continuous extension leads to high accuracy without excessive adaptive refinement near the boundary and, as a result, to an extremely efficient "black box" fast solver.

  20. Direct determination of multipole moments of Cartesian Gaussian functions in spherical polar coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Cheol Ho

    2004-02-22

    A new way of generating the multipole moments of Cartesian Gaussian functions in spherical polar coordinates has been established, bypassing the intermediary of Cartesian moment tensors. A new set of recurrence relations have also been derived for the resulting analytic integral values. The new method furnishes a conceptually simple and numerically efficient evaluation procedure for the multipole moments. The advantages over existing methods are documented. The results are relevant for the linear scaling quantum theories based on the fast multipole method. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  2. Static Properties and Current-Driven Dynamics of Domain Walls in Perpendicular Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Nanostrips with Rectangular Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-induced domain wall motion along thin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy is studied by means of full micromagnetic simulations and the extended one-dimensional model, taking into account thermal effects and edge roughness. A slow creep regime, where the motion is controlled by wall pinning and thermal activation, and a flow regime with linear variation of the DW velocity, are observed. In asymmetric stacks, where the Rashba spin-orbit field stabilizes the domain wall against turbulent transformations, the steady linear regime is extended to higher currents, leading to higher velocities than in single-layer or symmetric stacks. The pinning and depinning at and from a local constriction were also studied. The results indicate that engineering pinning sites in these strips provide an efficient pathway to achieve both high stability against thermal fluctuations and low-current depinning avoiding Joule heating. Finally, the current-driven dynamics of a pinned domain wall is examined, and both the direct and the alternating contributions to the induced voltage signal induced are characterized. It was confirmed that the direct contribution to the voltage signal can be linearly enhanced with the number of pinned walls, an observation which could be useful to develop domain-wall-based nano-oscillators.

  3. A detailed proof of the fundamental theorem of STF multipole expansion in linearized gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zschocke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The linearized field equations of general relativity in harmonic coordinates are given by an inhomogeneous wave equation. In the region exterior to the matter field, the retarded solution of this wave equation can be expanded in terms of 10 Cartesian symmetric and tracefree (STF) multipoles in post-Minkowskian approximation. For such a multipole decomposition only three and rather weak assumptions are required: 1. No-incoming radiation condition. 2. The matter source is spatially compact. 3. A spherical expansion for the metric outside the matter source is possible. During the last decades, the STF multipole expansion has been established as a powerful tool in several fields of gravitational physics: celestial mechanics, theory of gravitational waves and in the theory of light propagation and astrometry. But despite its formidable importance, an explicit proof of the fundamental theorem of STF multipole expansion has not been presented thus far, while only some parts of it are distributed into several publica...

  4. Fast Multipole-Based Elliptic PDE Solver and Preconditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2016-12-07

    Exascale systems are predicted to have approximately one billion cores, assuming Gigahertz cores. Limitations on affordable network topologies for distributed memory systems of such massive scale bring new challenges to the currently dominant parallel programing model. Currently, there are many efforts to evaluate the hardware and software bottlenecks of exascale designs. It is therefore of interest to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure extrapolated scalability. Fast multipole methods (FMM) were originally developed for accelerating N-body problems for particle-based methods in astrophysics and molecular dynamics. FMM is more than an N-body solver, however. Recent efforts to view the FMM as an elliptic PDE solver have opened the possibility to use it as a preconditioner for even a broader range of applications. In this thesis, we (i) discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exascale architectures, with a focus on inter-node communication, and develop a performance model that considers the communication patterns of the FMM for spatially quasi-uniform distributions, (ii) employ this performance model to guide performance and scaling improvement of FMM for all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of uniformly distributed particles, and (iii) demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Compared with multilevel methods, FMM is capable of comparable algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE, and it has superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity

  5. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Weller, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h-1Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β(bar z=0.32)=0.599+0.134-0.124 and β(bar z=0.54)=0.457+0.056-0.054, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at bar z=0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15

  6. A task parallel implementation of fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Taura, Kenjiro

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a task parallel implementation of ExaFMM, an open source implementation of fast multipole methods (FMM), using a lightweight task parallel library MassiveThreads. Although there have been many attempts on parallelizing FMM, experiences have almost exclusively been limited to formulation based on flat homogeneous parallel loops. FMM in fact contains operations that cannot be readily expressed in such conventional but restrictive models. We show that task parallelism, or parallel recursions in particular, allows us to parallelize all operations of FMM naturally and scalably. Moreover it allows us to parallelize a \\'\\'mutual interaction\\'\\' for force/potential evaluation, which is roughly twice as efficient as a more conventional, unidirectional force/potential evaluation. The net result is an open source FMM that is clearly among the fastest single node implementations, including those on GPUs; with a million particles on a 32 cores Sandy Bridge 2.20GHz node, it completes a single time step including tree construction and force/potential evaluation in 65 milliseconds. The study clearly showcases both programmability and performance benefits of flexible parallel constructs over more monolithic parallel loops. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Data-driven execution of fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2013-09-17

    Fast multipole methods (FMMs) have O (N) complexity, are compute bound, and require very little synchronization, which makes them a favorable algorithm on next-generation supercomputers. Their most common application is to accelerate N-body problems, but they can also be used to solve boundary integral equations. When the particle distribution is irregular and the tree structure is adaptive, load balancing becomes a non-trivial question. A common strategy for load balancing FMMs is to use the work load from the previous step as weights to statically repartition the next step. The authors discuss in the paper another approach based on data-driven execution to efficiently tackle this challenging load balancing problem. The core idea consists of breaking the most time-consuming stages of the FMMs into smaller tasks. The algorithm can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph where nodes represent tasks and edges represent dependencies among them. The execution of the algorithm is performed by asynchronously scheduling the tasks using the queueing and runtime for kernels runtime environment, in a way such that data dependencies are not violated for numerical correctness purposes. This asynchronous scheduling results in an out-of-order execution. The performance results of the data-driven FMM execution outperform the previous strategy and show linear speedup on a quad-socket quad-core Intel Xeon system.Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Qi

    2012-11-01

    We use a particle-based method to simulate incompressible flows, where the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions. The most time-consuming kernelsâ\\'the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equationâ\\'are mathematically reformulated so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six, while automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, and on our previous work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm also uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently but with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Partial atomic multipoles for internally consistent microelectrostatic calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snamina, Mateusz; Mazur, Grzegorz; Petelenz, Piotr

    2017-10-30

    An extension of the extant microelectrostatic methodologies, based on the concept of distributed generalized polarizability matrix derived from the Coupled Perturbed Hartree-Fock (CPHF) equations, is proposed for self-consistent calculation of charge carrier and charge-transfer (CT) state electrostatic energies in molecular solids, including the doped, defected and disordered ones. The CPHF equations are solved only once and the generalized molecular polarizability they yield enables low cost iterations that mutually adjust the molecular electronic distributions and the local electric field in which the molecules are immersed. The approach offers a precise picture of molecular charge densities, accounting for atomic partial multipoles up to order 2, which allows one to reproduce the recently reported large charge-quadrupole contributions to CT state energies in low-symmetry local environments. It is particularly well suited for repetitive calculations for large clusters (up to 300,000 atoms), and may potentially be useful for describing electrostatic solvent effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mechanisms of Complete Turbulence Suppression in Turbidity Currents Driven by Mono-Disperse and Bi-Disperse Suspensions of Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrugesh S. Shringarpure

    2014-09-01

    appears to have a logarithmic dependence on Reτ (Cantero et al. 2012. DNS of turbidity currents driven by bi-disperse suspension of sediments is also carried out and compared with the results of mono-disperse suspensions.

  11. a Detailed Proof of the Fundamental Theorem of STF Multipole Expansion in Linearized Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Sven

    2014-10-01

    The linearized field equations of general relativity in harmonic coordinates are given by an inhomogeneous wave equation. In the region exterior to the matter field, the retarded solution of this wave equation can be expanded in terms of 10 Cartesian symmetric and tracefree (STF) multipoles in post-Minkowskian approximation. For such a multipole decomposition only three and rather weak assumptions are required: (1) No-incoming-radiation condition. (2) The matter source is spatially compact. (3) A spherical expansion for the metric outside the matter source is possible. During the last decades, the STF multipole expansion has been established as a powerful tool in several fields of gravitational physics: celestial mechanics, theory of gravitational waves and in the theory of light propagation and astrometry. But despite its formidable importance, an explicit proof of the fundamental theorem of STF multipole expansion has not been presented so far, while only some parts of it are distributed into several publications. In a technical but more didactical form, an explicit and detailed mathematical proof of each individual step of this important theorem of STF multipole expansion is represented.

  12. Fast multipole preconditioners for sparse matrices arising from elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2017-11-09

    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the fast multipole method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxable global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Here, we do not discuss the well developed applications of FMM to implement matrix-vector multiplications within Krylov solvers of boundary element methods. Instead, we propose using FMM for the volume-to-volume contribution of inhomogeneous Poisson-like problems, where the boundary integral is a small part of the overall computation. Our method may be used to precondition sparse matrices arising from finite difference/element discretizations, and can handle a broader range of scientific applications. It is capable of algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE comparable to those of multigrid methods, and it offers potentially superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers. Compared with other methods exploiting the low-rank character of off-diagonal blocks of the dense resolvent operator, FMM-preconditioned Krylov iteration may reduce the amount of communication because it is matrix-free and exploits the tree structure of FMM. We describe our tests in reproducible detail with freely available codes and outline directions for further extensibility.

  13. United polarizable multipole water model for molecular mechanics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Rui; Wang, Lee-Ping; Wang, Qiantao; Pande, Vijay S.; Ren, Pengyu

    2015-07-01

    We report the development of a united AMOEBA (uAMOEBA) polarizable water model, which is computationally 3-5 times more efficient than the three-site AMOEBA03 model in molecular dynamics simulations while providing comparable accuracy for gas-phase and liquid properties. In this coarse-grained polarizable water model, both electrostatic (permanent and induced) and van der Waals representations have been reduced to a single site located at the oxygen atom. The permanent charge distribution is described via the molecular dipole and quadrupole moments and the many-body polarization via an isotropic molecular polarizability, all located at the oxygen center. Similarly, a single van der Waals interaction site is used for each water molecule. Hydrogen atoms are retained only for the purpose of defining local frames for the molecular multipole moments and intramolecular vibrational modes. The parameters have been derived based on a combination of ab initio quantum mechanical and experimental data set containing gas-phase cluster structures and energies, and liquid thermodynamic properties. For validation, additional properties including dimer interaction energy, liquid structures, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity have been evaluated. The results demonstrate good transferability from the gas to the liquid phase over a wide range of temperatures, and from nonpolar to polar environments, due to the presence of molecular polarizability. The water coordination, hydrogen-bonding structure, and dynamic properties given by uAMOEBA are similar to those derived from the all-atom AMOEBA03 model and experiments. Thus, the current model is an accurate and efficient alternative for modeling water.

  14. Multipole correction of atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution. I. Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Keller, D. A.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The defects in atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution have been analyzed for several model-blocked peptides and compared with accurate quantum chemical values. The results indicate that the angular characteristics of the molecular electrostatic potential around functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds can be considerably distorted within various models relying upon isotropic atomic charges only. It is shown that these defects can be corrected by augmenting the atomic point charge models by cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMMs). Alternatively, sets of off-center atomic point charges could be automatically derived from respective multipoles, providing approximately equivalent corrections. For the first time, correlated atomic multipoles have been calculated for N-acetyl, N'-methylamide-blocked derivatives of glycine, alanine, cysteine, threonine, leucine, lysine, and serine using the MP2 method. The role of the correlation effects in the peptide molecular charge distribution are discussed.

  15. Magnetic Guarding: Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Jonathon; Font, Gabriel; Garrett, Michael; Rose, D.; Genoni, T.; Welch, D.; McGuire, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic field topology of Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept requires internal magnetic field coils. Internal coils for similar devices have leveraged levitating coils or coils with magnetically guarded supports. Magnetic guarding of supports has been investigated for multipole devices (theoretically and experimentally) without conclusive results. One outstanding question regarding magnetic guarding of supports is the magnitude and behavior of secondary plasma drifts resulting from magnetic guard fields (grad-B drifts, etc). We present magnetic-implicit PIC modeling results and preliminary proof of concept experimental results on magnetic guarding of internal-supports and the subsequent reduction in total plasma losses.

  16. Efficient Compression of Far Field Matrices in Multipole Algorithms based on Spherical Harmonics and Radiating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schroeder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression of far field matrices in the fast multipole method and its multilevel extension for electromagnetic problems. The compression is based on a spherical harmonic representation of radiation patterns in conjunction with a radiating mode expression of the surface current. The method is applied to study near field effects and the far field of an antenna placed on a ship surface. Furthermore, the electromagnetic scattering of an electrically large plate is investigated. It is demonstrated, that the proposed technique leads to a significant memory saving, making multipole algorithms even more efficient without compromising the accuracy.

  17. Dipole magnet of the injection system for the SALO recirculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, I. S.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Kononenko, S. G.; Lyashchenko, V. N.; Mytsykov, A. Yu.; Romas'ko, V. P.; Tarasenko, A. S.; Shcherbinin, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    A design of a dipole magnet was developed for the injection system of the SALO recirculator. The constructed prototype magnet has a C-shaped structure with rectangular sections. The pole section is 100 × 100 mm; the aperture is 25 mm. Field distributions in the magnet at a gap induction of 0.05 and 0.2 T were measured. The effective length of the magnet and multipole components of the magnetic field were calculated.

  18. submitter Generalized Harmonic Analysis of Computed and Measured Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Petrone, C; Russenschuck, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized approach for the harmonic analysis of the magnetic field in accelerator magnets. This analysis is based on the covariant components of the computed or measured magnetic flux density. The multipole coefficients obtained in this way can be used for magnet optimization and field reconstruction in the interior of circular and elliptical boundaries in the bore of straight magnets.

  19. Magnetism. Blowing magnetic skyrmion bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanjun; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Guoqiang; Jungfleisch, M Benjamin; Fradin, Frank Y; Pearson, John E; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Wang, Kang L; Heinonen, Olle; te Velthuis, Suzanne G E; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-07-17

    The formation of soap bubbles from thin films is accompanied by topological transitions. Here we show how a magnetic topological structure, a skyrmion bubble, can be generated in a solid-state system in a similar manner. Using an inhomogeneous in-plane current in a system with broken inversion symmetry, we experimentally "blow" magnetic skyrmion bubbles from a geometrical constriction. The presence of a spatially divergent spin-orbit torque gives rise to instabilities of the magnetic domain structures that are reminiscent of Rayleigh-Plateau instabilities in fluid flows. We determine a phase diagram for skyrmion formation and reveal the efficient manipulation of these dynamically created skyrmions, including depinning and motion. The demonstrated current-driven transformation from stripe domains to magnetic skyrmion bubbles could lead to progress in skyrmion-based spintronics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Generalized coarse-grained model based on point multipole and Gay-Berne potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Pavel A; Ren, Pengyu

    2006-08-14

    This paper presents a general coarse-grained molecular mechanics model based on electric point multipole expansion and Gay-Berne [J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3316 (1981)] potential. Coarse graining of van der Waals potential is achieved by treating molecules as soft uniaxial ellipsoids interacting via a generalized anisotropic Gay-Berne function. The charge distribution is represented by point multipole expansion, including point charge, dipole, and quadrupole moments placed at the center of mass. The Gay-Berne and point multipole potentials are combined in the local reference frame defined by the inertial frame of the all-atom counterpart. The coarse-grained model has been applied to rigid-body molecular dynamics simulations of molecular liquids including benzene and methanol. The computational efficiency is improved by several orders of magnitude, while the results are in reasonable agreement with all-atom models and experimental data. We also discuss the implications of using point multipole for polar molecules capable of hydrogen bonding and the applicability of this model to a broad range of molecular systems including highly charged biopolymers.

  1. Generalization of the optical theorem to multipole sources in the scattering theory of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, Yu. A.; Sveshnikov, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Energy relations are used to generalize the Optical Theorem to the case of a local body excited by a multipole source, including in the presence of a half-space. It is shown that the extinction cross section can be represented in an explicit analytical form. This circumstance considerably facilitates the computation of the fluorescence quantum yield or the efficiency of an optical antenna.

  2. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic potential energy: induction energy for degenerate ground-state atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The inductive contribution to the retarded interatomic potential energy of two atoms in degenerate ground states is calculated up to all multipole orders on the basis of quantum electrodynamics. The result, which is found to have nonretarded character, is written in such a way as to show the

  3. Electron self-energy calculation using a general multi-pole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Soininen, J A; Shirley, E L

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for calculating the inverse of the dielectric matrix in a solid using a band Lanczos algorithm. The method produces a multi-pole approximation for the inverse dielectric matrix with an arbitrary number of poles. We discuss how this approximation can be used to calculate the screened Coulomb interaction needed for electron self-energy calculations in solids.

  4. Current driven vortex-antivortex pair breaking and vortex explosion in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/FeTe interfacial superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, C.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); Kunchur, M.N., E-mail: kunchur@sc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); He, Q.L.; Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Lortz, R.; Sou, I.K. [William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-08-15

    We investigated the dissipative regime of the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/FeTe topological insulator-chalcogenide interface superconductor at temperatures well below the Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We observe a transition in the current-resistance and temperature-resistance curves that quantitatively agrees with the Likharev vortex-explosion phenomenon. In the limit of low temperatures and high current densities, we were able to demonstrate the regime of complete vortex-antivortex dissociation arising from current driven vortex-antivortex pair breaking.

  5. Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale

    This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.

  6. Fast and accurate analysis of large-scale composite structures with the parallel multilevel fast multipole algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Özgür; Gürel, Levent

    2013-03-01

    Accurate electromagnetic modeling of complicated optical structures poses several challenges. Optical metamaterial and plasmonic structures are composed of multiple coexisting dielectric and/or conducting parts. Such composite structures may possess diverse values of conductivities and dielectric constants, including negative permittivity and permeability. Further challenges are the large sizes of the structures with respect to wavelength and the complexities of the geometries. In order to overcome these challenges and to achieve rigorous and efficient electromagnetic modeling of three-dimensional optical composite structures, we have developed a parallel implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). Precise formulation of composite structures is achieved with the so-called "electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation." Surface integral equations are carefully discretized with piecewise linear basis functions, and the ensuing dense matrix equations are solved iteratively with parallel MLFMA. The hierarchical strategy is used for the efficient parallelization of MLFMA on distributed-memory architectures. In this paper, fast and accurate solutions of large-scale canonical and complicated real-life problems, such as optical metamaterials, discretized with tens of millions of unknowns are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed electromagnetic solver.

  7. Multi-Pole HTS Generators for Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Seiler, Eugen

    In this presentation the feasibility of installing a 5MW direct drive superconducting generator for an offshore wind turbine is presented. The reference turbine is a geared 5MW wind turbine that has been installed offshore and has been documented extensively by the National Renewable Energy...... laboratory (NREL). The emphasis of the investigation is on cost and mass, where the cost limit for the active material is set at €1M; the active mass limit is set at 40 tons; and the outer diameter is 4.2 meters. The allowable engineering current densities have been estimated by measuring the magnetization...... on two different types of coated conductor. In the specific design the allowable current density was 300A/mm^2 for tape 1 and 70A/mm^2 for tape 2. The design is analytical, based on magnetic circuit analysis, which is validated by finite element modelling. The conclusion is that the either price...

  8. Nuclear fission and the widths of the isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Radyionov, S V

    2002-01-01

    The dissipative collective motion in nuclei is investigated within the Fermi-liquid model. In the case of large-amplitude collective motion, the macroscopic equations for the nuclear shape parameter are derived from the pressure tensor, the velocity field, and the requisition of motion for the nuclear density. The approach is used both for the description of induced symmetric nuclear fission and isoscalar giant multipole resonances in nuclei. The widths of giant quadrupole resonances are calculated with the obtained value of the viscosity coefficient. The calculated widths are about two times smaller than the experimental values. Therefore, the width of a giant multipole resonance is formed not only by ordinary two-body viscosity but also by a nondissipative contribution that absents on the definition of the dissipative energy during the nuclear descent from the fission barrier.

  9. AFMPB: An Adaptive Fast Multipole Poisson-Boltzmann Solver for Calculating Electrostatics in Biomolecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Benzhuo; Cheng, Xiaolin; Huang, Jingfang; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A Fortran program package is introduced for rapid evaluation of the electrostatic potentials and forces in biomolecular systems modeled by the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The numerical solver utilizes a well-conditioned boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation, a node-patch discretization scheme, a Krylov subspace iterative solver package with reverse communication protocols, and an adaptive new version of fast multipole method in which the exponential expansions are used to diagonalize the multipole to local translations. The program and its full description, as well as several closely related libraries and utility tools are available at http://lsec.cc.ac.cn/lubz/afmpb.html and a mirror site at http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/. This paper is a brief summary of the program: the algorithms, the implementation and the usage. PMID:20532187

  10. Rapid modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipoles for a masked density field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Taylor, A. N.; de la Torre, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we reformulate the forward modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipole moments for a masked density field, as encountered in galaxy redshift surveys. Exploiting the symmetries of the redshift-space correlation function, we provide a masked-field generalization of the Hankel transform relation between the multipole moments in real and Fourier space. Using this result, we detail how a likelihood analysis requiring computation for a broad range of desired P(k) models may be executed 103-104 times faster than with other common approaches, together with significant gains in spectral resolution. We present a concrete application to the complex angular geometry of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey PDR-1 release and discuss the validity of this technique for finite-angle surveys.

  11. Efficient evaluation of antenna fields by a time-domain multipole analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes a systematic method to efficiently determine frequency-domain electromagnetic antenna fields and characteristics for a broad spectrum via a single time-domain (e.g., Finite-Difference Time-Domain, FDTD calculation. From a time-domain simulation of an antenna driven by a wide-band signal, a single modified Fourier transformation yields the frequency-domain multipole amplitudes. The corresponding multipole expansions are valid for the entire spectrum of the input pulse and at any point outside a minimum sphere enclosing the antenna. This allows a computationally cheap and elegant post-processing of arbitrary antenna characteristics. As an example of use the method is applied to determine high-resolution three-dimensional radiation patterns of an antipodal Vivaldi antenna.

  12. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Static multipole polarisabilities and second-order Stark shift in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The multipole polarizability of the ground state of francium is calculated by utilizing both the variational technique of Davison and the quantum defect theory underlying the Bates-Damgaard method. This approach is also shown to yield reasonable results for other alkali atoms. Second-order Stark shift for the ground state of francium is presented as a function of field strength for possible future experimental comparison.

  14. A GAUGE-INVARIANT MULTIPOLE EXPANSION SCHEME FOR HEAVY-QUARK SYSTEMS IN QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuya, Ken-ichi

    1980-09-01

    Separation of short-distance and long-distance dynamics for heavy quark-antiquark systems interacting with color gluons is investigated through a classification of gluons according to their ranges. A gauge-invariant double-multipole expansion scheme is constructed which takes into account color fluctuation of heavy-quark systems. Hadronic transitions between heavy quark-antiquark bound states as well as the static quark-antiquark potential are studied within this framework.

  15. Multipole electron-density modelling of synchrotron powder diffraction data: the case of diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, H.; Overgaard, J.; Busselez, R.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate structure factors are extracted from synchrotron powder diffraction data measured on crystalline diamond based on a novel multipole model division of overlapping reflection intensities. The approach limits the spherical-atom bias in structure factors extracted from overlapping powder data...... parameter. This directly exposes a correlation between electron density and thermal parameters even for a light atom such as carbon, and it also underlines that in organic systems proper deconvolution of thermal motion is important for obtaining correct static electron densities....

  16. The multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) for solving large-scale computational electromagnetics problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ergul, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetic Problems provides a detailed and instructional overview of implementing MLFMA. The book: Presents a comprehensive treatment of the MLFMA algorithm, including basic linear algebra concepts, recent developments on the parallel computation, and a number of application examplesCovers solutions of electromagnetic problems involving dielectric objects and perfectly-conducting objectsDiscusses applications including scattering from airborne targets, scattering from red

  17. An analytical method based on multipole moment expansion to calculate the flux distribution in Gammacell-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, P.; Ataenia, V.; Shafiei, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the flux of photons inside the irradiation cell of the Gammacell-220 is calculated using an analytical method based on multipole moment expansion. The flux of the photons inside the irradiation cell is introduced as the function of monopole, dipoles and quadruples in the Cartesian coordinate system. For the source distribution of the Gammacell-220, the values of the multipole moments are specified by direct integrating. To confirm the validation of the presented methods, the flux distribution inside the irradiation cell was determined utilizing MCNP simulations as well as experimental measurements. To measure the flux inside the irradiation cell, Amber dosimeters were employed. The calculated values of the flux were in agreement with the values obtained by simulations and measurements, especially in the central zones of the irradiation cell. In order to show that the present method is a good approximation to determine the flux in the irradiation cell, the values of the multipole moments were obtained by fitting the simulation and experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The present method leads to reasonable results for the all source distribution even without any symmetry which makes it a powerful tool for the source load planning.

  18. Precision formed micro magnets: LDRD project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHRISTENSON,TODD R.; GARINO,TERRY J.; VENTURINI,EUGENE L.

    2000-02-01

    A microfabrication process is described that provides for the batch realization of miniature rare earth based permanent magnets. Prismatic geometry with features as small as 5 microns, thicknesses up through several hundred microns and with submicron tolerances may be accommodated. The processing is based on a molding technique using deep x-ray lithography as a means to generate high aspect-ratio precision molds from PMMA (poly methyl methacrylate) used as an x-ray photoresist. Subsequent molding of rare-earth permanent magnet (REPM) powder combined with a thermosetting plastic binder may take place directly in the PMMA mold. Further approaches generate an alumina form replicated from the PMMA mold that becomes an intermediate mold for pressing higher density REPM material and allows for higher process temperatures. Maximum energy products of 3--8 MGOe (Mega Gauss Oersted, 1 MGOe = 100/4{pi} kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for bonded isotropic forms of REPM with dimensions on the scale of 100 microns and up to 23 MGOe for more dense anisotropic REPM material using higher temperature processing. The utility of miniature precision REPMs is revealed by the demonstration of a miniature multipole brushless DC motor that possesses a pole-anisotropic rotor with dimensions that would otherwise prohibit multipole magnetization using a multipole magnetizing fixture at this scale. Subsequent multipole assembly also leads to miniaturized Halbach arrays, efficient magnetic microactuators, and mechanical spring-like elements which can offset miniaturized mechanical scaling behavior.

  19. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  20. Multipoles of Even/Odd Split-Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of metamaterial engineering is to have complete control over the electromagnetic constitutive parameters in three-dimensional space. This engineering can be done by considering either single meta-atoms or full meta-arrays. We follow the first route and perform numerical simulations of split-ring resonators, with different gap numbers and under varying illumination scenarios, to investigate their individual multipolar scattering response. For the fundamental resonance, we observe that odd-gap rings always exhibit overlapping electric and magnetic dipole responses while even-gap rings only exhibit that behavior accidentally. We expect our results to foster progress in the engineering of three-dimensional disordered metamaterials.

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  2. Magnetic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essam Aboud; Nabil El-Masry; Atef Qaddah; Faisal Alqahtani; Mohammed R.H. Moufti

    2015-01-01

    .... A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth...

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  6. Accurate charge density of trialanine: a comparison of the multipole formalism and the maximum entropy method (MEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Netzel, Jeanette; van Smaalen, Sander

    2007-04-01

    An accurate charge density study of trialanine is presented with the maximum entropy method (MEM), on the basis of the same reflection data as was used for a multipole refinement [Rödel et al. (2006). Org. Biomol. Chem. 4, 475-481]. With the MEM, the optimum fit to the data is found to correspond to a final value of chi(2) which is less than its statistical expectation value N(Ref), where N(Ref) is the number of reflections. A refinement strategy is presented that determines the optimal goal for chi(2). It is shown that the MEM and the multipole method are on a par with regard to the reproduction of atomic charges and volumes, general topological features and trends in the charge density in the bond critical points (BCPs). Regarding the values of the charge densities in the BCPs, agreement between quantum chemical calculations, the multipole method and MEM is good, but not perfect. In the case of the Laplacians, the coincidence is not as good and especially the Laplacians of the C-O bonds differ strongly. One of the reasons for the observed differences in the topological parameters in the BCPs is the fact that MEM densities still include the effects of thermal motion, whereas multipole densities are free from the effects of thermal motion. Hydrogen bonds are more convincingly reproduced by the MEM than by multipole models.

  7. ISR Sextupole Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The 32 correction 6-pole magnets had the special feature of having an asymmetric aperture of 192 mm (horizontal) x 112 mm (vertical), the two central poles having been brought closer to the ISR elliptical vacuum chamber in order to save Ampere-turns and power. In fact for a given strength the required Ampere-turns per pole are proportional to the cube of its distance from the centre. The low-carbon steel core was 396 mm long , the strength 28 T/m. The strong dipole field generated at the ends by the asymmetry, as well as other unwanted multipoles, were compensated by suitable shaping of the pole profiles.

  8. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  12. Point charges optimally placed to represent the multipole expansion of charge distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Anandakrishnan

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance 2x the extent of the charge distribution--the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. We also calculate the 3-charge OPCA for representing the gas phase quantum mechanical charge distribution of a water molecule. The electrostatic potential calculated by the 3-charge OPCA for water, in the mid-field (2.8 Å from the oxygen atom, is on average 33.3% more accurate than the potential due to the point multipole expansion up to the octupole order. Compared to a 3 point charge approximation in which the charges are placed on the atom centers, the 3-charge OPCA is seven times more accurate, by RMS error. The maximum error at the oxygen-Na distance (2.23 Å is half that of the point multipole expansion up to the octupole

  13. Magnetic measurement with coils and wires

    CERN Document Server

    Walckiers, L

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator magnets steer particle beams according to the field integrated along the trajectory over the magnet length. Purpose-wound coils measure these relevant parameters with high precision and complement efficiently point-like measurements performed with Hall plates or NMR probes. The rotating coil method gives a complete two-dimensional description of the magnetic field in a series of normal and skew multipoles. The more recent single stretched wire is a reference instrument to measure field integrals and to find the magnetic axis.

  14. Creation, destruction, and transfer of atomic multipole moments by electron scattering: Quantum-mechanical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanak, G.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2008-12-01

    Using the wave-packet propagation method of Rodberg and Thaler and the density matrix method of Fano and Blum, we have defined by completely quantum-mechanical methods the cross sections for the creation, destruction, and transfer of atomic multipole moments by both elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by atomic targets. All cross sections obtained quantum mechanically, except for the coherence transfer cross sections, agree in form with those obtained semiclassically by Fujimoto and co-workers. We also used the converged close-coupling (CCC) method to calculate numerically some of the above cross sections for selected transitions in electron scattering from hydrogen and barium atoms.

  15. Geometry Effects on Multipole Components and Beam Optics in High-Velocity Multi-Spoke Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [ODU, JLAB; Deitrick, Kirsten E. [ODU, JLAB; Delayen, Jean R. [ODU, JLAB

    2013-12-01

    Velocity-of-light, multi-spoke cavities are being proposed to accelerate electrons in a compact light-source. There are strict requirements on the beam quality which require that the linac have only small non-uniformities in the accelerating field. Beam dynamics simulations have uncovered varying levels of focusing and defocusing in the proposed cavities, which is dependent on the geometry of the spoke in the vicinity of the beam path. Here we present results for the influence different spoke geometries have on the multipole components of the accelerating field and how these components, in turn, impact the simulated beam properties.

  16. Enhancing monochromatic multipole emission by a subwavelength enclosure of degenerate Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2017-07-06

    Sound emission is inefficient at low frequencies as limited by source size. This letter presents enhancing emission of monochromatic monopole and multipole sources by enclosing the source with a subwavelength circular enclosure filled of an anisotropic material of a low radial sound speed. The anisotropy is associated with an infinite tangential density along the azimuth. Numerical simulations show that emission gain is produced at frequencies surrounding degenerate Mie resonant frequencies of the enclosure, and meanwhile the radiation directivity pattern is well preserved. The degeneracy is theoretically analyzed. A realization of the material is suggested by using a space-coiling structure.

  17. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost.......An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...

  18. Search for astrophysical point sources with IceCube using a multipole analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuermann, Martin; Reimann, Rene; Scheel, Max; Schukraft, Anne; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). III. Physikalisches Inst.; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The search for astrophysical point sources of high energy neutrinos is one of the key tasks the IceCube Neutrino Observatory was set up for. Beside the direct search looking for temporal or spatial clustering of measured neutrino directions, a multipole analysis is another promising method to detect a point source signal. Therefor, the sky map of arrival directions is expanded in spherical harmonics. A large number of point sources, which individually are too weak to be detected, would leave a characteristic imprint on the spectrum of observed expansion coefficients. This talk presents the application of this analysis to the data taken with IceCube in its 79-string configuration.

  19. Dual Killing-Yano symmetry and multipole moments in electromagnetism and mechanics of continua

    OpenAIRE

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Dubovik, V. M.; Misicu, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we introduce the Killing-Yano symmetry on the phase space and we investigate the symplectic structure on the space of Killing-Yano tensors. We perform the detailed analyze of the $n$-dimensional flat space and the Riemaniann manifolds with constant scalar curvature. We investigate the form of some multipole tensors, which arise in the expansion of a system of charges and currents, in terms of second-order Killing-Yano tensors in the phase space of classical mechanics. We find som...

  20. On the single-ion Magnetic Anisotropy of the Rare-Earth Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmakova, N.P.; Tishin, A.M.; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy constants for Tb and Dy metals are calculated in terms of the multipole moments of the rare-earth ions utilizing the available crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the existing experimental data.......The temperature dependences of the single-ion magnetic anisotropy constants for Tb and Dy metals are calculated in terms of the multipole moments of the rare-earth ions utilizing the available crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the existing experimental data....

  1. Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

    2012-05-16

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  3. Impedance loading and radiation of finite aperture multipole sources in fluid filled boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerits, Tim W.; Kranz, Burkhard

    2017-04-01

    In the exploration of oil and gas finite aperture multipole borehole acoustic sources are commonly used to excite borehole modes in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a (poro-) elastic formation. Due to the mutual interaction of the constituent sources and their immediate proximity to the formation it has been unclear how and to what extent these effects influence radiator performance. We present a theory, based on the equivalent surface source formulation for fluid-solid systems that incorporates these 'loading' effects and allows for swift computation of the multipole source dimensionless impedance, the associated radiator motion and the resulting radiated wave field in borehole fluid and formation. Dimensionless impedance results are verified through a comparison with finite element modeling results in the cases of a logging while drilling tool submersed in an unbounded fluid and a logging while drilling tool submersed in a fluid filled borehole surrounded by a fast and a slow formation. In all these cases we consider a monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitation, as these cases are relevant to many borehole acoustic applications. Overall, we obtain a very good agreement.

  4. Flexibly imposing periodicity in kernel independent FMM: A multipole-to-local operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Shelley, Michael

    2018-02-01

    An important but missing component in the application of the kernel independent fast multipole method (KIFMM) is the capability for flexibly and efficiently imposing singly, doubly, and triply periodic boundary conditions. In most popular packages such periodicities are imposed with the hierarchical repetition of periodic boxes, which may give an incorrect answer due to the conditional convergence of some kernel sums. Here we present an efficient method to properly impose periodic boundary conditions using a near-far splitting scheme. The near-field contribution is directly calculated with the KIFMM method, while the far-field contribution is calculated with a multipole-to-local (M2L) operator which is independent of the source and target point distribution. The M2L operator is constructed with the far-field portion of the kernel function to generate the far-field contribution with the downward equivalent source points in KIFMM. This method guarantees the sum of the near-field & far-field converge pointwise to results satisfying periodicity and compatibility conditions. The computational cost of the far-field calculation observes the same O (N) complexity as FMM and is designed to be small by reusing the data computed by KIFMM for the near-field. The far-field calculations require no additional control parameters, and observes the same theoretical error bound as KIFMM. We present accuracy and timing test results for the Laplace kernel in singly periodic domains and the Stokes velocity kernel in doubly and triply periodic domains.

  5. Dynamic black holes through gravitational collapse: Analysis of multipole moment of the curvatures on the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Saijo, Motoyuki

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated several properties of rapidly rotating dynamic black holes generated by gravitational collapse of rotating relativistic stars. At present, numerical simulations of the binary black hole merger are able to produce a Kerr black hole of J_final / M_final^2 up to = 0.91, of gravitational collapse from uniformly rotating stars up to J_final / M_final^2 ~ 0.75, where J_final is the total angular momentum and M_final the total gravitational mass of the hole. We have succeeded in producing a dynamic black hole of spin J_final / M_final^2 ~ 0.95 through the collapse of differentially rotating relativistic stars. We have investigated those dynamic properties through diagnosing multipole moment of the horizon, and found the following two features. Firstly, two different definitions of the angular momentum of the hole, the approximated Killing vector approach and dipole moment of the current multipole approach, make no significant difference to our computational results. Secondly, dynamic hole approa...

  6. Local geometry of electromagnetic fields and its role in molecular multipole transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Cohen, Adam E

    2011-05-12

    Electromagnetic fields with complex spatial variation routinely arise in Nature. We study the response of a small molecule to monochromatic fields of arbitrary three-dimensional geometry. First, we consider the allowed configurations of the fields and field gradients at a single point in space. Many configurations cannot be generated from a single plane wave, regardless of polarization, but any allowed configuration can be generated by superposition of multiple plane waves. There is no local configuration of the fields and gradients that requires near-field effects. Second, we derive a set of local electromagnetic quantities, each of which couples to a particular multipole transition. These quantities are small or zero in plane waves, but can be large in regions of certain superpositions of plane waves. Our findings provide a systematic framework for designing far-field and near-field experiments to drive multipole transitions. The proposed experiments provide information on molecular structure that is inaccessible to other spectroscopic techniques and open the possibility for new types of optical control of molecules.

  7. L 1 generalized inverse beam-forming algorithm resolving coherent/incoherent, distributed and multipole sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao

    2011-11-01

    To resolve coherent/incoherent, distributed/compact, and multipole aerodynamic-sound sources with phased-array pressure data, a new source-detection algorithm is developed based on L1 generalized inverse techniques. To extract each coherent signal, a cross spectral matrix is decomposed into eigenmodes. Subsequently, the complex source-amplitude distribution that recovers each eigenmode is solved using generalized inverse techniques with reference solutions which include multipoles as well as a monopole. Namely, the source distribution consisting of pre-defined source types is solved as an L1 norm problem using iteratively re-weighted least squares (IRLS). The capabilities of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated using various benchmark problems to compare the results with several existing beam-forming algorithms, and it is found that distributed sources as well as dipoles with arbitrary orientation can be identified regardless of coherency with another source. The resolution is comparable to existing deconvolution techniques, such as DAMAS or CLEAN, and the computational cost is only several times more than that of DAMAS2. The proposed algorithm is also examined using previous model-scale test data taken in an open-jet wind-tunnel for a study on jet-flap interaction, and some indication of dipole radiation is discerned near the flap edge.

  8. AFMPB: An adaptive fast multipole Poisson-Boltzmann solver for calculating electrostatics in biomolecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Benzhuo; Cheng, Xiaolin; Huang, Jingfang; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-06-01

    A Fortran program package is introduced for rapid evaluation of the electrostatic potentials and forces in biomolecular systems modeled by the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The numerical solver utilizes a well-conditioned boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation, a node-patch discretization scheme, a Krylov subspace iterative solver package with reverse communication protocols, and an adaptive new version of fast multipole method in which the exponential expansions are used to diagonalize the multipole-to-local translations. The program and its full description, as well as several closely related libraries and utility tools are available at http://lsec.cc.ac.cn/~lubz/afmpb.html and a mirror site at http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/. This paper is a brief summary of the program: the algorithms, the implementation and the usage. Program summaryProgram title: AFMPB: Adaptive fast multipole Poisson-Boltzmann solver Catalogue identifier: AEGB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 453 649 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8 764 754 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran Computer: Any Operating system: Any RAM: Depends on the size of the discretized biomolecular system Classification: 3 External routines: Pre- and post-processing tools are required for generating the boundary elements and for visualization. Users can use MSMS ( http://www.scripps.edu/~sanner/html/msms_home.html) for pre-processing, and VMD ( http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/vmd/) for visualization. Sub-programs included: An iterative Krylov subspace solvers package from SPARSKIT by Yousef Saad ( http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~saad/software/SPARSKIT/sparskit.html), and the fast multipole methods subroutines from FMMSuite ( http

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  13. Magnetic Qualification of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles for CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Buzio, M; Lombardi, A; Mateo, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the magnetic measurements done to qualify prototypes and series permanent- magnet quadrupoles for the new Linac4, currently in construction at CERN. The results, obtained with a combination of stretched wire and rotating coil techniques, include the individually tuned integrated field gradient, multipoles, magnetic axis and field direction. These magnets are characterized by a challengingly small 22 mm aperture diameter and we illustrate the methods adopted to guarantee instrument calibration, along with the estimated accuracies of the measured quantities and their impact on beam optics.

  14. Linear Absorption and Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectra of N-Methylacetamide in Chloroform Revisited : Polarizability and Multipole Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarizability and multipole effects on the amide I vibrational spectra of a peptide unit is investigated. Four molecular dynamics force fields of increasing complexity for the solvent are used to model both the linear absorption and two-dimensional infrared spectra. It is

  15. The Analysis of Likert Scales Using State Multipoles: An Application of Quantum Methods to Behavioral Sciences Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camparo, James; Camparo, Lorinda B.

    2013-01-01

    Though ubiquitous, Likert scaling's traditional mode of analysis is often unable to uncover all of the valid information in a data set. Here, the authors discuss a solution to this problem based on methodology developed by quantum physicists: the state multipole method. The authors demonstrate the relative ease and value of this method by…

  16. The grid-based fast multipole method--a massively parallel numerical scheme for calculating two-electron interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Elias A; Losilla, Sergio A; Sundholm, Dage

    2015-12-21

    Algorithms and working expressions for a grid-based fast multipole method (GB-FMM) have been developed and implemented. The computational domain is divided into cubic subdomains, organized in a hierarchical tree. The contribution to the electrostatic interaction energies from pairs of neighboring subdomains is computed using numerical integration, whereas the contributions from further apart subdomains are obtained using multipole expansions. The multipole moments of the subdomains are obtained by numerical integration. Linear scaling is achieved by translating and summing the multipoles according to the tree structure, such that each subdomain interacts with a number of subdomains that are almost independent of the size of the system. To compute electrostatic interaction energies of neighboring subdomains, we employ an algorithm which performs efficiently on general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPU). Calculations using one CPU for the FMM part and 20 GPGPUs consisting of tens of thousands of execution threads for the numerical integration algorithm show the scalability and parallel performance of the scheme. For calculations on systems consisting of Gaussian functions (α = 1) distributed as fullerenes from C20 to C720, the total computation time and relative accuracy (ppb) are independent of the system size.

  17. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  19. High-multipole excitations of atoms by twisted photons near phase singularity (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-09-01

    We calculate transition amplitudes and cross sections for excitation of hydrogen-like atoms by the twisted photon states, or photon states with more than one unit of angular momentum projection along the direction of propagation. If the target atom is located at distances of the order of atomic size near the vortex center, the transitions rates into l_f>1 states become comparable with the rates for standard electric dipole transitions. It is shown that when the transition rates are normalized to the local photon flux, the resulting cross sections for l_f>1 are singular near the optical vortex center, i.e., high-multipole excitations take place in the region of zero field intensity near phase singularity. Relation to the "quantum core" concept introduced by Berry and Dennis is discussed.

  20. Wave-vector dependence of spin and density multipole excitations in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Manuel; Colletti, Leonardo; Lipparini, Enrico; Emperador, Agustí; Pi, Martí; Serra, Llorenç

    2000-03-01

    We have employed time-dependent local-spin density-functional theory to analyze the multipole spin and charge density excitations in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs quantum dots. The on-plane transferred momentum degree of freedom has been taken into account, and the wave-vector dependence of the excitations is discussed. In agreement with previous experiments, we have found that the energies of these modes do not depend on the transferred wave vector, although their intensities do. Comparison with a recent resonant Raman scattering experiment [C. Schüller et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2673 (1998)] is made. This allows us to identify the angular momentum of several of the observed modes as well as to reproduce their energies.

  1. Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Three Dimensional Electromagnetic Scattering Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S B; Xiao, J J; Lin, Z F; Chan, C T

    2012-01-01

    We developed a fast numerical algorithm for solving the three dimensional vectorial Helmholtz equation that arises in electromagnetic scattering problems. The algorithm is based on electric field integral equations and is essentially a boundary element method. Nystrom's quadrature rule with a triangular grid is employed to linearize the integral equations, which are then solved by using a right-preconditioned iterative method. We apply the fast multipole technique to accelerate the matrix-vector multiplications in the iterations. We demonstrate the broad applications and accuracy of this method with practical examples including dielectric, plasmonic and metallic objects. We then apply the method to investigate the plasmonic properties of a silver torus and a silver split-ring resonator under the incidence of an electromagnetic plane wave. We show the silver torus can be used as a trapping tool to bind small dielectric or metallic particles.

  2. Periodic boundary conditions and the error-controlled fast multipole method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadshow, Ivo

    2012-08-22

    The simulation of pairwise interactions in huge particle ensembles is a vital issue in scientific research. Especially the calculation of long-range interactions poses limitations to the system size, since these interactions scale quadratically with the number of particles. Fast summation techniques like the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) can help to reduce the complexity to O(N). This work extends the possible range of applications of the FMM to periodic systems in one, two and three dimensions with one unique approach. Together with a tight error control, this contribution enables the simulation of periodic particle systems for different applications without the need to know and tune the FMM specific parameters. The implemented error control scheme automatically optimizes the parameters to obtain an approximation for the minimal runtime for a given energy error bound.

  3. Multipole electrodynamic ion trap geometries for microparticle confinement under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M., E-mail: bogdan.mihalcea@inflpr.ro; Vişan, Gina T.; Ganciu, Mihai [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Atomiştilor Str. Nr. 409, 077125 Măgurele, Ilfov (Romania); Giurgiu, Liviu C. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor Str. Nr. 405, 077125 Măgurele (Romania); Stan, Cristina [Department of Physics, Politehnica University, 313 Splaiul Independenţei, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitrucho@yandex.ru; Deputatova, Lidiya; Syrovatka, Roman [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya Str. 13, Bd. 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in case of multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under standard ambient temperature and pressure conditions. An 8- and 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap is mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics is simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.

  4. Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometre silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Christensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy can be used for detailed spatial and spectral characterization of optical excitations in metal nanoparticles. In previous electron energy-loss experiments on silver nanoparticles with radii smaller than 20 nm, only the dipolar surface plasmon resonance was assumed...... to play a role. Here, applying electron energy-loss spectroscopy to individual silver nanoparticles encapsulated in silicon nitride, we observe besides the usual dipole resonance an additional surface plasmon resonance corresponding to higher angular momenta for nanoparticle radii as small as 4 nm. We...... theoretical predictions. Unlike in optical spectra, multipole surface plasmons are important in electron energy-loss spectra even of ultrasmall metallic nanoparticles....

  5. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  6. Optimizations of Patch Antenna Arrays Using Genetic Algorithms Supported by the Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Onol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present optimizations of patch antenna arrays using genetic algorithms and highly accurate full-wave solutions of the corresponding radiation problems with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA. Arrays of finite extent are analyzed by using MLFMA, which accounts for all mutual couplings between array elements efficiently and accurately. Using the superposition principle, the number of solutions required for the optimization of an array is reduced to the number of array elements, without resorting to any periodicity and similarity assumptions. Based on numerical experiments, genetic optimizations are improved by considering alternative mutation, crossover, and elitism mechanisms. We show that the developed optimization environment based on genetic algorithms and MLFMA provides efficient and effective optimizations of antenna excitations, which cannot be obtained with array-factor approaches, even for relatively simple arrays with identical elements.

  7. A compensated multi-pole linear ion trap mercury frequency standard for ultra-stable timekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A; Diener, William A; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2008-12-01

    The multi-pole linear ion trap frequency standard (LITS) being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has demonstrated excellent short- and long-term stability. The technology has now demonstrated long-term field operation providing a new capability for timekeeping standards. Recently implemented enhancements have resulted in a record line Q of 5 x 10(12) for a room temperature microwave atomic transition and a short-term fractional frequency stability of 5 x 10(-14)/tau(1/2). A scheme for compensating the second order Doppler shift has led to a reduction of the combined sensitivity to the primary LITS systematic effects below 5 x 10(-17) fractional frequency. Initial comparisons to JPL's cesium fountain clock show a systematic floor of less than 2 x 10(-16). The compensated multi-pole LITS at JPL was operated continuously and unattended for a 9-mo period from October 2006 to July 2007. During that time it was used as the frequency reference for the JPL geodetic receiver known as JPLT, enabling comparisons to any clock used as a reference for an International GNSS Service (IGS) site. Comparisons with the laser-cooled primary frequency standards that reported to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) over this period show a frequency deviation less than 2.7 x 10(-17)/day. In the capacity of a stand-alone ultra-stable flywheel, such a standard could be invaluable for long-term timekeeping applications in metrology labs while its methodology and robustness make it ideal for space applications as well.

  8. Mapping the Drude polarizable force field onto a multipole and induced dipole model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2017-10-01

    The induced dipole and the classical Drude oscillator represent two major approaches for the explicit inclusion of electronic polarizability into force field-based molecular modeling and simulations. In this work, we explore the equivalency of these two models by comparing condensed phase properties computed using the Drude force field and a multipole and induced dipole (MPID) model. Presented is an approach to map the electrostatic model optimized in the context of the Drude force field onto the MPID model. Condensed phase simulations on water and 15 small model compounds show that without any reparametrization, the MPID model yields properties similar to the Drude force field with both models yielding satisfactory reproduction of a range of experimental values and quantum mechanical data. Our results illustrate that the Drude oscillator model and the point induced dipole model are different representations of essentially the same physical model. However, results indicate the presence of small differences between the use of atomic multipoles and off-center charge sites. Additionally, results on the use of dispersion particle mesh Ewald further support its utility for treating long-range Lennard Jones dispersion contributions in the context of polarizable force fields. The main motivation in demonstrating the transferability of parameters between the Drude and MPID models is that the more than 15 years of development of the Drude polarizable force field can now be used with MPID formalism without the need for dual-thermostat integrators nor self-consistent iterations. This opens up a wide range of new methodological opportunities for polarizable models.

  9. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  12. Theory of neutron scattering by electrons in magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, S. W.

    2015-10-01

    A theory of neutron scattering by magnetic materials is reviewed with emphasis on the use of electronic multipoles that have universal appeal, because they are amenable to calculation and appear in theories of many other experimental techniques. The conventional theory of magnetic neutron scattering, which dates back to Schwinger (1937 Phys. Rev. 51 544) and Trammell (1953 Phys. Rev. 92 1387), yields an approximation for the scattering amplitude in terms of magnetic dipoles formed with the spin (S) and orbital angular momentum (L) of valence electrons. The so-called dipole-approximation has been widely adopted by researchers during the past few decades that has seen neutron scattering develop to its present status as the method of choice for investigations of magnetic structure and excitations. Looking beyond the dipole-approximation, however, reveals a wealth of additional information about electronic degrees of freedom conveniently encapsulated in magnetic multipoles. In this language, the dipole-approximation retains electronic axial dipoles, S and L. At the same level of approximation are polar dipoles—called anapoles or toroidal dipoles—allowed in the absence of a centre of inversion symmetry. Anapoles are examples of magneto-electric multipoles, time-odd and parity-odd irreducible tensors, that have come to the fore as signatures of electronic complexity in materials.

  13. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  14. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewon Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  15. Robust Diagnosis Method Based on Parameter Estimation for an Interturn Short-Circuit Fault in Multipole PMSM under High-Speed Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jewon; Moon, Seokbae; Jeong, Hyeyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-11-20

    This paper proposes a diagnosis method for a multipole permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) under an interturn short circuit fault. Previous works in this area have suffered from the uncertainties of the PMSM parameters, which can lead to misdiagnosis. The proposed method estimates the q-axis inductance (Lq) of the faulty PMSM to solve this problem. The proposed method also estimates the faulty phase and the value of G, which serves as an index of the severity of the fault. The q-axis current is used to estimate the faulty phase, the values of G and Lq. For this reason, two open-loop observers and an optimization method based on a particle-swarm are implemented. The q-axis current of a healthy PMSM is estimated by the open-loop observer with the parameters of a healthy PMSM. The Lq estimation significantly compensates for the estimation errors in high-speed operation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the faulty phase, G, and Lq besides exhibiting robustness against parameter uncertainties.

  16. Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F

    2017-12-13

    An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.

  17. Error studies of Halbach Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-02

    These error studies were done on the Halbach magnets for the CBETA “First Girder” as described in note [CBETA001]. The CBETA magnets have since changed slightly to the lattice in [CBETA009]. However, this is not a large enough change to significantly affect the results here. The QF and BD arc FFAG magnets are considered. For each assumed set of error distributions and each ideal magnet, 100 random magnets with errors are generated. These are then run through an automated version of the iron wire multipole cancellation algorithm. The maximum wire diameter allowed is 0.063” as in the proof-of-principle magnets. Initially, 32 wires (2 per Halbach wedge) are tried, then if this does not achieve 1e-­4 level accuracy in the simulation, 48 and then 64 wires. By “1e-4 accuracy”, it is meant the FOM defined by √(Σn≥sextupole an 2+bn 2) is less than 1 unit, where the multipoles are taken at the maximum nominal beam radius, R=23mm for these magnets. The algorithm initially uses 20 convergence interations. If 64 wires does not achieve 1e-­4 accuracy, this is increased to 50 iterations to check for slow converging cases. There are also classifications for magnets that do not achieve 1e-4 but do achieve 1e-3 (FOM ≤ 10 units). This is technically within the spec discussed in the Jan 30, 2017 review; however, there will be errors in practical shimming not dealt with in the simulation, so it is preferable to do much better than the spec in the simulation.

  18. Experiments on current-driven three-dimensional ion sound turbulence. I - Return-current limited electron beam injection. II - Wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed electron beam injection into a weakly collisional magnetized background plasma is investigated experimentally; properties of the electron beam and background plasma, as well as the low-frequency instabilities and wave dynamics, are discussed. The current of the injected beam closes via a field-aligned return current of background electrons. Through study of the frequency and wavenumber distribution, together with the electron distribution function, the low-frequency instabilities associated with the pulsed injection are identified as ion acoustic waves driven unstable by the return current. The frequency cut-off of the instabilities predicted from renormalized plasma turbulence theory, has been verified experimentally.

  19. Petascale molecular dynamics simulation using the fast multipole method on K computer

    KAUST Repository

    Ohno, Yousuke

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we report all-atom simulations of molecular crowding - a result from the full node simulation on the "K computer", which is a 10-PFLOPS supercomputer in Japan. The capability of this machine enables us to perform simulation of crowded cellular environments, which are more realistic compared to conventional MD simulations where proteins are simulated in isolation. Living cells are "crowded" because macromolecules comprise ∼30% of their molecular weight. Recently, the effects of crowded cellular environments on protein stability have been revealed through in-cell NMR spectroscopy. To measure the performance of the "K computer", we performed all-atom classical molecular dynamics simulations of two systems: target proteins in a solvent, and target proteins in an environment of molecular crowders that mimic the conditions of a living cell. Using the full system, we achieved 4.4 PFLOPS during a 520 million-atom simulation with cutoff of 28 Å. Furthermore, we discuss the performance and scaling of fast multipole methods for molecular dynamics simulations on the "K computer", as well as comparisons with Ewald summation methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of FDTD numerical computations and analytical multipole expansion method for plasmonics-active nanosphere dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anuj; Norton, Stephen J; Gerhold, Michael D; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-06-08

    This paper describes a comparative study of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and analytical evaluations of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of dimers of metallic nanospheres of plasmonics-active metals. The results of these two computational methods, to determine electromagnetic field enhancement in the region often referred to as "hot spots" between the two nanospheres forming the dimer, were compared and a strong correlation observed for gold dimers. The analytical evaluation involved the use of the spherical-harmonic addition theorem to relate the multipole expansion coefficients between the two nanospheres. In these evaluations, the spacing between two nanospheres forming the dimer was varied to obtain the effect of nanoparticle spacing on the electromagnetic fields in the regions between the nanostructures. Gold and silver were the metals investigated in our work as they exhibit substantial plasmon resonance properties in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regimes. The results indicate excellent correlation between the two computational methods, especially for gold nanosphere dimers with only a 5-10% difference between the two methods. The effect of varying the diameters of the nanospheres forming the dimer, on the electromagnetic field enhancement, was also studied.

  1. Application of Fast Multipole Methods to the NASA Fast Scattering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mark H.; Tinetti, Ana F.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a versatile noise prediction program designed to conduct aeroacoustic noise reduction studies. The equivalent source method is used to solve an exterior Helmholtz boundary value problem with an impedance type boundary condition. The solution process in FSC v2.0 requires direct manipulation of a large, dense system of linear equations, limiting the applicability of the code to small scales and/or moderate excitation frequencies. Recent advances in the use of Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) for solving scattering problems, coupled with sparse linear algebra techniques, suggest that a substantial reduction in computer resource utilization over conventional solution approaches can be obtained. Implementation of the single level FMM (SLFMM) and a variant of the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) into the FSC is discussed in this paper. The culmination of this effort, FSC v3.0, was used to generate solutions for three configurations of interest. Benchmarking against previously obtained simulations indicate that a twenty-fold reduction in computational memory and up to a four-fold reduction in computer time have been achieved on a single processor.

  2. Gay-Berne and electrostatic multipole based coarse-grain potential in implicit solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Johnny; Zhen, Xia; Shen, Hujun; Li, Guohui; Ren, Pengyu

    2011-10-21

    A general, transferable coarse-grain (CG) framework based on the Gay-Berne potential and electrostatic point multipole expansion is presented for polypeptide simulations. The solvent effect is described by the Generalized Kirkwood theory. The CG model is calibrated using the results of all-atom simulations of model compounds in solution. Instead of matching the overall effective forces produced by atomic models, the fundamental intermolecular forces such as electrostatic, repulsion-dispersion, and solvation are represented explicitly at a CG level. We demonstrate that the CG alanine dipeptide model is able to reproduce quantitatively the conformational energy of all-atom force fields in both gas and solution phases, including the electrostatic and solvation components. Replica exchange molecular dynamics and microsecond dynamic simulations of polyalanine of 5 and 12 residues reveal that the CG polyalanines fold into "alpha helix" and "beta sheet" structures. The 5-residue polyalanine displays a substantial increase in the "beta strand" fraction relative to the 12-residue polyalanine. The detailed conformational distribution is compared with those reported from recent all-atom simulations and experiments. The results suggest that the new coarse-graining approach presented in this study has the potential to offer both accuracy and efficiency for biomolecular modeling. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Coarse-Grained Modeling of Nucleic Acids Using Anisotropic Gay-Berne and Electric Multipole Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Shen, Hujun; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Yan; Wang, Honglei

    2016-02-09

    In this work, we attempt to apply a coarse-grained (CG) model, which is based on anisotropic Gay-Berne and electric multipole (EMP) potentials, to the modeling of nucleic acids. First, a comparison has been made between the CG and atomistic models (AMBER point-charge model) in the modeling of DNA and RNA hairpin structures. The CG results have demonstrated a good quality in maintaining the nucleic acid hairpin structures, in reproducing the dynamics of backbone atoms of nucleic acids, and in describing the hydrogen-bonding interactions between nucleic acid base pairs. Second, the CG and atomistic AMBER models yield comparable results in modeling double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules. It is encouraging that our CG model is capable of reproducing many elastic features of nucleic acid base pairs in terms of the distributions of the interbase pair step parameters (such as shift, slide, tilt, and twist) and the intrabase pair parameters (such as buckle, propeller, shear, and stretch). Finally, The GBEMP model has shown a promising ability to predict the melting temperatures of DNA duplexes with different lengths.

  4. MULTIPOLE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AND HIGH-ORDER PERTURBATIONS ON THE QUADRUPOLE LENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Z.; Lin, W. P. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, G. L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kang, X., E-mail: chuzhe@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Partner Group of MPI for Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-03-10

    An arbitrary surface mass density of the gravitational lens can be decomposed into multipole components. We simulate the ray tracing for the multipolar mass distribution of the generalized Singular Isothermal Sphere model based on deflection angles, which are analytically calculated. The magnification patterns in the source plane are then derived from an inverse shooting technique. As has been found, the caustics of odd mode lenses are composed of two overlapping layers for some lens models. When a point source traverses this kind of overlapping caustics, the image numbers change by {+-}4, rather than {+-}2. There are two kinds of caustic images. One is the critical curve and the other is the transition locus. It is found that the image number of the fold is exactly the average value of image numbers on two sides of the fold, while the image number of the cusp is equal to the smaller one. We also focus on the magnification patterns of the quadrupole (m = 2) lenses under the perturbations of m = 3, 4, and 5 mode components and found that one, two, and three butterfly or swallowtail singularities can be produced, respectively. With the increasing intensity of the high-order perturbations, the singularities grow up to bring sixfold image regions. If these perturbations are large enough to let two or three of the butterflies or swallowtails make contact, then eightfold or tenfold image regions can be produced as well. The possible astronomical applications are discussed.

  5. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J P; Paterson, M J

    2013-01-01

    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) [1,2] is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of the nitrogen molecule and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these non-variational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with FCI results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo [3,4] and `exact' non-relativistic results [3,4]. We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculati...

  6. Solar oscillations, gravitational multipole field of the sun and the solar neutrino paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, H.A.; Rosenwald, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    The visual solar oblateness work and the solar seismological work on the internal rotation of the sun are reviewed and their implications concerning the static gravitational multipole moments of the sun are discussed. The results of this work are quite deviant which is indicative of the complexity encountered and of the necessity for continued studies based on a diverse set of observing techniques. The evidence for phase-locked internal gravity modes of the sun is reviewed and the implications for the solar neutrino paradox are discussed. The rather unique possibility for testing the relevance which the phase-locked gravity modes have to this paradox is also noted. The oscillating perturbations in the sun's gravitational field produced by the classified internal gravity modes and the phase-locked modes are inferred from the observed temperature eigenfunctions. Strains of the order of 10/sup -18/ in gravitational radiation detectors based on free masses are inferred for frequencies near 100 ..mu..Hz. The relevance of these findings is discussed in terms of a new technique for use in solar seismological studies and of producing background signals in studies of low-frequency gravitational radiation. 64 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Combining the multilevel fast multipole method with the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzoulis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arbitrarily shaped and electrically large objects in the same environment leads to hybridization of the Method of Moments (MoM with the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD. The computation and memory complexity of the MoM solution is improved with the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM. By expanding the k-space integrals in spherical harmonics, further considerable amount of memory can be saved without compromising accuracy and numerical speed. However, until now MoM-UTD hybrid methods are restricted to conventional MoM formulations only with Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE. In this contribution, a MLFMM-UTD hybridization for Combined Field Integral Equation (CFIE is proposed and applied within a hybrid Finite Element - Boundary Integral (FEBI technique. The MLFMM-UTD hybridization is performed at the translation procedure on the various levels of the MLFMM, using a far-field approximation of the corresponding translation operator. The formulation of this new hybrid technique is presented, as well as numerical results.

  8. A Polarizable Atomic Multipole-Based Force Field for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Anionic Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huiying; Peng, Xiangda; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yuebin; Li, Guohui

    2017-12-31

    In all of the classical force fields, electrostatic interaction is simply treated and explicit electronic polarizability is neglected. The condensed-phase polarization, relative to the gas-phase charge distributions, is commonly accounted for in an average way by increasing the atomic charges, which remain fixed throughout simulations. Based on the lipid polarizable force field DMPC and following the same framework as Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for BiomoleculAr (AMOEBA) simulation, the present effort expands the force field to new anionic lipid models, in which the new lipids contain DMPG and POPS. The parameters are compatible with the AMOEBA force field, which includes water, ions, proteins, etc. The charge distribution of each atom is represented by the permanent atomic monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments, which are derived from the ab initio gas phase calculations. Many-body polarization including the inter- and intramolecular polarization is modeled in a consistent manner with distributed atomic polarizabilities. Molecular dynamics simulations of the two aqueous DMPG and POPS membrane bilayer systems, consisting of 72 lipids with water molecules, were then carried out to validate the force field parameters. Membrane width, area per lipid, volume per lipid, deuterium order parameters, electron density profile, electrostatic potential difference between the center of the bilayer and water are all calculated, and compared with limited experimental data.

  9. Magnet sorting algorithms for insertion devices for the advanced light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, D.; Hoyer, E.; Kincaid, B.; Marks, S.; Schlueter, R.

    1994-07-01

    Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) incorporate up to 3000 magnet blocks each for pole energization. In order to minimize field errors, these magnets must be measured, sorted and assigned appropriate locations and orientations in the magnetic structures. Sorting must address multiple objectives, including pole excitation and minimization of integrated multipole fields from minor field components in the magnets. This is equivalent to a combinatorial minimization problem with a large configuration space. Multi-stage sorting algorithms use ordering and pairing schemes in conjunction with other combinatorial methods to solve the minimization problem. This paper discusses objective functions, solution algorithms and results of application to magnet block measurement data.

  10. Development of a fast code for earthquake cycle simulation - (1) Application of Fast Multipole Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, K.; Mitsui, N.; Hori, T.

    2009-12-01

    contribution to the computation. Next, we examined the application of Fast Multipole Method (FMM). The FMM has been developed to speed up the computation of long-ranged forces in the N body-problem under the Laplace or the Helmholtz field. The operational counts of N**2 are reduced to be O(N). This algorithm has been widely used in a verity of fields in physics such as astrophysics. However, this has not been applied to the earthquake cycle simulations except for Tullis and Beeier (2008). In this study, we developed a FMM code for earthquake cycle simulation in an infinite homogeneous elastic medium. In the FMM algorithm, we need to divide the plate interface into 2**D tree structure (D is dimension and two in our case). We developed the tree-structure code following the tutorial code of Liu and Nishimura(2006). For the computation of the multipole expansion moment and the local expansion of 3-D elastostatics fundamental solution, we referred to Yoshida et al. (2001). In the presentation, we show the details of FMM algorithm in earthquake cycle simulations, and the computational accuracy and time depending on the expansion order and the tree structure.

  11. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeremy P; Taylor, Daniel J; Paterson, Martin J

    2013-05-15

    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) (Greer, J. Chem. Phys. 1995a, 103, 1821; Tong, Nolan, Cheng, and Greer, Comp. Phys. Comm. 2000, 142, 132) is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of N2 and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these nonvariational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with full configuration interaction results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (Booth and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 174104; Cleland, Booth, and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 024112) and "exact" nonrelativistic results (Booth and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 174104; Cleland, Booth, and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 024112). We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculation of atomic ionisation energies however electron affinities appear much more challenging for MCCI. Due to the small magnitude of the electron affinities their percentage errors can be high, but with regards to absolute errors MCCI performs similarly for ionisation energies and electron affinities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Generalized and efficient algorithm for computing multipole energies and gradients based on Cartesian tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejun

    2015-09-21

    Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green's function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4-16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A

  13. Generalized and efficient algorithm for computing multipole energies and gradients based on Cartesian tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejun

    2015-09-01

    Accurate representation of intermolecular forces has been the central task of classical atomic simulations, known as molecular mechanics. Recent advancements in molecular mechanics models have put forward the explicit representation of permanent and/or induced electric multipole (EMP) moments. The formulas developed so far to calculate EMP interactions tend to have complicated expressions, especially in Cartesian coordinates, which can only be applied to a specific kernel potential function. For example, one needs to develop a new formula each time a new kernel function is encountered. The complication of these formalisms arises from an intriguing and yet obscured mathematical relation between the kernel functions and the gradient operators. Here, I uncover this relation via rigorous derivation and find that the formula to calculate EMP interactions is basically invariant to the potential kernel functions as long as they are of the form f(r), i.e., any Green's function that depends on inter-particle distance. I provide an algorithm for efficient evaluation of EMP interaction energies, forces, and torques for any kernel f(r) up to any arbitrary rank of EMP moments in Cartesian coordinates. The working equations of this algorithm are essentially the same for any kernel f(r). Recently, a few recursive algorithms were proposed to calculate EMP interactions. Depending on the kernel functions, the algorithm here is about 4-16 times faster than these algorithms in terms of the required number of floating point operations and is much more memory efficient. I show that it is even faster than a theoretically ideal recursion scheme, i.e., one that requires 1 floating point multiplication and 1 addition per recursion step. This algorithm has a compact vector-based expression that is optimal for computer programming. The Cartesian nature of this algorithm makes it fit easily into modern molecular simulation packages as compared with spherical coordinate-based algorithms. A

  14. A performance model for the communication in fast multipole methods on high-performance computing platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2016-03-04

    Exascale systems are predicted to have approximately 1 billion cores, assuming gigahertz cores. Limitations on affordable network topologies for distributed memory systems of such massive scale bring new challenges to the currently dominant parallel programing model. Currently, there are many efforts to evaluate the hardware and software bottlenecks of exascale designs. It is therefore of interest to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure extrapolated scalability. The fast multipole method (FMM) was originally developed for accelerating N-body problems in astrophysics and molecular dynamics but has recently been extended to a wider range of problems. Its high arithmetic intensity combined with its linear complexity and asynchronous communication patterns make it a promising algorithm for exascale systems. In this paper, we discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exascale architectures, with a focus on internode communication. We focus on the communication part only; the efficiency of the computational kernels are beyond the scope of the present study. We develop a performance model that considers the communication patterns of the FMM and observe a good match between our model and the actual communication time on four high-performance computing (HPC) systems, when latency, bandwidth, network topology, and multicore penalties are all taken into account. To our knowledge, this is the first formal characterization of internode communication in FMM that validates the model against actual measurements of communication time. The ultimate communication model is predictive in an absolute sense; however, on complex systems, this objective is often out of reach or of a difficulty out of proportion to its benefit when there exists a simpler model that is inexpensive and sufficient to guide coding decisions leading to improved scaling. The current model provides such guidance.

  15. Coarse-grained simulations for organic molecular liquids based on Gay-Berne and electric multipole potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peijun; Shen, Hujun; Yang, Lu; Ding, Yang; Li, Beibei; Shao, Ying; Mao, Yingchen; Li, Guohui

    2013-02-01

    Coarse-grained studies of CH(3)SH, CH(3)CHO and CHCl(3) liquids, based on anisotropic Gay-Berne (GB) and electric multipole potentials (EMP), demonstrate that the coarse-grained model is able to qualitatively reproduce the results obtained from the atomistic model (AMOEBA polarizable force field) and allows for significant saving in computation time. It should be pointed out that the accuracy of the coarse-grained model is very sensitive to how well the anisotropic GB particle is defined and how satisfactorily the EMP sites are chosen.

  16. A motionless actuation system for magnetic shape memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew; Finn, Kevin; Hobza, Anthony; Lindquist, Paul; Rafla, Nader; Müllner, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Ni-Mn-Ga is a Magnetic Shape Memory (MSM) alloy that changes shape in response to a variable magnetic field. We can intentionally manipulate the shape of the material to function as an actuator, and the material can thus replace complicated small electromechanical systems. In previous work, a very simple and precise solid-state micropump was developed, but a mechanical rotation was required to translate the position of the magnetic field. This mechanical rotation defeats the purpose of the motionless solid-state device. Here we present a solid-state electromagnetic driver to linearly progress the position of the applied magnetic field and the associated shrinkage. The generated magnetic field was focused at either of two pole pieces, providing a mechanism for moving the localized shrinkage in the MSM element. We confirmed that our driver has sufficient strength to actuate the MSM element using optical microscopy. We validated the whole design by comparing results obtained with finite element analysis with the experimentally measured flux density. This drive system serves as a possible replacement to the mechanical rotation of the magnetic field by using a multi-pole electromagnet that sweeps the magnetic field across the MSM micropump element, solid-state switching the current to each pole piece in the multi-pole electromagnet.

  17. Multipole analysis of IceCube data to search for dark matter accumulated in the Galactic halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, School of Chemistry and Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stoessl, A.; Terliuk, A.; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Hickford, S.; Macias, O. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Altmann, D.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Vallecorsa, S. [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Eisch, J.; Fadiran, O.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kopper, C.; Kurahashi, N.; Larsen, D.T.; Maruyama, R.; McNally, F.; Middlemas, E.; Morse, R.; Rees, I.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J.P.; Santander, M.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Santen, J.; Weaver, C.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Danninger, M.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; De Andre, J.P.A.M.; DeYoung, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gier, D.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hallen, P.; Heinen, D.; Hellwig, D.; Jagielski, K.; Koob, A.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Leuermann, M.; Paul, L.; Penek, Oe.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wichary, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Zierke, S. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Baum, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Kroll, M.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Unger, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Tepe, A. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Christy, B.; Felde, J.; Goodman, J.A.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Meagher, K.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Richman, M.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Leute, J.; Resconi, E.; Schulz, O.; Sestayo, Y. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Bose, D.; Rott, C. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter which is bound in the Galactic halo might self-annihilate and produce a flux of stable final state particles, e.g. high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos can be detected with IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized Cherenkov detector. Given IceCube's large field of view, a characteristic anisotropy of the additional neutrino flux is expected. In this paper we describe a multipole method to search for such a large-scale anisotropy in IceCube data. This method uses the expansion coefficients of a multipole expansion of neutrino arrival directions and incorporates signal-specific weights for each expansion coefficient. We apply the technique to a high-purity muon neutrino sample from the Northern Hemisphere. The final result is compatible with the nullhypothesis. As no signal was observed, we present limits on the self-annihilation cross-section averaged over the relative velocity distribution left angle σ{sub A}υ right angle down to 1.9 x 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for a dark matter particle mass of 700-1,000 GeV and direct annihilation into ν anti ν. The resulting exclusion limits come close to exclusion limits from γ-ray experiments, that focus on the outer Galactic halo, for high dark matter masses of a few TeV and hard annihilation channels. (orig.)

  18. Influence of the multipole order of the source on the decay of an inertial wave beam in a rotating fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanael; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Voisin, Bruno; Moisy, Frederic

    2015-11-01

    Inertial wave beams emitted from localized sources are relevant to a broad range of geo and astrophysical flows. These beams are excited at critical lines, where the local slope of solid boundaries equals the propagation angle of the wave, in rotating fluid domains affected by a global harmonic forcing (e.g. precession, libration, tidal motion). We show here theoretically and experimentally that the decay of the amplitude of such wave beams depends on the multipole order of the source. We analyze the far-field viscous decay of a two-dimensional inertial wave beam emitted by a harmonic line source in a rotating fluid. By identifying the relevant conserved quantities along the wave beam, we show how the beam structure and decay exponent are governed by the multipole order of the source. Two wavemakers are considered experimentally, a pulsating and an oscillating cylinder, aiming to produce a monopole and a dipole source, respectively. The relevant conserved quantity which discriminates between these two sources is the instantaneous flow rate along the wave beam, which is non-zero for the monopole and zero for the dipole. For each source, the beam structure and decay exponent, measured using particle image velocimetry, are found in good agreement with the predictions.

  19. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  20. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  1. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  2. Hall attractor in axially symmetric magnetic fields in neutron star crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N; Cumming, Andrew

    2014-05-02

    We find an attractor for an axially symmetric magnetic field evolving under the Hall effect and subdominant Ohmic dissipation, resolving the question of the long-term fate of the magnetic field in neutron star crusts. The electron fluid is in isorotation, analogous to Ferraro's law, with its angular velocity being approximately proportional to the poloidal magnetic flux, Ω∝Ψ. This equilibrium is the long-term configuration of a magnetic field evolving because of the Hall effect and Ohmic dissipation. For an initial dipole-dominated field, the attractor consists mainly of a dipole and an octupole component accompanied by an energetically negligible quadrupole toroidal field. The field dissipates in a self-similar way: Although higher multipoles should decay faster, the toroidal field mediates transfer of energy into them from the lower ones, leading to an advection diffusion equilibrium and keeping the ratio of the poloidal multipoles almost constant. This has implications for the structure of the intermediate-age neutron stars, suggesting that their poloidal field should consist of a dipole and an octupole component accompanied by a very weak toroidal quadrupole. For initial conditions that have a higher multipole ℓ structure, the attractor consists mainly of ℓ and ℓ+2 poloidal components.

  3. Excitation of Self-Localized Spin-Wave Bullets by Spin-Polarized Current in In-Plane Magnetized Magnetic Nano-Contacts: A Micromagnetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-08

    Melkov,3 Vasil Tiberkevich,4 and Andrei N. Slavin4 1Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, University of Messina...predicted1–3 and experimentally observed4–9 that persistent microwave magnetization preces- sion can be excited in a thin “free” layer of a magnetic...specify the boundary conditions that adequately describe the experimental conditions in the current-driven nanocontact. Because the dimensions of the

  4. C. Petrone et al.: "Magnetic measurement of the model magnet QD0 designed for the CLIC final focus beam transport line." CERN TE-MSC Internal Note, EDMS Nr: 1184196

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Petrone, Carlo; Russenschuck, Stephan; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This note presents the results of the magnetic measurements performed on QD0, model magnet for the final focus transport line for CLIC (Fig. 1). This high-gradient, hybrid quadrupole has a yoke length of 0.1 m and an aperture of 8.3 mm. ND2Fe14B Permanent magnet blocks provide a gradient of 150 T/m, which can be further increased to 530 T/m when the four coils are excited to 18.3 A. The request was to measure the strength of the field and the multipole coefficients at different currents. The measurement of the field strength, by means of the single stretched wire system, was done in December 2011 in the I8 laboratory. The measurement of the multipole was done by means of the oscillating wire system [1][2].

  5. High-Resolution Crystal Structures of Protein Helices Reconciled with Three-Centered Hydrogen Bonds and Multipole Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Zheng; Ponder, Jay W.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for non-linear hydrogen bonds in protein helices is ubiquitous. In particular, amide three-centered hydrogen bonds are common features of helices in high-resolution crystal structures of proteins. These high-resolution structures (1.0 to 1.5 Å nominal crystallographic resolution) position backbone atoms without significant bias from modeling constraints and identify Φ = -62°, ψ = -43 as the consensus backbone torsional angles of protein helices. These torsional angles preserve the atomic positions of α-β carbons of the classic Pauling α-helix while allowing the amide carbonyls to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds as first suggested by Némethy et al. in 1967. Molecular dynamics simulations of a capped 12-residue oligoalanine in water with AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Applications), a second-generation force field that includes multipole electrostatics and polarizability, reproduces the experimentally observed high-resolution helical conformation and correctly reorients the amide-bond carbonyls into bifurcated hydrogen bonds. This simple modification of backbone torsional angles reconciles experimental and theoretical views to provide a unified view of amide three-centered hydrogen bonds as crucial components of protein helices. The reason why they have been overlooked by structural biologists depends on the small crankshaft-like changes in orientation of the amide bond that allows maintenance of the overall helical parameters (helix pitch (p) and residues per turn (n)). The Pauling 3.613 α-helix fits the high-resolution experimental data with the minor exception of the amide-carbonyl electron density, but the previously associated backbone torsional angles (Φ, Ψ) needed slight modification to be reconciled with three-atom centered H-bonds and multipole electrostatics. Thus, a new standard helix, the 3.613/10-, Némethy- or N-helix, is proposed. Due to the use of constraints from monopole

  6. High-resolution crystal structures of protein helices reconciled with three-centered hydrogen bonds and multipole electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Daniel J; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Zheng; Ponder, Jay W; Marshall, Garland R

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for non-linear hydrogen bonds in protein helices is ubiquitous. In particular, amide three-centered hydrogen bonds are common features of helices in high-resolution crystal structures of proteins. These high-resolution structures (1.0 to 1.5 Å nominal crystallographic resolution) position backbone atoms without significant bias from modeling constraints and identify Φ = -62°, ψ = -43 as the consensus backbone torsional angles of protein helices. These torsional angles preserve the atomic positions of α-β carbons of the classic Pauling α-helix while allowing the amide carbonyls to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds as first suggested by Némethy et al. in 1967. Molecular dynamics simulations of a capped 12-residue oligoalanine in water with AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Applications), a second-generation force field that includes multipole electrostatics and polarizability, reproduces the experimentally observed high-resolution helical conformation and correctly reorients the amide-bond carbonyls into bifurcated hydrogen bonds. This simple modification of backbone torsional angles reconciles experimental and theoretical views to provide a unified view of amide three-centered hydrogen bonds as crucial components of protein helices. The reason why they have been overlooked by structural biologists depends on the small crankshaft-like changes in orientation of the amide bond that allows maintenance of the overall helical parameters (helix pitch (p) and residues per turn (n)). The Pauling 3.6(13) α-helix fits the high-resolution experimental data with the minor exception of the amide-carbonyl electron density, but the previously associated backbone torsional angles (Φ, Ψ) needed slight modification to be reconciled with three-atom centered H-bonds and multipole electrostatics. Thus, a new standard helix, the 3.6(13/10)-, Némethy- or N-helix, is proposed. Due to the use of constraints from

  7. Summary of HQ01e magnetic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Marchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G. L.; Ghosh, A.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Zlobin, A.V.; Milanese, A.; Todesco, E.

    2011-11-28

    The magnetic measurements of HQ01e, a 1 m long LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) high-gradient quadrupole model, were performed at 4.4 K and above 40 K at the magnet test facility of LBNL in July 2011. The 120 mm aperture cos2θ Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet was designed with accelerator magnet features including alignment and field quality. Conductor-limited gradient was 195 T/m at 4.4 K. During the measurement, a ramp rate of 10 A/s was used and measurements at the nominal current of 14.2 kA (82% of short-sample limit with a gradient of 160 T/m) were performed using the 250 mm long printed-circuit board rotating probe developed by FNAL. At 14.2 kA, 2.7 units of b{sub 6} and 0.7 units of b{sub 10} were measured. Large persistent current contribution and strong dynamic effects were observed. We analyzed the allowed and non-allowed harmonics obtained during the measurements above 40 K and at the nominal current. Significant change of the skew sextupole occurred between 50 K and 95 K. The allowed multipole and the low-order non-allowed multipoles at the straight section were explained through the rigid displacement of coil blocks with an amplitude less than 100 μm. We also attempted to correlate the coil asymmetry (a{sub 3} and b{sub 3}) with the measured coil pole azimuthal strain. The dynamic multipole measured at the magnetic straight section varied linearly with the ramp rate of magnet current ranging from 10 A/s to 60 A/s. It was attributed to the inter-strand coupling currents with low crossover resistance. The crossover resistance of the cables at the inner layer of the magnet was estimated to range between 0.2 μΩ to 0.7 μΩ.

  8. Multifunctional all-dielectric nano-optical systems using collective multipole Mie resonances: Towards on-chip integrated nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Chattaraj, Swarnabha

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical response of a class of on-chip integrated nano-photonic systems comprising all-dielectric building block based multifunctional light manipulating units (LMU) integrated with quantum dot (QD) light sources. The multiple functions (such as focusing excitation light, QD emission rate enhancement, photon guidance, and lossless propagation) are simultaneously realized using the collective Mie resonances of dipole and higher order multipole modes of the dielectric building blocks (DBBs) constituting a single structural unit, the LMU. Using analytical formulation based on Mie theory we demonstrate enhancement of the excitation light simultaneously with the guiding and propagation of the emitted light from a QD emitter integrated with the DBB based LMU. The QD-DBB integrated structures can serve as the basic element for building nano-optical active circuits for optical information processing in both classical and quantum realms.

  9. Density functional theory for molecular and periodic systems using density fitting and continuous fast multipole method: Analytical gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łazarski, Roman; Burow, Asbjörn Manfred; Grajciar, Lukáš; Sierka, Marek

    2016-10-30

    A full implementation of analytical energy gradients for molecular and periodic systems is reported in the TURBOMOLE program package within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Gaussian-type orbitals as basis functions. Its key component is a combination of density fitting (DF) approximation and continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) that allows for an efficient calculation of the Coulomb energy gradient. For exchange-correlation part the hierarchical numerical integration scheme (Burow and Sierka, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2011, 7, 3097) is extended to energy gradients. Computational efficiency and asymptotic O(N) scaling behavior of the implementation is demonstrated for various molecular and periodic model systems, with the largest unit cell of hematite containing 640 atoms and 19,072 basis functions. The overall computational effort of energy gradient is comparable to that of the Kohn-Sham matrix formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Search for dark matter in the galactic halo with a multipole analysis of IceCube data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagla, Martin; Bissok, Martin; Leuermann, Martin; Raedel, Leif; Reimann, Rene; Schimp, Michael; Schoenen, Sebastian; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Self-annihilating or decaying Dark Matter in the galactic halo may contribute to an observable flux of high-energy neutrinos. These neutrinos can be detected with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic-kilometer-sized Cherenkov detector at the geographic South Pole. This neutrino flux depends on the density of Dark Matter in the direction of sight and exhibits a large-scale anisotropy depending on the angular distance towards the galactic center. In a muon neutrino event sample, such an anisotropy would leave a characteristic imprint on multipole expansion coefficients of the observed set of arrival directions. An initial analysis of data taken with the IceCube 79-string configuration was published by the IceCube Collaboration (arXiv:1406.6868). We investigate possible improvements, e.g. by using energy estimators and extending the analysis to multiple years of data.

  11. The exterior source surface for force-free fields. [solar atmosphere magnetic field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the exterior source surface for force-free fields. The spherical harmonic expansion is presented for boundary values on two concentric spheres. An upper limit on a constant which measures the strength of coronal currents is found to be a function of the lowest multipole moment of the prescribed boundary values. The solar atmosphere is in the class of magnetic fields for which the study is applicable.

  12. Control of forced vibrations of mechanical structures by an electromagnetic controller with a permanent magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of an electromagnetic vibration controller is presented. The analyzed device consists of a pot-type iron core with a coil and a permanent magnet as a source of constant magnetic flux. The magnetic circuit is closed by a yoke, excited by an external harmonic mechanical force....... The so generated magnetic flux variation induces alternating voltage in the electric circuit, which is dissipated in a shunt resistor. The induced current driven through the coil generates magnetic force, which damps the excitation force and changes the damped natural frequency of the oscillatory system...

  13. Magnetic form factors of rare earth ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckman, H.W.

    1977-02-01

    The magnetic scattering of neutrons by atoms has been investigated by exploiting its similarity to the radiation problem in spectroscopy. Expressions for the magnetic scattering amplitude have been developed for cases in which an atom in the l/sup n/ electronic configuration is described by a Hamiltonian. For each case, the magnetic scattering amplitude can be expressed in terms of matrix elements of magnetic and electric multipole operators. For a nonrelativistic atom, the calculation of these matrix elements has been separated into evaluating radial matrix elements and matrix elements of Racah tensors W/sup (0,k)k/ and W/sup (1,k')k/. For a relativistic atom the effective operator approach has been used to define effective multipole operators so that a relativistic result is obtained by taking matrix elements of these effective operators between nonrelativistic states of the atom. The calculation of matrix elements of these effective operators has been reduced to evaluating relativistic radial integrals and matrix elements of the Racah tensors taken between nonrelativistic states of the atom. It is shown that for the case of elastic scattering by either a relativistic or nonrelativistic atom in single Russell-Saunders state, the magnetic scattering amplitude can be written in the conventional form p(vector q)vector q/sub m/ . vector sigma. General expressions for p(vector q) as well as elastic magnetic form factors have been obtained. The formalism has been illustrated throughout by applying it to the case of scattering by rare earth ions. Detailed calculations for the form factors of Er and Gd ions are presented.

  14. A large acceptance analysing magnet for HTS-ECR source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: mandal@iuac.res.in; Rodrigues, G.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Brodt, Peter; Bodker, Franz [Danfysik, Jyllinge (Denmark)

    2007-12-21

    A large acceptance analysing magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The design aim is to analyse highly charged ions from a high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source, PKDELIS on a 400 kV high voltage platform. The magnet has a unique design incorporating multipole corrections to minimise higher order aberrations using special pole shapes. For double focussing condition, the entrance and exit shim angles have been optimised after inclusion of the gap effect. Since the analysing magnet will be operated on a high voltage platform, the magnet and associated high current power supply are designed to be air-cooled. Special care has been taken in the design of the magnet to have minimum weight, good acceptance and moderate mass resolution.

  15. A general formula for the rate of resonant transfer of energy between two electric multipole moments of arbitrary order using molecular quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A

    2005-01-22

    A general expression is derived for the matrix element for the resonant transfer of energy between an initially excited donor species and an acceptor moiety in the ground state, with each entity possessing an electric multipole moment of arbitrary order. In the quantum electrodynamical framework employed, the coupling between the pair is mediated by the exchange of a single virtual photon. The probability amplitude found from second-order perturbation theory is a product of the electric moments located at each center and the resonant multipole-multipole interaction tensor. Using the Fermi golden rule, a general formula for the rate of energy transfer is obtained. As an illustration of the efficacy of the theory developed, rates of excitation energy exchange are calculated for systems interacting through dipole-quadrupole, dipole-octupole, quadrupole-quadrupole, and the familiar dipole-dipole coupling. For each of the cases examined, the near- and far-zone limits of the migration rate are calculated from the result valid for all donor-acceptor separations beyond wave function overlap. Expression of the octupole contribution to the transfer rate in terms of its irreducible components of weights 1 and 3 leads to new features. The octupole weight-1 term is found to contribute only when the interaction is retarded, while the dipole-octupole weight-1 contribution appears as a higher-order correction term to the dipole-dipole rate. Order of magnitude estimates are given for the contributions of dipole-quadrupole and dipole-octupole terms relative to the leading dipole-dipole rate for near-, intermediate-, and far-zone separations to further understand the role played by higher multipole moments in the transfer of excitation and the mechanism dominating the process. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Acoustic multipole sources for the regularized lattice Boltzmann method: Comparison with multiple-relaxation-time models in the inviscid limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Congshan; Sagaut, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a variant of the acoustic multipole source (AMS) method is proposed within the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method. A quadrupole term is directly included in the stress system (equilibrium momentum flux), and the dependency of the quadrupole source in the inviscid limit upon the fortuitous discretization error reported in the works of E. M. Viggen [Phys. Rev. E 87, 023306 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.023306] is removed. The regularized lattice Boltzmann (RLB) method with this variant AMS method is presented for the 2D and 3D acoustic problems in the inviscid limit, and without loss of generality, the D3Q19 model is considered in this work. To assess the accuracy and the advantage of the RLB scheme with this AMS for acoustic point sources, the numerical investigations and comparisons with the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) models and the analytical solutions are performed on the 2D and 3D acoustic multipole point sources in the inviscid limit, including monopoles, x dipoles, and x x quadrupoles. From the present results, the good precision of this AMS method is validated, and the RLB scheme exhibits some superconvergence properties for the monopole sources compared with the MRT models, and both the RLB and MRT models have the same accuracy for the simulations of acoustic dipole and quadrupole sources. To further validate the capability of the RLB scheme with AMS, another basic acoustic problem, the acoustic scattering from a solid cylinder presented at the Second Computational Aeroacoustics Workshop on Benchmark Problems, is numerically considered. The directivity pattern of the acoustic field is computed at r =7.5 ; the present results agree well with the exact solutions. Also, the effects of slip and no-slip wall treatments within the regularized boundary condition on this pure acoustic scattering problem are tested, and compared with the exact solution, the slip wall treatment can present a better result. All simulations demonstrate that the

  17. Spin flip loss in magnetic confinement of ultracold neutrons for neutron lifetime experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyerl, A.; Leung, K. K. H.; Kaufman, C.; Müller, G.; Malik, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the spin flip loss for ultracold neutrons in magnetic bottles of the type used in experiments aiming at a precise measurement of the neutron lifetime, extending the one-dimensional field model used previously by Steyerl et al. [Phys. Rev. C 86, 065501 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.065501] to two dimensions for cylindrical multipole fields. We also develop a general analysis applicable to three dimensions. Here we apply it to multipole fields and to the bowl-type field configuration used for the Los Alamos UCN τ experiment. In all cases considered the spin flip loss calculated exceeds the Majorana estimate by many orders of magnitude but can be suppressed sufficiently by applying a holding field of appropriate magnitude to allow high-precision neutron lifetime measurements, provided other possible sources of systematic error are under control.

  18. An Anisotropic Coarse-Grained Model for Proteins Based On Gay-Berne and Electric Multipole Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hujun; Li, Yan; Ren, Pengyu; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Guohui

    2014-02-10

    Gay-Berne anisotropic potential has been widely used to evaluate the non-bonded interactions between coarse-grained particles being described as elliptical rigid bodies. In this paper, we are presenting a coarse-grained model for twenty kinds of amino acids and proteins, based on the anisotropic Gay-Berne and point electric multipole (EMP) potentials. We demonstrate that the anisotropic coarse-grained model, namely GBEMP model, is able to reproduce many key features observed from experimental protein structures (Dunbrack Library) as well as from atomistic force field simulations (using AMOEBA, AMBER and CHARMM force fields) while saving the computational cost by a factor of about 10~200 depending on specific cases and atomistic models. More importantly, unlike other coarse-grained approaches, our framework is based on the fundamental intermolecular forces with explicit treatment of electrostatic and repulsion-dispersion forces. As a result, the coarse-grained protein model presented an accurate description of non-bonded interactions (particularly electrostatic component) between hetero-/homo-dimers (such as peptide-peptide, peptide-water). In addition, the encouraging performance of the model was reflected by the excellent correlation between GBEMP and AMOEBA models in the calculations of the dipole moment of peptides. In brief, the GBEMP model given here is general and transferable, suitable for simulating complex biomolecular systems.

  19. Toward transferable interatomic van der Waals interactions without electrons: The role of multipole electrostatics and many-body dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: bereau@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland and Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    We estimate polarizabilities of atoms in molecules without electron density, using a Voronoi tesselation approach instead of conventional density partitioning schemes. The resulting atomic dispersion coefficients are calculated, as well as many-body dispersion effects on intermolecular potential energies. We also estimate contributions from multipole electrostatics and compare them to dispersion. We assess the performance of the resulting intermolecular interaction model from dispersion and electrostatics for more than 1300 neutral and charged, small organic molecular dimers. Applications to water clusters, the benzene crystal, the anti-cancer drug ellipticine—intercalated between two Watson-Crick DNA base pairs, as well as six macro-molecular host-guest complexes highlight the potential of this method and help to identify points of future improvement. The mean absolute error made by the combination of static electrostatics with many-body dispersion reduces at larger distances, while it plateaus for two-body dispersion, in conflict with the common assumption that the simple 1/R{sup 6} correction will yield proper dissociative tails. Overall, the method achieves an accuracy well within conventional molecular force fields while exhibiting a simple parametrization protocol.

  20. GT SD and high multipole nuclear matrix elements for double beta decays and astro neutrino nuclear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) for GT (Gamow Teller), spin dipole (SD) and higher multipole transitions are associated with double beta decays and astro neutrino nuclear interactions. They are reduced with respect to quasi-particle (QP) NMEs by a factor k ≈ 0.2-0.3. The reduction coefficient k is discussed in terms of the nucleonic spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic nuclear medium effects. The latter may be incorporated by the effective (quenching) factor gAe f f/gAf r e e . The SD NMEs derived from the (3He,t) charge exchange reactions (CERs) are consistent with the empirical NMEs M(S D) based on the quasi-particle model with the empirical effective SD coupling constant k. The SD NMEs derived from CERs are reduced uniformly in the wide momentum range of q ≈20-100 MeV/c. Impacts of the universal reduction(quenching) on NMEs for neutrino-less DBDs and low and medium energy astro neutrinos are discussed.

  1. Requirements for real time correction of decay and snapback in the LHC superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; Burns, A; Lamont, M; Vos, L

    2000-01-01

    The LHC superconducting magnets will have field errors with both static and dynamic components. These will affect the key beam parameters such as energy, tune, orbit and chromaticity. The allowed variations in these beam parameters during injection and the energy ramp are extremely small. The required compensation of certain multipole components of the field errors can probably not be performed with feed-forward correction alone. Real time control of beam parameters via appropriate correction magnets is therefore proposed. This paper outlines the requirements for such real time control

  2. Optical spectroscopy of single Si nanocylinders with magnetic and electric resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Eriksen, R. L.; Cheng, W.

    2014-01-01

    . Multipole analysis of the experimental scattering spectra, based on the decomposed discrete dipole approximation, confirms resonant excitation of electric and magnetic dipole modes in the Si nanocylinders. Influences of light polarization and incident angle on the scattering properties of the nanocylinders...... are studied. It is shown that the dependence of resonant excitation of the electric and magnetic modes in the nanocylinders on incident angle and polarization of light allows controlling and manipulating the scattered light in this system. The demonstrated properties of Si nanocylinders can be used...

  3. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-12-09

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO{sub 2}{sup +} with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H{sub 2} densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 4}{sup +} have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  4. Computation of scattering matrix elements of large and complex shaped absorbing particles with multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueqian; Yang, Minglin; Sheng, Xinqing; Ren, Kuan Fang

    2015-05-01

    Light scattering properties of absorbing particles, such as the mineral dusts, attract a wide attention due to its importance in geophysical and environment researches. Due to the absorbing effect, light scattering properties of particles with absorption differ from those without absorption. Simple shaped absorbing particles such as spheres and spheroids have been well studied with different methods but little work on large complex shaped particles has been reported. In this paper, the surface Integral Equation (SIE) with Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) is applied to study scattering properties of large non-spherical absorbing particles. SIEs are carefully discretized with piecewise linear basis functions on triangle patches to model whole surface of the particle, hence computation resource needs increase much more slowly with the particle size parameter than the volume discretized methods. To improve further its capability, MLFMA is well parallelized with Message Passing Interface (MPI) on distributed memory computer platform. Without loss of generality, we choose the computation of scattering matrix elements of absorbing dust particles as an example. The comparison of the scattering matrix elements computed by our method and the discrete dipole approximation method (DDA) for an ellipsoid dust particle shows that the precision of our method is very good. The scattering matrix elements of large ellipsoid dusts with different aspect ratios and size parameters are computed. To show the capability of the presented algorithm for complex shaped particles, scattering by asymmetry Chebyshev particle with size parameter larger than 600 of complex refractive index m = 1.555 + 0.004 i and different orientations are studied.

  5. Conversion of internal gravity waves into magnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoanet, D.; Vasil, G. M.; Fuller, J.; Cantiello, M.; Burns, K. J.

    2017-04-01

    Asteroseismology probes the interiors of stars by studying oscillation modes at a star's surface. Although pulsation spectra are well understood for solar-like oscillators, a substantial fraction of red giant stars observed by Kepler exhibit abnormally low-amplitude dipole oscillation modes. Fuller et al. (2015) suggest this effect is produced by strong core magnetic fields that scatter dipole internal gravity waves (IGWs) into higher multipole IGWs or magnetic waves. In this paper, we study the interaction of IGWs with a magnetic field to test this mechanism. We consider two background stellar structures: one with a uniform magnetic field, and another with a magnetic field that varies both horizontally and vertically. We derive analytic solutions to the wave propagation problem and validate them with numerical simulations. In both cases, we find perfect conversion from IGWs into magnetic waves when the IGWs propagate into a region exceeding a critical magnetic field strength. Downward propagating IGWs cannot reflect into upward propagating IGWs because their vertical wavenumber never approaches zero. Instead, they are converted into upward propagating slow (Alfvénic) waves, and we show they will likely dissipate as they propagate back into weakly magnetized regions. Therefore, strong internal magnetic fields can produce dipole mode suppression in red giants, and gravity modes will likely be totally absent from the pulsation spectra of sufficiently magnetized stars.

  6. Calculated chiral and magneto-electric dichroic signals for copper metaborate (CuB(2)O(4)) in an applied magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, Stephen W; Staub, Urs

    2009-04-08

    Expressions for dichroic signals in terms of electron multipoles have been used to analyse optical data gathered on a crystal of copper metaborate in the presence of a magnetic field. Calculated signals comply with the established crystal and magnetic structures of CuB(2)O(4), and respect the global symmetries of parity-even and parity-odd dichroic signals in full. We have success in describing five different experiments in total. The claim by Saito et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 117402) that they observe magnetic control of crystal chirality in one of their five experiments is challenged.

  7. Nanoscale thermoelectrical detection of magnetic domain wall propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysteczko, Patryk; Wells, James; Fernández Scarioni, Alexander; Soban, Zbynek; Janda, Tomas; Hu, Xiukun; Saidl, Vit; Campion, Richard P.; Mansell, Rhodri; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cowburn, Russell P.; Nemec, Petr; Kazakova, Olga; Wunderlich, Joerg; Schumacher, Hans Werner

    2017-06-01

    In magnetic nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) magnetic domain walls (DWs) are narrow and can move rapidly driven by current induced torques. This enables important applications like high-density memories for which the precise detection of the position and motion of a propagating DW is of utmost interest. Today's DW detection tools are often limited in resolution, require complex instrumentation, or can only be applied on specific materials. Here we show that the anomalous Nernst effect provides a simple and powerful tool to precisely track the position and motion of a single DW propagating in a PMA nanowire. We detect field and current driven DW propagation in both metallic heterostructures and dilute magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature range. The demonstrated spatial accuracy below 20 nm is comparable to the DW width in typical metallic PMA systems.

  8. An anisotropic coarse-grained model based on Gay-Berne and electric multipole potentials and its application to simulate a DMPC bilayer in an implicit solvent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hujun; Li, Yan; Xu, Peijun; Li, Xiaofang; Chu, Huiying; Zhang, Dinglin; Li, Guohui

    2015-06-05

    In this work, we aim at optimizing the performance of the anisotropic GBEMP model, which adopts a framework by combining a Gay-Berne (GB) anisotropic potential with an electric multipole (EMP) potential, in simulating a DMPC lipid bilayer in an implicit solvent model. First, the Gay-Berne parameters were initially obtained by fitting to atomistic profiles of van der Waals interactions between homodimers of molecular fragments while EMP parameters was directly derived from the expansion of point multipoles at predefined EMP sites. Second, the GB and EMP parameters for DMPC molecule were carefully optimized to be comparable to AMBER atomistic model in the calculations of the dipole moments of DMPC monomers adopting different conformations as well as the nonbonded interactions between two DMPC molecules adopting different conformations and separated at various distances. Finally, the GB parameters for DMPC were slightly adjusted in simulating a 72 DMPC bilayer system so that our GBEMP model would be able to reproduce a few important structural properties, namely, thickness (DHH), area per lipid ( AL) and volume per lipid ( VL). Meanwhile, the atomistic and experimental results for electron density profiles and order parameters were reproduced reasonably well by the GBEMP model, demonstrating the promising feature of GBEMP model in modeling lipid systems. Finally, we have shown that current GBEMP model is more efficient by a factor of about 25 than AMBER atomistic point charge model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Design of magnetic system to produce intense beam of polarized molecules of H2 and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Nikolenko, D. M.; Rachek, I. A.; Shestakov, Yu V.; Toporkov, D. K.; Zorin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    A magnetic-separating system is designed to produce polarized molecular high-density beams of H2/D2. The distribution of the magnetic field inside the aperture of the multipole magnet was calculated using the Mermaid software package. The calculation showed that the characteristic value of the magnetic field is 40 kGs, the field gradient is about 60 kGs/cm. A numerical calculation of the trajectories of the motion of molecules with different spin projections in this magnetic system is performed. The article discusses the possibility of using the magnetic system designed for the creation of a high-intensity source of polarized molecules. The expected intensity of this source is calculated. The expected flux of molecules focused in the receiver tube is 3.5·1016 mol/s for the hydrogen molecule and 2.0·1015 mol/s for the deuterium molecule.

  10. Magnetic Frequency Response of HL-LHC Beam Screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, M. [CERN; Martino, M. [CERN; De Maria, R. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Garion, C. [CERN

    2017-10-12

    Magnetic fields used to control particle beams in accelerators are usually controlled by regulating the electrical current of the power converters. In order to minimize lifetime degradation and ultimately luminosity loss in circular colliders, current-noise is a highly critical figure of merit of power converters, in particular for magnets located in areas with high beta-function, like the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) insertions. However, what is directly acting upon the beam is the magnetic field and not the current of the power converter, which undergoes several frequency-dependent transformations until the desired magnetic field, seen by the beam, is obtained. Beam screens are very rarely considered when assessing or specifying the noise figure of merit, but their magnetic frequency response is such that they realize relatively effective low pass filtering of the magnetic field produced by the system magnet-power converter. This work aims at filling this gap by quantifying the expected impact of different beam screen layouts for the most relevant HL-LHC insertion magnets. A welldefined post-processing technique is used to derive the frequency response of the different multipoles from multi-physics Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation results. In addition, a well approximated analytical formula for the low-frequency range of multi-layered beam screens is presented.

  11. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm(2), a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 μm superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle's position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads.

  12. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Bioelectronics (ICS-8/PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 × 0.1 mm{sup 2}, a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 μm superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle’s position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads.

  13. MAGNETIC COMPLEXITY AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BIMODAL ROTATION POPULATIONS AMONG YOUNG STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Observations of young open clusters have revealed a bimodal distribution of fast and slower rotation rates that has proven difficult to explain with predictive models of spin down that depend on rotation rates alone. The Metastable Dynamo Model proposed recently by Brown, employing a stochastic transition probability from slow to more rapid spin down regimes, appears to be more successful but lacks a physical basis for such duality. Using detailed 3D MHD wind models computed for idealized multipole magnetic fields, we show that surface magnetic field complexity can provide this basis. Both mass and angular momentum losses decline sharply with increasing field complexity. Combined with observation evidence for complex field morphologies in magnetically active stars, our results support a picture in which young, rapid rotators lose angular momentum in an inefficient way because of field complexity. During this slow spin-down phase, magnetic complexity is eroded, precipitating a rapid transition from weak to strong wind coupling.

  14. Magnetic measurement of Iranian Light Source Facility quadrupole storage ring prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Radkhorrami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Measurement Lab is one of the most significant divisions of Research and Development (R&D Lab of Iranian Light Source Facility. The main duty of this lab is to measure and check qualification of the accelerator magnets, including permanent and electromagnets, being applied in Iran for the fisrt time. The ILSF measurement lab consists of precise measurement equipment, in proportion  to synchrotron needs, such as Hall Effect probe measurement bench, rotating coil and Helmholtz coil. Recently, the lab has been provided with Hall probe measurement bench and uncompensated rotating coil and has made it possible to measure prototype magnets. In this article, the results of measuring quadrupole prototype are studied using Hall probe and rotating coil, to determine and compare errors in measuring multipole magnets and their sources

  15. A line integration method for the treatment of 3D domain integrals and accelerated by the fast multipole method in the BEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Zhou, Wei; Cheng, Yonggang; Ma, Gang; Chang, Xiaolin

    2017-04-01

    A line integration method (LIM) is proposed to calculate the domain integrals for 3D problems. In the proposed method, the domain integrals are transformed into boundary integrals and only line integrals on straight lines are needed to be computed. A background cell structure is applied to further simplify the line integrals and improve the accuracy. The method creates elements only on the boundary, and the integral lines are created from the boundary elements. The procedure is quite suitable for the boundary element method, and we have applied it to 3D situations. Directly applying the method is time-consuming since the complexity of the computational time is O( NM), where N and M are the numbers of nodes and lines, respectively. To overcome this problem, the fast multipole method is used with the LIM for large-scale computation. The numerical results show that the proposed method is efficient and accurate.

  16. The impact of new polarization data from Bonn, Mainz and Jefferson Laboratory on γp → πN multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisovich, A.V.; Nikonov, V.; Sarantsev, A. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der, Bonn (Germany); PNPI, NRS ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Beck, R.; Gottschall, M.; Hartmann, J.; Klempt, E.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; Wunderlich, Y. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der, Bonn (Germany); Doering, M. [George Washington University, Department of Physics, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kashevarov, V.; Ostrick, M.; Tiator, L. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der, Bonn (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, JARA FAME and JARA HPC, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Roenchen, D. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der, Bonn (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Strakovsky, I.; Workman, R. [George Washington University, Department of Physics, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-15

    New data on pion-photoproduction off the proton have been included in the partial-wave analyses Bonn-Gatchina and SAID and in the dynamical coupled-channel approach Juelich-Bonn. All reproduce the recent new data well: the double-polarization data for E, G, H, P and T in γp → π{sup 0}p from ELSA, the beam asymmetry Σ for γp → π{sup 0}p and π{sup +}n from Jefferson Laboratory, and the precise new differential cross section and beam asymmetry data Σ for γp → π{sup 0}p from MAMI. The new fit results for the multipoles are compared with predictions not taking into account the new data. The mutual agreement is improved considerably but still far from being perfect. (orig.)

  17. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CERN is currently assembling the LHC (Large Hadron Collider that will accelerate and bring in collision 7 TeV protons for high energy physics. Such a superconducting magnet-based accelerator can be controlled only when the field errors of production and installation of all magnetic elements are known to the required accuracy. The ideal way to compensate the field errors obviously is to have direct diagnostics on the beam. For the LHC, however, a system solely based on beam feedback may be too demanding. The present baseline for the LHC control system hence requires an accurate forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors to reduce the burden on the beam-based feedback. The field model is the core of this magnetic prediction system, that we call the field description for the LHC (FIDEL. The model will provide the forecast of the magnetic field at a given time, magnet operating current, magnet ramp rate, magnet temperature, and magnet powering history. The model is based on the identification and physical decomposition of the effects that contribute to the total field in the magnet aperture of the LHC dipoles. Each effect is quantified using data obtained from series measurements, and modeled theoretically or empirically depending on the complexity of the physical phenomena involved. This paper presents the developments of the new finely tuned magnetic field model and, using the data accumulated through series tests to date, evaluates its accuracy and predictive capabilities over a sector of the machine.

  18. Sensing Noncollinear Magnetism at the Atomic Scale Combining Magnetic Exchange and Spin-Polarized Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Gerritsen, Jan W; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A

    2017-09-13

    Storing and accessing information in atomic-scale magnets requires magnetic imaging techniques with single-atom resolution. Here, we show simultaneous detection of the spin-polarization and exchange force with or without the flow of current with a new method, which combines scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy. To demonstrate the application of this new method, we characterize the prototypical nanoskyrmion lattice formed on a monolayer of Fe/Ir(111). We resolve the square magnetic lattice by employing magnetic exchange force microscopy, demonstrating its applicability to noncollinear magnetic structures for the first time. Utilizing distance-dependent force and current spectroscopy, we quantify the exchange forces in comparison to the spin-polarization. For strongly spin-polarized tips, we distinguish different signs of the exchange force that we suggest arises from a change in exchange mechanisms between the probe and a skyrmion. This new approach may enable both nonperturbative readout combined with writing by current-driven reversal of atomic-scale magnets.

  19. Magnetic field-related heating instabilities in the surface layers of the sun and stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The stability of a magnetized low-density plasma to current-driven filamentation instabilities is investigated and the results are applied to the surface layers of stars. Unlike previous studies, the initial (i.e., precoronal) state of the stellar surface atmosphere is taken to be a low-density, optically thin magnetized plasma in radiative equilibrium. The linear analysis shows that the surface layers of main-sequence stars (including the sun) which are threaded by magnetic fields are unstable; the instabilities considered lead to structuring perpendicular to the ambient magnetic fields. These results suggest that relatively modest surface motions, in conjunction with the presence of magnetic fields, suffice to account for the presence of inhomogeneous chromospheric and coronal plasma overlying a star's surface.

  20. Compensation of Third-Harmonic Field Error in the Main Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Fiscarelli, L; Montenero, G; Garcia Perez, J; Walckiers, L

    2010-01-01

    One of the main requirements for the operations of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is a suitable correction of multipole errors in magnetic field. The feed-forward control of the LHC is based on the Field Description for the LHC (FiDel), capable of forecasting the magnet’s behavior in order to generate adequate current ramps for main and corrector magnets. Magnetic measurements campaigns aimed at validating the model underlying FiDel highlighted the need for improving the harmonic compensation of the third-harmonic (b3) component of the main LHC dipoles. In this paper, the results of a new measurement campaign for b3 harmonic compensation, carried out through the new Fast Acquisition Measurement Equipment (FAME), are reported. In particular, the mechanism and the measurement procedure of the compensation, as well as the new perspectives opened by preliminary experimental results, are illustrated.

  1. Measurement and Scaling Laws of the Sextupole Component in the LHC Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Walckiers, L; Bottura, L; Buzio, M; Dunkel, O; Fiscarelli, L; Montenero, G; Garcia Perez, J; Todesco, E

    2010-01-01

    One of the main requirements for the magnet operation of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is the correction of the dynamic multipole errors produced. In particular, integrated sextupole errors in the main dipoles must be kept well below 0.1 units to ensure acceptable chromaticity. The feed-forward control of the LHC magnets is based on the Field Description for the LHC (FiDeL), a semi-empirical mathematical model capable of forecasting the magnet’s behaviours in order to suitably power the corrector scheme. Measurement campaign were recently undertaken to validate the model making use of a novel Fast rotating-coil Magnetic Measurement Equipment (FAME), able to detect superconductor decay and snapback transient with unprecedented accuracy and temporal resolution. We discuss in this paper the test setup and some measurement results confirming the FiDeL model.

  2. Field generated within the SSC magnets due to persistent currents in the superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Computer studies of the magnetic fields generated by persistent circulating currents in the superconductor of superconducting dipoles are reported. These magnetic fields are referred to as residual fields. Since the field generated by persistent currents have a hysteric behavior, they are analagous to the residual field found in iron bound conventional solenoids. The residual field calculations presented were done using the LBL SCMAG4 computer code still not well tested against measured data. A comparison with measured CBA data given suggests that good agreement is possible. The residual fields generated by persistent superconducting currents are rich in higher multipoles. This is of concern to the accelerator designer for SSC. The effect of various superconductor parameters and coil parameters on the magnitude and structure of the residual fields as well as the effect of the magnet charging history on residual fields are discussed.

  3. The zero-multipole summation method for estimating electrostatic interactions in molecular dynamics: Analysis of the accuracy and application to liquid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Kamiya, Narutoshi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2014-05-01

    In the preceding paper [I. Fukuda, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174107 (2013)], the zero-multipole (ZM) summation method was proposed for efficiently evaluating the electrostatic Coulombic interactions of a classical point charge system. The summation takes a simple pairwise form, but prevents the electrically non-neutral multipole states that may artificially be generated by a simple cutoff truncation, which often causes large energetic noises and significant artifacts. The purpose of this paper is to judge the ability of the ZM method by investigating the accuracy, parameter dependencies, and stability in applications to liquid systems. To conduct this, first, the energy-functional error was divided into three terms and each term was analyzed by a theoretical error-bound estimation. This estimation gave us a clear basis of the discussions on the numerical investigations. It also gave a new viewpoint between the excess energy error and the damping effect by the damping parameter. Second, with the aid of these analyses, the ZM method was evaluated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two fundamental liquid systems, a molten sodium-chlorine ion system and a pure water molecule system. In the ion system, the energy accuracy, compared with the Ewald summation, was better for a larger value of multipole moment l currently induced until l ≲ 3 on average. This accuracy improvement with increasing l is due to the enhancement of the excess-energy accuracy. However, this improvement is wholly effective in the total accuracy if the theoretical moment l is smaller than or equal to a system intrinsic moment L. The simulation results thus indicate L ˜ 3 in this system, and we observed less accuracy in l = 4. We demonstrated the origins of parameter dependencies appearing in the crossing behavior and the oscillations of the energy error curves. With raising the moment l we observed, smaller values of the damping parameter provided more accurate results and smoother

  4. Design Optimization for Superconducting Bending Magnets using Pareto Front Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yukihiro; Abe, Mitsushi; Ando, Ryuya

    2017-09-01

    A novel limit design method for superconducting magnets is presented. It is particularly suitable for ion core magnets such as those used in accelerator magnets. In general, a stochastic optimization whose objective functions consist of values, e.g., the magnetic field, experience field of superconducting coils, current density, and multipole field integral, is often used. However, it is well known that the obtained solution strongly depends on the initial one. Furthermore, once the calculation model is fixed, the range of solutions is also fixed, i.e., there are times when it may be impossible to find the global optimum solution even with a lot of parameter sweeps. In this study, we draw the Pareto front curve to obtain the range and infer whether the solution is an optimum one. In addition, the Pareto front curve indicates the neighborhood solution that is substituted for the initial one. After this process a stochastic optimization is implemented with its initial design parameters. To confirm the validity, we designed a superconducting bending magnet, and it showed that this method works well.

  5. Preliminary analysis of coil wedge dimensional variation in SSC Prototype Dipole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, D.; Brown, G.; Dwyer, S.; Gattu, R.; Warner, D.

    1993-05-01

    The wedges used in SSC Prototype Dipole Magnets determine the relative position of conductor blocks within magnet coils. They serve to compensate partially for the less than full keystoning of the superconductor cable and to adjust current distribution with azimuth to determine the magnetic field shape. The ability to control the size and uniformity of wedges therefore is an important factor influencing magnet quality. This paper presents preliminary results of a Statistical Quality Control study of wedge dimensional variation and predicted field quality. Dimensions of samples from outer wedges for magnet DCA102 have been measured using a programmable optical comparator. The data is used to evaluate wedge manufacturing process capability, wedge uniformity, and to predict changes in conductor block position due to wedge deviation. Expected multipole variation attributable to observed wedge variation is discussed. This work focuses on a Prototype Dipole Magnet being built at the SSCL Magnet Development Laboratory (SSCL MDL) in Waxahachie, Texas. The magnet is of the same design as the DCA3xx series magnets built at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in 1991--92 and later used in the 1992 Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST).

  6. A Mathematical Formulation to Predict the Harmonics of the Superconducting LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, N; Micallef, J

    2006-01-01

    CERN is currently assembling the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) that will accelerate and bring in collision 7 Tev protons for high energy physics. Such a superconducting magnet-based accelerator can be controlled only when the field errors of production and installation of all magnetic elements are known to the required accuracy. The ideal way to compensate the field errors obviously is to have direct diagnostics on the beam. For the LHC, however, a system solely based on beam feedback may be too demanding. The present baseline for the LHC control system hence requires an accurate forecast of the magnetic field and the multipole field errors to reduce the burden on the beam-based feed-back. The Field Model is the core of this magnetic prediction system, that we call the Field Description for the LHC (FiDeL). The model will provide the forecast of the magnetic field at a given time, magnet operating current, magnet ramp rate, magnet temperature and magnet powering history. The model is based on the identification...

  7. Brownian motion of massive skyrmions in magnetic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Núñez, Álvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the thermal effects on the motion of current-driven massive magnetic skyrmions. The reduced equation for the motion of skyrmion has the form of a stochastic generalized Thiele’s equation. We propose an ansatz for the magnetization texture of a non-rigid single skyrmion that depends linearly with the velocity. By using this ansatz it is found that the skyrmion mass tensor is closely related to intrinsic skyrmion parameters, such as Gilbert damping, skyrmion-charge and dissipative force. We have found an exact expression for the average drift velocity as well as the mean-square velocity of the skyrmion. The longitudinal and transverse mobility of skyrmions for small spin-velocity of electrons is also determined and found to be independent of the skyrmion mass.

  8. Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2013-10-01

    Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...... distance transmission of electric energy. In many applications the total size of filter components (capacitors and inductors) can be reduced compared to voltage driven topologies. One application is an audio amplifier arranged to drive a loudspeaker....

  10. Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....

  11. Dynamics of current driven disordered Josephson junction arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, D.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A.R.

    1995-04-01

    We present dynamical simulations of disordered Josephson junction arrays with a bias current. We study the IV characteristics and vortex dynamics as a function of integer frustration f = n, weak frustration f = n + {delta} ({delta} {much_lt} 1) and full frustration pairs close to the critical current i{sub c}. We focus on the study of the plastic flow of vortices (f = n + {delta}), of vortex-antivortex pairs (f = n), and the dynamics of domain walls (f = n + 1/2) close to i{sub c}. We analyze the voltage noise and vortex fluctuations in the plastic flow regimes. We obtain the phase diagram for the different dynamical regimes as a function of disorder and applied current. We also study the dynamical critical behavior of depinning close to i{sub c} in the gauge glass limit of the model, f {yields} {infinity}, calculating critical exponents for the voltage onset and voltage fluctuations. We discuss our results within the context of present theories of the non-linear dynamics of disordered media.

  12. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  13. Current-Driven Hydrogen Desorption from Graphene: Experiment and Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, L.; Pal, Partha P.; Seideman, Tamar; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Guest, Jeffrey R.

    2016-02-04

    Electron-stimulated desorption of hydrogen from the graphene/SiC(0001) surface at room temperature was investigated with ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and ab initio calculations in order to elucidate the desorption mechanisms and pathways. Two different desorption processes were observed. In the high electron energy regime (4-8 eV), the desorption yield is independent of both voltage and current, which is attributed to the direct electronic excitation of the C-H bond. In the low electron energy regime (2-4 eV), however, the desorption yield exhibits a threshold dependence on voltage, which is explained by the vibrational excitation of the C-H bond via transient ionization induced by inelastic tunneling electrons. The observed current-independence of the desorption yield suggests that the vibrational excitation is a singleelectron process. We also observed that the curvature of graphene dramatically affects hydrogen desorption. Desorption from concave regions was measured to be much more probable than desorption from convex regions in the low electron energy regime (~ 2 eV), as would be expected from the identified desorption mechanism

  14. Geometrically-complex magnetic field distributions enabled by bulk, laser-micromachined permanent magnets at the submillimeter scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brock Alan

    High-energy-product permanent magnets (PM) are utilized in many industrial, research, consumer, and commercial applications. Indeed, there are many potential applications that can utilize sub-mm PM to create miniaturized versions of motors, generators, energy harvesters, undulators, sensors, actuators, and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Magnets in MEMS are both important and useful because they can provide a strong force at a distance within a compact package; however, there exists a gap in magnet technologies today where magnets have little to no presence between bottom-up microfabricated PM and top-down machined bulk PM. Thus, there is a need for a form of PM that can be 100-500 microm thick with lateral dimensions of the same order to fill this gap and provide the advantageous magnetic properties of bulk PM at this scale. This dissertation presents the development of laser micromachining as a fabrication technology that enables the microfabrication of PM to generate geometrically complex magnetic fields at the sub-mm scale. Generating geometrically complex magnetic fields at the sub-mm scale opens up new possibilities in medical technology, energy generation, and many other applications. Models simulating magnetic properties and the effects of laser machining are presented and compared to measurements. The fabrication technology discussed here allows sub-mm, geometrically complex magnetic fields to be achieved while maintaining the characteristics of bulk PM. The utility of this advance in fabrication technology is demonstrated through multiple research vehicles, including undulators for radiation generation and multipole energy harvesters operable at low frequency. Such vehicles represent a small sample of the potential applications for this work.

  15. On the Use of Multipole Expansion in Time Evolution of Non-linear Dynamical Systems and Some Surprises Related to Superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    A new numerical method is introduced to study the problem of time evolution of generic non-linear dynamical systems in four-dimensional spacetimes. It is assumed that the time level surfaces are foliated by a one-parameter family of codimension two compact surfaces with no boundary and which are conformal to a Riemannian manifold C. The method is based on the use of a multipole expansion determined uniquely by the induced metric structure on C. The approach is fully spectral in the angular directions. The dynamics in the complementary 1+1 Lorentzian spacetime is followed by making use of a fourth order finite differencing scheme with adaptive mesh refinement. In checking the reliability of the introduced new method the evolution of a massless scalar field on a fixed Kerr spacetime is investigated. In particular, the angular distribution of the evolving field in to be superradiant scattering is studied. The primary aim was to check the validity of some of the recent arguments claiming that the Penrose process,...

  16. Comparison of Langmuir probe and multipole resonance probe measurements in argon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen mixtures in a double ICP discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Oberberg, Moritz; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-07-01

    The results of a Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP) are compared to a Langmuir probe in measuring the electron density in Ar, H2, N2, and O2 mixtures. The MRP was designed for measurements in industry processes, i.e., coating or etching. To evaluate a possible influence on the MRP measurement due to molecular gases, different plasmas with increasing molecular gas content in a double inductively coupled plasma at 5 Pa and 10 Pa at 500 W are used. The determined electron densities from the MRP and the Langmuir probe slightly differ in H2 and N2 diluted argon plasmas, but diverge significantly with oxygen. In pure molecular gas plasmas, electron densities measured with the MRP are always higher than those measured with the Langmuir Probe, in particular, in oxygen containing mixtures. The differences can be attributed to etching of the tungsten wire in the Ar:O2 mixtures and rf distortion in the pure molecular discharges. The influence of a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function, negative ions or secondary electron emission seems to be of no or only minor importance.

  17. Asymmetric driven dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Alejos, Ó., E-mail: oscaral@ee.uva.es [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Muñoz, J.M. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is studied from both numerical and analytical micromagnetics. The influence of a moderate interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction associated to a bi-layer strip arrangement has been considered, giving rise to the formation of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls. Such walls possess under equilibrium conditions an inner magnetization structure defined by a certain orientation angle that make them to be considered as intermediate configurations between Bloch and Néel walls. Two different dynamics are considered, a field-driven and a current-driven dynamics, in particular, the one promoted by the spin torque due to the spin-Hall effect. Results show an inherent asymmetry associated with the rotation of the domain wall magnetization orientation before reaching the stationary regime, characterized by a constant terminal speed. For a certain initial DW magnetization orientation at rest, the rotation determines whether the reorientation of the DW magnetization prior to reach stationary motion is smooth or abrupt. This asymmetry affects the DW motion, which can even reverse for a short period of time. Additionally, it is found that the terminal speed in the case of the current-driven dynamics may depend on either the initial DW magnetization orientation at rest or the sign of the longitudinally injected current. - Highlights: • The asymmetric response of domain walls in bilayer strips with PMA is studied. • Out-of-plane fields and SHE longitudinal currents are applied. • The response is associated to the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • Clockwise and counter-clockwise magnetization rotations are not equivalent. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  18. submitter Electromagnetic Study of a Round Coil Superferric Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Volpini, Giovanni; Statera, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A novel type of superferric magnets suitable to arbitrary multipole orders was proposed by I. F. Malyshev and later by V. Kashikhin. This new topology, which we refer to as round coil superferric magnets (RCSM), allows a great simplification of the superconducting part, which in the simplest case may be composed by a single round coil, which has intrinsically a rather large bending radius allowing the use of strain-sensitive superconductors. INFN is designing and building a prototype of a multipolar corrector magnet based on this geometry and using MgB2 tapes. In this paper, we investigate a number of issues pertaining to the electromagnetic characteristics of RCSM. The RCSM magnetic has inherently even harmonics, in addition to usual odd ones and a solenoidal component. Either (but not both) disappears when integrated using a one-coil or a two-coil specular design. We investigate the effect of saturation on the multipolar components and on the load line, since in RCSM, saturation plays a role that differs bo...

  19. Questions on criteria used for magnet field quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1991-01-01

    Questions are raised here, without providing any answers to them, regarding the standard way of specifying the tolerances on various multipole components in superconducting dipoles. They are: (1) Dependence of systematic b{sub 6} (normal 14-pole) and b{sub 8} (normal 18-pole) on the required momentum aperture; (2) importance of resonance with (and its precise meaning) for specifying random low-order multipoles; and (3) understanding tracking results in terms of multipole components. 8 refs.

  20. Magnetic Skyrmion Transport in a Nanotrack With Spatially Varying Damping and Non-adiabatic Torque

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xichao; Xia, Jing; Zhao, G. P.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Reliable transport of magnetic skyrmions is required for any future skyrmion-based information processing devices. Here we present a micromagnetic study of the in-plane current-driven motion of a skyrmion in a ferromagnetic nanotrack with spatially sinusoidally varying Gilbert damping and/or non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque coefficients. It is found that the skyrmion moves in a sinusoidal pattern as a result of the spatially varying Gilbert damping and/or non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque ...

  1. Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hull, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the principles of magnetic levitation presented in the physics classroom and applied to transportation systems. Topics discussed include three classroom demonstrations to illustrate magnetic levitation, the concept of eddy currents, lift and drag forces on a moving magnet, magnetic levitation vehicles, levitation with permanent magnets…

  2. Magnetic Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  3. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, transition rates, lifetimes, and multipole polarizabilities in Cs-like La iii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    Excitation energies of the [Xe]nd (n =5-9), [Xe]ns (n =6-10), [Xe]np (n =6-9), [Xe]nf (n =4-8), and [Xe]ng (n =5-8) states in La iii, where [Xe] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6, are evaluated. Electric dipole matrix elements for the allowed transitions between the low-lying [Xe]nd, [Xe]ns, [Xe]np, [Xe]nf, and [Xe]ng states in the La iii ion are calculated using the high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric dipole matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes. Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the states listed above are evaluated. The uncertainties of the recommended values are estimated. Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole matrix elements are calculated to determine lifetimes of the 5d5/2 and 6s metastable levels. The ground-state E1, E2, and E3 static polarizabilities are calculated. This work provides recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of La iii atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.

  4. On the generation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in a stratified and magnetized fluid. I - Vertical propagation. [in sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.

    1987-01-01

    The generation of MHD waves by turbulent motions in a stratified medium with an embedded uniform magnetic field, a topic which is relevant to the study of the solar atmosphere, is considered. Both compressible and incompressible MHD waves are treated in a one-dimensional approach; however, the direction of the background magnetic field is permitted to vary in an arbitrary direction. Theoretical expressions for MHD energy fluxes are obtained as a function of wave frequency and multipole coefficients. It is shown that monopole, dipole, and quadrupole emissions are responsible for the generation of the compressible components of the fast and slow modes. However, the incompressible components and the Alfven modes can be generated by the dipole emission only. Specific results obtained for special magnetic field geometries are discussed for the fast and slow modes.

  5. Analysis of the 3D magnetic field and its errors for undulators with iron poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingold, G.; Bahrdt, J.; Gaupp, A. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The attainable field strength and field quality, such as the optical phase error, the electron beam displacement within the undulator and higher order multipoles of the magnetic field, are discussed. These issues are critical to the design and construction of short period undulators for use in short wavelength FEL or for operation in third generation light sources. We discuss two approaches: (i) For superferric undulators the construction of a full length device would rely on the optimum sorting of precision machined undulator segments. Magnetic data on segments with 20 periods (period length 8.80mm) will be presented. (ii) For hybrid undulators the sorting has to be done on individual poles and magnets. For this approach typical error sources such as machining tolerances, magnetization errors of the permanent magnet material and assembly errors are modeled in 3D and compared to induced errors on an existing hybrid undulator segment. In case of undulators having a full length of hundred periods at least five times as many individual parts have to be characterized. This should be done automatically where both the mechanical and magnetic data before and after the assembly of the magnetic structure are recorded in one step. A CNC programmable measuring device suitable for this task will shortly be presented.

  6. Computational study of scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam by large nonspherical homogeneous particles with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglin; Wu, Yueqian; Sheng, Xinqing; Ren, Kuan Fang

    2017-12-01

    Computation of scattering of shaped beams by large nonspherical particles is a challenge in both optics and electromagnetics domains since it concerns many research fields. In this paper, we report our new progress in the numerical computation of the scattering diagrams. Our algorithm permits to calculate the scattering of a particle of size as large as 110 wavelengths or 700 in size parameter. The particle can be transparent or absorbing of arbitrary shape, smooth or with a sharp surface, such as the Chebyshev particles or ice crystals. To illustrate the capacity of the algorithm, a zero order Bessel beam is taken as the incident beam, and the scattering of ellipsoidal particles and Chebyshev particles are taken as examples. Some special phenomena have been revealed and examined. The scattering problem is formulated with the combined tangential formulation and solved iteratively with the aid of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm, which is well parallelized with the message passing interface on the distributed memory computer platform using the hybrid partitioning strategy. The numerical predictions are compared with the results of the rigorous method for a spherical particle to validate the accuracy of the approach. The scattering diagrams of large ellipsoidal particles with various parameters are examined. The effect of aspect ratios, as well as half-cone angle of the incident zero-order Bessel beam and the off-axis distance on scattered intensity, is studied. Scattering by asymmetry Chebyshev particle with size parameter larger than 700 is also given to show the capability of the method for computing scattering by arbitrary shaped particles.

  7. Influence of Shape Anisotropy on Magnetization Dynamics Driven by Spin Hall Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the lateral dimension of spin Hall effect based magnetic random-access memory (SHE-RAM devices is scaled down, shape anisotropy has varied influence on both the magnetic field and the current-driven switching characteristics. In this paper, we study such influences on elliptic film nanomagnets and theoretically investigate the switching characteristics for SHE-RAM element with in-plane magnetization. The analytical expressions for critical current density are presented and the results are compared with those obtained from macrospin and micromagnetic simulation. It is found that the key performance indicators for in-plane SHE-RAM, including thermal stability and spin torque efficiency, are highly geometry dependent and can be effectively improved by geometric design.

  8. Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the beam requirements for accelerator magnets, we will outline the main issues and the physical limitations for producing strong and pure magnetic fields with superconductors. The seminar will mainly focus on the magnets for the accelerator, and give some hints on the magnets for the experiments. Prerequisite knowledge: Basic knowledge of Maxwell equations, and linear optics for particle accelerators (FODO cell, beta functions).

  9. Construction and Performance of Superconducting Magnets for Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ching-Shiang; Chang, Cheng-Kuo; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chen Chien Te; Chen Hui Huang; Chen, Jenny; Chen June Rong; Chien, Yuan-Chen; Fan, Tai-Ching; Hsiung, Gao-Yu; Hsu, Kuo-Tung; Hsu, Shen-Nung; Huang, Ming-Hsiung; Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Fu-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Two superconducting magnets, one wavelength shifter (SWLS) with a field of 5 T and one wiggler (SW6) with a field of 3.2 T, were constructed and routinely operated at NSRRC for generating synchrotron x-rays. In addition, three multipole wigglers (IASW) with fields of 3.1 T will be constructed and installed each in the three achromatic short straight sections. A warm beam duct of 20 mm inner gap and a 1.5 W GM type cryo-cooler were chosen for the SWLS to achieve cryogen-free operation. For the SW6, a cold beam duct of 11 mm inner gap was kept at 100 K temperature and no trim coil compensation is necessary for its operation. Meanwhile, no beam loss was observed when the SW6 was quenched. A cryogenic plant with cooling power of 450 W was constructed to supply the liquid helium for the four superconducting wigglers. The design concept, magnetic field quality, the commissioning results, and the operation performance of these magnets will be presented.

  10. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets: III. Precycle ramp rate effects and magnet characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sammut

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN is equipped with a feed-forward control system known as the field description for the LHC (FiDeL which is designed to predict the magnetic field and its multipoles, hence reducing the burden on beam based feedback. FiDeL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. It is particularly critical during beam injection when the field decays and at the beginning of acceleration when the field snaps back. It is known that the decay amplitude is largely affected by the powering history of the magnet, particularly by the precycle flattop current and duration and the preinjection preparation duration. Recently, we have collected data that quantify the dependence of the decay amplitude on the precycle ramp rate. This paper presents the results of the measurements performed to investigate this effect, and the method included in FiDeL to model the precycle dependence. With this complete picture of dynamic changes, we finally discuss the effect on the data taken at nominally constant field, along the magnet loadline. We show that a correction for dynamic changes is required for adequate magnet characterization.

  11. On magnetohydrodynamic thermal instabilities in magnetic flux tubes. [in plane parallel stellar atmosphere in LTE and hydrostatic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaglia, S.; Ferrari, A.; Bodo, G.; Kalkofen, W.; Rosner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The stability of current-driven filamentary modes in magnetic flux tubes embedded in a plane-parallel atmosphere in LTE and in hydrostatic equilibrium is discussed. Within the tube, energy transport by radiation only is considered. The dominant contribution to the opacity is due to H- ions and H atoms (in the Paschen continuum). A region in the parameter space of the equilibrium configuration in which the instability is effective is delimited, and the relevance of this process for the formation of structured coronae in late-type stars and accretion disks is discussed.

  12. A Hall Plate Based Instrument to Measure the Snapback in the Large Hadron Collider Superconducting Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01

    The decay and snapback of the magnetic field multipoles in superconducting particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could result in a significant particle beam loss unless adequately compensated. Whilst standard instrumentation used to measure the field quality of the superconducting magnets is good enough to measure the harmonic decay, it is not fast enough to measure the snapback. Therefore, a state of the art instrument was recently developed at CERN to measure the most important harmonics with a high measurement frequency and hence improve the understanding of the snapback phenomenon. In this paper we describe the instrument's principle of operation, its mechanical arrangement, its compensation system and its digital acquisition system. We also compare the performance of two different techniques implemented to achieve the necessary measurement resolution of 6 orders of magnitude lower than the main superimposed dipole field.

  13. Magnetic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, G.D.; Jahren, C.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Baldwin, M.J. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (USA)

    1983-12-31

    Air and ground magnetic anomalies in the Climax stock area of the NTS help define the gross configuration of the stock and detailed configuration of magnetized rocks at the Boundary and Tippinip faults that border the stock. Magnetizations of geologic units were evaluated by measurements of magnetic properties of drill core, minimum estimates of magnetizations from ground magnetic anomalies for near surface rocks, and comparisons of measured anomalies with anomalies computed by a three-dimensional forward program. Alluvial deposits and most sedimentary rocks are nonmagnetic, but drill core measurements reveal large and irregular changes in magnetization for some quartzites and marbles. The magnetizations of quartz monzonite and granodiorite near the stock surface are weak, about 0.15 A/m, and increase at a rate of 0.00196 A/m/m to 1.55 A/m, at depths greater than 700 m (2300 ft). The volcanic rocks of the area are weakly magnetized. Aeromagnetic anomalies 850 m (2800 ft) above the stock are explained by a model consisting of five vertical prisms. Prisms 1, 2, and 3 represent the near surface outline of the stock, prism 4 is one of the models developed by Whitehill (1973), and prism 5 is modified from the model developed by Allingham and Zietz (1962). Most of the anomaly comes from unsampled and strongly-magnetized deep sources that could be either granite or metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. 48 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Magnetic nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Silke; Appel, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanocomposites are multi-component materials, typically containing nanosized magnetic materials to trigger the response to an external stimulus (i.e., an external static or alternating magnetic field). Up to now, the search for novel nanocomposites has lead to the combination of a plethora of different materials (e.g., gels, liquid crystals, renewable polymers, silica, carbon or metal organic frameworks) with various types of magnetic particles, offering exciting perspectives not only for fundamental investigations but also for application in various fields, including medical therapy and diagnosis, separations, actuation, or catalysis. In this review, we have selected a few of the most recent examples to highlight general concepts and advances in the preparation of magnetic nanocomposites and recent advances in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  16. Magnetic Hysteresis

    CERN Document Server

    Della Torre, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Understanding magnetic hysteresis is vitally important to the development of the science of magnetism as a whole and to the advancement of practical magnetic device applications. Magnetic Hysteresis, by acclaimed expert Edward Della Torre, presents a clear explanation of the connection between physical principles and phenomenological hysteresis. This comprehensive book offers a lucid analysis that enables the reader to save valuable time by reducing trial-and-error design. Dr. Della Torre uses physical principles to modify Preisach modeling and to describe the complex behavior of magnetic media. While Pretsach modeling is a useful mathematical tool, its congruency and deletion properties present limitations to accurate descriptions of magnetic materials. Step-by-step, this book describes the modifications that can overcome these limitations. Special attention is given to the use of feedback around a Preisach transducer to remove the congruency restriction, and to the use of accommodation and aftereffect model...

  17. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  18. Magnet Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Over the decades, Fermilab has been responsible for the design, construction, test and analysis of hundreds of conventional and superconducting accelerator magnets...

  19. Application of Chebyshev Formalism to Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components in Beam Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spata, Michael [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the kickers with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. Chebyshev polynomials and their unique properties allow one to directly quantify the magnitude of the nonlinearity with the minimum error. A calibration standard was developed using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline. The technique was then applied to a pair of Arc 1 dipoles and then to the magnets in the Transport Recombiner beamline to measure their multipole content as a function of transverse position within the magnets.

  20. SEPTUM MAGNET DESIGN FOR THE APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Jaski, M.; Xiao, A.; Wienands, U.; Cease, H.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.; Kerby, J.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of upgrading its storage ring from a double-bend to a multi-bend lattice as part of the APS Upgrade Project (APS-U). A swap-out injection scheme is planned for the APS-U to keep a constant beam current and to enable a small dynamic aperture. A septum magnet with a minimum thickness of 2 mm and an injection field of 1.06 T has been designed, delivering the required total deflecting angle is 89 mrad with a ring energy of 6 GeV. The stored beam chamber has an 8 mm x 6 mm super-ellipsoidal aperture. The magnet is straight; however, it is tilted in yaw, roll, and pitch from the stored beam chamber to meet the on axis swap out injection requirements for the APS-U lattice. In order to minimize the leakage field inside the stored beam chamber, four different techniques were utilized in the design. As a result, the horizontal deflecting angle of the stored beam was held to only 5 µrad, and the integrated skew quadrupole inside the stored beam chamber was held to 0.09 T. The detailed techniques that were applied to the design, field multipoles, and resulting trajectories of the injected and stored beams are reported.

  1. Magnetic nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  2. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  3. Magnetic skyrmion-based artificial neuron device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sai; Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-08-01

    Neuromorphic computing, inspired by the biological nervous system, has attracted considerable attention. Intensive research has been conducted in this field for developing artificial synapses and neurons, attempting to mimic the behaviors of biological synapses and neurons, which are two basic elements of a human brain. Recently, magnetic skyrmions have been investigated as promising candidates in neuromorphic computing design owing to their topologically protected particle-like behaviors, nanoscale size and low driving current density. In one of our previous studies, a skyrmion-based artificial synapse was proposed, with which both short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation functions have been demonstrated. In this work, we further report on a skyrmion-based artificial neuron by exploiting the tunable current-driven skyrmion motion dynamics, mimicking the leaky-integrate-fire function of a biological neuron. With a simple single-device implementation, this proposed artificial neuron may enable us to build a dense and energy-efficient spiking neuromorphic computing system.

  4. Magnetic skyrmion-based artificial neuron device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sai; Kang, Wang; Huang, Yangqi; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-08-04

    Neuromorphic computing, inspired by the biological nervous system, has attracted considerable attention. Intensive research has been conducted in this field for developing artificial synapses and neurons, attempting to mimic the behaviors of biological synapses and neurons, which are two basic elements of a human brain. Recently, magnetic skyrmions have been investigated as promising candidates in neuromorphic computing design owing to their topologically protected particle-like behaviors, nanoscale size and low driving current density. In one of our previous studies, a skyrmion-based artificial synapse was proposed, with which both short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation functions have been demonstrated. In this work, we further report on a skyrmion-based artificial neuron by exploiting the tunable current-driven skyrmion motion dynamics, mimicking the leaky-integrate-fire function of a biological neuron. With a simple single-device implementation, this proposed artificial neuron may enable us to build a dense and energy-efficient spiking neuromorphic computing system.

  5. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  6. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, Marco; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a cylindrical permanent magnet (projectile) inside a tubular permanent magnet, with both magnets magnetized axially, illustrates nicely the physical principles behind the operation of magnetic guns. The force acting upon the projectile is expressed semi-analytically as derivative...... forces and motion of the inner cylindrical magnet....

  7. CRYOGENIC MAGNETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-05-21

    A cryogenic magnet coil is described for generating magnetic fields of the order of 100,000 gauss with a minimum expenditure of energy lost in resistive heating of the coil inductors and energy lost irreversibly in running the coil refrigeration plant. The cryogenic coil comprises a coil conductor for generating a magnetic field upon energization with electrical current, and refrigeration means disposed in heat conductive relation to the coil conductor for cooling to a low temperature. A substantial reduction in the power requirements for generating these magnetic fields is attained by scaling the field generating coil to large size and particular dimensions for a particular conductor, and operating the coil at a particular optimum temperature commensurate with minimum overall power requirements. (AEC)

  8. Optimal limits on primordial magnetic fields from CMB temperature bispectrum of passive modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Nitta, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo

    2012-03-01

    We investigate bounds on the strength of the primordial magnetic field (PMF) from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) bispectra of the intensity (temperature) modes induced from the auto- and cross-correlated bispectra of the scalar and tensor components of the PMF anisotropic stress. At first, we construct a general formula for the CMB intensity and polarization bispectra from PMFs composed of any type of perturbation. Then we derive an approximate expression which traces the exact shape of the CMB bispectrum in order to reduce the computation time with respect to a large number of the multipole configurations, and also show that the non-Gaussian structure coming from PMFs is classified as the local-type configuration. Computing the signal-to-noise ratio on the basis of the approximate formula with the information of the instrumental noises and resolutions, we find expected upper bounds on the magnetic field strength, when the magnetic spectrum is nearly scale invariant (nB = -2.9), smoothed on 1Mpc scale at 95% confidence level from the WMAP and PLANCK experiments as B1Mpc < 4.0-6.7nG and 3.8-6.5nG, respectively, depending on the energy scale of the magnetic field production from 1014GeV to 103GeV. Our new consequences imply slight overestimations by the previous rough discussions.

  9. Electromagnetic Design Study for a Large Bore 15T Superconducting Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, Arnaud; Henke, H

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of research and development (R&D) activities at CERN the Next European Dipole (NED) program is one which is to the development of a high-field dipole magnet using Nb_3Sn superconductors. Part of the NED activities is a design study of different possible dipole configurations which is shared amongst the collaborating institutes. This thesis covers the electromagnetic design study of an 88 mm large bore superconducting 15 T dipole magnet with a coil cross section in cos-theta-layer design. Based on analytically describable geometries the sources of multipole errors are studied and elementary estimations of the magnet are carried out, e.g., the required amount of superconductors or the influence of the iron yoke thickness on the field quality. The magnet cross section for NED is optimized by means of the CERN field computation program ROXIE. The preliminary NED design serves as starting point for the coil cross section optimization with respect to field quality and a radial positioning of th...

  10. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets; 3, Precycle ramp rate effects and magnet characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, Nicholas; Deferne, Guy; Venturini Delsolaro, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is equipped with a feed-forward control system known as the field description for the LHC (FiDeL) which is designed to predict the magnetic field and its multipoles, hence reducing the burden on beam based feedback. FiDeL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. It is particularly critical during beam injection when the field decays and at the beginning of acceleration when the field snaps back. It is known that the decay amplitude is largely affected by the powering history of the magnet, particularly by the precycle flattop current and duration and the preinjection preparation duration. Recently, we have collected data that quantify the dependence of the decay amplitude on the precycle ramp rate. This paper presents the results of the measurements performed to investigate this effect, and the method included in FiDeL to model the precycle dependence. With this complete picture of dy...

  11. Magnetism Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trémolet de Lacheisserie, Étienne; Schlenker, Michel

    2005-01-01

    This book treats permanent magnet (hard) materials, magnetically soft materials for low-frequency applications and for high-frequency electronics, magnetostrictive materials, superconductors, magnetic-thin films and multilayers, and ferrofluids. Chapters are dedicated to magnetic recording, the role of magnetism in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and instrumentation for magnetic measurements.   

  12. Magnetic monopoles and dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Conventional bar magnets are also called ‘magnetic dipoles’ because they have two magnetic poles (a “North” and a “South” magnetic pole, like the Earth). In theory, “magnetic monopoles” could exist that act like an isolated “magnetic charge”, i.e. either a “North” or a “South” magnetic pole.

  13. Surface integral formulation of Maxwell's equations for simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents. Preliminary study on the implementation of the fast multipole method; Formulation integrale surfacique des equations de Maxwell pour la simulation de controles non destructifs par courant de Foucault. Etude preliminaire a la mise en oeuvre de la methode multipole rapide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T.

    2011-04-28

    To simulate numerically a non-destructive by eddy current testing (NDT-CF), the sensor response can be modeled through a semi-analytical approach by volume integral equations. Faster than the finite element method, this approach is however restricted to the study of plane or cylindrical parts (without taking into account the edge effects) because of the complexity of the expression of the dyadic Green function for more general configurations. However, there is an industrial demand to extend the capabilities of the CF model in complex configurations (deformed plates, edges effects...). We were thus brought to formulate the electromagnetic problem differently, by setting ourselves the goal of maintaining a semi-analytical approach. The surface integral equation (SIE) expresses the volume problem by an equivalent transmission one at the interfaces (2D) between homogeneous sub-domains. This problem is approached by a linear system (by the method of moments), whose number of unknowns is reduced due to the nature of the surfacic mesh. Therefore, this system can be solved by a direct solver for small configurations. That enabled us to treat several various positions of the sensor for only one inversion of the impedance matrix. The numerical results obtained using this formulation involve plates with consideration of edge effects such as edge and corner. They are consistent with results obtained by the finite element method. For larger configurations, we conducted a preliminary study for the adaptation of an acceleration method of the matrix vector product involved in an iterative solver (fast multipole method or FMM) to define the conditions under which the FMM calculation works correctly (accuracy, convergence...) in the NDT's domain. A special attention has been given to the choice of basis functions (which have to satisfy an Hdiv conforming property) and on the evaluation of near interactions (which are weakly singular). (author) [French] Pour simuler

  14. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerk, R.

    2010-03-15

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated as functions of the magnetic field. Following this the process utilized by a magnetic refrigerator to provide cooling is investigated using a publicly available one dimensional numerical model. This process is called active magnetic regeneration (AMR). The aim is to determine the performance of the AMR as a function of the magnetic field in order to learn the properties of the optimal magnet assembly. The performance of the AMR as a function of the synchronization and width of the magnetic field with respect to the AMR cycle, the ramp rate and maximum value of the magnetic field are investigated. Other published magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration devices are also evaluated, using a figure of merit based on the properties of the investigated magnetocaloric materials, to learn the properties of the best magnet designs to date. Following this investigation the Halbach cylinder, which is a hollow permanent magnet cylinder with a rotating remanent flux density, is investigated in detail as it forms the basis of many magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration. Here the optimal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder, as well as analytical calculations of the magnetic field for a Halbach cylinder of infinite length, are presented. Once it has been determined which properties are desirable for a magnet used in magnetic refrigeration the design of a new magnet is described. This is

  15. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    L -:• •.1 S..+.: s• S,’S .+m • , ++ d ’N .,.++.+ ii L+ i+- -..’ *4’.. ’-t. COMM4ITTEE ON MAGNETIC MATERIALS Chairman ROBERT M. WRITE, Principal...Motors; Sung Ho Jin, AT&T Bell Labs; G. Rodrigue, ... -- =.• Georgia Tech; J. Houze , Allegheny-Ludlum; R. Sundahl, AT&T Bell Labs; (. I... R. O’Handley...this report. Robert M. White Chairman *’-’ . ,i-.. .- ABSTRACT Magnetic materials play a fundamental role in many of the electrical and electronic

  16. Magnetics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Research Facility houses three Helmholtz coils that generate magnetic fields in three perpendicular directions to balance the earth's magnetic field....

  17. Magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Texturing of the fluid was carried out when the paraffin wax was in a molten state. Special care was taken during texturing so that the particles did not aggre- gate. The texturing of the sample was carried out using an electromagnet having field uniformity within 1% un- der different texturing magnetic fields (HT). In the pre-.

  18. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  19. Magnetically textured ferrofluid in a non-magnetic matrix: Magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Texturing of two different magnetic fluids were carried out in paraffin wax under the influence of an external magnetic field. The textured samples were characterized using magnetization measurement and a.c. susceptibility techniques. The results are discussed in the light of ratio of anisotropic energy to magnetic and ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a ... the limitations of MRI defecography? What is magnetic resonance (MR) defecography? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  1. LHC prototype magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    1.5 metre superconducting magnet. This prototype magnet for the LHC was cooled to a few degrees above absolute zero, which allowed it to obtain the world record for the highest magnetic field for an accelerator magnet in 1991.

  2. Ferroelectricity in spiral magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M

    2006-01-01

    It was recently observed that the ferroelectrics showing the strongest sensitivity to an applied magnetic field are spiral magnets. We present a phenomenological theory of inhomogeneous ferroelectric magnets, which describes their thermodynamics and magnetic field behavior, e.g., dielectric

  3. Magnetization curve modelling of soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, I, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Bertalan L. street 7., Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the so called hyperbolic model of magnetization. The model was modified and it was applied for nine different soft magnetic alloys. The tested samples were electro-technical steels (FeSi alloys) and a permalloy (FeNi alloy) with strongly different magnetic properties. Among them there are top, medium and definitely poor quality soft magnetic materials as well. Their minor hysteresis loops and normal magnetization curves were measured by alternating current measurement. The hyperbolic model of magnetization was applied for the experimental normal magnetization curves. It was proved that the applied model is excellent for describing mathematically the experimental magnetization curves.

  4. Magnetism of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Vonsovsky, S V

    1975-01-01

    Spin magnetic moment of the electron ; magnetism of the atomic electron shell ; magnetism of nucleons (protons and neutrons) and atomic nuclei ; anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles ; the magnetic monopole ; non-linear quantum-electrodynamic effects in a magnetic field.

  5. Role of spin-transfer torques on synchronization and resonance phenomena in stochastic magnetic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accioly, Artur [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Locatelli, Nicolas; Querlioz, Damien; Kim, Joo-Von [Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Mizrahi, Alice [Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F91767 Palaiseau (France); Pereira, Luis G. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Grollier, Julie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F91767 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-09-07

    A theoretical study on how synchronization and resonance-like phenomena in superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be driven by spin-transfer torques is presented. We examine the magnetization of a superparamagnetic free layer that reverses randomly between two well-defined orientations due to thermal fluctuations, acting as a stochastic oscillator. When subject to an external ac forcing, this system can present stochastic resonance and noise-enhanced synchronization. We focus on the roles of the mutually perpendicular damping-like and field-like torques, showing that the response of the system is very different at low and high frequencies. We also demonstrate that the field-like torque can increase the efficiency of the current-driven forcing, especially at sub-threshold electric currents. These results can be useful for possible low-power, more energy efficient applications.

  6. magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos are ideal for probing the weak force because it is effectively the only force they feel. How were they made? Protons fired into a metal target produce a tangle of secondary particles. A magnetic horn like this one, invented by Simon Van der Meer, selected pions and focused them into a sharp beam. Pions decay into muons and neutrinos or antineutrinos. The muons were stopped in a wall of 3000 tons of iron and 1000 tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the Gargamelle bubble chamber. A simple change of magnetic field direction on the horn flipped between focusing positively- or negatively-charged pion beams, and so between neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  7. Magnetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Homero; Robles, Ignacio; Riquelme, Francisco; Vivanco, Marcelo; Jiménez, Julio; Marinkovic, Boris; Uribe, Mario

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a new magnetic surgical system during reduced-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a prospective, multicenter clinical trial. Background: Laparoscopic instrumentation coupled by magnetic fields may enhance surgeon performance by allowing for shaft-less retraction and mobilization. The movements can be performed under direct visualization, generating different angles of traction and reducing the number of trocars to perform the procedure. This may reduce well-known associated complications of trocars, including incisional pain, scarring, infection, bowel, and vascular injuries, among others. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study was performed to assess the safety and performance of a magnetic surgical system (Levita Magnetics’ Surgical System). The investigational device was used during a 3-port laparoscopic technique. The primary endpoints evaluated were safety and feasibility of the device to adequately mobilize the gallbladder to achieve effective exposure of the targeted surgical site. Patients were followed for 30 days postprocedure. Results: Between January 2014 and March 2015, 50 patients presenting with benign gallbladder disease were recruited. Forty-five women and 5 men with an average age of 39 years (18–59), average body mass index of 27 kg/m2 (20.4–34.1) and an average abdominal wall thickness of 2.6 cm (1.8–4.6). The procedures were successfully performed in all 50 patients. No device-related serious adverse events were reported. Surgeons rated as “excellent” (90%) or “sufficient” (10%) the exposure of the surgical site. Conclusions: This clinical trial shows that this new magnetic surgical system is safe and effective in reduced-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27759614

  8. Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  9. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  10. MAGNET / INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Campi

    The final fast discharge of the Magnet took place on 3rd of November. The Coil reached a temperature of 70K by internal energy dissipation. By injecting a current of 200 A room temperature was reached on the 23rd November. During the heating of the coil un-connecting of the first magnet connectors on YBO was started to give the earliest possible access to the assembly groups and to continue the installation of the muon chambers. The removal of the pumping lines and the disconnection of the vacuum system was instead done as soon as the room temperature was reached: more precisely from the 4 to the 18 December. The disconnection of the transfer line from the cold box and the completion of the removal of the control cables of the vacuum system and cryogenics was done at last. In January 2007 the disconnection of MCS-MSS, CDS, vacuum racks and their cable trays was also achieved. After coil disconnection the effort of the magnet team has been mainly devoted in optimizing the lowering and reassembly of the a...

  11. Mathematical formulation to predict the harmonics of the superconducting Large Hadron Collider magnets. II. Dynamic field changes and scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Sammut

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A superconducting particle accelerator like the LHC (Large Hadron Collider at CERN, can only be controlled well if the effects of the magnetic field multipoles on the beam are compensated. The demands on a control system solely based on beam feedback may be too high for the requirements to be reached at the specified bandwidth and accuracy. Therefore, we designed a suitable field description for the LHC (FIDEL as part of the machine control baseline to act as a feed-forward magnetic field prediction system. FIDEL consists of a physical and empirical parametric field model based on magnetic measurements at warm and in cryogenic conditions. The performance of FIDEL is particularly critical at injection when the field decays, and in the initial part of the acceleration when the field snaps back. These dynamic components are both current and time dependent and are not reproducible from cycle to cycle since they also depend on the magnet powering history. In this paper a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamic field behavior substantiated by a set of scaling laws is presented.

  12. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction...... of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close...... to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration....

  13. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal...... magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated...... as functions of the magnetic field. Following this the process utilized by a magnetic refrigerator to provide cooling is investigated using a publicly available one dimensional numerical model. This process is called active magnetic regeneration (AMR). The aim is to determine the performance of the AMR...

  14. Noncentrosymmetric Magnets Hosting Magnetic Skyrmions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Naoya; Seki, Shinichiro; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2017-07-01

    The concept of a skyrmion, which was first introduced by Tony Skyrme in the field of particle physics, has become widespread in condensed matter physics to describe various topological orders. Skyrmions in magnetic materials have recently received particular attention; they represent vortex-like spin structures with the character of nanometric particles and produce fascinating physical properties rooted in their topological nature. Here, a series of noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets hosting skyrmions is reviewed: B20 metals, Cu2 OSeO3 , Co-Zn-Mn alloys, and GaV4 S8 , where Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction plays a key role in the stabilization of skyrmion spin texture. Their topological spin arrangements and consequent emergent electromagnetic fields give rise to striking features in transport and magnetoelectric properties in metals and insulators, such as the topological Hall effect, efficient electric-drive of skyrmions, and multiferroic behavior. Such electric controllability and nanometric particle natures highlight magnetic skyrmions as a potential information carrier for high-density magnetic storage devices with excellent energy efficiency. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  16. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnet ic gun * magnet ostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  17. Ferroelectricity in spiral magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovoy, Maxim

    2006-02-17

    It was recently observed that the ferroelectrics showing the strongest sensitivity to an applied magnetic field are spiral magnets. We present a phenomenological theory of inhomogeneous ferroelectric magnets, which describes their thermodynamics and magnetic field behavior, e.g., dielectric susceptibility anomalies at magnetic transitions and sudden flops of electric polarization in an applied magnetic field. We show that electric polarization can also be induced at domain walls and that magnetic vortices carry electric charge.

  18. Quantification of the effect of inhomogeneous magnetization or irregularity in shape on the measurement of remanent magnetization with a high-sensitivity multifunctional spinner magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Kazuto

    2017-04-01

    -order low-pass filter and the large sensor distance for isolating only the fundamental wave component. However, the systematic increase with the offset, regardless of the type of spinner used, is contrary to the expectation that, given the same sample with the same magnetic moment, the magnetization measured for the offset and non-offset samples will be identical. This finding suggests that the intensity of magnetization measured with a spinner may include a systematic bias, particularly when samples contain a large amount of harmonic component that can be represented by an offset dipole. Theoretical analyses based on multipole expansion have revealed that the systematic relationship between the amplitude and the offset can be explained quantitatively in terms of the dipole and higher-order multipole and their varying contributions dependent of the amount of offset. Results from the FEM calculations were consistent with the experimental data from samples with the same properties as used in the model calculations.

  19. Magnetic fluids - suspensions of magnetic dipoles and their magnetic control

    CERN Document Server

    Odenbach, S

    2003-01-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles exhibit normal liquid behaviour coupled with superparamagnetic properties. This leads to the possibility to control the properties and the flow of these liquids with moderate magnetic fields. The magnetic control enables various experiments in fluid mechanics and gives rise to the development of numerous technical and medical applications. Ferrofluids and their general properties will be introduced and, as examples for the magnetic control of their flow and properties, thermomagnetic convection and magnetoviscous effects will be discussed in some detail.

  20. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady Zhukov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications.

  1. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-17

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  2. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-14

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  3. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  4. Currents between tethered electrodes in a magnetized laboratory plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on important plasma physics issues of electrodynamic tethers were performed. These included current propagation, formation of wave wings, limits of current collection, nonlinear effects and instabilities, charging phenomena, and characteristics of transmission lines in plasmas. The experiments were conducted in a large afterglow plasma. The current system was established with a small electron-emitting hot cathode tethered to an electron-collecting anode, both movable across the magnetic field and energized by potential difference up to V approx.=100 T(sub e). The total current density in space and time was obtained from complete measurements of the perturbed magnetic field. The fast spacecraft motion was reproduced in the laboratory by moving the tethered electrodes in small increments, applying delayed current pulses, and reconstructing the net field by a linear superposition of locally emitted wavelets. With this technique, the small-amplitude dc current pattern is shown to form whistler wings at each electrode instead of the generally accepted Alfven wings. For the beam electrode, the whistler wing separates from the field-aligned beam which carries no net current. Large amplitude return currents to a stationary anode generate current-driven microinstabilities, parallel electric fields, ion depletions, current disruptions and time-varying electrode charging. At appropriately high potentials and neutral densities, excess neutrals are ionized near the anode. The anode sheath emits high-frequency electron transit-time oscillations at the sheath-plasma resonance. The beam generates Langmuir turbulence, ion sound turbulence, electron heating, space charge fields, and Hall currents. An insulated, perfectly conducting transmission line embedded in the plasma becomes lossy due to excitation of whistler waves and magnetic field diffusion effects. The implications of the laboratory observations on electrodynamic tethers in space are discussed.

  5. 2D Magnetic Design and Optimization of a 88-mm Aperture 15 T Dipole for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, A; Leroy, D

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity supported by the European Union aims at the development of a high-performance Nb3Sn conductor ( c = 1500A mm 2 @15 T, 4.2 K) in collaboration with European industry and at the design of a highfield dipole magnet making use of this conductor. In the framework of the NED collaboration which coordinates the activity of several institutes,CERNhas contributed to the electromagnetic design study of a cos , layer-type superconducting dipole with an 88 mm aperture that is able to reach 15 T at 4.2 K. Part of the optimization process was dedicated to the reduction of the multipole coefficients so as to improve field quality while keeping an efficient peak-field to main-field ratio. In this paper, we present the optimization of the coil cross-section and of the shape of the iron yoke to reduce saturation-induced field errors during ramp. The effects of persistent magnetization currents are also estimated and different methods to compensate persistent-current-induced field distort...

  6. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  7. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific information about your own examination. What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? What is MRI used for? How safe ... What is the MRI examination like? What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a ...

  9. Magnetism of Carbonados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Taylor, P. T.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Origin of Carbonado is not clear. Magnetism of Carbonado comes from the surface, indicating contemporary formation of both the surface and magnetic carriers. The interior of carbonado is relatively free of magnetic phases.

  10. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  11. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  12. Enhancing the magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlburg, Jakob; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Stingaciu, Marian

    Enhancing the magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles J. V. Ahlburg, M. S. Músquiz, C. Zeuthen, S. Kjeldgaard, M. Stingaciu, M. Christensen Center for Materials Crystallography, Departement of Chemistry & iNano, Aarhus University, Denmark Strong magnets with a high energy product are vital...

  13. Enhancing the magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlburg, Jakob; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Stingaciu, Marian

    Strong magnets with a high energy product are vital when optimizing the efficiency in the electric industry. But since the rare earth metals, normally used for making strong permanent magnets, are both expensive and difficult to mine, a great demand has come to cheaper types of magnets with a sim...

  14. Dynamics of Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Transverse Background Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been utilized to launch both plasma jets (open B-field) and plasma bubbles (closed B-field) into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) linear device at the University of New Mexico. These situations may have bearing on fusion plasmas (e.g. plasma injection for tokamak fueling, ELM pacing, or disruption mitigation) and astrophysical settings (e.g. astrophysical jet stability, coronal mass ejections, etc.). The magnetic Reynolds number of the gun plasma is 100 , so that magnetic advection dominates over magnetic diffusion. The gun plasma ram pressure, ρjetVjet2 >B02 / 2μ0 , the background magnetic pressure, so that the jet or bubble can easily penetrate the background B-field, B0. When the gun axial B-field is weak compared to the gun azimuthal field, a current-driven jet is formed with a global helical magnetic configuration. Applying the transverse background magnetic field, it is observed that the n = 1 kink mode is stabilized, while magnetic probe measurements show contrarily that the safety factor q(a) drops below unity. At the same time, a sheared axial jet velocity is measured. We conclude that the tension force arising from increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces the measured sheared flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold, resulting in the emergent kink stabilization of the injected plasma jet. In the case of injected bubbles, spheromak-like plasma formation is verified. However, when the spheromak plasma propagates into the transverse background magnetic field, the typical self-closed global symmetry magnetic configuration does not hold any more. In the region where the bubble toroidal field opposed the background B-field, the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability has been observed. Details of the experiment setup, diagnostics, experimental results and theoretical analysis will be presented. Supported by the National Science Foundation

  15. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  16. Disk-accreting magnetic neutron stars as high-energy particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of an accretion disk with the magnetic field of a neutron star produces large electromotive forces, which drive large conduction currents in the disk-magnetosphere-star circuit. Here we argue that such large conduction currents will cause microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere. If the minimum plasma density in the magnetosphere is relatively low is less than or aproximately 10(exp 9)/cu cm, current-driven micro-instabilities may cause relativistic double layers to form, producing voltage differences in excess of 10(exp 12) V and accelerating charged particles to very high energies. If instead the plasma density is higher (is greater than or approximately = 10(exp 9)/cu cm, twisting of the stellar magnetic field is likely to cause magnetic field reconnection. This reconnection will be relativistic, accelerating plasma in the magnetosphere to relativistic speeds and a small fraction of particles to very high energies. Interaction of these high-energy particles with X-rays, gamma-rays, and accreting plasma may produce detectable high-energy radiation.

  17. Magnetic domains the analysis of magnetic microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hubert, Alex

    1998-01-01

    The book gives a systematic and comprehensive survey of the complete area of magnetic microstructures. It reaches from micromagnetism of nanoparticles to complex structures of extended magnetic materials. The book starts with a comprehensive evaluation of traditional and modern experimental methods for the observation of magnetic domains and continues with the treatment of important methods for the theoretical analysis of magnetic microcstructures. A survey of the necessary techniques in materials characterization is given. The book offers an observation and analysis of magnetic domains in all

  18. Hoosier Magnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-30

    Hoosier Magnetics proposes to replace the indirect clinker water cooling system with a cooling system that recycles heat from the hot ferrite to preheat the combustion air. This innovative process would significantly reduce the amount of natural gas required to heat the combustion air while eliminating Hoosier’s largest source of downtime. According to the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, process temperature is customarily used as a rough indication of where preheating air will be cost effective. Previous studies have concluded that processes operating above 1,600° F are ideal candidates for the utilization of pre-heated combustion air. Hoosier Magnetics’ operating temperatures run between 1800-2200° F making Hoosier the perfect candidate. Using preheated air at 1200° F will result in 35% fuel savings, or $298,935 annually. Additionally, the new system would have improved process reliability and result in both production efficiency increases and cost savings. This technology is NOT practiced or utilized on a wide-spread basis but could have a significant energy reduction impact in many different high heat utilizing industries in the country. While the energy savings is apparent with this theory the application and design of such a process has not been studied.

  19. Environmental magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Roy

    1986-01-01

    The scientist will be forced, in the unenthusiastic words of one of my scientific colleagues, 'to slosh about in the primordial ooze known as inter-disciplinary studies'. John Passmore Man's responsibility for nature The present text has arisen from some thirteen years advances in our perception, appraisal and creative use of collaboration between the two authors. During that of order in natural systems. Out of this can come period, upwards of a dozen postgraduates in enhanced insight into processes, structures and Edinburgh, the New University of Ulster and Liver­ systems interactions on all temporal and spatial scales pool have been closely involved in exploring many of and at all integrative levels from subatomic to cosmic. the applications of magnetic measurements described In the environment, elements of order are often in the second half of the book. Much of the text is difficult to appraise and analyse, not only because of based on their work, both published and unpublished. intrinsic complexity, but ...

  20. Bifurcation magnetic resonance in films magnetized along hard magnetization axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana M., E-mail: t_vasilevs@mail.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Sementsov, Dmitriy I.; Shutyi, Anatoliy M. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    We study low-frequency ferromagnetic resonance in a thin film magnetized along the hard magnetization axis performing an analysis of magnetization precession dynamics equations and numerical simulation. Two types of films are considered: polycrystalline uniaxial films and single-crystal films with cubic magnetic anisotropy. An additional (bifurcation) resonance initiated by the bistability, i.e. appearance of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states is registered. The modification of dynamic modes provoked by variation of the frequency, amplitude, and magnetic bias value of the ac field is studied. Both steady and chaotic magnetization precession modes are registered in the bifurcation resonance range. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An additional bifurcation resonance arises in a case of a thin film magnetized along HMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifurcation resonance occurs due to the presence of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both regular and chaotic precession modes are realized within bifurcation resonance range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appearance of dynamic bistability is typical for bifurcation resonance.

  1. Equilibrium magnetization and magnetization relaxation of multicore magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Multicore magnetic nanoparticles show promising features for biomedical applications. Their magnetic properties, however, are not well understood to date, so that several ad hoc assumptions are often needed to interpret experimental results. Here, we present a comprehensive computer simulation study on the effect of dipolar interactions and magnetic anisotropy on the equilibrium magnetization and magnetization relaxation dynamics of monodisperse multicore magnetic nanoparticles in viscous solvents. We include thermal fluctuations of the internal Néel relaxation via the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation coupled to rotational Brownian motion of the cluster. We find that the effective magnetic moment of the cluster is reduced compared to the noninteracting case due to frustrated dipole-dipole interactions. Furthermore, the magnetization relaxation is found to proceed in a two-step fashion with a fast initial decay being followed by a long-time relaxation. For moderate dipolar interaction strengths, the latter can be approximated quite well by an exponential decay with rate given by the sum of the relaxation rates in the immobilized state and the Brownian rotation. These findings can be helpful for a better interpretation of experimental data obtained from magnetization relaxation measurements.

  2. Biomaterials and magnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    for magnetic bioseparation, MRI contrast agent and drug delivery. For bioapplications (e.g. MRI contrast agent, bioseparation etc.), superparamagnetic particles are found superior to ferro/ferri magnetic particles due to absence of remanance. Since a magnetic mateiral exhibits magnetic properties only in the presence of a ...

  3. Molecule-based magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Molecular lattices; spin–spin interaction; photo-induced magnetism; single molecule magnets. ... Since the first successful synthesis of molecular magnets in 1986, a large variety of them have been synthesized, which can be categorized on the basis of the chemical nature of the magnetic units involved: organic-, ...

  4. Biomaterials and magnetism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetism in health care; magnetic biomaterials; magnetic intracellular hyperthermia. Abstract. Magnetism plays an important role in different applications of health care. Magnetite (Fe34) is ... Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology – Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  5. Magnetic confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is a compact, high-magnetic-field tokamak capable of operating at density and magnetic field values similar to, or even encompassing, those of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and therefore provides a unique opportunity to explore physics issues that are directly relevant to ITER. During 2004 the experimental activities were focussed on fully exploiting the lower hybrid system (for generating and controlling the plasma current) and the electron cyclotron heating system (joint experiment with the Institute of Plasma Physics of the National Research Council, Milan). With all four gyrotrons in operation, full electron cyclotron power was achieved up to a record level of 1.5 MW. By simultaneously injecting lower hybrid waves, to tailor the plasma current radial profile, and electron cyclotron waves, to heat the plasma centre, good confinement regimes with internal transport barriers were obtained at the highest plasma density values ever achieved for this operation regime (n {approx}1.5X10{sup 20}m{sup -3}). Specific studies were devoted to optimising the coupling of lower hybrid waves to the plasma (by real-time control of the plasma position) and to generating current by electron cyclotron current drive. The new scanning CO{sub 2} interferometer (developed by the Reversed Field Experiment Consortium) for high spatial and time resolution (1 cm/50 {mu}s) density profile measurements was extensively used. The Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded and enabled observation of scattered signals associated with the Confinement background plasma dynamics. As for theoretical studies on the dynamics of turbulence in plasmas, the transition from Bohm-like scaling to gyro-Bohm scaling of the local plasma diffusivity was demonstrated on the basis of a generalised four wave model (joint collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and the University of California at Irvine). The transition from weak to strong

  6. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Magnetism is a truly unique reference text, that explores the study of magnetism and magnetic behavior with a depth that no other book can provide. It covers the most detailed descriptions of the fundamentals of magnetism providing an emphasis on statistical mechanics which is absolutely critical for understanding magnetic behavior. The books covers the classical areas of basic magnetism, including Landau Theory and magnetic interactions, but features a more concise and easy-to-read style. Perfect for upper-level graduate students and industry researchers, The Fu

  7. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  8. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Woodford, S.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses ultrafast magnetization dynamics from a theoretical perspective. The manipulation of magnetization using the inverse Faraday effect has been studied, as well as magnetic relaxation processes in quantum dots. The inverse Faraday effect – the generation of a magnetic field by nonresonant, circularly polarized light – offers the possibility to control and reverse magnetization on a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds. This is important both for the technological advant...

  9. Magnetizing the universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maintaining magnetic fields. Magnetic fields decay if not maintained, because of: Resistance dissipating currents (∼ 20,000 yr for earth) ... Motion in a magnetic field induces electric fields. If this electric field has a curl, can re-generate magnetic fields. ∂B. ∂t. = ∇ × (U × B) + η∇. 2. B. Magnetic Field almost frozen to moving ...

  10. Heteropolar Magnetic Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misovec, Kathleen; Johnson, Bruce; Downer, James; Eisenhaure, David; Hockney, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Compact permanent-magnet/electromagnet actuator has six degrees of freedom. Heteropolar magnetic actuator conceived for use as actively controlled vibration-isolating suspension device. Exerts forces along, and torques about, all three principal coordinate axes to resist all three components of translational vibration and all three components of rotational vibration. Inner cylinder suspended magnetically within outer cylinder. Electro-magnet coils interact with fields of permanent magnets to provide active control of suspending force and torque.

  11. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  12. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.

  13. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Campbell

    2012-06-30

    The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have

  14. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sangram K.; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L.; Dediu, V. Alek

    2016-01-01

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial–magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  15. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K. [Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kolikov, V.A., E-mail: kolikov1@yandex.ru [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogomolova, E.V. [Botanical Institute of the RAS after V.L.Komarov, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Snetov, V.N. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkova, I.A. [Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, A.A. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  16. Magnet and device for magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Rem, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    A planar magnet for magnetic density separation, comprising an array of pole pieces succeeding in longitudinal direction of a mounting plane, each pole piece having a body extending transversely along the mounting plane with a substantially constant cross section that includes a top segment that is

  17. Active Magnetic Bearings – Magnetic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... of the work is the characterization of magnetic forces by using two experimental different experimental approaches. Such approaches are investigated and described in details. A special test rig is designed where the 4 poles - AMB is able to generate forces up to 1900 N. The high precision characterization...... of the magnetic forces are led by using different experimental tests: (I) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor; (II) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  18. Experiments on Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C. S.; Ertel, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of a simple apparatus to measure the magnetization density and magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and the diamagnetic solids and liquids. (Author/GA)

  19. Boulder Magnetic Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  20. Magnetic resonance angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRA; Angiography - magnetic resonance ... Kwong RY. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular ...

  1. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  2. Enhanced Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM) extends to degree and order 720, resolving magnetic anomalies down to 56 km wavelength. The higher resolution of the EMM results in...

  3. ISR magnet power supplies

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    At the left, for the main magnets, the 18 kV switchgear is in the foreground and at the rear are cubicles with rectifiers and filters. At the right, rear, are rectifiers for pole face windings and auxiliary magnets.

  4. Enhanced Magnetic Model 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM) extends to degree and order 720, resolving magnetic anomalies down to 56 km wavelength. The higher resolution of the EMM results in...

  5. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices....... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  6. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  7. Three - dimensional magnetic field observation vessel using magnetic fluid

    OpenAIRE

    櫻井, 勇良

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an observation vessel which could depict magnetic field distributions in threedimensionswas produced. The magnetic field observation vessel was made by putting magnetic fluid and water in a transparent square shaped glass container. Observation of both permanent magnet andelectromagnets was carried out. The movement of the magnetic fluid is different depending on the placement of the magnetic poles. The magnetic fluid showed a tendency to gather near each magnetic pole, when it...

  8. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  9. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  10. Spin-transfer-driven spin-waves excitation in a finite-size magnetic waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consolo, Giancarlo, E-mail: gconsolo@unime.it; Currò, Carmela; Valenti, Giovanna

    2015-06-19

    The current-driven excitation of spin-waves in a one-dimensional magnetic waveguide is examined analytically and numerically. The proposed model accounts for the interference between incident and reflected waves caused by the finite sizes of the physical domain. This effect is relevant in experiments where the demand of miniaturization leads the spin-wave decay length to be of the same scale as the extents of the structures. Particular analytical solutions of the linearized equation for the spin-wave amplitude are found for elongated and contracted nanocontacts. These solutions are compared to those of an infinite waveguide and are also successfully validated through micromagnetic simulations. - Highlights: • We characterize spin-waves in a one-dimensional magnetic waveguide. • Finite-size effects are investigated numerically and analytically. • Spin-waves are excited via a spin-polarized current flowing through a nanocontact. • The model accounts for the interference between incident and reflected waves. • Particular analytical solutions are found in two different ranges of the control parameter.

  11. Molecule-based magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    opaque classical magnet 'cousins' listed above, possibilities of photomagnetic switching exist. Persistent efforts also continue to design the ever-elusive polymer magnets towards applications in industry. While pro- viding a brief overview of the field of molecular magnetism, this article highlights some recent developments.

  12. Magnetism in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview is presented of magnetism in meteorites. A glossary of magnetism terminology followed by discussion of the various techniques used for magnetism studies in meteorites are included. The generalized results from use of these techniques by workers in the field are described. A brief critical analysis is offered.

  13. Magnetic polarizability of pion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Luschevskaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the energy dependence of π mesons off the background Abelian magnetic field on the base of quenched SU(3 lattice gauge theory and calculate the magnetic dipole polarizability of charged and neutral pions for various lattice volumes and lattice spacings. The contribution of the magnetic hyperpolarizability to the neutral pion energy has been also found.

  14. Iron dominated magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  15. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  16. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  17. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  18. Intrinsic non-inductive current driven by ETG turbulence in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rameswar; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.; Gürcan, Ã.-. D.

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by observations and physics understanding of the phenomenon of intrinsic rotation, it is suggested that similar considerations for electron dynamics may result in intrinsic current in tokamaks. We have investigated the possibility of intrinsic non-inductive current in the turbulent plasma of tokamaks. Ohm's law is generalized to include the effect of turbulent fluctuations in the mean field approach. This clearly leads to the identification of sources and the mechanisms of non-inductive current drive by electron temperature gradient turbulence. It is found that a mean parallel electro-motive force and hence a mean parallel current can be generated by (1) the divergence of residual current flux density and (2) a non-flux like turbulent source from the density and parallel electric field correlations. Both residual flux and the non-flux source require parallel wave-number k∥ symmetry breaking for their survival which can be supplied by various means like mean E × B shear, turbulence intensity gradient, etc. Estimates of turbulence driven current are compared with the background bootstrap current in the pedestal region. It is found that turbulence driven current is nearly 10% of the bootstrap current and hence can have a significant influence on the equilibrium current density profiles and current shear driven modes.

  19. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly suppressed by electron-electron interactions, leading to remarkable resistance to diffusive spreading of the drifting pulse of spin polarization. Finally, we show that spin helices continue propagate at the same speed as the Fermi sea even when the electron drift velocity exceeds the Fermi velocity of 107 cm s-1.

  20. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  1. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2014-10-01

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  2. Theory of the Current-Driven Ion Cyclotron Instability in the Bottomside Ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-11

    Davidson, 1972; Aamodt , 1970]. Recent nonlinear numerical simulations [Pritchett et al., 1981; Okuda and Ashour-Abdalla, 1981] of the collisionless ion...Y -.- d-. .-. .--. W REFERENCES Aamodt , R.E., Particle motion in the presence of three dimensional finite amplitude harmonic cyclotron

  3. Tunneling current driven Electrodeposition of metals onto n-Si(111):H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, Sebastian; Schindler, Werner [Physikdepartment, Lehrstuhl E20, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Electrochemical (EC) metal deposition onto Silicon surfaces should be impossible at potentials of the n-Si(111):H electrode lying above the flatband potential due to the electron depletion at the Silicon suface. Here, we show in sophisticated in-situ EC-STM experiments in great detail that electrodeposition onto n-Si(111):H occurs at potentials positive with respect to the flatband potential, although obviously not found in conventional STM experiments at the solid/ liquid interface. By STM imaging and in high-resolution cyclic voltammetry we observe a deposition/ dissolution of metal, determined by the corresponding Nernst potential of the metal. We explain this behaviour by electrodeposition originating from tunneling currents through the electron depletion zone at the n-Si(111):H surface.

  4. Spin-current-driven thermoelectric generation based on interfacial spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagmur, A., E-mail: ahmetyagmur@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Iguchi, R. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Karube, S.; Otani, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Uchida, K., E-mail: kuchida@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kondou, K. [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kikkawa, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Saitoh, E. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)

    2016-06-13

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu/yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) devices has been investigated. When an out-of-plane temperature gradient is applied to the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu/YIG device, a spin current is generated across the Cu/YIG interface via the SSE and then converted into electric voltage due to the spin–orbit coupling at the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu interface. The sign of the SSE voltage in the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu/YIG devices is opposite to that induced by the conventional inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/YIG devices. The SSE voltage in the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu/YIG devices disappears in the absence of the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and its thermoelectric conversion efficiency is independent of the Cu thickness, indicating the important role of the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu interface. This result demonstrates that not only the bulk inverse spin Hall effect but also the spin–orbit coupling near the interface can be used for SSE-based thermoelectric generation.

  5. Recent Advances in Alternating Current-Driven Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yufeng; Xia, Yingdong; Zhang, Haijuan; Qiu, Jian; Zheng, Yiting; Chen, Yonghua; Huang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), typically operated with constant-voltage or direct-current (DC) power sources, are candidates for next-generation solid-state lighting and displays, as they are light, thin, inexpensive, and flexible. However, researchers have focused mainly on the device itself (e.g., development of novel materials, design of the device structure, and optical outcoupling engineering), and little attention has been paid to the driving mode. Recently, an alternative concept to DC-driven OLEDs by directly driving devices using time-dependent voltages or alternating current (AC) has been explored. Here, the effects of different device structures of AC-driven OLEDs, for example, double-insulation, single-insulation, double-injection, and tandem structure, on the device performance are systematically investigated. The formation of excitons and the dielectric layer, which are important to achieve high-performance AC-driven OLEDs, are carefully considered. The importance of gaining further understanding of the fundamental properties of AC-driven OLEDs is then discussed, especially as they relate to device physics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Collective coordinate models of domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized systems under the spin hall effect and longitudinal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, S. Ali, E-mail: ali.nasseri@isi.it [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Politecnico di Torino - Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moretti, Simone; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca - Cardenal Plá y Deniel, 22, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Serpico, Claudio [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); University of Naples Federico II - Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Durin, Gianfranco [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) - Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies on heterostructures of ultrathin ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and an oxide have highlighted the importance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and broken inversion symmetry in domain wall (DW) motion. Specifically, chiral DWs are stabilized in these systems due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). SOC can also lead to enhanced current induced DW motion, with the Spin Hall effect (SHE) suggested as the dominant mechanism for this observation. The efficiency of SHE driven DW motion depends on the internal magnetic structure of the DW, which could be controlled using externally applied longitudinal in-plane fields. In this work, micromagnetic simulations and collective coordinate models are used to study current-driven DW motion under longitudinal in-plane fields in perpendicularly magnetized samples with strong DMI. Several extended collective coordinate models are developed to reproduce the micromagnetic results. While these extended models show improvements over traditional models of this kind, there are still discrepancies between them and micromagnetic simulations which require further work. - Highlights: • Moving DWs in PMA material maintain their structure under longitudinal in-plane fields. • As a result of longitudinal fields, magnetization in the domains becomes canted. • A critical longitudinal field was identified and correlated with the DMI strength. • A canted collective coordinate model was developed for DW motion under in-plane fields.

  7. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  8. Magnetic Check Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Poppet in proposed check valve restored to closed condition by magnetic attraction instead of spring force. Oscillations suppressed, with consequent reduction of wear. Stationary magnetic disk mounted just upstream of poppet, also containing magnet. Valve body nonmagnetic. Forward pressure or flow would push poppet away from stationary magnetic disk so fluid flows easily around poppet. Stop in valve body prevents poppet from being swept away. When flow stopped or started to reverse, magnetic attraction draws poppet back to disk. Poppet then engages floating O-ring, thereby closing valve and preventing reverse flow. Floating O-ring facilitates sealing at low loads.

  9. Magnetism: a supramolecular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Pellaux, R.; Schmalle, H.W. [Zurich Univ., Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The field of molecule-based magnetism has developed tremendously in the last few years. Two different extended molecular - hence supramolecular -systems are presented. The Prussian-blue analogues show some of the highest magnetic ordering temperature of any class of molecular magnets, T{sub c} = 315 K, whereas the class of transition-metal oxalate-bridged compounds exhibits a diversity of magnetic phenomena. Especially for the latter compounds, the elastic neutron scattering technique has successfully been proven to trace the magnetic structure of these supramolecular and chiral compounds. (author) 18 figs., 25 refs.

  10. Magnetism and metallurgy of soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Soft magnetic materials are economically and technologically the most important of all magnetic materials. In particular, the development of new materials and novel applications for the computer and telecommunications industries during the past few decades has immensely broadened the scope and altered the nature of soft magnetic materials. In addition to metallic substances, nonmetallic compounds and amorphous thin films are coming increasingly important. This thorough, well-organized volume - on of the most comprehensive treatments available - offers a coherent, logical presentation of the p

  11. Tunneling magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edward R.; Gomez, Romel D.; Adly, Amr A.; Mayergoyz, Isaak D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a powerful new tool for studying the magnetic patterns on magnetic recording media. This was accomplished by modifying a conventional scanning tunneling microscope. The fine-wire probe that is used to image surface topography was replaced with a flexible magnetic probe. Images obtained with these probes reveal both the surface topography and the magnetic structure. We have made a thorough theoretical analysis of the interaction between the probe and the magnetic fields emanating from a typical recorded surface. Quantitative data about the constituent magnetic fields can then be obtained. We have employed these techniques in studies of two of the most important issues of magnetic record: data overwrite and maximizing data-density. These studies have shown: (1) overwritten data can be retrieved under certain conditions; and (2) improvements in data-density will require new magnetic materials. In the course of these studies we have developed new techniques to analyze magnetic fields of recorded media. These studies are both theoretical and experimental and combined with the use of our magnetic force scanning tunneling microscope should lead to further breakthroughs in the field of magnetic recording.

  12. Magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2011-05-11

    A broad overview on magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts is presented and the use of magnetic nanomaterials as catalysts is discussed. Magnetic materials are used as organocatalysts and their applications range to challenging reactions, such as hydroformylation and olefin metathesis. Magnetic nanomaterials are also being used in environmental applications, such as for photo- and biocatalysis and for the adsorption and removal of pollutants from air and water. These materials show great promise as enantioselective catalysts, which are used extensively for the synthesis of medicines, drugs, and other bioactive molecules. By functionalizing these materials using chiral ligands, a series of chiral nanocatalysts can be designed, offering great potential to reuse these otherwise expensive catalyst systems. Characterization of magnetic catalysts is often a challenging task, and NMR characterization of these catalysts is difficult because the magnetic nature of the materials interferes with the magnetic field of the spectrometer.

  13. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  14. Magnetism in lanthanide superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of heavy rare-earth superlattices have revealed the stabilization of novel magnetic phases chat are not present in bulk materials. The most striking result is the propagation of the magnetic ordering through nonmagnetic spacer materials. Here we describe some recent X......-ray magnetic resonant scattering studies of light rare-earth superlattices, which illuminate the mechanism of interlayer coupling, and provide access to different areas of Physics. such as the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism. Magnetic X-ray diffraction is found to be particularly well suited...... to the study of the modulated magnetic structures in superlattices, and provides unique information on the conduction-electron spin-density wave responsible for the propagation of magnetic order. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Microscale magnetic compasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Zhang, Desai; Eisterer, Michael; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Microscale magnetic compasses have been synthesized with high yield. These ferromagnetic iron carbide nano-particles, which are encapsulated in a pair of parallel carbon needles, change their orientation in response to an external magnetic field. Electron holography reveals magnetic fields confined to the vicinity of the bicone-shaped particles, which are composed of only a few ferromagnetic domains. Aligned magnetically and encapsulated in an acrylate polymer matrix, these micro-compasses exhibit anisotropic bulk magnetic permeability with an easy axis normal to the needle direction that can be understood as a result of the anisotropic demagnetizing field of a non-spherical single-domain particle. This novel type of material with orthogonal magnetic and structural axes could be highly useful as magnetic components in electromagnetic wave absorbent materials and magnetorheological fluids.

  16. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-02-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability.

  17. Injection and extraction magnets: kicker magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Fowler, T; Senaj, V; Sermeus, L

    2010-01-01

    Each stage of an accelerator system has a limited dynamic range and therefore a chain of stages is required to reach high energy. A combination of septa and kicker magnets is frequently used to inject and extract beam from each stage. The kicker magnets typically produce rectangular field pulses with fast rise- and/or fall-times, however, the field strength is relatively low. To compensate for their relatively low field strength, the kicker magnets are generally combined with electromagnetic septa. The septa provide relatively strong field strength but are either DC or slow pulsed. This paper discusses injection and extraction systems with particular emphasis on the hardware required for the kicker magnet.

  18. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  19. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of kunzite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkowska, J.A. E-mail: jobart@polsl.katowice.pl; Cisowski, J.; Voiron, J.; Heimann, J.; Czaja, M.; Mazurak, Z

    2000-11-01

    We have studied the high-field magnetization up to 14.5 T and magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range 1.6-400 K of three different samples of natural kunzite crystals, being a variety of spodumene (LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and containing transition metal ions. It appears that the total magnetization and susceptibility consist of the paramagnetic contribution following from the temperature-dependent Brillouin-type behavior of magnetic ions and temperature-independent diamagnetic contribution of the spodumene matrix which we have found as being equal to -3.5x10{sup -7} emu/g. We have identified the Mn{sup 2+} ions as the dominant ones in the kunzites studied and we have determined the molar concentration of these ions as lying in the range 0.2-0.4%.

  20. Localization of magnetic pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  1. Magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Daniele; Dong, Chunhua; Reggente, Melania; Angeloni, Livia; Barteri, Mario; Scaramuzzo, Francesca A; De Angelis, Francesca; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Antonelli, Flavia; Rinaldi, Federica; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Sorbo, Angela; Sordi, Daniela; Arends, Isabel WCE; Rossi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based technique in which an AFM tip with a magnetic coating is used to probe local magnetic fields with the typical AFM spatial resolution, thus allowing one to acquire images reflecting the local magnetic properties of the samples at the nanoscale. Being a well established tool for the characterization of magnetic recording media, superconductors and magnetic nanomaterials, MFM is finding constantly increasing application in the study of magnetic properties of materials and systems of biological and biomedical interest. After reviewing these latter applications, three case studies are presented in which MFM is used to characterize: (i) magnetoferritin synthesized using apoferritin as molecular reactor; (ii) magnetic nanoparticles loaded niosomes to be used as nanocarriers for drug delivery; (iii) leukemic cells labeled using folic acid-coated core-shell superparamagnetic nanoparticles in order to exploit the presence of folate receptors on the cell membrane surface. In these examples, MFM data are quantitatively analyzed evidencing the limits of the simple analytical models currently used. Provided that suitable models are used to simulate the MFM response, MFM can be used to evaluate the magnetic momentum of the core of magnetoferritin, the iron entrapment efficiency in single vesicles, or the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into cells. PMID:25050758

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  3. Magnetism in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, John

    2000-03-01

    For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing

  4. Magnetic and electric field variations during geomagnetically active days over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafatoğlu Eyigüler, Emine Ceren; Kaymaz, Zerefşan

    2017-11-01

    magnetopause currents driven by the large solar wind dynamic pressure as associated with the coronal mass ejection (CME) events. Each event shows increased levels of ground level magnetic and electric field fluctuations corresponding to the CME compression at the subsolar magnetopause. High frequency, large fluctuations continue subsequently during the main phase in the presence of the geomagnetic storms. The fluctuations during the main phase were found to be different than those corresponding to the sudden commencements. GIC occurrences in our latitudes were shown to be associated with the sudden commencement and main phase of the geomagnetic storm activity. The time rate of change in horizontal component of the magnetic field showed perturbations on the order of 0.5 nT/s in our region. The sources of the GICs based on these observations were discussed. This study presents our preliminary results on the characteristics of the GICs over Turkey based on the simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic field during the geomagnetic storms. It is the first study of the GICs in Eurasia region and the results contribute to the worldwide understanding and modelling efforts on the GICs.

  5. Magnetic particle separation using controllable magnetic force switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zunghang [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-P. [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lai, M.-F., E-mail: mflai@mx.nthu.edu.t [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    Magnetic particle separation is very important in biomedical applications. In this study, a magnetic particle microseparator is proposed that uses micro magnets to produce open/closed magnetic flux for switching on/off the separation. When all magnets are magnetized in the same direction, the magnetic force switch for separation is on; almost all magnetic particles are trapped in the channel side walls and the separation rate can reach 95%. When the magnetization directions of adjacent magnets are opposite, the magnetic force switch for separation is off, and most magnetic particles pass through the microchannel without being trapped. For the separation of multi-sized magnetic particles, the proposed microseparator is numerically demonstrated to have high separation rate.

  6. Elasticity of a magnetic fluid in a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.; Sheldeshova, E. V.; Karpova, G. V.; Aref'ev, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    Complex measurements of the following elastic-magnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid suspended by magnetic levitation within a horizontal tube in a strong magnetic field were performed: the oscillation frequency and decay coefficient; the static, ponderomotive, and dynamic elasticity coefficients; the fluid displacement under hydrostatic pressure; magnetization curve; and the magnetic field strength and gradient. Calculations based on a model of ponderomotive elasticity with correction for the resistance of a viscous fluid in motion and on the fluid column displacement for two magnetic fluid samples agree well with the experimental magnetization curve. The discussed technique holds promise for research into magnetophoresis and nanoparticle aggregation in magnetic colloids.

  7. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  8. The 2017 Magnetism Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, D.; Valenzuela, S. O.; Makarov, D.; Marrows, C. H.; Fullerton, E. E.; Fischer, P.; McCord, J.; Vavassori, P.; Mangin, S.; Pirro, P.; Hillebrands, B.; Kent, A. D.; Jungwirth, T.; Gutfleisch, O.; Kim, C. G.; Berger, A.

    2017-09-01

    Building upon the success and relevance of the 2014 Magnetism Roadmap, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap edition follows a similar general layout, even if its focus is naturally shifted, and a different group of experts and, thus, viewpoints are being collected and presented. More importantly, key developments have changed the research landscape in very relevant ways, so that a novel view onto some of the most crucial developments is warranted, and thus, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article is a timely endeavour. The change in landscape is hereby not exclusively scientific, but also reflects the magnetism related industrial application portfolio. Specifically, Hard Disk Drive technology, which still dominates digital storage and will continue to do so for many years, if not decades, has now limited its footprint in the scientific and research community, whereas significantly growing interest in magnetism and magnetic materials in relation to energy applications is noticeable, and other technological fields are emerging as well. Also, more and more work is occurring in which complex topologies of magnetically ordered states are being explored, hereby aiming at a technological utilization of the very theoretical concepts that were recognised by the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics. Given this somewhat shifted scenario, it seemed appropriate to select topics for this Roadmap article that represent the three core pillars of magnetism, namely magnetic materials, magnetic phenomena and associated characterization techniques, as well as applications of magnetism. While many of the contributions in this Roadmap have clearly overlapping relevance in all three fields, their relative focus is mostly associated to one of the three pillars. In this way, the interconnecting roles of having suitable magnetic materials, understanding (and being able to characterize) the underlying physics of their behaviour and utilizing them for applications and devices is well illustrated, thus giving an

  9. Remanent magnetism at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a strong case can be made for an intrinsic magnetic field of dynamo origin for Mars earlier in its history. The typical equatorial magnetic field intensity would have been equal to about 0.01-0.1 gauss. The earlier dynamo activity is no longer extant, but a significant remanent magnetic field may exist. A highly non-dipole magnetic field could result from the remanent magnetization of the surface. Remanent magnetization may thus play an important role in the Mars solar wind interactions, in contrast to Venus with its surface temperatures above the Curie point. The anomalous characteristics of Mars'solar wind interaction compared to that of Venus may be explicable on this basis.

  10. Magnetic conditioning in superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.

    1988-08-01

    Improvements in superconducting magnet technology have reduced to a handful the number of training quenches typical of dipole magnets. The number of training quenches in long (17 m) and short (1--2 m) SSC magnets are now about the same (operating at 6.6 tesla and 4.4 K). Yet the steps necessary to totally eliminate training are in the future RandD plans for magnet construction and conductor motion prevention. The accepted hypothesis is that Lorentz forces and poor mechanical properties of superconducting cables are the cause of conductor motion. Conductor motion reduces the stored energy in the cable by converting it into heat. The small amount of heat generated (millijoules) during motion is usually enough to quench the magnet when it is close to short sample. During training, the magnet performance normally improves with the number of quenches. It is not the quench itself that improves magnet performance but rather the fact that once conductor motion has occurred it will probably not repeat itself unless subjected to higher forces. Conditioning is a process that enables the magnet to reduce its stored energy without causing a premature quench. During the conditioning process the magnet is further cooled from its operating temperature of 4.4 K to 1.8 K by converting He I into He II. As a result the magnet is placed in a state where it has excess stability as well as excellent heat transfer capabilities. Although this does not eliminate motion, if the magnet is now cycled to /approximately/10% above its operating field at 4.4 K (which is above short sample) the excess stability should be enough to prevent quenching and reduce the probability of conductor motion and training once the magnet has been warmed back up to its operating temperature of 4.4 K. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Magnetic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubchanskii, I L [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72, R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Dadoenkova, N N [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72, R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Lyubchanskii, M I [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 72, R. Luxemburg St., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Shapovalov, E A [Department of Physics, Donetsk National University, 24, Universitetskaya St., 83055 Donetsk (Ukraine); Rasing, Th [NSRIM Institute, University of Nijmegen, 6525 ED, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2003-09-21

    In this paper we outline a new direction in the area of photonic crystals (PCs), or photonic band gap materials, i.e. one-, two-, or three-dimensional superstructures with periods that are comparable with the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The main (and principal) characteristic of this new class of PCs is the presence of magnetically ordered components (or external magnetic field). The linear and nonlinear optical properties of such magnetic PCs are discussed. (topical review)

  12. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  13. Magnetic latching solenoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.; Albano, R.K.; Morrison, J.L. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    This invention discloses a D.C. magnetic latching solenoid that retains a moving armature in a first or second position by means of a pair of magnets, thereby having a zero-power requirement after actuation. The first or second position is selected by reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage which is enough to overcome the holding power of either magnet and transfer the armature to an opposite position. The coil is then de-energized. 2 figs.

  14. SPS : the magnet system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    1974-01-01

    English version. Part of a series of films about the SPS. This one ois from May 1974 to December 1974. Roy Billinge, Vince Hatton explain about magnet system. Technical requirements, accuracy checks, installation, magnetic measurements, mechanical measurements. Discussion of a particular problem which can come from variation in the thickness of the vacuum chambers. Dipoles, quadrapoles and other speciality magnets. Necessity for close international cooperation to coordinate the work. Nice meeting sequence at end. (calculator on the table.)

  15. Magnetic study of turbidites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanty, Cyrielle; Valet, Jean Pierre; Carlut, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Turbidites induce sedimentary reworking and re-deposition caused by tsunami, earthquake, volcanic processes, and other catastrophic events. They result from rapid depositional processes and are thus considered not being pertinent for comparison with pelagic sediments. Turbidites are evidently ruled out from paleomagnetic records dealing with time-series. Consequently, no attention has ever been paid to the magnetization of turbidites which is fully justified if the high level of turbulence governing the depositional processes influences the acquisition of magnetization. In certain conditions like channeled turbidity currents, levees of sediment are generated and then associated with relatively calm although very fast redeposition processes. Such conditions will thus govern the subsequent acquisition of magnetization through mechanical lock-in of the magnetic grains. This situation is actually quite similar to what happens during the experiences of artificial redeposition that are conducted in laboratory. Therefore, combining laboratory experiments and studies of natural turbidites could reveal important information on the processes involved in the acquisition of magnetization, especially if the comparison with the overlying hemipelagic sediments does not show any striking difference. We will present the results of magnetic measurements performed on four different and relatively recent turbidites. We selected different origins associated either with spillover of channeled turbidity currents or with co-seismic faulting. Each event is characterized by a different thickness (ten to few tens of cm), lithology and mean granulometry (few tens of μm to hundreds of μm). We have carried out measurements of magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and we also scrutinize the evolution of various rock magnetic parameters (ARM, IRM, S ratio, magnetic grain sizes, hysteresis parameters…). The magnetic characteristics of the

  16. Covariant Magnetic Connection Hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pegoraro, F

    2016-01-01

    In the single fluid, nonrelativistic, ideal-Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved "magnetic connections" between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D {\\it magnetic connection hypersurfaces} in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when ${\\bf E} \\cdot {\\bf B} = 0$.

  17. Magnetism v.5

    CERN Document Server

    Suhl, Harry

    1973-01-01

    Magnetism, Volume V: Magnetic Properties of Metallic Alloys deals with the magnetic properties of metallic alloys and covers topics ranging from conditions favoring the localization of effective moments to the s-d model and the Kondo effect, along with perturbative, scattering, and Green's function theories of the s-d model. Asymptotically exact methods used in addressing the Kondo problem are also described.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a review of experimental results and phenomenology concerning the formation of local magnetic moments in metals, followed by a Har

  18. Magnetic Structure of Sunspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Borrero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we give an overview about the current state-of-knowledge of the magnetic field in sunspots from an observational point of view. We start by offering a brief description of tools that are most commonly employed to infer the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere with emphasis in the photosphere of sunspots. We then address separately the global and local magnetic structure of sunspots, focusing on the implications of the current observations for the different sunspots models, energy transport mechanisms, extrapolations of the magnetic field towards the Corona, and other issues.

  19. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic......Magnetic torquing is attractive as means of control for small satellites. The actuation principle is to use the interaction between the earth's magnetic field and a magnetic field generated by a coil set in the satellite. This control principle is inherently time-varying, and difficult to use...

  20. The Earth's Magnetic Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovsky, Eduard; Harinarayana, T; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented recently at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth's magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book

  1. LHCb experiment magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The leading members of the LHCb magnet project, from left to right: Pierre-Ange Giudici, who organized and supervised the industrial production of the coils; Marcello Losasso, who performed the 3D calculations to optimise the magnetic field; Olivier Jamet, responsible for the 3D design; Jean Renaud, in charge of the magnet assembly, and Wilfried Flegel, project leader. The LHCb detector will investigate matter-antimatter differences in B mesons at the LHC. The coils of the detector's huge dipole magnet are seen here in April 2004.

  2. A magnetic hysteresis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Philip R.

    Consideration is given to a mathematical model that dynamically characterizes the BH magnetic hysteresis of ferromagnetic materials. A Rowland ring in which the magnetizing current in the excitation coil provides the input and the resulting output is measured using a search coil is examined. A first-order differential equation is developed for the general BH hysteresis characteristics of the magnetic material that will yield the solution for the induction or flux density, when the input magnetizing forces is prescribed. Analogs are drawn between the variables in a simple mechanical system and the Rowland ring. Simulation results show that the mathematical model accounts for the major dynamic characteristics of ferromagnetic materials.

  3. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  4. Modelling of magnetic fluid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashtovoi, V.G. E-mail: bashv@reol1.itmo.by; Bossis, G.; Kabachnikov, D.N.; Krakov, M.S.; Volkova, O

    2002-11-01

    One kind of elastic magnetic fluid support representing the magnetic fluid drop with permanent magnet inside is investigated experimentally and numerically. The dependencies between the magneto static force in support and the geometrical parameters and properties of the magnet and the magnetic fluid are established.

  5. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, O [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: morandi@dipmat.univpm.it

    2009-07-15

    We present a dynamical model that successfully explains the observed time evolution of the magnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after weak laser excitation. Based on the pseudo-fermion formalism and a second-order many-particle expansion of the exact p-d exchange interaction, our approach goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation. It includes both the sub-picosecond demagnetization dynamics and the slower relaxation processes that restore the initial ferromagnetic order in a nanosecond timescale. In agreement with experimental results, our numerical simulations show that, depending on the value of the initial lattice temperature, a subsequent enhancement of the total magnetization may be observed within the timescale of a few hundred picoseconds.

  6. Contactless magnetic manipulation of magnetic particles in a fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokura, S., E-mail: susumu_tokura@ihi.co.jp [Corporate Research and Development, IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara, Isogo, Yokohama, Kanagawa 235-8501 (Japan); Hara, M.; Kawaguchi, N. [Corporate Research and Development, IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara, Isogo, Yokohama, Kanagawa 235-8501 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-Daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate contactless magnetic manipulation of a magnetic particle along a designated orbit among other magnetic particles suspended in a fluid at rest or in motion, and also to understand the behaviors of those surrounding particles during the contactless magnetic manipulation. In addition, the possibility of breaking up chains of clustered magnetic particles under such conditions was also studied. We first describe contactless magnetic manipulation of magnetic particles by feedback control in which the feedback signal was the measured coordinates of the tracked particle. By the feedback control monitoring the location of the tracked particle using a high-speed image analyzer, the reach of the dipole magnetic field created by the magnetized magnetic particles could be kept relatively small. As a result, the tracked magnetic particle could be dragged along the designated orbit by magnetic force. Second, we describe the breaking up of chains of clustered magnetic particles using an alternating magnetic force. The results showed that chain-clustered magnetic particles that had been aggregated under the condition of contactless magnetic manipulation could be broken up reproducibly by an alternating magnetic field. These results constitute useful information for advancements in the handling of magnetic micro- or nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Feedback control with an input signal of the particle coordinates obtained from fast-image analyzer is used. • A magnetic particle can be dragged along the designated orbit by magnetic force. • Behavior of chain-clustering of magnetic particles can be observed during magnetic operation. • Chain-clustered magnetic particles that are aggregated can be broken up reproducibly by an alternating magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic absorption dichroism and sum rules in itinerant magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Strange, Paul

    1994-01-01

    In this letter we discuss X-ray magnetic dichroism in magnetic materials where an itinerant model of the magnetic behaviour is appropriate. Inspired by progress made in interpreting dichroism spectra in a localized approach, we show that dichroism spectra are an excellent measure of the orbital and spin magnetic moments in itinerant magnets. By performing an energy decomposition of the sum rules we show that the structure found in dichroism spectra reflects the energy dependence of the magnet...

  8. Levitation Force Properties of Superconducting Magnetic Bearing Using Bulk Magnet

    OpenAIRE

    齋藤, 友基; 荻原, 宏康

    1999-01-01

    Type II superconductors can be trapped fluxes at pinning centers. The fluxes-trapping superconductor behaves like a permanent magnet, which is called a "bulk magnet". It is reported that its magnetic field is stronger than that of a usual permanent magnet. We propose a novel levitation system using two sets of superconductors, one of which used the bulk magnets. In this paper, we compared the levitation forces of a usual levitation system with a permanent magnet and the novel levitation syste...

  9. Magnetic compasses in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of magnetic information for orientation and navigation is a widespread phenomenon in animals. In contrast to navigational systems in vertebrates, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the insect magnetic perception and use of the information is at an early stage. Some insects use ma...

  10. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  11. Magnetic bipolar transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor; Sarma, S. Das

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bipolar transistor is a bipolar junction transistor with one or more magnetic regions, and/or with an externally injected nonequilibrium (source) spin. It is shown that electrical spin injection through the transistor is possible in the forward active regime. It is predicted that the current amplification of the transistor can be tuned by spin.

  12. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic fields are observed not only in stars, but in galaxies, clusters, and even high redshift Lyman- systems. In principle, these fields could play an important role in structure formation and also affect the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The study of cosmological magnetic fields aims ...

  13. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  14. Magnetic support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, G.J.P.; Spronck, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    There is described a support system enabling supporting an object such as a platform (1) free from vibration, in that bearing elements (50) have a stiffness (k) which at a working point (z0) equals zero. A bearing element (50) comprises two magnetic couplings (51, 52) provided by permanent magnets

  15. ISR magnet model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    Field measurements being made on the ISR magnet model. In the foreground, the poleface windings can be seen - as distinct from the large exciting coils - together with their supply cables. These windings are mainly used to compensate the saturation effects at high fields. The steel plates forming the yoke are welded together along the whole length of the magnet.

  16. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  17. Spring magnet films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

    1999-03-29

    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  18. One thousand magnets delivered!

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The little matchstick-like objects, neatly lined up like colouring pencils in their box, are in fact LHC magnets seen from the air. These particular ones are being stored at Point 19 just alongside SM18, the magnet assembly and testing hall, which can be seen on the right of the picture. On the right in the background, is the Meyrin site.

  19. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  20. Magnetic fabrics in amphibolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Andrea Regina; Hirt, Ann M.; Kunze, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic fabrics are used as indicators for mineral fabrics and thus tectonic settings. In particular, the maximum and minimum magnetic susceptibilities are often taken as representation of the direction of macroscopic lineation and pole to foliation of a rock, respectively. In rocks consisting mainly of amphiboles, the paramagnetic fabric is controlled by the preferential orientation of the amphibole crystals. These crystals normally have their c-axis aligned with lineation, however, the maximum susceptibility is parallel to the crystallographic b-axis, leading to more complicated relationships between the orientations of the magnetic fabric and mineral fabric. Here we describe magnetic fabrics in two amphibolites, both deformed and containing 70 % hornblende. Both amphibolites possess significant magnetic anisotropy with the minimum susceptibility normal to foliation. However, maximum susceptibility and lineation are parallel in one amphibolite, whereas they deviate in the other. Numerical models, which simulate the magnetic anisotropy based on the measured crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of hornblende and single crystal anisotropy, can reproduce the observed magnetic fabrics in these samples. Furthermore, synthetic models help explain for which types of CPO the magnetic and mineral lineations are parallel to each other, and when they are not aligned to one another. The results presented here will help in future interpretation of mineral fabrics in amphibole-bearing rocks.

  1. Magnetic Structure of Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob; Axe, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    , and at positions split symmetrically about the fundamental. As the temperature is lowered below 52 K the charge and magnetic scattering display a sequence of lock-in transitions to rational wave vectors. A spin-slip description of the magnetic structure is presented which explains the wave vectors...

  2. Wobbly Corner: Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Lisa; Maklad, Rania; Dunne, Mick; Grace, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    During a final seminar with BA year 4 science specialist trainee teachers, the authors posed a question about the difficulties associated with understanding magnetism. The ensuing discussion focused on a number of concerns commonly identified by students, which may also be of interest to classroom teachers teaching magnetism. Issues raised…

  3. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  4. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived...... and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach cylinder, although the field is generated with higher efficiency. The most efficient Halbach cylinder is shown...... to generate a field exactly twice as large as the equivalent ideal remanence magnet....

  5. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  6. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  7. Halbach Magnets for CBETA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A principle of the non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) is that different energy beam has orbit oscillations Δx around the central circular orbit in both positive and negative direction within a small radial aperture as: Δx=Dx*δp/p. For the central circular orbit Δx=0, or for the combined function magnets the field is equal to Bo (B (x) = Bo + G* x). The smallest orbit offsets Δx are obtained when the defocusing magnet provides most of the bending for the central energy, while the focusing magnet could be even the regular quadrupole with the central orbit in the middle. Stable orbits for a very large energy range [in the case of CBETA this is 4 times in energy], is obtained using opposite polarity magnets producing linear magnetic fields, small dispersion, and very strong focusing.

  8. Physics of magnetic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how the important properties of materials such as the cohesive energy, and the electronic and vibrational structures are affected when materials have at least one length in the nanometer range. The author uses relatively simple models of the solid state to explain why these changes in the size and dimension in the nanometer regime occur. The text also reviews the physics of magnetism and experimental methods of measuring magnetic properties necessary to understanding how nanosizing affects magnetism. Various kinds of magnetic structures are presented by the author in order to explain how nanosizing influences their magnetic properties. The book also presents potential and actual applications of nanomaterials in the fields of medicine and computer data storage.

  9. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hara

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high magnetic fields in a short period undulator, superconductive undulators have been actively investigated in recent years. In this paper, however, we propose a new approach, the cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU design, using permanent magnets at the cryogenic temperature of liquid nitrogen or higher. This cryogenic scheme can be easily adapted to currently existing in-vacuum undulators and it improves the magnetic field performance by 30%–50%. Unlike superconductive undulators operating around the liquid helium temperature, there is no big technological difficulty such as the thermal budget problem. In addition, existing field correction techniques are applicable to the CPMUs. Since there is no quench in the CPMUs, the operation of the CPMUs has the same reliability as conventional permanent magnet undulators.

  10. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  11. Metallic Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernando

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reviewed some relevant aspects of the magnetic properties of metallic nanoparticles with small size (below 4 nm, covering the size effects in nanoparticles of magnetic materials, as well as the appearance of magnetism at the nanoscale in materials that are nonferromagnetic in bulk. These results are distributed along the text that has been organized around three important items: fundamental magnetic properties, different fabrication procedures, and characterization techniques. A general introduction and some experimental results recently obtained in Pd and Au nanoparticles have also been included. Finally, the more promising applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine are indicated. Special care was taken to complete the literature available on the subject.

  12. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... the eect: the isothermal magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change. Some of the manifestations and utilizations of the MCE will be touched upon in a general way and nally I will talk about the results I have obtained on a sample of Gadolinium Iron Garnet (GdIG, Gd3Fe5O12), which...

  13. Halbach Magnets for CBETA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-30

    A principle of the non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) is that different energy beam has orbit oscillations Δx around the central circular orbit in both positive and negative direction within a small radial aperture as: Δx=Dx*δp/p. For the central circular orbit Δx=0, or for the combined function magnets the field is equal to Bo (B (x) = Bo + G*x). The smallest orbit offsets Δx are obtained when the defocusing magnet provides most of the bending for the central energy, while the focusing magnet could be even the regular quadrupole with the central orbit in the middle. Stable orbits for a very large energy range [in the case of CBETA this is 4 times in energy], is obtained using opposite polarity magnets producing linear magnetic fields, small dispersion, and very strong focusing.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine ... limitations of MRI of the Spine? What is MRI of the Spine? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... problems, medications, recent surgeries and allergies. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  20. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.